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The design of an autonomous recycling robot


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The design of an autonomous recycling robot
Physical Description:
1 online resource (64 p.) : ill. ;
Davidson, Eric
University of South Florida Libraries
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Autonomous robots   ( lcsh )
Recycling (Waste, etc.) -- Technological innovations   ( lcsh )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Thesis (Honors)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 41).
Statement of Responsibility:
Eric Davidson.
General Note:
"April 24, 2008."
General Note:
A winning thesis in the Grace Allen Honors College/Library Scholar program.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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usfldc doi - G33-00002
usfldc handle - g33.2
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The design of an autonomous recycling robot /
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c Eric Davidson.
[Tampa, Fla. :
b University of South Florida Libraries,
1 online resource (64 p.) :
"April 24, 2008."
Thesis (Honors)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 41).
A winning thesis in the Grace Allen Honors College/Library Scholar program.
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Autonomous robots.
Recycling (Waste, etc.)
x Technological innovations.
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!"#$%#&'()$*+$,)$-./*)*0*.&$1#2324')($1*5*/ $ Eric Davidson University of South Florida, Honors College Thesis directed by Dr. Ralph Fehr April 24 th 2008 Tampa, Florida


! " Table of Contents 3 List of Figures 4 Abstract 5 Team Members 7 Introduction 9 The First Steps 10 The Microprocessor 11 The Drive System 12 The Item Locator System 14 The Lifting and Manipulation System 15 The Item Identification System 16 The Storage System 17 The Dog Fence 18 The Project Begins 19 The Prototype Base 20 Establishing the Drive System 21 Establishing an Arm 22 The Weight Sensor 24 Power 26 Expandable Bags 27 The Sweepers 29 Development of Dog Fence Receiver 31 The Final Stages 32 The New Expandable Bags 34 The New Identification Sensors 36 A Different Microprocessor 37 Modified Sweepers 38 Ready for Competition 40 Acknowledgement 41 Work Cited 42 Official IEEE SoutheastCon 2009 Hardware Competition Rules 52 Invisible Fence Transmitter Schematic Sheet for Hardware Competition 56 Main Code


# " L ist of Figures Figure 1 Group P icture of the USF H ardware Competition T eam Figure 2 Basic S tamp II Fig ure 3 Microprocessor B oard for Basic S tamp Figure 4 Ball Caster Figure 5 Plastic Slider Figure 6 Servo Figure 7 Ultrasonic Sensor Ping Figure 8 Drawing of Ping Sensor on Robot Figure 9 CAD Drawing of Base Figure 10 Arm Raised Figure 11 Arm Raised, Tilt to Side Figure 12 Arm Top View Figure 13 Digital Weight Sensor Figure 14 Load Cell Figure 15 7.4 Lithium Polymer Battery Figure 16 Wire Frame Bag Holder Figur e 17 Bag Holder Mounted Figure 18 Sweepers Open Figure 19 Sweepers Closed Figure 20 Final Bag Design Figure 21 Metal Detector Figure 22 Micro Switch Figure 23 Propeller Microprocessor Figure 24 Modified Sweepers Figure 25 Finished Robot View 1 Figure 26 Finished Robot View 2 Figure 27 Finished Robot View 3


$ " Abstract For my thesis project, I worked in a team with five electrical and a mechanical engineer, to design and build an autonomous robot. This robot needs to be able to locate, collect, sort, and store to recycle beverage containers to be able to compete in the 2 009 IEEE Southeast Conference Hardware Competition. The robot consists of a U shaped base, with a robotic arm with a front loaded shovel connected to the arm. Ultrasonic pings are then used to find and position the robot towards the container. Then fron t sweepers are used to sweep the container into the shovel. To realize that there is an object in the shovel there are infrared sensors to detect an object is in place before lifting. After lifting to upright position it has three different options to dete rmine it is plastic, glass, or aluminum. There is a metal detector attached to determine if it is aluminum. Also a second platform was placed inside in between there is a switch and with enough weight it triggers that switch and is found to be glass. If it fails these two conditions then it is plastic. Once it is confirmed it dumps the object into one of the three disposable bags placed on the sides and the back of the robot. It also contains an inductor to tell the robot to sustain inside the dog fence tha t is along the parameter of the playing field.


% " Team Members Mark Mniece Engineer, Project Lead Info: Has an A.S. degree in Computer Science from SUNY OCC. He is currently in his last year of Electrical Engineering Undergraduate work and will be st arting Graduate studies in EE Fall of 2009. He has been employed by Goodrich Lighting Systems as an Engineering intern since October of 2007. Has always had an interest in computers and electronics. Robotics is the ultimate marriage of the two in addition to the mechanical aspects of design so a project such as this is a logical choice with his background in programming. Elijah Klay Engineer, Mechanics Specialist Info: He is currently in his final semester of Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate studies, and will be beginning Graduate studies in Fall 2009. He is a founding member of USF's Professional Engineering Fraternity, Theta Tau, and has held four offices inc luding Vice President and President. He is enrolled in the USF Honors College, and is currently in the process of writing his honors thesis, on the design of this robot. He is also a member of Tau Beta Pi honor society, as well as ASME and IEEE. He has bee n employed as an intern at a local forensic engineering firm, Rimkus Consulting Group, over the course of two summers. He is very excited to work on this interdisciplinary project, and looks forward to the competition. Jose Salazar Engineer, Software and Electrical specialist Info: Graduated from Miami Dade College with an AA with Highest Honor. He is part of different organizations such as IEEE, SHPE, Phi Sigma Theta National Honor Society, and Phi Theta Kappa International Honor Society. Currently he wo rks as a tutor for the USF Honors College. He is expecting to graduate in spring of 2009. He has had a passion for Engineering from an early age. For him, engineering is working together with people to learn and understand how the world functions and creat e solutions. Moe Khawaja Engineer, Secretary Info: Currently working on his B.S. in Electrical Engineering with an anticipated graduation date in December of 2009. He is involved in several technical societies such as IEEE, Theta Tau Professional Engi neering Fraternity and Engineering College Council. He looks forward to completing his degree to work on and solve real life problems, building the robot would be such a great opportunity to experience the real life applications of Electrical Engineering. Eric Davidson Engineer, IEEE Correspondence Info: Graduated from St. Petersburg College with an AA with Honors. He is highly involved in different organizations such as IEEE, HKN Honor Society, TBP Honor Society, PTK Honor


