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The sustainability of the Roman Forum

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Title:
The sustainability of the Roman Forum
Physical Description:
1 online resource (57 p.) : map. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Gargiulo, David
Publisher:
University of South Florida Libraries
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Historic sites -- Conservation and restoration -- Italy -- Rome   ( lcsh )
Cultural property -- Protection -- Italy -- Rome   ( lcsh )
Roman Forum (Rome, Italy)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Honors)--University of South Florida, 2009.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 53-57).
General Note:
"April, 2009."
General Note:
A winning thesis in the Grace Allen Honors College/Library Scholar program.
Statement of Responsibility:
David Gargiulo.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002044104
oclc - 476890133
usfldc doi - G33-00008
usfldc handle - g33.8
Classification:
System ID:
SFS0000035:00001


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The Sustainability of the Roman Forum David Gargiulo April, 2009

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! ! "#$%&'()! ! The Sustainability of the Roman Forum David Gargiulo 1 dgargiul@mail.usf.edu April, 2009 1 The author would like to thank Dr. Donald Bellante for his helpful informative m entoring and for his dedication of time to this thesis. A special thanks is also extend ed to Dr. Georg Kleine for his guidance early in the thesis process and for taking the time to be secondary reader.

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! ! "#$%&'()! + ! Introduction If walls could talk, what would the cr umbling walls of the Curia Hostilia, the Temple of Venus and Roma, or any other structure in the Roman Forum tell us? Surely, tales of the glory of the Roman Empire that erected them would be told in their deserved splendor. However, the Forum Romanum tell s the tales of thousands of others as well, the saga of the people who lived around those walls for more than 2000 years. For instance, the Forum's loss of many of its marble and other stone taken by those in desperate need of building materials in the Dar k and Middle Ages. The marks, bruises, and scars of history can be seen at the hallowed grounds that is the Forum Romanum. Humans innately wonder about who and what came before them. Text books and other literature on history can be read and comprehended The books teach us the history of the events that occurred. There is, however, no substitution for visiting places of cultural heritage where the histo rical events transpired By doing so, people understand the history around them by experiencing and feel ing the heritage of the site. As put by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), "Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations"( UNESCO ). T he Roman Forum and o ther World Cultural Heritage sites around the globe let us experience our collective past However, the Roman Forum and various other heritage sites are in serious danger. The Roman Forum is being threatened continuously. Thousands of tourists degrade th e integrity of the site, meanwhile the Italian Government cuts funding for the Roman Forum. We are in danger of inflicting serious harm to one of the most culturally important sites in the entire world.

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! ! "#$%&'()! ! Modern development, commercial activity, and improve ment of national economics are important to all nations of the world. Because the activities associated with these processes are destructive, they often conflict with cultural resource protection and preservation. (McManamon and Hatton p. 9) It is evident that new initiatives need to be enacted that will look towards a sustainable future for the Roman Forum and other cultural heritage sites around the world. In today's world, humans are truly Global Citizens. As a Global Citizen it is our duty to ensure tha t the Roman Forum, as well as all other World Cultural Heritage Sites, are preserved as best as possible. The preservation of the sites is not done just for the current inhabitants of the Earth, but also for future generations and to allow for new understa nds of the site through new technologies or thought in the future Artifacts and monuments are chiefly significant as a kind of archive, evidence of past human activity. Preservation allows the archive to be consulted whenever new questions about the p ast are generated. (Layton, Stone & Thomas, p.1) This though is furthered by William Lipe in his book Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage who says: "At the heart of the value of cultural resources is their ability to serve as tangible links to the past from which they have survived, in a way that written or narrated histories cannot" (Lipe p. 4). If we do not change our ways then the world is in danger of losing part of its heritage. It is evident that the current status quo needs change. A sustainable program must be

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! ! "#$%&'()! ! implemented that insures the future of the Roman Forum. The new program must keep the Forum open to the general public and work to preserve the monuments as best as possible. The preferences of a civilization dictate the price and the valu ation of an item. Preferences change with economic growth or decline. In the Dark Ages and the Middle Ages the Roman Forum was seen as a site from which to obtain building materials and have their animals graze. This was so because society was in downfall and desperately needed building materials that they could not manufacture as cheaply as taking them form the Forum. The economy improved in the Renaissance and continued into modernity. The economic growth is echoed in our preference for how the Roman Foru m is viewed. In modernity, the ancient building materials are not needed because our society can make our own building materials more efficiently. Current modern culture views items of the past as objects that are to be preserved and cherished, not as obje cts to simply be reused by modern man. Preservation of the past is directly related, in current thought, to economic prosperity. In this paper, human social interaction must be taken into account to allow for valuation of the Roman Forum based on the curre nt feelings of nostalgia and feelings of pride or interest for the past. Looking at the Forum, some people see a useless ruin in the middle of an important city that should be turned into working capital such as a modern skyscraper However, others see i t as a priceless reminder of the past. This paper will make a case for the latter view, showing that the Roman Forum is a val uable World Heritage site. What is the Roman Forum and Why It Is Important? The Roman Forum was the center of Ancient Rome; it is l ocated in the heart of Rome between the Palatine, Capitol and Esquiline hills in an area that was once marshland. The Forum

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! ! "#$%&'()! ! served as the political center of Rome It contains the Senate in a building known as the Curia and the p a laces of the early kings o f Rome. The Forum also was the central marketplace and civic center of the city. In addition, t he Roman Forum served as the religious epicenter for the Empire, housing a number of important temples dedicated to various Roman gods. Some of these temples wer e later converted into churches and remain in fairly good condition. S uccessful military commanders had triumphs which also took place at the Roman Forum. In short, the Roman Forum was the center of Ancient Rome. Here is a map of the Roman Forum that shows the building s and other important sites that the Forum contains. The map is included to show more clearly what the Forum is The Coliseum is not part of the Roman Forum; it lies just beyond the edge of the Forum. ! ! /0)1)!2)' $1345!)6!7803!9)$':!)6!103! ;3<'=(&>?!6$):!@&A&<3B&#

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! ! "#$%&'()! C ! Previous Uses of the Roman Fo rum In the past there was little or no protection placed on the Roman Forum. In the M iddle A ges the Roman Forum was used as a pasture for cattle grazing. The past shows us what could happen if government and other organizations did not work to preserve the Forum. Romans, in the past, burn t ancient Roman statuary and monuments for lime. The lime would then be used to make plaster and was use d in the buildings of "contemporary Rome." This was done due to the fact that Roman monuments were plentiful while building materials were not. Thus, the average Roman citizen had no qualms about using what ever was around them to improve their living conditions. "The most powerful single protector of Rome's monuments has undoubtedly been religious emotion" (Chamberlin 39). Elements of Rome, such as the Pantheon, that had once been used as a temple to the Roman gods and was later converted for use as a Christian church were left virtually unscathed by scavengers I t is highly unlikely that the Roman Forum would be di sassembled today to be used as building material. However, n ew threats face the Roman Forum today. If left unregulated in modernity, it would not be a surprise to hear about projects to further develop the Roman Forum. The development might be new governme nt structures, high rise buildings, or even a n Ancient Roman themed Adventure Park. Roman ruins and m onuments were also used by politicians and other leaders in Rome that existed after the Roman Empire The l eaders in Rome would continuously tie themse lves with the glory of Rome. This would be done by displaying wonderful Roman artifacts and promising a return to the Roman Empire. Never was this more readily witnessed than during the rule of Benito Mussolini. "He (Mussolini) regarded himself as heir to the Caesars that built it

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! ! "#$%&'()! D ! and calculated that, by claiming them as predecessors, he could pass off his ramshackle political structure as the Roman Empire Revived (Chamberlin p 45). Mussolini would work to restore Roman ruins and use this as a method of propaganda. However, this was not all beneficial preservation: The impressive "before and after" propaganda photographs (taken by the Fascists) cannot be taken at face value; for they lack one vital ingredient; the lethal Roman traffic which, obeying no k nown human law, now roars down the vast boulevards also created by Mussolini, cutting off many of the monuments from all but the most intrepid. (Chamberlin, p. 49) The Roman Forum has continuously been used as propaganda both for the Ancient Roman s for pol iticians that came after them. The political use of the Roman Forum has not been beneficial to the preservation of the site. A c hange in the preferences of the people with regards to their cultural heritage was needed The rise of the nation state prov ed to be a large catalyst in changing the perception of the sites of cultural heritage. Nation states ushered in a period of extreme nationalism. During this time, the nations of the world, primarily those in Europe, sought to discover their cultural objec ts. These objects were used to p romote the prior glory and success of that nation. In other words, the government used the cultural objects to make the achievements of the past the goals of the future. After the Second World War, the view point on cultural heritage changed further. In the new global world, more emphasis was placed on preserving and maintaining the cultural heritage sites. This was due to the fact that tourism and travel increased. The revenue generated