& " Society and Theta Tau Fratern ity. He is currently enrolled in the USF Honors College program. He is expected to graduate fall of 2009. Sue Rochdi Engineer, Team Member Info: Graduated from St. Petersburg College with an AA with Honors and an AA in Biology and Geology from University of Rabat. She also attended the University of Pushkin in Russia for agriculture engineering. She is involved with many organizations such as IEEE and Society of Women Engineers. She is expected to graduate Summer 09. She considered herself as a problem solver. She has a drive for learning new techniques. Therefore, when she heard about the robotics team, she was exited to take on the challenge. Moez Oueslati Engineer, Team Member Info: Graduated from Hillsborough Community College with an A.A. degree he is also an IEEE member at the University of South Florida. He is certified as a Gernyman Wireman with the IBEW Local 915. He worked for several Electrical companies for NECA, and attended an apprenticeship program in the Tampa area with NJATC. H e is doing this project to demonstrate some of the theory and knowledge he obtained through school and experience. 6'(.7#$ 8 9$67*0$!*:$;#+/<$=,7><$?4'@,"<$A*&#<$=*#BC$D*//*0$;#+/<$=*#<$E.#<$=3+


' " Introduction Every year million s of athletic fans gather together before the ir team's game t o celebrate by tailgating. The parties over run the parking lot s at different college campuses and athletic stadiums. After the game is over and all the cars are gone, they leave behind p iles of trash. The majority of the trash consists of aluminum, glass, and plastic containers. This would take many volunteers to be able to sort and collect them properly for recycling purposes. Finding a large group of v olunteers to do this would be an en ormous task on its own. Having a machine that would be able to sort and gather could possibly be a key solution to recycle more material. Rising energy costs and declining natur al resources have been an emerging issue in our society. R ecycling can help by reducing the cost of energy and increasing job opportunities. The Keep America Beautiful Corporation g ave facts about recycling stating that "r ecycling aluminum saves 95% of the energy needed to produce new aluminum from raw materials" (KAB). Environment G reen, another proponent of energy conservation stated that f or every 1 ton of plastic that is recycled we save the equivalent of 2 people's energy use for 1 year, the amount of water used by 1 person in 2 month's time and almost 2000 pounds of oil" (Environment Green) Another advocate of recycling, The National Recycling Center, affirmed that "r ecycling in the U.S. is a $236 billion a year industry. More than 56,000 recycling and reuse enterprises employ 1.1 million workers nationwide (NRC) These few examples show how much recycling can help to change the future by reducing the energy usage and providing additional jobs. How have others attempted to answer this question? A program of volunteers at the University of Tennessee (UT) began a program to col lect recyclable items following their tailgates The Good Sports Always Recycle (GSAR) team developed at UT in 1993 collected


( " more than 50 tons of materials for recycling (EPA). The GSAR technique involves setting up recycling bins across the area to have fans put recyclables in the bins and also have volunteers go around the area to pick up the trash on the ground. Every year the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) promotes new ideas to create alternative ways to achieving a bet ter tomorrow. Every year the South East membe rs of the IEEE form teams and compete with other schools in a hardware competition to create a robot that will be the most efficient on the task and rules that are set. This year the competition is to create an autonomous recycling and sorting robot. This year's team from the University of South Florida (USF) consists of five electrical engineers and a mechanical engineer. This accumulation of multiple engineering disciplines made it easier for us to come up wit h a viable working prototype for the competition in March.


) " The First Steps In the first stage of this project we began to analyze the different design criteria and rules provided by Georgia Tech for the IEEE competition. The size constraint of the entire robot needed to be 12x 12x18 inches in order to fit in a box with those dimensions at the beginning of each match. A fterwards it may extend outside those limitations. To compete in the competition the robot must accomplis h locating, collecting, and sorting the beverage containers in a 10x10 foot field. The beverage containers include glass, plastic, and aluminum which are included within 8x8 foot of the field. In the beginning meetings our team sat down and analyzed the rules. Afterwards we decided the general shape of the robot in order to utilize the size restriction given The shape that we concluded would give us the best advantage was a U Shaped b ase, allowing us to manipulate the objects in the center of the robot. When the base was determined the team broke down the robot into systems to systematically complete the design of the robot. The following is how our team broke down the systems: Microprocessor Drive Item Locator Lifting and Manipulation Item Identification Storage Dog Fence Avoidance


*+ " The Microprocessor The microprocessor is a small computer that gives the components of the robot commands to tell the robot what it needs to do. The language used to progr am a microprocessor can vary from one to another We wanted our team to become familiarize d with the language early on. S o we made sure to start searching for a microprocessor right away For choosing the microprocessor we talked it over with the team a nd other faculty members. With much persuasion from the faculty members we leaned our decision towards using the Basic Stamp II. This was also chosen due to Mark's knowledge of this processor and his being familiar with basic language. O ur team felt more c omfortable with the decision to us e this processor without taking too many risk s with less familiar processors. The other microprocessor that was of interest to the group was the P ropeller. This microprocessor was still fairly new and any issues were stil l unknown at th at time. The program ming language s used by the Propeller are S pin and Propeller assembly With limited knowledge of the s e program ming languages we chose the Basic Stamp II. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$ F 9$D,&'2$E/,0:$ GG$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $ $ 6'(.7#$ H 9$='27*:7*2#&&*7$+*7$D,&'2$E/,0:$GG $


** " The Drive System The drive system that our team decided upon was the usage of two wheels and a sliding device for the back of the robot. The wheels would be attached to a continuous rotational servomotor. This would allow 360 degrees of motion across the field. With a variety of wheels sold in hobby town it was easy to pick out compatible wheels that would fit on servos and drive easily on Ast roturf. For t he back platform of the design we wanted to have a stationary sli der that would not hinder the movement of the robot For the movement of the back of the robot we considered two different options. One of the options was t o use a plastic s lider, inspired by the robot for the 2007 design. The other option was to use a ball caster. There are other factors that we had to consider and be willing to change if there were any negative impacts discovered The servo motors that we had were easy t o control but had limited torque. If the weight was too great it would not be able to move efficiently to compete in the limited time. Therefore, we considered using electric motors if the robot turned out too heavy for the metal gear servos. The motors a re stronger but are considered much more difficult to control accurately. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$I9$D,44$J,&/#7$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$K9$L4,&/'2$E4'M#7$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$N9$E#7O* $


*! " The Item Locator System The item locator that was decided upon the team was the Ping ))) sensor. The sensor has a range of 2 cm to 3 meters of detection. This sensor detects objects by emitting a short ultrasonic ping and waits for the echo. With the control of the microcontroller the sensor emits a short 40 kHz pulse. This sound travels through the air, hits an object and then bounces back to the sensor. The ping sensor provides an output pulse to the host that will terminate when the echo is detected; hence the width of this puls e corresponds to the distance to the target. The item locator that we have chosen is a good tool but to be more efficient for the competition it would need a couple of modifications. The ping is a stationary sensor which would give us limited access to t he 10x10 playing field. Therefore, for a more efficient design we had to attach mini servo to the ping sensors. The mini servos with the ping sensor attached will now have a 180 degrees access which is competent to look in front and the sides of the robot. With the movement of the ping it will allow the microprocessor to tell what the distance and angle of the object it picks up a signal from. This ability will allow the robot to move that many degrees over and position itself towards the object. The posi tion of the pings was on one side of the robot Since positioning the sensor in the middle would cause complications, mounting the ping on one side of t he robot left one side of the robot unknown. Therefore a second ping on the other side was necessary to be more capable of looking for beverage containers. With the two pings it would scan the whole field then take the average of the sensors to position it in the middle. There are other suggestions that were considered in case using the Ping))) sensors did not work properly. One of the opt ions was to use a camera. U sing a camera would be a good tool but


*# " might be very complex. For that reason, our team kept that as an option. Another suggestion was to use an infrared sensor which operates with light. This wa s dropped immediately due to having cameras there and possibilities that it might be interfered with during the competition. 6'(.7#$ P 9$Q4/7,&*)'2$E#)&*7$LGRSTTT 6'(.7#$ U 9$%'&:4,3$*+$L')($E#)&*7$*)$1*5*/ $


*$ " The Lifting and Manipulation System The lifting and Manipulation system portion is to have control of the item and be able to manipulate it to the desired position. The first suggestion that came to everyone was to create a robotic arm. This would disregard a type of sweepers and simply when the item was found it would position the arm toward the item and pick it up. The design of the arm would then be able to control the container and drop it in the desired position. With sensors inside of the robotic arm it would be relatively easy to depos it it inside the correct bag. With heavier thought to this decision it became clear to the group that the gripper would have problems with the orientation of the containers. Randomly placed containers would be impossible to program for The weight sensor t hat we chose to use would also hold a problem to implement it into the robotic arm. The other suggestion for lifting and manipulation was to have an elevator. This would require sweepers to position the container in the robot's possession. The design seem ed relatively easy once the elevator obtains the object the platform would be raised to the position of the containers. Afterwards when it reaches the top, sensors would then distinguish what item it contained and transfer it over to the bags. It would tra nsfer the items by tilting over into the specific bags. With the suggestions and research of our mechanical engineer, Elijah Klay, it was found to be complicated to establish an elevator for our design. It seemed to counter act one another because of the n eed of two different types of screws for each action. The regula r screw could establish it moving only in a vertical access w hile the ACME screw that would allow the platform to tilt would prohibit this Due to this problem the team needed to explore diff erent alternatives to using this design.


*% " The Item Identification System The item identification system was to use a type of sensor to differentiate between three different drink containers. This part of the design was important in the fact that separatin g the items correctly into different bins is worth more points in the competition. With this in mind in the meetings our team brought together all of the possibilities that may be used. The idea that our team spent a good amount of time was to use a weig ht sensor. This concept would be simple by using the difference of weight. By finding a weight sensor that is sensitive enough to be a quarter of an ounce difference would be efficient for separating all of the drink containers. Unfortunately, this part o f the design was a little more difficult than the team expected. There were many o ther different ideas that were considered and, after review, we realized the possible shortcomings of such sensors. One of the suggestions was to use a conductivity sensor that would be able to identify if the container is aluminum can. The other suggestion was to use an optical sensor. The optical sensor is not a reliable source to our design due to the curvature and labels of the glass and plastic. We also suggested using pressure sensors but due to not finding any sensors sensitive enough for the light drink containers, we were not able to use this sensor.


*& " The Storage System The storage system 's purpose is containing three disposable bags for the drink containers that need to be collected at each match. Due to our size restrictions for the competition 12x12x18 inches in the start of each match we could not just have the bags bins on each side of the robot. Therefore we had to think of different ideas that would be usable for competition purposes. The team sat down and discussed the different techniques that can be implemented in creating this robot. With review we decided on an expandable bin. Thi s design would need a middle section that was open to use as bins in the beginning of each match. In time with modifications of the robot we decided that would not be practical. The second decision was to make a collapsible bin, which would hang out after the start of each competition.


*' " The Dog Fence In the beginning we knew that Georgia Tech was going to build a dog fence transmitter. The design of the dog fence was not official until the middle of the design process. Therefore, the team kept up t o date with new messages to make sure we had this transmitter as soon as possible. The purpose of the dog fence was to keep the robot in bounds This is done by creating something to detect the dog fence to avoid the outside boundaries. The dog fence is g oing to be 8x8 feet containment in the middle of the playing field. This dog fence will be under the Astroturf. The team will lose 2 n 1 and n is the total number of violations of going out of boundaries. Therefore, the importance of the finding a design fo r the dog fence is very important to not lose points.


*( " The Project Begins In the beginning of the project our team broke into groups that each individual felt they had a strong background in. The teams that were form ed were electrical, mechanical, and software. Mark and Jose would be responsible for the coding of the microprocessor. Due to previous experience Mark chose to be in control of the area. Elijah and Moe would handle the mechanical aspects of the robot. Being that Elijah was the only mechanical he was to have cont rol in the mechanical area. For the e lectrical aspects of the design, Sue and I worked on this facet of the design. For completion of the design, everyone pitched in and helped each other on all aspects of the robot.