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! ! "#$%&'()! E ! by tourists would prove a large enough catalyst to sustain the initiative to maintain the cultural sites. A New System Introduced A comprehensive government program for the Italian government that will allow for preservation and sustainability will be proposed in this thesis The overall goa l of the new program is to keep the Roman Forum as authentic as possible. The current cost of the government program for the Roman Forum is unsustainable and the preservation of the site can be done more efficiently. The Italian Government, in recent years has been in a credit crunch. Funding for the arts and cultural heritage sites has fallen by drastic amounts. With continued cuts in the budget, it would be next to impossible to run and maintain all the cultural sites in Italy; after all as a nation, th ey have the largest number of cultural heritage sites in the world. Also, as time passes, upkeep on the increasingly older monuments becomes more expensive. These costs will only continue to rise as modernity introduces more degrading chemicals into the at mosphere that will adversely affect the sites. Furthermore, the cost of the inefficient Italian cultural bureaucracy has been on the rise and their programs have been ineff ective in maintaining and preserving the cultural heritage sites Therefore, the cur rent trend of budget cuts higher maintenance costs, and having an in efficient control system simply are inc apable of working and continu ed with sustain ability The only possible way to make the system work would be to allocate more money to the cultural h eritage site s In our current economy an increase to the budget of the cultural heritage sites is out of the funding due to a lack of funds The money could only come from increased taxes or slashing other government initiatives. Raising the taxes would put extra burden on the Italian citizens in a time of dire economic crisis.

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! ! "#$%&'()! FG ! Drug companies in the Unites States are issued patents A patent is attained for a new invention; in the case of drug companies a new drug is invented. A patent allows the invento r of the product or medicine to have exclusive manufacturing rights for a length of fifteen years without any contractual agreement. The patent holder can therefore use the patented product in whatever means that they see best. In the system that is to be proposed, license s or licensing rights will be issued to private specialized firms from the Italian government. The license will be issued to the firm who proposes the best plan for the Roman Forum, focusing on all aspects of the site. The private entity would be in control of the monuments, tourist entry, and restoration. However, failure to meet the proposal's requirements will open the door for the government to revoke the license. In this way, specialized private firms will be allowed to run the Forum with greater efficiency than the government is able and the site is guaranteed to be maintained Furthermore, the Roman Forum will remain publicly owned. An Outline of the Ineffective Government Programs Currently the Italian Government runs the Roman Fo rum. They spend vast unsustainable amounts of money on the operation of the Roman Forum. The current system is both difficult to maintain and is not very effective. A clear example is the low level of protection and maintenance of cultural objects in Ita ly. The stock of cultural heritage objects is much greater in Italy than any other country. In consequence, the evaluation of the last and therefore marginal item is lower than in countries with few buildings and artifacts representing their cultural histo ry and identity. (Hutter p 4)

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! ! "#$%&'()! FF ! It is evident that a new system is needed in Italy. Recently, there has even been talk of privatizing the various cultural heritage sites around Italy. This is the wrong answer. Taking the monuments out of the hands of the pub lic and placing the access of these prized locations in the hands of the few is something that should not be permissible By privatizing sites, such as the Roman Forum, the global community would face the possibility that the private firm's preference is t o use the site in a different way than society would prefer. That is the private entity's goals would be to sustain the site in whatever way would be most monetarily beneficial to themselves. A private firm will use the Forum in the way it prefers. Their v iew point may lead to less upkeep, no further excavations in unexplored parts of the Forum, or even lead to the over commercialization of the site. By ensuring public control the people of the world, specifically Italy, will dictate how the Forum is to be used and, in the proposed system, use the government as its instrument to regulate the private firms activities to ensure they align with current public preference. Keeping the sites publicly owned is essential to any new plan being proposed. Change is nee ded, and it is needed soon. The non renewable nature of many kinds of cultural resources makes it essential to limit destructive intervention to situations in which the resource is threatened with destruction from other forces or in which the need for new treatment is undeniable. (McManamon & Hatton p. 16) In order to understand the system that needs to be put into place, the current use and the economics of the site must be taken into account. Italy and other Western European nations look to "sell their past to other nations as their future" (Peckham p. 4). This is another way of saying,

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! ! "#$%&'()! F* ! that the glory and awe that the heritage sites show is a pitch to tourists from around the world as the possibilities of their nation. Therefore, A large proportion of t he users are international tourists who contribute only through ticket prices and local sales tax. Those traders which profit from the visitors consider the existence of the objects as a positive externality of production. Thus, the income earned through t he use of cultural heritage does not reflect the amount that national and international benefici aries would be willing to pay. (Hutter p. 4 5) With tourists providing economic incentive for the continued upkeep of the historical monuments, a sustainable pr ogram can be implemented to keep the sites maintained. If sites are allowed to deteriorate then the tourists traveling to see them will decrease in number due to the simple fact their experience will not be the same as it could have been in the past. Publ ic vs. Private Analysis A value needs to be placed on the Roman Forum A value will dictate spending for the preservation and restoration of the site by the government and other parties to keep the site attractive for foreign tourists and to keep the hist ory of their own nation intact and tactile while maintaining the authenticity of the Roman Forum. Placing a value on the Roman Forum is an extremely difficult task. In reality, the placing of value on the Forum is more of a sociological problem than an eco nomic problem. However, economists also can deal in that field. Hutter talks about the difficulty of valuing heritage sites saying;

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! ! "#$%&'()! F+ ! That there is "a standard difficulty in applying economic tools: cultural heritage o bjects exhibit public good characteristi cs. Since the objects are looked at rather than being physically handled, there is generally no rivalry in consumption. In the case of towns and building s particularly religious buildings, there is also free access. For artifacts, access can be regulated, but still there remains an intangible element of "public interdependence:" the more people know about an object, the more fame and reputation grows. As with communication goods, cultural heritage objects exhibit strong network externalities. But is unclea r what would be an appropriate size for the network ( Hutter, pg 5) The Roman Forum is an important and extremely famous historical site. An assumption will be made based upon this fact. The assumption is that the Roman Forum exhibits an extremely large ex ternal network based upon its worldwide draw and intrigue. Assigning a sizable value to the Roman Forum based solely on the assumed astronomical size of the network generated by the Roman Forum would be far too speculative. The Roman Forum is essentially a public good. A public good is a product, service or good that exhibits both indivisib ility and non excludability Consumption indivisibilities are a term that refers to the fact that for public goods, consumption by one person does not diminish the amount of that good for another. The Roman Forum is indivisible. Guests attending the Forum can consume the sights, experience, and overall experience of the Roman Forum without diminishing the amount that another person may enjoy the Roman Forum. Therefore, the Roman Forum is indivisible. The second factor that makes a

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! ! "#$%&'()! F, ! good a public good is non excludability Non excludability is a characteristic of a public good that refers to the fact that the public good can be enjoyed by all, even by those who do not pay. In other words, non excludability refers to the fact that from a public good all members of society will benefit. For the Roman Forum, non excludability refers to the fact that all Romans and Italians benefit from having the Roman Forum exist. The Forum act s as national symbol and is a world wonder B ecause of this everyone in Rome and the rest of Italy receive a benefit because the Forum acts as a public good. Given the public good property of cult ural heritage, some typical constellations of use emerge. One is the possibility on, in the case of international tourists, the inevitability of free riding on the services provided by a private owner, a municipality, or another public authority. A second constellation is the competition between the property valu e of, say, a medieval castle to a private owner and the aggregate value of the castle to non users, people for instance, who simply value the fact of its existence in a historically "pure" form. ( Hutter, pg. 6) This is spot on for the Roman Forum. In the p ast decade, tourists were free riders. The tourists would attend and visit the Roman Forum free of charge at their convenience. The tourists would also value the site differently than a Roman citizen and the problem of usage and rights arise s The private sector is rarely able to provide a public good as efficiently as the public sector. This is an extremely important concept for this paper and is the basis of the argument as to why the Roman Forum must remain in the hands of the Italian Government. The pr ivate sector

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! ! "#$%&'()! F! generally moves more rapidly than the public sector; however its scope, budget, and overall influence are miniscule in compa rison to the Federal government. The public sector's primary reason to exist is to maximize the public welfare that can be attained. The private sector, on the other hand, is determined to maximize the profitability of any project that is undertaken P ublic benefits are not taken into account. Therefore, the private sector wil l work to maximize profits and it will not wor k for overall preservation. The public sector would work to preserve all of the Roman Forum or other good with a more universal efficient approach. The public and private sector partnership would be the ideal situation. In this way, the public sector work s more efficiently than the private sector and is the reason why a partnership between the public and private sectors would work to improve the Roman Forum. The private sector can lo ok for profitability and look to cut inefficient government bureaucra c y H owever the government, under the licensing program, will provide oversig ht of the private corporation and ensure they work to cater to the preference of the public. The government would ensure the preservation of all of the Roman Forum and not just one s pecific area This would be done through required excavations that must be included in a proposal for a license. Most importantly, the government can i nsure the long term s urvivability of the Roman Forum with the additional funds, expertise, and efficiency provided by the private sector The public sector is riddled with inefficiencies and bureaucracy that makes their running of the cultural heritage inefficient. However, the government recognizes the needs of the people and does its best to meet them. The private sector would be more efficient than the public sector; however the private firm would be able to use the Forum how they see fit if they obtain full ownership of the site. Their use of the site may not align with public preference. Therefore, one c an see a combination of the public and private

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! ! "#$%&'()! F. ! sectors will, if done correctly, lead to a more efficient system that ensures the sites are used as the public dictates. Valuing the Roman Forum Mathers, Darvill and Little explore placing values on location s such as the Roman Forum in their book entitled the Heritage of Value, Archeology of Renown: Reshaping Archaeological Assessment and Significance. In their book they present a quantitative system to help evaluate a landmark based upon scoring schemes. Fo r sites of cultural heritage Mathers Darvill and Little outline their principles : archeology remains should be preserved rather than destroyed because they represent a direct or tangible link to the past; care for the archaeological heritage is desirable because it brings economic rewards; it is better to have archaeological remains than not to have them; preservation in situ to maintain authenticity is better than investigation, which is short term and destroys authenticity; visibility is preferred to no n visibility; old things are more interesting than recent things; the archaeological heritage is a collective heritage, owned by no one and available to everyone;

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! ! "#$%&'()! FC ! investigation of archaeological remains is worthwhile because of the knowledge it creates; in terest in the past brings social benefit in relation to the quality of life, and is a component of education and the process of socialization; and The archaeological heritage is a resource that can be used or stored up." (Mathers, Darvill and Little, pg. 2 8) Based upon their guiding principles, which are in line with the principles of the author of this thesis, a breakdown of the significance and t he value of the Roman Forum can occur. It can be assumed that a site of more significance will be of more value There are five ca tegories, and the subsets there of, will be looked at to determine the significance of the Roman Forum. The categories are archaeological values, landscape and conservation values, social values, economic values, and research values. The concept of significance, like no other in conservation archaeology, is a constant source of frustration and inspiration. We are frustrated because we wish that significance would be ignored Nevertheless, the many kinds of significance that need to be t aken into account when assessing resources often immerses the investigator deeply in the most fundamental, intriguing problems of the discipline: the nature of archaeological data and the relationships between archaeology and society.(Schiffer and Grumerma n p 239) Archaeological values deal with the physical and historical assets that the Roman Forum contains. The subcategories that will be analyzed are the historical era in which the Forum was

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! ! "#$%&'()! FD ! built, the rarity of the site, the amount of archaeological re cords on the site, and the influence the site had on other s of the era. The Roman Forum is the only location on Earth that offers a view of the buildings that were the heart of one of the greatest ancient civilization s The city of Rome was founded in 753 BC by the famous brothers Remus and Romulus; the Forum was founded soon thereafter The Roman Forum served as the epicenter for politics of the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Its importance diminished after the sacking of Rome in 410 AD. No oth er location in the Western World can compare in importance to the historical significance of the Forum. The examination of this site has lead to discoveries of Roman govern ment and the activities of the people who frequented the Roman Forum. The Roman Foru m served as a template of Forums that were built throughout the Roman Empire. The conversation values that the Roman Forum offers are also high in number and importance. The Roman Forum's design was replicated numerous times in the period of the Roman Emp ire, building small Forums at various locations in the Empire. The columns and other architectural designs used at the Roman Forum can still be seen in many building s constructed in the modern world The Roman Forum stands as a monument to the history and culture of the Roman Empire. It is a one of a kind cultural site that cannot be replicated or reproduced in the entire world. In terms of social value it is estimated that the Roman Forum attracts about 3.5 million visitors per year ( World Heritage Site ) Based upon this data, the Roman Forum is an extremely important source of tourist activity. People around the globe see th e value in visiting the center of one of the greatest, if not the greatest, empire to ever inhabit the Earth. Furthermore, the Roman Forum inspires national pride for present day Italians.

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! ! "#$%&'()! FE ! The Roman Forum is also of significant economic value to the present day Italian State Entrance to the Roman Forum was free of charge for about a decade This was due to an initiative by the Italia n Government to give access to the Forum to all who desired, especially to the poor of Rome. However, this free system would give access to people who might simply be looking to do harm to the landmarks or lessen the experience of others at the site. The I talian Government, driven by the need of more revenue to help sustain its declining budget, moved to rectify this problem and reformed the system. The Roman Forum in 2008 began to sell tickets that would give visitors access to the Roman Forum. "Access t o the Forum will be included in a single $16 ticket that visitors already pay to enter the nearby Collosseum and the Palatine Hill" ( Rome Ends Free Visits To The Forum ). However, the new ticket initiative denied many of the Roman citizens from gaining acce ss to the Roman Forum. The program charges a relatively nominal fee to visitors when one considers the large costs of traveling to and staying in the Eternal City. To a Roman resident paying the sixteen dollar entrance fee would greatly reduce their de sir e and lessen dem and for visiting the Roman Forum T hey would visit less frewquently A ticket system that charged a higher rate to tourists and a lower rate to Romans and all Italians would allow the operators of the Forum to g enerate potentially more inc ome and at the same time exclude less of the Italian population. The current economic benefit of the Forum is reaped in externalities to th e surrounding tourist industry and from the ticket charges. This means that the Roman Forum acts as a tourist draw. The tourists come to Rome, spending their money on hotels, food and ticket costs

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! ! "#$%&'()! *G ! Due to the uniqueness of the Roman Forum, the site provides a priceless location at which to conduct research to better understand the ancient Romans. The Forum serves as a n educational learning tool for people. Furthermore, with new techniques and practices being developed at a rapid pace in archeology and the science associated with it, new perspectives and insights can be made into the site with more research. It is impe rative that the site remain preserved. There also remains a section of the Forum that has yet to be excavated. It is clear further research can and should be done with the potential for important and significant new find ings that may shed new light on an cient Rome. Based upon the criteria laid out by Mathers, Darvill and Little, the Roman Forum is an invaluable site that exhibits externalities of economic, social, educational, archaeological, and conservation valu able The Roman Forum therefore requires and deserves a large budget to insure the survival of the integrity of the site. Perhaps the single most telling factor that shows the true value of the Roman Forum is the fact that it is listed on the World Heritage List. Fellow members of the list incl ude places such as the Tower of London, Paris and the Banks of the Seine, and Yellowstone National Park. In order to qualify to make this exclusive list a site must: represent a masterpiece of human creative genius; exhibit an important interchange of hum an values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town planning or landscape design; bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civil ization which is living or which has disappeared;

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! ! "#$%&'()! *F ! be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history; be an outstanding example of a traditiona l human settlement, land use, or sea use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change; Be directly or tangibly associated wit h events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria); contain superla tive natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance; be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on going geological processes in the development of lan dforms, or significant geomorphological or physiography features; be outstanding examples representing significant on going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals; contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of scienc e or conservation. ( UNESCO The Criteria for Selection ) It is clear that based upon the evaluation of the factors by Mathers, Darvill and Little and the fact that is listed on the World Heritage list that the Roman Forum belongs to the exclusive

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! ! "#$%&'()! ** ! company of this list. To further the argument that the Roman Forum deserves a large value and thus an adequate budget, Mathers, Darvill and Little say that sites listed on the World Heritage list are not just of value, rather they are of "outstanding universal va lue" ( Mathers, Darvill and Little, pg. 302). To truly quantify the value of the Roman Forum is a nearly impossible task. The property itself would be terribly expensive. Based upon its established outstanding value, the Roman Forum should receive all re asonable funds to be up kept at its current state. We must work to preserve this value. While we must recognize that the Forum is naturally de caying because of time. W e must work to keep the depreciation of the site to a minimum level to keep the value of the site as level as possible for as long a duration as viable The only manner in which depreciation can be kept at a minimum level or even reduced is by enacting a well suited, cost effective program that both protects the site from human induced decay but also from the forces of nature to the extent that is realistic. The Current System in Use Currently, the Roman Forum is run by the Italian Government. The current system that is in use by the Italian Government is not effective or efficient. Recent ly, the Prime Minister of Italy, Silvio Berlusconi, made clear the government's plan to privatize historical sites. The possibility of selling important sites such as the Collosseum to corporations is an unacceptable option; these sites must remain publicl y owned. Italy's Culture Minister Rocco Buttiglione said that ""Rome is a huge open air museum W e are managing it with reduced personnel and budget constraints, and Italy must decide. Do we want to preserve our immense cultural heritage, or not?" ( Nadeau ) The Italian Government continues to slash the budget of the Ministry of Culture