*) " The Prototype Base In our first meetings we gather together and agreed upon a base that the robot would contain for efficiency of the limited space. The basic design that w e all chosen was to be a U Shaped base. Looking through material we first decided on an acrylic base. While trying to make modifications with screws being drilled into the acrylic part of it broke. This quickly changed our minds to find another type of mat erial due to making adjustments would not be an easy process. The next decision was to create the base using an aluminum 1x1 inch square tubing base. The design was processed by Elijah our mechanical engineer using a CAD program. For the beginning of this design it was determined to have the machine shop put together a basic prototype that would be a 10x10 inch in the u shape that was decided upon. This prototype would have cut out portions for the servos for the wheels to be placed in. With the drawings t hat were produced we delivered them to the machine shop. During that time the machine shop had an intense schedule that would take them a week and a half to put together this design. The time restraints led the group to come up with a different material t hat we would use for the design. We ended up choosing wood which was a better decision in the long run. If there was any change of place of parts for the robot it was easy drilling that could be done quickly by any member of the group. With this design we had the base built fairly quickly ready for the drive system to be placed along with the microprocessor to perform testing. 6'(.7#$ V 9$J-%$%7,W')($*+$D,&#


!+ " Establishing the Drive System When w orking on the drive system we first had to realize where we we re going to position them on the base of the robot. Due to the size restrictions we decided the best position was to keep the wheels within the robot to allow extra space for other material. Within obtaining the metal gear servos from the store to make i t functional to what we need the robot to do we had to modify. The metal gear servos that were bought only had 180 degrees rotational access. Therefore, we opened the servo and change the potentiometer settings. The 5,000 ohm potentiometer had to be unsold ered and replaced it with two 2,500 ohm resistors in a Y connection to mimic the potentiometer's midpoint. The resistors were then soldered into the circuit inside of the servo. The team also had to remove the stop pin that blocked the main gear from rotat ing more than 180 degrees. This was done three times to achieve two driving servos and one additional servo in case one of the drive servos fails throughout the testing period. In the process of the design we discovered that while running the servos in d ifferent directions causes one servo to go faster than the other. Therefore, we had to position the servos in the same direction. To achieve this without going outside of the dimensions we had to add an attachment in the middle of the robot. This attachmen t is a modified piece of wood on one side of the robot's base to adjust the wheel to go in the same direction. The other modifica tion was to work on the ball casters This was done on a trial and error base. Due to test on the Astroturf playing field our choice was to use the ball caster due to the ease of movement. Furthermore, by only using only one caster the robot did not have enough stability under the load. Due to this reason we added a second caster to both sides for stability.


!* " Establishing an Arm The elevator design was worked on until much later when a great idea came to the group. The front loader was an idea inspired by heavy machinery used to lift material. This design was implemented in our robot. First we use sweepers to manipulate the bevera ge containers into our front loader design. When the robot had it in the position it could now lift the container straight into the air. When it reaches the top position it would then use sensors to establish what item it is. Once it reaches the top it wil l then tilt the front loader left, right, and back into the bags. The prototype design for the front loader was built by using balsa wood for the full design of the arm. This prototype design we attached servos to make sure that this design would be able to move in every position that we need. Once it was established that this design would work properly the design was then researched in looking for more stable material. When researching this material one of our team members came across a website that wo uld supply us with all the material that we needed. The website was which is for people interested in building their own robots. From this site we were able to purchase servo size brackets and a strong shaft that would attach to the brackets With these parts we were now able to have a working arm ready for testing. 6'(.7#$ I 9$G)'/',4$-70$1,'&#M$$$$$$$$$6 '(.7#$ K 9$G)'/',4$-70$1,'&#M<$!'4/ $$$$ $$ $6'(.7#$ N 9$G)'/',4$-70<$!*:$X'#W $


!! " The Weight Sensor The measurement of weight is determined by using a load cell. The load cell is a small metal block with a strain gauge attached to measure the slight changes on the load cell. There are man y different types of load cells that could be used for different amount of weight. One of the team members suggested that we use a small digital scale that would be precise enough and cheap for our uses. With the hope of establishing an item identifier we worked upon using a cheap digital scale. The problem with using the digital scale we didn't have any schematic sheets to work view for reference for modifying it to our design. With this in mind we opened it up and tried to implement it into our processor Our first approach in this project was to first establish if we were able to obtain a signal. Using an oscilloscope we ran a bunch of test s to see if we were able to obtain a signal. There seemed to be a signal when we attached it up. Therefore, we sta rted working on a design to amplify the signal. We tried amplifying the signal by building a few different circuits that we learned in our labs. We first built a simple inverting amplifier circuit. An inverting amplifier purpose is to invert a signal and amplify a voltage. With this circuit we tested the load cell by attaching it up to the oscilloscope and kept changing the resistance and hoping for a strong signal. With not having the spec sheets we were only able to guess what would be the correct resist ance to achieve a good signal. When we did receive a signal we found out it was only noise. This let us work on this design more and looking for other options. We also tried to implement the design using a Wheatstone bridge. The Wheatstone bridge is to me asure the unknown electrical resistance. We


!# " then attached it up and change the resistance to see if we can receive a signal with the change in the resistance. With multiple test failures we were forced to look for more options. With the help from Dr. Ferek ides a plan was created. The idea was to use the digital pins to distinguish the different containers. This would be done by using the high and low signal voltage in the different pins. Although it was a good idea, it was still a lot of work to create such a design without the schematic sheet. The pins would stay at a high only once enough weight was on the sensor. When we took off the object from the sensor it would not reset back to a low signal. Therefore, to fix this problem we had to solder a ten thous and ohm resistor to each individual pin and ground. The pins were very small so we had to be very precise in soldering them together. When each one of the pins was connected correctly we were then able to test. The test consisted on finding the three speci fic pins that would distinguish the difference of each container. With these three pins we were able to determine what the object was due to the digital pin it triggered. The team went through more testing and discovered that it was very unstable due to t he sensitivity of the solder. With this in mind we consider that it ha d many transitions to be made on the arm and could cause the disconnection of one of the resistors. This would then cost us the competition. Therefore, the team kept this design only as a backup. """""""""""""""""""""" " " $$$$$$6'(.7#$ P 9$ %'('/,4$ Y#'("/$E#)&*7$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$ U 9$;*,M$J#44