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! ! "#$%&'()! *+ ! It currently faces a "35 percent cut in funding for arts and architectural preservation, from 464 million Euros to 300 million Euros" ( Nadeau ). The Italian budget "is lower than the budget for cultural heritage in other European countries ( Ansamed: Italy ) even though it houses the greatest number of sites on the World Heritage List. "Italian Culture Ministry received 2.2 billion Euros, of which 70 percent is for current expe nses, from the budget, which accounted for 0.39 percent of the entire budget for the year, local federation for culture, tourism, sports and pastime. The European average stands at 0.5 percent However, countries such as France, Germany and Portugal spend much more (1.0 percent, 1.35 percent and 0.9 percent, respectively), although their cultural heritage is less vast ( Ansamed: Italy ) The budget will only grow smaller with a billion Euro slash coming in the near future. The government is truly doing a ho rrendous job in the upkeep of its cultural stock even though the 31 billion in Euros from tourism should be an adequate incentive to spur the government to maintai n the sites. In the book Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage the government framewo rk is laid out. Let us take a close look at the inefficient administration that the Italian Government currently runs T he Ministry of Culture and Environmental Property which was established in 1975 is the department now in charge of the cultural stock of Italy. The Ministry works through four central offices, for environmental, architectural, archaeological, artistic, and historical property, for archives, for libraries and cultural institutions, and for general affairs, administrati on, and personnel res pectively. (Cleere p 76)

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! ! "#$%&'()! *, ! This creates straightway a large bureaucracy that is difficult to manage and run effectively. Cleere looks into this inefficiency. He declares that: This straightaway creates a malfunction: the existence of a separate body for gene ral affairs, administration, and personnel accentuates the bureaucratic nature of the management, and leads to further administrative malfunctions and misunderstanding in relation to the actual demands of the protection process. To this should be added the fact that for some twenty years the central offices have been directed by civil servants with generally no professional expertise in the field of cultural property. This has meant that rigid and perverse procedures were developed. (Cleere p 76) These perv erse procedures have bogged down the conservation and preservation of many Italian sites of cultural heritage and significance. Evidence of ineffectiveness in the Italian Government can be seen in the diminishing quality of many monuments and cultural heri tage sites around Italy. An example of the malfunctioning nature of the Ministry is th at the nation al and local governments do not communicate well and have a n inherent mistrust of one another Due to this lack of trust, projects are not done effectively. While the administrative system of the Italian Government is glaringly incompetent it gets conceivably worse when one moves beyond the superficial. One of the most important aspects of the Ministry of Culture and Environmental Property should be the cons ervation of the current stock of cultural heritage objects. In sharp contrast, o ne of the largest shortcomings of the

PAGE 25

! ! "#$%&'()! *! Italian Ministry is its conservation effort In talking of the staff of the Italian Ministry in the book Approaches to the Cultural Herita ge, it is shown that : There are shortages of draughtsman photographers, and above all conservators. This lack of conservators is due to structural considerations: there is no institute in Italy for training conservators, which precludes massive recruitmen t, even if that were economically feasible (Cleere p 77) The Italian government then uses private conservators at a premium price to work on its conservation techniques, it is important to note that governments generally pay more for professionals and lab or than the private sector. This can be attributed to the benefits and the face that the governmet labor market is ineffective at driving wages lower. It is clear that the Italian government should look to change its administrative system by making their w ork more efficient and effective. Based on the data that was found, the net benefit of tourism spurred on mainly by the cultural stock of Italy is about twenty nine billion Euros. This equates to quite a profit for the Italian e conomy. However, one must factor in the depreciation of the cultural stock. With low investment in the cultural stock by the Italian Government, one can equate the current situation to an extremely profitable factory that is not spending money on maintenance for its machines. The machines will continue to depreciate, decay, and eventually break down. The factory can no longer operate in a profitable manner. The same can be said about the cultural stock in Italy. If increased investment in the cultural stock does not occur then the value they hold will also decrease. When the value of the sites de preciates it furnishes tourists less incentives to spend

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! ! "#$%&'()! *. ! money to visit Italy. This is because a tourist will derive more utility for a cultural site that is in better condition than one t hat is entirely ruined and in shambles. Thus, the demand to travel to Italy falls and Italy will in turn derive less revenue from tourism. The Forum vs. The Tower The Roman Forum's condition is decreasing because a lack of funding exists and the needed cos t for upkeep of the Roman Forum is skyrocketing. The budget allocated to maintaining the Forum is decreasing at a time when more money is needed to maintain the integrity of the site. This trend will continue as long as the budget for the Culture of Minist ry continues to decrease and it will degrade at an exponential rate unless action is taken to avert this potential crisis. It is clear to all that this is the case. To gain a bett er understanding of the problem let us compare and contrast two sites, from the point of view of a tourist, that are listed on the World Heritage List, the Roman Forum and the Tower of London. The Tower of London is an important medieval fortress in London, England that symbolized the power of the monarchy. The Tower of London w as placed on the World Heritage List in 1988. For a visitor to attend the Tower, it is necessary to purchase a ticket for 16.50 pounds. The ticket price includes a guided tour of the Tower. The visitor is then taken on a tour of the site by a professional guide who watches the guests, making sure the guests do not harm any of the precious artifacts or the Tower itself. Until recently, t he Roman Forum was described by a completely different narrative To attend t he Roman Forum all a tourist in Rome had to d o was wake up, walk down the nearest road toward the heart of the city, and walk out into the Forum. Little or no supervision was

PAGE 27

! ! "#$%&'()! *C ! visible to tourists. There was no deterrent, other than the fellow well intentioned tourist or a nearby tour guide, not to van dalize the site with graffiti or to take a piece of the Forum home with them as a souvenir Tickets d id not exist. Thankfully, as discussed earlier, a ticket is now necessary but more supervision must be put in place. A new plan for the Roman Forum mus t be enacted. The Tower of London which gives extremely rigid tours of the Tower cuts down on the interactivity a tourist may wish to derive from the site. The high ticket prices also make the number of people able to afford the site shrink significantly. A favorable medium is needed. The meeting point for the Roman Forum should include: increased security measures for the Roman Forum, an extremely moderate priced ticket, available tours or free time in the Forum, increased money available for maintenance, and the need to remain publicly owned. It is important to note that charging an entrance fee or charging for a ticket for admission on a cultural heritage site would simply lessen local demand This is so because the cost of admission to see sites, such a s the Tower of London, is miniscule in comparison to the travel costs the tourist is paying overall and generally will not keep them from attending the site. However, the ticket prices generate revenue that can help pay for the upkeep of the cultural sites A reduced admission charge is needed for the local citizens. By enacting a system that retains these principles less people are excluded from the site. If the sites were allowed to further erode, then the demand to visit such places will decrease Th e upkeep and maintenance of the monument will keep the high demand for visitation intact. Talk about such a system sounds easy, but what would constitute a sustainable system?

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! ! "#$%&'()! *D ! A Culture of Preservation A culture of preservation must be prevalent in society for change to initially occur. Citizens must believe that the cultural sites are a n essential part of their history and because of that link to their past feel ownership over the cultural site Alternatively, the local population could see a financial n eed for its existence. When this occurs a majority of citizens can have a massive effect on national policies. This change is occurring, one can see that : A more constructive and committed interest in archaeological research, manifested in the form of a g reat demand for culture that brings in new groups of people, notably the young (Cleere p 80) This changing view can help work towards protection of the sites. However, the m ain reason that local support is needed is because ; Communities residing near or a mong the locations of cultural resources have important, sometimes critical, influences on the protection and preservation of these resources. Local populations are always in the vicinity of the cultural resources. Community members protect and maintain th ese resources when they regard them as their own." (McManamon & Hatton p 10) Furthermore the locals must be able to deem the resources : As precious things to be preserved, protected, and interpreted. The basis for these perceptions may be economic, that i s, the cultural resources are seen as a means by which tourists can be enticed to

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! ! "#$%&'()! *E ! visit local communities, spending money for food, lodging, or other services, while the y are there experiencing or viewing the cultural resources. (McManamon & Hatton p 11) L ocal communities must recognize the need and value of the cultural resource. Locals would choose to preserve the landmark rather than build a new state of the art shopping mall and the cultural resource will flourish. The laws that dictate the cultural her itage of Italy are complex and rather ineffective. The protection of cultural property in Italy is still today controlled by Law No. 1089. The range of material protected by this law covers the artistic, historical, archaeological, and ethnographic fields. The law wisely refrains from defining the scope of these objects, but emphasizes that they are so by virtue of their nature. This attitude is of especial importance so far as archaeological items are concerned: in effect, anyone who digs foundations for a house or a bridge, or builds a highway or removes material from a quarry is obliged to identify any archaeological objects that may result from these actions and to ensure that they are preserved, even if no official or expert has yet examined them and de clared them to be of interest. (Cleere pg 75) This general law is rather vague and ineffective The law has lead to the accumulation of many large private collections throughout Italy. These collect ion s spawned from individuals not

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! ! "#$%&'()! +G ! reporting their findings or misrepresenting them in reports. If the citizens of Italy change their views, this law could be modified and the stealing and personal holding of cultural objects could be halted. Policy Change on a National Level Policy change must occur on a nation al level to echo the views of the local citizenry The Italian government recognizes that it needs to change its system of management for their cultural stock of artifacts, monuments, and other historical sites. McManamon and Hatton in their book Cultural Resource Management in Contemporary Society talk in depth about policies for cultural resources that will be effective. To be effective, national public policy for the protection and preservation of cultural resources must have three components. 1. It must be a strong statement of national intent to protect and preserve cultural sites, and other resource types. 2. It must have political support in its implementation; and 3. it must be implemented cooperatively among agencies, departments, or ministries" (McManamo n and Hatton, pg. 6 7) Changing the national policy is what is required in Italy. The government should commit to a new system that works to keep the monuments in their current state, by dissuading humans from

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! ! "#$%&'()! +F ! tarnish ing and destroying the sites. The polic ies should be reviewed and revised with regularity to keep the decisions up to date. The Roman Forum will serve as the case study for this new system. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites The name of the new system is the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites. While this system would be in use for the entire country of Italy, the system will look to each monument on a case by case basis. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites will be a sy stem based on license s that are issued to corporations or other private entities for duration of ten years at a time. The corporation or other private entity would submit a plan to the Italian Government at the initiation of the License Based Protection Pl an for Cultural Heritage and at ten year intervals thereafter P roviding the promises and guarantees in the proposals are kept that firm will receive special consideration when renewal of the license is necessary The proposed plan would include items suc h as maintenance plans, administrative plans, tourist access plans, and other needed elements The government would then choose the best plan submitted by the third party and will issue exclusive rights to run and maintain the site. The proposed plan then becomes a contract that the third party is legally bound to. After acceptance of the contract the winning firm would be required to submit a deposit that would be refunded after completion of the contract. If the company violates conditions of the contra ct, the deposit would be kept by the government. Failure to meet part of the contract would allow the Italian Government to cancel the contract and open new bidding for the license With the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites in pla ce the Roman Forum would be run by a

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! ! "#$%&'()! +* ! more efficient third party than the Italian Government that would be both legally bound and financially willing to maintain the site. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites may sound hypocriti cal coming from an advocate to kee p the cultural heritage sites in the hands of the public. However, this is the best way to insure that the Italian government does ultimately retain ownership of the sites By essentially awarding contracts to run the Roma n Forum and other such sites, the important monuments and heritage sites around the country will remain in the hands of the government or the public because of the licensing agreement Again, this is of the upmost importance to the plan. Furthermore, a pri vate firm or entity will be a more specialized unit. Being specialized allows the third party to be more efficient at running the heritage sites due to their increased level of knowledge and experience with dealing with items of cultural heritage compared to the extremely inefficient government. Problems With Government Intervention Hutter in his book Economic Perspectives on Cultural Heritage recognizes the shortcomings of government intervention for cultural heritage. Hutter says that, "firstly, inter vention can create inefficiency" (Hutter p 22). The inefficiency is that the cultural heritage sites exhibit both social benefits and individual benefits. The government analysis does not take into account individual benefits and therefore it operate s ben eath an optimal level. If the private market were allowed to intervene, they would be able to add individual s benefit s into their calculations and operate at Pareto efficiency.

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! ! "#$%&'()! ++ ! Hutter describes "the second problem with government intervention is cost" (Hut ter p 23). The government incurs two types of costs administrative costs and compliance costs. Administrative costs are necessary Administrative costs are incurred when making policies, enforcing the policies, and setting up the vehicle on which to colle ct taxes for cultural heritage. Administration is not the big problem. It is in the compliance costs where government intervention truly is inefficient. Compliance costs are the payments needed to bring sites up to policy standards. The government fails i n bringing locations up to standard. The compliance costs could be done more efficiently and correctly by a private enterprise or corporation. Hutter identifies another inefficiency from government intervention. He identifies t he third difficulty with gov ernment intervention relates to regulatory capture" (Hutter p. 23) Government regulation is generally biased towards those who are in power. Therefore, regulation by the government is often not in the interest of all its citizens. In the context of cultur al heritage, this could mean allowing the destruction of a site to make room for modernization. The private sector will work to alleviate these inefficiencies However, the Italian G overnment will work as a counter weight to corporate power over. The gover nment will retain the right to cancel the contract at any time if t he Roman Forum or other site if the guarantees and promises in the contract are not exacted In this arra ngement the government benefits from avoiding the large loss that it experiences be cause of its high cost of running the site. However, the Roman Forum also directly benefits in increased funding, more supervision, and generally more care from the private firm due to regulatory and economic incentive The government must remain involved to ensure that cultural heritage sites are not misused intentionally by private

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! ! "#$%&'()! +, ! firms. By reducing the size of the government agency, its regulation and scope will become more efficient and will work towards a greater net benefit Central Aspects of Nation al Plans Proposals are the central aspect of why the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage S ites holds a greater probability of success and provide it more efficiently. A closer look is needed to better understand what an acceptable propos al would contain in order for the Italian Government to even consider its accept ance McManamon and Hatton look at what a plan for a specific site should include. The plan (for managing a heritage site) should describe: activities needed to stabilize or p reserve features of this resource 1. the interpretation of the resource and how it is to be presented to visiting and local public 2. the means by which any collections and records from the resource are to be preserved 3. activities needed to protect the resource; and 4. What if any, new information is needed to better protect, preser ve, and interpret the resource. (McManamon and Hatton, p 8 9) Each submitted proposal must contain an outline explaining what the firm will undertake in order to meet the before mentione d requirements The proposal must contain more than this, but it is a good baseline from which to start the analysis.

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! ! "#$%&'()! +! McManamon and Hatton do not consider the licensing that the License Based Protection Plan for Cultu ral Heritage Sites would entail. N eces sary additions are required. The additions would be to discuss the planned administration of the site and set the terms from which the license will be granted The best way to illustrate how this system would work is to compose a sample proposal that woul d be an acceptable offer for to the Italian Government. This will be shown and illustrated later in the thesis. Public Preference and the License Based Protection Plan The first step in implementing the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage S ites would be to echo the national view point of cultural sites. The public's current preference for cultural heritage is for preservation and conservation. This sees the majority of citizens calling for their heritage to be preserved and maintained. The L icense Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites would be an efficient, viable system that would allow for the continued upkeep of the cultural stock of Italy. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites would not require a large governmental department, rather it could be run by a relatively small number of capable employees that would review proposals and enforce the parameters laid out in the proposal. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites would work to promote competition between private corporations or companies. The corporate sector has emerged as an increasingly visible player in the field, providing resources directly for protection and

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! ! "#$%&'()! +. ! conservation of cultural heritage, motivated by altruism, self interest, or a bit of both." (Hutter p 18) The government would look to put private firms or corporations into direct competition P rivate firms would be forced to offer a sizeable incentive program in order to be able to run the site and out bid their com petition. The programs would include guaranteed maintenance and upkeep programs. The promised site improvements would be fixed and unchangeable. The only aspect of the programs that could be changed that would reduce the expenditure on the site would be to find a more efficient way to manage the site. The new system would eliminate the public compliance cos t and reduce their administrative costs by a significant amount. Currently, the Italian government has no initiative to cut excess spending on in efficie nt and i neffective programs. To reduce its cost s the Italian government simply decreases the budget that is allocates towards the upkeep and running of cultural heritage sites. It is through competition that the administrative costs of running the cultura l sites would be kept to a minimum This can be done without sacrificing maintenance or upkeep of the site because of the continued observance of the private enterprise by the government. In terms of a national program the License Based Protection Plan f or Cultural Heritage Sites would begin by outlining the sites that are large enough to warrant control by a private enterprise. Private enterprises would then have the opportunity to review the site s and look to see if they could run the site s efficiently The government would look to accept the proposal that would provide the most maintenance and upkeep for the sites.