!$ " Power In the beginning of the project we did not know what power was required of the robot Due to the time constraint, we opted to use an 11.1 volt battery and work ed out the power issues as they came up. L ater on in the design process, the microprocessor and servo controller proved to be problematic when using the 11.1 volt battery. However, the problem was resolved, and we came to realization that we only needed 6 volts to power the robot Towards the middle of the project we found a 7.4 lithium polymer battery which was a reasona ble size battery for our design. The battery controlled the power of the microprocessor and the servo controller. The microprocessor was a fairly simple design due to the built in voltage regulator. As long as the battery didn't send too much power all th e time it would be able to maintain the voltage. The first design caused problems due to the over voltage causing mal functions to the commands given; however, switching the battery caused no problems. The microprocessor also allowed us to use a sep arate v oltage if needed but when tested with the 7.4 vo lt, we found that the battery supplied enough voltage to run efficiently. The servo controller still needed 6 volts of battery ; a s a result we had to insert a 6 volt step down voltage r egulator. However, th e regulator contains a good amount of heat and we had a major concern of losing components due to previous mistakes in the past. Therefore, we obtained two heat sinks and a small fan. The heat sink was used because it is a metal conductor that is used to conduct heat. These heat sinks ended up receiving a good amount of heat therefore we also needed a fan to keep them from overheating. The other part of the design that needed power was the metal detector. The metal detector is a basic design that only ha d to determine if a beverage container was metal or not. Therefor e,


!% " we added a nine vo lt battery which we didn't have any concern about using it constantly without draining the battery. 6'(.7#$ V 9$PZI$;'/"'.0$L*430#7$D,//#73


!& " Expandable Bags In order to earn many points in the competition there had to be the separation of beverage containers into different bags. Due to the size restrictions on the bags, the team agreed that the expandable bag was the viable option; howe ver, the implementation of the bag was questionable. With the help from our mechanical engineer, Elijah, we were able to establish a prototype of this design. From there we were able to brainstorm new ideas into this prototype to develop a reliable design The proto type was constructed with a two wire frame bag holder The team decided to use a coat hanger due to the ease of establishing a shape for the design. The proposed design consisted of two wire frame bags attached to each which were designed to ex pand once the match began By analyzing this approach we had to come up with a way to have these bags connected in the beg inning and open afterwards. Brainstorming and coming up with a few ideas we came up with a solution. The simplest solution was to ha v e one of the wire frame stationary while the other one was controlled by a micro servo in the beginning to open the bags. After testing, the design was found to be a little unstable due to the metal coat hangers failing when subject to increasing weight During the testing period we could not hold many glass bottles with this design. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 6'(.7#$ 8[ 9$Y'7# $67,0#$D,($\*4M#7 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$ 88 9$D,($\*4M#7$=*.)/#M $


!' " The Sweepers The sweepers was an extra that was needed to put on upon deciding to use the front load arm design. The purpose of this design is to direct the object towards and position it inside of the bucket of the front loader. We immediately wanted to have two sweepers which would bring the beverage containers into the bucket. The next step was testing different ideas on how this would be achieved proficiently. The design of the sweepers we first thought of was to have it come in the middle of the buc ket on each side. With test ing, we found problems in positioning the bottles horizontal ly with the bucket. The buckets kept jamming when trying to position them correctly. The design of the sweepers we wanted was two sweepers to not only bring the item tow ards the middle, but also manipulate it horizontally in the bucket. Therefore to maintain this design we created two sweepers with two different shapes, so that when they combine together they would not collide. The first shape of the sweepers would be in a U shape which would provide the strength of bringing the item in. The second shape would be a straight piece which would go in between the U shape. With the second shape it would be able to manipulate the drink containers into the bucket. The sweepers w ere first being tested to make sure that this design would properly work. With this design we decided to use balsa wood to make the different shapes. When we built the different shapes we attached them directly to mini servos. This gave us the basic desi gn of how we wanted to assemble this design. With testing we found out that in order for it to work properly, we needed the first s weeper to move in first and the second sweeper to move in with a


!( " delay. This would keep the position orientated for horizont al objects. Overall, the prototype was still impractical which needed to be modified later. $$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$ 8F 9$EW##:#7&$]:#)$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$ 8H 9$EW##:#7&$J4*&#M $


!) " Development of the Dog Fence Receiver The process of building the robot was not complete without a device that would keep it inside the boundaries of the playing field. The dog fence is nothing but a wire connected to a transmitter that emits a 10 KHz signal. The objective was to build a device that would receive this signal. The receiver also had to be connected to the microprocessor in order to prevent the robot from going ou t of bounds.' The best way to build the receiver circuit was to build a resonant frequency circuit that consists of a resistor, a capacitor, and an inductor connected in parallel. The values for the both the capacitor and the inductor can be determined us ing the resonant frequency equation: After experimenting with the receiver, we found out that we needed to make a few adjustments. First, the output signal was very low, so we built an amplifier circuit that would be connected to the output pin of the r eceiver. With this amplifier, we were able to see a smooth and reasonable signal. Second, with the orientation of the robot (being a U shape), we had to build another receiver circuit that would deploy the robot in various directions without driving over t he specified competition boundaries. The inductor for the first receiver circuit was a factory inductor which we could not find anywhere else; however, we needed a similar inductor for the second circuit, so we improvised and built our own inductor. Using a farad rod and copper coated wire, we wound the coils of our inductor around the rod and constantly measured it until we reached a desired Henry value.


#+ " The development of this design worked efficiently and when the microprocessor attained the amplified signal, the robot turn ed away from the bound arie s at the edge of the playing field Adding the two receivers at the bottom front of the robot and using amplifier circuits, helped solve the problems with the dog fence transmitter and the boundary condition s.


#* " The Final Stages Summing down the final design we all came together as a group and thought of different ways to make the prototype that we made a more efficient The team sa t down in a group and started brainstorming. To develop a new design for the robot we created walls on each corner of our design. This design consisted of L shaped metal pieces attached t o the base of the robot and vertical pieces attached to the backside to make a wall. For stability, w e also used another piece of metal to attach the pieces of metal to gether on top The walls were made with a plastic sheet cut and screwed into the pieces of metal. All of the circuitry components are mounted to the two inside wall s which includes microprocessor, servo controller, m etal detector, a nd amplifiers. The design had to hold all of the circuit boards, while at the same time, having a height low enough such that it would not impede the performance of the front load arm. This allowed us to have space to add and con nect all of the circuits needed for the robot to be functional and not get in the way of the arm or wheels. With this design created we started to modify our previous designs to have a competition robot.


#! " The New Expandable Bags The development of the new wall s created new ideas for building the expandable bags. This became very obvious to the team to use the wall as the stationary piece instead of us ing the wires. With the construction of the walls we started to brainstorm on how to attach the bags to the wall. The development of the disposable bags was first a problem due to the initial design of using plastic bags. We could not establish a way to attac h them without them tearing With the help from our team member Sue we w ere able to have custom made bags. The bags consisted of a cloth material sewn together with metal hooks securely attached to the bags. Due to the custom made bags we were able to have the USF emblem on the outside of the bags. The hooks that were attac hed to the bags solved the problems of attaching the bags to the walls. With the hooks in mind we drilled holes i nto the metal part of the wall and connect ed the bags and wall together. This gave the support needed to assure the bags would not detach duri ng the match. The development of these bags was secure but we still needed to change the wire. The changing of the wire was due to the bending of the material with too much weight. T herefore, we bought a flexible metal pole from hobby town to establish the opening of the bags. This was strong er material that was able to support the weight of the proposed items we were picking up at the competition. The next step was creating a way to have the bags attached and expand in the beginning o f each match We t ook the idea of the original design using a micro switch. The tea m wanted to reduce the amount micro switches used for the servo control ler We also wanted to reduce the


## " amount of wires going across the robot. Therefore, we created a design to use only one micro servo. This was created by gluing a latch on the micro servo. We then used fishing wire and hooks to attach together the bags and the latch on the servo. We adjusted the length of the fishing wire so that when it was connected to the latch it would keep the bags clos ed. Then when the latch is open, it would r elease the wire allowing the bags to deploy 6'(.7#$ 8I 9$6'),4$D,($%#&'() $ " " " "


#$ " The New Identification Sensors The weight sensor did not work as projected Therefore, a new design of t he weight sensor was proposed and then later adopted amongst the team The new design consists of two different sensors. One of the sensors is a micro switch, and the other one is a metal detector. The first test that the mic roprocessor receives is through the micro switch. A micro switch is a small switch that gives an on and off (high and low) signal to the microprocessor to determine if there is an object pressing it. The micro switch design consists of an extra platform i n side the base of the shovel. Between the two platforms, there are four springs and a micro switch. The springs needed to be strong enough to support the heaviest of our target moves which is glass. These springs also needed to be higher than the micro swit ch. To stabilize the platform we set up four springs on each corner. By testing we found proficient s prings for our design. The first tes t emitted a high signal if it was a glass bottle only. All other materials prompted the second test. The second test that the microprocessor receives is through the metal detector. A metal detector consists of a coil with two wires separated. The two different w ires are wrapped around the conductor in different turns ratios For example, one is wrapped 30 times and the other is wrapped 140 times These two separate wires would then induce a magnetic signal when the circuit is tuned to the certain metal object. For this experiment, we ordered a cheap metal detector online which was a do it yourself kit. The metal detector was then assembled and tuned to detect an alum inum can If the metal detector gave off a high signal to the microprocessor it would know if it is aluminum ; otherwise it would result in the last option which is plastic.


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#& " A Different Microprocessor With all of the new designs came even more code. Upon putting all of the code toge ther, towards the end of the project we encountered a problem The microprocessor that we used the Basic S tamp 2 had insufficient memory space for what was needed This caused a bit of an issue for how we wanted the robot to perform throughout the competition. Thus a month before competition we had to switch microprocessors. The new microprocessor that we h ad chosen to switch to was the Propeller. The P ropeller w as chosen due to the experience that a couple o f friends had with it. They decide d to use it on their autonomous submarine project. This microprocessor was our original choice, but due to the risks of using a newly released processor we did not go with it. Wit h the memory space available on the Propel ler, it would work efficiently on our design. The problem with switching the processor is that the language changed. The language that it used is called Spin, which is fairly similar to C. Thanks to Mark and Jose and their countless hours of programming for two weeks before the competition we were able to have a functional robot. 6'(.7#$ 8P 9$='27*:7*2#&&*7$^L7*:#44#7T


#' " Modified Sweepers The sweepers that we currently were using still need modifications. The modifications needed to be able to push the glass bottles into the bucket. U sing only the basal wood and a mini servo its inability to move items in an efficient way only added to the problems. The first change that we wanted to make was to use stronger servos. This chang e will give the design more torque to push the beverage containers inside the bucket. Therefore, we developed the design from our arm. This design was to take a servo and attach it to a bracket. This would give the leverage needed to bring in the beverage containers to the destination The next change was to switch the desig n of the basal wood. Due to flaws in the material it was determined that it will break after multiple uses. For this purpose we had to modify this design just a little. We added a th in sheet of metal onto the basal. This added the support it needed to keep it from breaking. Finally, we had functional sweepers that allow ed orientation and force to deliver the beverage containers inside the front loader arm. 6'(.7#$ 8U 9$=*M'+'#M$EW##:#7&


#( " Ready f or Competition The competition was underway and it was time to present our design to the IEEE hardware competition hosted by Georgia Tech. Although we had few malfunctions that led us to keep working on the robot until the competition, t he team was still excited and able to keep in good spirits as w e became ready for competition. Gathering for the competition were forty four contenders from schools in the S outh W est. The first day was the qualification round. During t his round schools came together and presented their robot for the first time. This round consisted of making sure that the robot fit in to a 12x12x18 inch box and was able to move one foot. Upon qualifying in this round they took pictures of the robot a nd kept it for display purposes. When this round was completely finished there were now thirty eight qualifying robots. After finishing the qualification round all of the team s began testing and fixing problems with their robots for the next day to bec ome ready for the real competition. Early morning the next day everyone gathered around for competition. Due to the number of contenders the committee in charge was led to separate the schools into two groups. This allowed a little separation of peopl e inside the competition area. It also let the groups work in between matches for a while to fix any minor mistakes. The competition was separated into two heats. The heats were presented in four minute rounds. This way each school g ets two chances to perform From there the top schools get to go to the finals. Due to our hard work and commitment our team was able to compete in the finals. This gave the team a great sense of accomplishment to have gone this far. The final round consisted of two he ats without breaks in between. Therefore, no team was allowed to make any