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! ! "#$%&'()! +C ! The Roman Forum is in need of repair, visitor reform, and continued preservation. On e can see this simply by visiting the Forum T ourists c an be seen coming in physical contact with many delicate ruins and there is little or no official authority to keep visitors in line. Any proposal to be considered by the Italian Government must work to address all of these shortcomings Next is a sample p roposal by a fictional company called the Cultural Heritage Company which would be deemed as a n acceptable proposal by the Italian Government. The Cultural Heritage Company recognizes that the Roman Forum site is in need of bot h an operational revamping an d maintenance The first part of a plan submitted to the Italian Government must contain "activities needed to stabilize or preserve features of this resource" (McManamon and Hatton, p 8 9). The Cultural Heritage Company would then be required to hire an expert on archaeological preservation and conservation. The expert should analyze the site and report their findings to the Cultural Heritage Company. Included in the report by the expert would be projects that would work to improve the integrity of the F orum and how to better manage tourists. Needed improvements at the Roman Forum would include projects such as chemical techniques to protect the buildings from pollution and stabilizing the columns of the Temple of Saturn. Further archaeological digs propo sals must be included in the proposal for a license at the Roman Forum to excavated sites around the Forum, provided that artifacts remain in state possession. In many instances, the Italian Government will require the excavation and have many projects lin ed up for excavation. T he Cultural Heritage Company includes a plan to protect the Roman Forum f ro m pollutants that are eroding the monuments on the site, to excavate a new section of the Roman Forum, and to look to i nsure all vertical architecture of the Roman Forum

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! ! "#$%&'()! +D ! remains stable and enact Furthermore, the Cultural Heritage Company would look to install cameras and place security around the Roman Forum to observe tourist activity Security will look for violations and defamation done to Roman Forum by th e tourists. The Company would also put in place new barriers that funnel tourists off of key sites that are contained in the Forum with the goal of minimizing damage The next prerequisite that is required to be met is the interpretation of the resource and how it is to be presented to visiting and local public (McManamon & Hatton, p. 8 9) In terms of the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites this would mean how the Roman Forum will be marketed and sold to the public Marketing the F orum as a theme park would unacceptable. However marketing the Roman Forum as the center of Ancient Rome and the epicenter of Roman life would be very acceptable. In other words, a marketing system that seeks to keep the Roman Forum marketed for its histo rical significance is required. Also, included in this section of requirements is an outline for a ticket program. The stipulation by the Italian Government is that ticket prices must remain low for Italian citizens. T his allows the Forum to be accessible to all Italians and does not exclude them from visiting the site. It is important to note that tourists will incur a ticket price because of their valuation of the visitation and the miniscule proportion the ticket price would represent in their overall c ost of the trip. The Italian government would recognize the need of profits for a private firm's sustainability and allow the private enterprise the opportunity to charge an admission charge. A 20 Euro ticket for admission for tourists and a 10 Euro admis sion charge for Italians would see the system deemed acceptable by the Italian Government The first company that would take over the Roman Forum would receive a subsidy to help to create the ticket sales infrastructure.

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! ! "#$%&'()! +E ! The Cultural Heritage Company woul d need to build ticket sales booths and cordon off open access points The next stipulation that must be met is t he means by which any collections and records from the resource are to be preserved Und er current Italian law, "The right to carry out excav ations or archaeological research is a State prerogative" (Cleere pg 76). In the first requirement of the Italian Government, the proposed projects and improvements at the Roman Forum, the need for further exploration and excavation was discussed very mini mally. There is a large area of the Roman Forum that could be excavated further. Why would the private firms wish to excavate the Roman Forum further? The Imperial Forums is one of the largest areas in the world where digging, research and studies are sti ll under way. It is here that the Roman civilization began and evolved throughout the centuries. As Italian nationals and as citizens and administrators of Rome, we have the mission of preserving and disseminating knowledge of these records of the past. Bu t this is not the heritage of a single city or nation; it is the heritage of mankind ( Fori Imperiali ) In recent years, there has been little or no funding provided for further archaeological digs at the Roman Forum. There exists the possibility of uncover ing priceless artifacts and treasures of the Ancient World. The digs could alter the world's entire understanding of Roman History and events. The Italian Government will allow further excavation by the private firm the Cultural Heritage Company.

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,G ! The form ation of archeological deposits is subject to the same laws of geology, but is complicated by the intervention of man. Therefore, the archeologist not only documents the factors of erosion, but also the accumulation and removal based on the activity of man ( The Recovery ) This allows the Cultural Heritage Company the opportunity to uncover and discover new areas within the Forum These new findings may be quite large and could significantly increase demand for visiting the Roman Forum. However, all artifact s that are uncovered must be turned over to the Italian Government. Currently, Italian law dictates that so far as: "The ownership of archaeological objects is concerned, the law is ostensibly very strong: everything coming from the subsoil is, in principl e, State property ( Cleere pg 76). The private entity can chose to offer excavation as an added benefit to sweeten their proposal to the Italian Government or use it to further their "current assets." However, if certain substantial projects were to be un dertaken: These parties can obtain a reward, not exceeding one quarter of the value of the find, whether it is an object or a structure that is concerned, and this reward may, at the discretion of the protection body, be in the form of money or of archaeol ogical objects. (Cleere p 76) Without a market for objects of cultural heritage it would be impossible to be able to determine the value of the find. Furthermore, the Italian Government would not allow any of the artifacts to be kept by the private entity. Incentive for excavation will take the form of preferential treatment when applying for a new license at the end of their current deal. This will provide incentive for

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,F ! the private firm to carry out the excavation with proper respect for the cultural herit age. The private firm would receive a credit when submitting their next proposal to run the site. One the whole, the Italian government will not allow any of the private entities to retain any of the artifacts. However, it will allow for excavation provide d that "archeological research represents an intense activity of documenting every detail left behind by the action of man ( The Recovery ). "The means by which any collections and records from the resource are to be preserved" is the next topic that must b e discussed in the proposal to the Italian Government by the Cultural Heritage Company (McManamon and Hatton, p 9). Preservation of the current stock of cultural heritage is a must. Cultural heritage objects are one of a kind and if they were to be destroy ed the world would lose a valuable irreplaceable link to the past. As discussed in length the preservation of the Roman Forum is needed if we wish to be able to continue to visit the site in the future Preservation is the conservation of any newly excava ted artifacts or buildings. Conservation is the process of applying chemical or other treatments to prevent further damage or erosion. With the further excavations a plan is needed that will preserve the new findings and make them available to future gene rations. The p reservation of artifacts as they are removed from the ground is an intricate and delicate process. It is necessary that any firm looking to conduct further excavations at the Roman Forum or any other site employ trained professional archaeo logists that speciali ze in protecting and preserving. The specialist s will work to ensure the safety of the new a rchaeological finds and to advise to the private entity in all matters that will affect the cultural site. Therefore, in order for the Cultural Heritage Company to be considered the company that will obtain the license it must include in its proposal proof that it will employ a n archaeologist that is an expert in both ancient archaeolog y and preservation of

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,* ! arti facts on a full time basis. This i s another g overnment al requirement that will work to safeguard the cultural stock of Italy "Activities needed to protect the resource" are the next required aspect of any proposal that is to be submitted to the Italian Government (McManamon and Hatton, p 9). The Italian Government would require that the private firm would take action to protect the resource from the environment that is created by the human populace surrounding the site This would encompass actions such as the installation of video camer as, construction of barriers, and increased surveillance. Video cameras would survey the crowd and look for tourists or visitors that are walking in restricted areas that contain items that were deemed to be of cultural heritage significance. Actions, such as sending employees of the private enterprise to bring the wandering guests back to approved areas, would then be taken. Crowd control barriers would essential ly funnel tourists into areas that pose no risk to the cultural heritage. Increased surveillanc e in the form of security patrols and the before mentioned camera system would act as visible deterrents to vandalism and work to preve nt tourists harming the site through a show of "force" or appearing as a n overseer of the site. This will prevent tourist s from undertaking activities that would harm the site. The Italian Government would seek the Cultural Heritage Company's assurances that it will give its best effort to keep visitors to the Roman Forum f ro m damaging or vandalizing the site. "What, if any, new information is needed to better protect, preserve, and interpret the resource" is the next provision that is required to be explored by any private enterprise that wishes to submit a proposal to the Italian Government (McManamon and Hatton, p 9) It is important to note that new interpretations of cultural heritage sites are completed with relative

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,+ ! frequency as new technologies, findings, and ideas are discovered in science, archaeology, sociology, and anthropology. One of the basic aspects that are t o be included in the ideas is the concept that by conserving and preserving the cultural heritage landmark future generations can see, feel, and experience the site in the best preserved state that is achievable. This will lead to future generations obtai ning new understanding about the past by using their improved technologies and thoughts on the world and applying that knowledge to their interpretation of the Roman Forum. This comes about with relative frequency. For example, w ith new technologies that w ere developed in the late twentieth century, such as laser surveying tools, precise measurements have been taken. The exacting measurements allowed archaeologists to obtain new understandings of precisely how advanced the engineering of prior civilizations was and brought about a new appreciation for their skills and level of advancement. The c onservation efforts of the Cultural Heritage Company would, in effect, allow the archaeologists and future scientists the opportunity to use their new technologies o n the site a gain with the intention that and preservation of the site must occur so that those in the future and today will be able to gain as much understand ing as is possible about the Roman Forum. The Cultural Heritage Company would be allowed to hire outside expertise but it would be responsible for the quality of their work. They are responsible because the professionals will be seen as subcontract labor for the Company, and thus leave the Cultural Heritage Company liable. This is a required aspect o f any proposal submitted to the Italian Government by any private firm that wishes to gain exclusive licensing rights to the Roman Forum. Therefore, the Cultural Heritage Company must include this in their proposal for possible acceptance by the Italian Go vernment.