#) " modifications once inside the arena. We manage d to perform well with a few minor problems placing us in sixteenth place. Due to the major changes we made at the last minute, our te am did very well. We manage d to place sixteenth place above major universities. This brought pride to the University of South Florida after many years of not being able to compete. It also gave hope to our team that with our success, we can bring a high er interest and experience into our school. The team hopes this will lead to bringing home first place in the years to come $$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 6'(.7#$ 8V 9$6')'&"$1*5*/ $X'#W $8 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 6'(.7#$ F[ 9$6')'&"$1*5*/$ X'#W$ F $ $ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$6'(.7#$ F8 9$6')'&"#M$1*5*/ $X'#W $H


$+ " Acknow ledgement The first person I would like to thank is my thesis director, Dr. Ralph Fehr. He was also the whole team's project mentor giving us guidance and moral support from the beginning. Next I would like to thank my team for the long hours of hard work and commitment. The team includes Mark Mniece, Jose Salazar, Souad Rochdi, Mohammad Khawaja, and Elijah Klay. I would like to also thank Dr. Ferekides and Dr. Schnitzler for being my co directors in this project. I would also like to thank Tavake Tu pou and Casey Forner for revising my thesis. Thanks go to Dr. Ferekides for being the team's other mentor and providing help on our project. I would like to thank Dr. Leffew for providing us with information and giving us the name of the robot (Seltzer). I would like to thank Michael Konrad for supplying us with some of the electrical equipment we needed. I would like to also thank Dr. Wiley for his guidance. For providing funds I would like to thank Dr. Fehr, Dr. Ferekides, ECC, the IEEE student branch of USF as well as the local IEEE section for their support I would like to thank the Electrical E ngineering d epartment for providing us the C ircuits L ab for work space. Finally, I would like to thank Georgia Tech for hosting the IE EE Hardware Competition.


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%% " Main Code '***********************' Constants '***********************' Servo Controller Configuration CON _CLKMODE = XTAL1 + PLL16X _XINFREQ = 5_000_000 'set the frequency of the clock I/O Configuration Baud = 396 StartButton = 19 GlassButton = 22 DogFenceL = 24 DogFenceR = 5 LBumper = 25 RBumper = 26 PingL = 18 PingR = 17 GlassDetect = 19 MetalDetect = 21 ObjectDetect= 7 LCDout = 0 ArmFlag Constants ArmVert = 0 ArmScan = 1 ArmDown = 2 Material parameters and Sensor Flags SClock = %10000000 ScannedOnce = %01000000 HitFence = %00100000 FoundObject = %00010000 Gl ass = %00001000 Plastic = %00000100 Aluminum = %00000010 None = %00000001 Ping Positions LScanStart = 500


%& " LScanEnd = 1100 LFineStart = 570 LFineEnd = 770 RScanStart = 550 RScanEnd = 1150 LCenter = 770 RCenter = 770 Left = 1 Right = 0 RevDirection = 2 Speed InchesTimeConstant = 150 ServoPosTimeConstant = 4 DegreesTimeConstant = 4 MaxDistance = 18 '***********************' Variables '***********************' VAR Long motionStack[100] Stack for MotionControl Counters byte glassCount byte plasticCount byte aluminumCount byte attemptCount Flags byte ArmFlag byte TurnDirection Range finders byte closestDistL word closestPosL byte closestDistR word closestPosR byte in byte scanDirection '1 signifies right 0 signifies left Measurement Variables


%' " word previousTurn word travelOffset long startHeading byte steps byte material '0=None; 1=Aluminum; 2=Plastic; 3=Glass long phi, theta, d, x, y word a byte scInput Sensors Vars byte sensors Sensor Flag long DogFenceStack[60] long ScanStack[200] byte SensorsIndex word freq byte direction word LeftScanData[20] word FineScanData[20] word RightScanData[20] byte closestIndex byte LeftClos estIndex byte RightClosestIndex word LeftPingPos word RightPingPos word cog obj Motion: "SeltzerMotion" 'SensorObj: "SeltzerSensors" 'Debug : "FullDuplexSerialPlus" 'call the Debug terminal window object 'LCD : "FullDuplexSerialPlus" 'LCD Output Object 'fp : "FloatString" 'math : "Float32Full" Ping : "Ping" BS2 : "BS2_Functions" Create BS2 Object Compass: "HM55b Compass Module ASM(9 06)" 'Navigation :"Navigation" pub main glassCount := 0 plasticCount := 0 aluminumCount := 0


%( " Sensors := %00000000 Motion.Start 'Debug.s tart(31,30,0,19200) closestDistL := MaxDistance closestDistR := MaxDistance DIRA[StartButton]~ 'sets start button pin to input and waits for it to be pressed. repeat while (INA[ StartButton] <> 0) waitcnt(4000000+cnt) Motion.ForwardDist(5) Motion.Openbags Motion.OpenSweepers Motion.ForwardDist(3) Acquire {{ ************************************************************* ~MAIN LOOP~ ************************************************************ }} repeat Motion.OpenSweepers Motion.ArmScan initSensors Scan(MaxDistance) Motion.halt waitcnt(20000000+ cnt) if ((Sensors&FoundObject)==FoundObject) Sensors &= !FoundObject Acquire Motion.ReverseDist(5) if(previousTurn < 0) Motion.ArmScan Motion.TurnR(180) waitcnt(80000000+cnt) Motion.ForwardDist( travelOffset) Motion.TurnR(previousTurn)


%) " elseif (previousTurn > 0) Motion.ArmScan Motion.TurnL(180) Motion.ForwardDist(travelOffset) previousTurn := ||previousTurn Motion.TurnL(previousTurn) {elseif (( Sensors&HitFence)==HitFence) Sensors &= !HitFence DebugOut(string("Hit Boundary")) Motion.Halt waitcnt(400000+cnt) if(TurnDirection == RevDirection) Motion.TurnL(180) elseif (TurnDirection == Left) Motio n.TurnL(120) elseif (TurnDirection == Right) Motion.TurnR(120) Motion.Halt } {***************************************************************} pub Acquire Motion.ArmDown 'Lower arm and drive into object slowly Motion.ForwardSlow(14) waitcnt(80000000+cnt) Motion.TurnR45 Motion.CloseSweepers waitcnt(200000000+cnt) CheckMaterial repeat steps from 0 to 1 if(Sensors&None)==None Retry else Mo tion.ArmLift waitcnt(200000000+cnt) CheckMaterial if((sensors&glass)==glass) 'and(glassCount < 2) Motion.DumpGlass return


&+ " elseif((sensors&Aluminum)==Aluminum)'and(aluminumCount < 5) Motion.DumpAluminum return elseif((sensors&Plastic)==Plastic) 'and(plasticCount < 3) Motion.DumpPlastic return Pub Retry Motion.OpenSweepers Motion.ReverseDist(5) Motion.ArmDown 'Lower arm and drive into object slowly Motion.ForwardSlow(14) Motion.Turn R45 Motion.CloseSweepers waitcnt(80000000+cnt) CheckMaterial { pub DebugOut(DisplayString) debug.str(DisplayString) 'LCD.tx(12) waitcnt(400000+cnt) 'LCD.str(DisplayString) } {{*********************************************************************************** *** SENSORS SENSORS SENSORS SENSORS SENSORS SENSORS SENSORS SENSORS SENSORS ************************************************************************************* *}} pub initSensors previousTurn := 0 sensors := %00000000 repeat steps from 0 to 19 LeftScanData[steps] := MaxDistance FineScanData[steps] := MaxDistance RightS canData[steps] := MaxDistance Motion.Halt 'cognew(CheckDogFence, @DogFenceStack) pub Scan(MaxDist) | Bearing 'Finds objects. Scanning with two PING))) sensors for roughly a 180deg view. steps := 0 'MaxDist s pecifies the max distance we're concerned with so as to omit erroneous readings. direction := Right


&* " LeftPingPos := LScanStart RightPingPos := RScanStart Motion.OpenSweepers repeat 'loops forever until an object closer than MaxDist is found. Motion.MovePingL(LeftPingPos, 0) 'Function to move PING servos to next position Motion.MovePingR(RightPingPos, 0) waitcnt(150000+cnt) LeftScanData[steps] := Ping.inches(PingL) RightScanData[steps] := Ping.inches( PingR) if(LeftScanData[steps] < MaxDist) sensors := sensors | FoundObject LeftClosestIndex := steps IF(closestDegL < 110) previousTurn := (110 ClosestDegL) Motion.TurnL(110 ClosestDegL) travelOffset := LeftScan Data[LeftClosestIndex] Motion.ForwardDist(LeftScanData[LeftClosestIndex] (LeftScanData[LeftClosestIndex]/5)) elseif (RightScanData[steps] < MaxDist) sensors := sensors | FoundObject RightClosestIndex := steps IF(closestDe gR > 80) previousTurn := ClosestDegR 80 Motion.TurnR(ClosestDegR 80) travelOffset := RightScanData[RightClosestIndex] Motion.ForwardDist(RightScanData[RightClosestIndex] (RightScanData[RightClosestIndex]/5)) if( direct ion == Right) steps++ else steps -if(steps == 10) Sensors |= ScannedOnce 'Scanned once flag allows robot to start moving forward again direction := Left elseif (steps == 0) direction := Right if( direction == Right) LeftPingPos += 60 RightPingPos += 60 else LeftPingPos = 60 RightPingPos = 6


&! " if(Sensors&ScannedOnce)==ScannedOnce Motion.ForwardCurve whi le NOT( (((sensors&FoundObject)==FoundObject) ) OR (sensors&HitFence)==HitFence ) 'ClosestObj pub CheckDogFence repeat while (Sensors&HitFence)==HitFence {freq := freqin(DogFenceL, 10) if (freq > 8000)and(freq < 50000) debug.tx(16) debugout(string("Hit Fence.")) debug.dec(freq) sensors |= HitFence TurnDirection := Right waitcnt(2000000+cnt) abort freq := freqin(DogFenceR, 10) if (freq > 8000)and(freq < 50000) debug.tx(16) debugout(stri ng("Hit Fence.")) debug.dec(freq) sensors |= HitFence TurnDirection := Left waitcnt(2000000+cnt) abort dira[LBumper]~ dira[RBumper]~ if ((INA[LBumper]==0) and (INA[RBumper]==0)) Sensors |= HitFence T urnDirection := RevDirection Return elseif(INA[LBumper]==0) Sensors |= HitFence TurnDirection := Right Return elseif (INA[RBumper]==0) Sensors |= HitFence TurnDirection := Left Return


&# " waitcnt( 100000+cnt) } PUB FREQIN (pin, duration) : Frequency {{ Measure frequency on pin defined for duration defined. Positive edge triggered x:= BS2.FreqIn(5) }} dira[pin]~ ctra := 0 Clear ctra settings trigger to count rising edge on pin ctra := (%01010 << 26 ) | (%001 << 23) | (0 << 9) | (PIN) frqa := 1000 c ount 1000 each trigger phsa:=0 clear accumulated value waitcnt(duration*80000+cnt) pause for duration Frequency := phsa / duration cal culate freq based on duration pub CheckMaterial | object, count Sensors &= %11110000 Count := 0 dira[GlassDetect]~ dira[MetalDetect]~ dira[ObjectDetect]~ repeat While (not(((Sensors&Aluminum)==Aluminum)|((Sensors&Glass)==Glass)|((Sensors& Plastic)==Plastic)))&(C ount<50) if(object <> 1) object :=INA[objectdetect] Sensors &= %11110000 if (object==1) if(INA[MetalDetect]==1) Sensors &= %11110000 Sensors |= Aluminum elseif(!INA[GlassDetect]) Sensors &= % 11110000 Sensors |= Glass else Sensors &= %11110000 Sensors |= Plastic else


&$ " Sensors &= %11110000 Sensors |= None waitcnt(1600000+cnt) count++ {{*********************************************************************************** *** ADJUSTMENT ADJUSTMENT ADJUSTMENT ADJUSTMENT ADJUSTMENT ADJUSTMENT ADJUSTMENT ************************************************************************************* *}} pub ClosestObj LeftClosestIndex := 0 RightClosestIndex := 0 steps := 0 repeat while steps < 10 if(LeftScanData[steps] < LeftScanData[LeftClosestIndex]) LeftClosestIndex := steps if(RightScanData[steps] < RightScanData[RightClosestIndex]) RightClosestIndex := steps steps++ pub ClosestDistLeft return LeftScanData[LeftClosestIndex] pub ClosestDistRight return RightScanData[RightClosestIndex] pub ClosestDegL : LClosestPos 'CONVERT TO DEGREES!!!!! LClosestPos := 12*LeftClosestIndex + 30 pub ClosestDegR : RClosestPos 'CONVERT TO DEGREES!!!!! RClosestPos := 12*RightClosestIndex + 30