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,, ! The administrative structure is critical to any well controlled and maintained cultural heritage site. A change to the system of administration that is currently in use by the Italian Government is considered necessary and is an obvious requireme nt of any proposal that is submitted to the Italian Government. The administration of a private entity, such as the Cultural Heritage Company, should be large and specialized in the running of sites that are deemed to be of cultural significance It is the hope of the Italian Government under the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites system that a private firm will grow substantially and be in charge of multiple sites in Italy and perhaps even around the w orld i f similar systems are ava ilable. The larger magnitude of the private entities would allow those private firms to enjoy economies of scale in dealing with many of their administrative costs Accordingly, they can also work to streamline other various systems to perform more effici ently and effectively in the running of the site. In an ideal situation, the private firm would run their licensed cultural heritage sites with greater efficiency at a lower cost than the Italian Government. The lower cost and greater efficiency would come from the fact that the private entities will be specialized in the running of these important and valuable sites. Due to their specialization, the private firm would recognize how to run the site with more efficiency using less materials and inputs than t he Italian Government, which is by no means a specialist in the area Therefore, the private firm will administer the site in an improved manner than the government Futhermore because they are able to charge for admission into the site, the firm could lo ok to make a significant profit from the running of the site.

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,! Terms of the Proposal The terms of the licensing agreement are extremely important under the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites. Licenses for the exclusive rights of runn ing a cultural heritage site in Italy are generally given to private enterprises for a period of fifteen years. A fifteen year license allows the private company to be able to invest in long term projects. Fifteen years is enough time for the private firm realize returns on long terms investment and to therefore make those projects plausible to undertake. However, a period of fifteen years is brief enough to keep competition for the exclusive license fiercely competitive and force the firm currently holding the license not to become complacent from fear of both government intervention and future competition. Complacency and sitting on one's laurels is something that the Italian Government should safeguard against in the License Based Protection Plan for Cul tural Heritage Sites program. The proposals that are submitted to the Italian Government will be required to contain a specific time line that tells when projects, initiatives, and other plans will take place. T he private entity must undertak e these projec ts in exchange for the government granting the exclusive license to that firm. If the license holding firm was to fall behind or not commence with projects that were guaranteed to the Italian Government then disciplinary actions in the form of fines or ev en the revocation of the exclusive license may well occur. The private license holder would initially be informed by the Government of the assurances that it made in its proposal with the Government and notified that they must move to rectify these shortco mings within three months. If the private firm does not resolve their breach of contract within three months, then they will be fined up to half of each project that they are expected to be conducting. Finally, after a year of

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,. ! not meeting all of the requir ements for a given project then the government retains the right to revoke the exclusive right s from the private company holding it. With this system in place, the Italian Government has the power to enforce the proposals on the firm that holds the exclusi ve license Of course, if the license of exclusive rights to a cultural site is revoked, government policy is that a new license must be granted within one year's time. Benefits of the Plan In summation, any proposal that is submitted to the Italian Govern ment with regards to obtaining an exclusive license to a cultural heritage object, monument, or area under the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites program must contain the seven requirements discussed above. That is any proposal subm itted must discuss the requirements listed by McManamon and Hatton earlier in the thesis and the two additional requirements needed for the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites program which are: 1. the planned administration of the site 2. The terms from which the license will be granted must be agreed to by the private fir m. If the private firms all meet the criterion and they put forth good, realistic proposals to the Italian Government then it will accept the best proposal put forth by th e private firms. The best proposal would be the one that provides the most protection and new digs or ideas for the site. In comparison to the traditional state run cultural heritage programs, the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites program should allow specialized private firms or

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,C ! compan ies the possibility to earn the privilege to manage a cultural heritage site. The site would be run, in theory, more efficiently and more effectively because the many inefficiencies of the government wi ll be taken out of the equation. By providing a fifteen year license it will serve as both an incentive to invest long term in the Roman Forum, and it will work to ensure that the private firm runs the site to the greatest of its abilities. The Licens e Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites program provides any inefficient government of the world, specifically the mismanaged Italian Government the opportunity to formulate its system of management of their cultural stock into a more efficien t and effective program The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites plan is not a n agenda that would work in all countries The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites would require a certain mind frame and desire to s ustain and maintain the cultural stock of the nation It is clear that the current state run government program for sustaining the cultural stock in Italy is not sustainable and is not the optimal system to run. A transformation of the system must occur or the world shall encounter the erosion and eventual collapse of a significant number of its most prized and spectacular objects that stand as a wordless, powerful connection with those that lived in the past. Conclusion History is something that can, has, and always will be utilized by those in power to shape people's views and perceptions of themselves. "History", as was once said by the Prime Minister of Britain Winston Churchill, "is written by the victors" ( Winston Churchill quoted from

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,D ! Winston Chu rchill Quotes ). When studying the past, one simply cannot and will not ever distinguish what occurred beyond a doubt at great battles or any specific time in the past. For instance, recently in the news North Korea launched its "satellite" from a missile in its country. North Korea painted the launch as an immense success to its citizens having successfully p ositioned a satellite into orbit. The rest of the world alleged that the North Korean launch was a failure and the missile fell apart over the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean. A majority of the world accepts this as true North Koreans, however, believe their news outlets as well and their version of the launch is one of great success. Therefore, in studying the past it is impossible to identify what has truly transpire d The dominate power shapes events of the present and past into the message they desire to project to their people to retain control and continue to push their agenda. Cultural heritage objects, monuments, or artifacts allow people liv ing in the present a tangible, relic of the past By walking through the truly great landmarks on the Earth, such as the Roman Forum, people can experience the past on a first hand basis. By having their own experience of the past, people can envision what a n artifact represents They then can interpret that piece of cultural heritage and, in a sense, that per son will be directly connected with those who went before them. It is essential for the global community that the legacy of the past be preserved and maintained in the best condition as possible so that future generations can also enjoy the site. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites allows the Roman Forum and other sites of cultural heritage to remain in the hands of the people through its government The main goal of the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites was to keep the cultural sites from being purchased by private profit seeking entities that would look to exploit the sites for all that they possibly c ould with potentially no thought of the future Their goals are

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! ! "#$%&'()! ,E ! often for current profits. The fifteen year license should, through the threat of the government revoking the license, force the private firm to have a long term perspective of the site and t hus look to sustain it. Also, over a fifteen year period the future value of the site is build into the present value of the license. If the site were to degrade then the value of possessing the license that provides exclusive rights would decrease and thu s the value of the private firm would decrease. A one year license would have all value built into the license. This would leave the private firm with little or no incentive to worry about the conservation and future of the site. The fifteen year program, coupled with the credit to the private firm that currently owns the license for the next license bidding, provides enough incentive to keep the site preserved and to think of long term consequences of their programs and actions. Furthermore, the License Ba sed Protection Plan allows the Italian Government to no longer lose money because it no longer has to run and maintain the sites Also, the cultural stock will benefit from the influx of money from the private firms and thus will not depreciate as quickly and as a result, they will continue to remain a tourist draw long into the future. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites is a program that should make sense to any government looking to curtail its costs and succeed in mak ing its cultural stock safer in the long run, especially in a country that is currently running its cultural heritage program at a tremendous, costly loss to the government The current political environment in Italy is the atmosphere in which a plan much like the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites could and should be enacted by the ailing government. Currently, in Italy the Ministry of Culture and Environmental Property administers their own program aimed at maintaining and running the cultu ral stock in Italy at a huge cost with very low efficiency or effectiveness. Furthermore, the Italian Government faces a large recession and because of the

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! ! "#$%&'()! -G ! recession less tax revenue will continue to empty the coffers even further. Less money for the Ital ian Government as a whole makes spending large quantities of money on places such as the Roman Forum seem less logical and thus funding is slashed for the Ministry of Culture and Environmental Property. The budget cuts, of course, make the Ministry of Cult ure and Environmental Property programs even less effective. When a political environment such as this occurs, people and politicians around the country and world recognize that transformation is needed. The appeal for change has already occurred in Italy. The Prime Minister has deliberated about looking to priv a tize the cultural heritage of Italy, which of course is the wrong thing to do. In light of recent events, if a plan such as the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites were to be p resented to politicians in the Italian Government than a system much like this one could logically be put into place. When global recessions and the call for a more prudent government budget arise the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Si tes should seemingly be a viable option to choose The plan would be a good choice to any government looking for a fresh innovative method that can be used to reduc e inefficient spending in their budgets. When detailing systems such as the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites many caveats and possible issues with the program arise. The main shortcoming of the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites is that the interest of attaining the license is not guaranteed. Owni ng a license is seemly a good investment for a private firm, however it is not guaranteed that interest will occur. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites relies upon many private firms looking to obtain the license to create a compe titive environment that will lower cost and increase benefits for the site. Furthermore, licenses must be given to the firms that present the best proposal. This relies upon a fair and

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! ! "#$%&'()! -F ! uncorrupted government. The possibility of corruption exists and bribes or repaying person alliances in return for political gain could lead to firms with weak proposals receiving a license. Bribes and corruption would make the system less efficient. Another caveat of the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Si tes is that government intervention to retake the license is not too well defined and is again reliant of the decisions of individuals in the government. Relying on the good judgment of people is not always a guaranteed to work and can lead to corruption a nd private corporations being able to exploit the system and the site. The ineffectiveness of government oversight would lead to the system being less efficient. However, the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites would be able to be mo dified to iron out inefficiencies created by the relationship between the private firm and the Italian Government, or any other government. While shortcomings and caveats exists the License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites is a system tha t still needs to be considered for any country that wishes to change its cultural heritage program to a system that should work better than its current system. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites has many pros and some cons that are easily identifiable. It seemingly should be a very efficient system of management. If more research were to be conducted on the interaction between a license ho lder and government involvement, the system would be able to become even more efficient and an even better option to consider as it would be able to better define how the government and the license holder should interact. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites is a money saving program that provides a logical way of manag ing the cultural stock of a country, most specifically in Italy

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! ! "#$%&'()! -* ! due to the large economies of scale because it houses the world's biggest cache of cultural heritage objects. With specific regards to the Roman Forum, the License Based Protection Plan for C ultural Heritage Sites would offer the site many needed improvements projects, and excavations that would further develop our understanding of the Roman Forum and the people that lived and governed there. The licensing agreements allows the Italian Govern ment to retain the ownership of the Roman Forum and its other sites of cultural heritage and by doing so ensure s that the public retains its inherent right of being able to visit these magnificent sites of splendor and wonder. The license would also allow a more efficient specialized private firm the opportunity to take control of sites for a limited time frame that would allow for the valid ity of long term projects but keep competition between firms fierce, and in doing so further lower t he cost of running and maintaining the Roman Forum. The License Based Protection Plan for Cultural Heritage Sites is a sustainable program that could be enacted on a specific basis for the Roman Forum, on a nation level for the Italian Government, and serve as a valid basel ine for the cultural heritage program of a significant number of nations around the world. The time to change the programs that maintain our cultural stock is upon us before further degradation of the sites occur. It is our duty as citizens of the world to ensure the survival of cultural objects from the past so that future generations can experience the wonder of those that came before them

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! ! "#$%&'()! -+ ! Bibliography Ansamed: Italy. 24 10 2005. 4 3 2009 . Cleere, Henry. Approaches to the Archaeological Heritage : A Comparative Study of World Cultural Resource Management Systems Cambridge Cambridgeshire ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Coccossis, Harry, and Peter Nijkamp. Planning for our Cultural Heritage Aldershot England ; Brookfield, VT: Avebury, 1995. CSCE Cultural Forum, et al. European Culture and World Development : UNESCO Joint Studies for the European Cultural Forum 1st ed. Oxford Oxfordshire ; New Yor k: Pergamon Press, 1985. Darvill, Timothy, Barbara J. Little, and Clay Mathers. Heritage of Value, Archaeology of Renown : Reshaping Archaeological Assessment and Significance Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005. Fori Imperiali. 5 3 2009 . Getty Conservation Institute, et al. Management Planning for Archaeological Sites : An International Workshop Organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and Loyola

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! ! "#$%&'()! -, ! Marymount University, 19 22 may 2000, Corinth, Greec e Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 2002. Greek National Group of IAEG, et al. The Engineering Geology of Ancient Works, Monuments and Historical Sites : Preservation and Conservation / Sponsored by the IAEG and with the Support of the Greek Min istry of Culture ; Editors, Paul G. Marinos, George C. Koukis = La GŽologie De l'IngŽnieur AppliquŽe Aux Travaux Anciens, Monuments Et Sites Historiques : PrŽservation Et Protection / ParrainŽ Par l'AIGI Et Avec Le Support Du Ministre Grec De La Culture ; Redacteurs, Paul G. Marinos, George C. Koukis. : Sponsored by the IAEG and with the Support of the Greek Ministry of Culture ; Editors, Paul G. Marinos, George C. Koukis Rotterdam ; Brookfield: A.A. Balkema, 1988 1990. International Symposium on Geotech nical Engineering for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites, and Carlo Viggiani. Geotechnical Engineering for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites : Proceedings of the International Symposium on Geotechnical Engineering for the Prese rvation of Monuments and Historic Sites, Napoli, Italy, 3 4 October 1996 Rotterdam ; Brookfield VT: A.A. Balkema, 1997. Lundberg, Donald E., M. Krishnamoorthy, and Mink H. Stavenga. Tourism Economics New York: Wiley, 1995. Mak, James. Tourism and the E conomy : Understanding the Economics of Tourism Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2004.

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! ! "#$%&'()! -! McManamon, Francis P., Alf Hatton, and Francis P. McManamon. Cultural Resource Management in Contemporary Society : Perspectives on Managing and Presenting the P ast London ; New York: Routledge, 2000. Miles, Roger S., and Lauro Zavala. Towards the Museum of the Future : New European Perspectives London ; New York: Routledge, 1993. Nadeau, Barbie. Monuments and Money. 5 12 2005. 28 3 2009 . NetLibrary, Inc. European Heritage, Planning and Management [Electronic Resource] Exeter: Intellect Books, 1999. "One million visitors or more World Heritage Site." World Heritage Site UNESCO World Heritage List cultural / natur al sites, trip reports, photos 12 Apr. 2009 . Peckham, Robert Shannan. Rethinking Heritage : Cultures and Politics in Europe London ; New York; New York, NY: I.B. Tauris; In the United States and Canada distributed by Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Pickard, Rob. Management of Historic Centres New York: Spon Press, 2000. Rome Ends Free Visits to Roman Forum. 4 3 2008. 29 3 2009 .

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! ! "#$%&'()! -. ! Schiffer, M. B. and G. J. Gumerman. Conservation Archaeology. A guide for cultural resource management studies. London and New York: Academic Press, 1977. Sinclair, M. Thea, Inc NetLibrary, and Mike Stabler. The Economics of Tourism [Electronic Resource] Taylor & Francis e Library ed. London ; New York: Routledge, 2002. The Criteria for Selection. 12 3 2009. 2009 12 3 . The Forum of the Republic. 9 4 2009 . "The Roman Forum." Wikipedia 11 Apr. 2009 . The Recovery. 5 3 2009 . UNESCO. About World Heritage. 12 4 2009. 2009 12 4 . US/ICOMOS International Symposium, F. G. Matero, and Jeanne Marie Teutonico. Managing Change : Sustainable Approaches to the Conservation of the Built Environment : 4th Annual US/IC OMOS International Symposium Organized by US/ICOMOS, the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation of the University of Pennsylvania, and the Getty Conservation Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April, 2001 Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 2003.

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! ! "#$%&'()! -C ! Winston Churchill Quotes. 4 4 2009 . World Archaeological Congress, Neville Agnew, and Janet Bridgland. Of the Past, for the Future : Integrating Archaeology and Conserva tion : Proceedings of the Conservation Theme at the 5th World Archaeological Congress, Washington, D.C., 22 26 June 2003 Los Angeles, Calif.: Getty Conservation Institute, 2006. "World Heritage Centre World Heritage." UNESCO World Heritage Centre Off icial Site 6 Apr. 2009. 11 Apr. 2009 . World Heritage Site. One Million Visitors or More. 29 3 2009 .