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Conquistadores in the land of flowers

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Title:
Conquistadores in the land of flowers a chronology of Spanish Florida 1513 to 1821
Physical Description:
1 online resource (25 leaves) : ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Camp, Paul Eugen
Publisher:
Special Collections Dept., University of South Florida Library
Place of Publication:
Tampa
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Chronology -- Florida -- To 1821   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
review   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
compiled by Paul Eugen Camp.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 48251937
usfldc doi - U24-00002
usfldc handle - u24.2
Classification:
System ID:
SFS0000104:00001


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Conquistadores in the Land of Flowers: Conquistadores in the Land of Flowers: Conquistadores in the Land of Flowers: Conquistadores in the Land of Flowers: A Chronology of Spanish Florida A Chronology of Spanish Florida A Chronology of Spanish Florida A Chronology of Spanish Florida 1513 to 1821 1513 to 1821 1513 to 1821 1513 to 1821Compiled by Paul Eugen Camp Compiled by Paul Eugen Camp Compiled by Paul Eugen Camp Compiled by Paul Eugen Camp Special Collections Department Special Collections Department Special Collections Department Special Collections Department University of South Florida Library University of South Florida Library University of South Florida Library University of South Florida Library Tampa Tampa Tampa Tampa 2001 2001 2001 2001

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The First Spanish Period, 1513-1763To a late sixteenth century Spaniard, “Florida” was a vast land stretching as far north as Chesapeake Bay and west to a point beyond the Mississippi. In the first half of the 1500's, Spain launched a series of expeditions to explore and colonize Florida. Although these expeditions brought back geographic knowledge, they were costly in blood and treasure, and failed to achieve a permanent Spanish settlement. The establishment of St. Augustine in 1565 marked the true beginning of Spain’s Florida colony. The remainder of the century saw the establishment of further settlements and the beginning of the mission system. During the seventeenth century, Spanish Florida prospered moderately, with an extensive system of Franciscan missions stretching from northern Georgia to the Florida panhandle, and large cattle ranchos operating in the Tallahassee and Alachua areas. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, war with England destroyed the missions and ranchos, and with them any hope of Florida becoming more than an isolated military frontier. By the time Spain turned Florida over to the British in 1763, Spanish control was limited to little more than St. Augustine, Pensacola and a few other outposts. 1510Unrecorded Spanish expeditions searching for indian slaves probably reached the Florida coast as early as 1510, possibly even earlier. In 1565, the Spanish Council of the Indies claimed that Spanish ships had “gone to occupy” Florida ever since 1510. 1511Florida first appeared on a map by Andres de Morales, who labeled it “Isla de Beimeni.” The Morales map was published in 1511 as an addendum to Peter Martyr’s Opera. 1512On September 26, 1512, Juan Ponce de Leon, who had come to the New World on Columbus’s second voyage in 1493 and later conquered Puerto Rico in 1509, received a commission to colonize the “Island of Bimini.” 1513On March 3, 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon sailed with three ships in search of the fabled Island of Bimini. On April 2, he became the official discoverer of Florida when he landed somewhere on the northeastern coast, possibly in the vicinity of St. Augustine. Because the new land had first been sighted on Easter Day, which the Spaniards called Pascua de Flores, Ponce de Leon named it “La Florida.” He thought that his new discovery was a large island, not realizing it was part of a vast continent stretching far to the north and west. 1513While sailing southward along the Florida coast on April 21, Ponce de Leon recorded encountering a strong current flowing north, the first documented mention of the Gulf Stream. That same day, a landing resulted in a skirmish with the local Indians, the first recorded battle between Europeans and North America’s native inhabitants.

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1513On May 15, Ponce de Leon reached the Florida Keys, which he named Los Martires [the Martyrs] because from a distance the rocks looked like suffering men. 1513After exploring the southwestern coast of Florida as far north as Charlotte Harbor and fighting a battle with the fierce Calusa Indians who lived there,Ponce returned to Puerto Rico, which he reached on October 19. 1514King Ferdinand of Spain named Ponce de Leon governor of Bimini and Florida, authorizing him to establish settlements in “the Island of Bimini and the Island of Florida.” 1514-1516Pedro de Salazar, a slave raider employed by Marcello de Villalobos, found land to the northwest of the Bahama Islands, capturing Indian slaves of “giant stature.” 1516-1517Diego de Vasquez, governor of Cuba, sent a slave hunting expedition to Florida in late 1516 or early 1517, which returned with at least 300 Indian captives, probably natives of the Florida keys. 1517Francisco Henandez de Cordoba visited southwest Florida with three ships in search of Indian slaves to augment the declining numbers of Cuban natives. After a fierce skirmish with the Indians, the Spaniards withdrew to Cuba, where de Cordoba died as a result of wounds suffered in the fight. 1519Alonso Alvarez de Pineda was sent by Francisco de Garay, governor of Jamaica, to explore the Gulf coast of Florida. Sailing as far west as Mexico, his voyage established that Florida was part of the mainland and not an island. He explored the mouth and lower reaches of the Mississippi River, which he named the Rio del Espiritu Santo. Also in 1519, Pedro Menendez, the future founder of St. Augustine, was born in Aviles, Spain. 1520The “River of Santa Elena,” [Port Royal South Carolina], later the site of Spain’s Santa Elena settlement, was discovered by two caravels in search of Indian slaves. 1521In February, 1521, Ponce de Leon returned to Florida with two ships intending to establish a settlement, probably in the Charlotte Harbor area. In early July, he was badly wounded in a battle with the fierce Calusa warriors. He was taken to Havana, where he died of infection. With his death, the abortive Florida settlement was abandoned. 1521-24Sometime between 1521 and 1524, Diego Miruelo claimed to have been blown to Florida by a storm, where he traded peacefully with the Florida natives for gold and silver.

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1526Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon attempted to establish a settlement on the Carolina coast [the Peedee, Santee, and James Rivers have all been suggested as the site] on September 29, 1526.. Ayllon named his colony San Miguel de Gualdape. After suffering sickness, starvation and the death of their leader, 150 survivors, a third of the original colonists, abandoned the settlement. 1527Panfilo de Narvaez, a veteran conquistador who had come to the New World as early as 1498, was authorized by the King of Spain to conquer and occupy Florida. 1528Panfilo de Narvaez sailed for Florida with an expedition of 400 people. Landing near Tampa Bay, on April 15, Narvaez was lured north by rumors of gold in the rich land of Ocali. On May 1, he ; marched into the uncharted wilderness with with 300 men. He ordered his fleet to rendevous with him further up the coast, but the ships never found him and eventually returned home. 1528After great hardships, Narvaez and his men reached the Gulf coast near St. Marks in August, 1528. There they used the metal from their armour and weapons to make tools and nails for building five boats, then put to sea in an attempt to reach Mexico. All but four men were lost in the Gulf. Survivors Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a Moor named Estevanico and two other men wandered among the Indian tribes of the south and west for the next eight years. 1528Juan Ortiz, a crew member of a ship searching for Narvaez, was captured at Tampa Bay by Hirrihigua, chief of the town of Ucita. In vengeance for mistreatment by Narvaez, Hirrihigua intended to roast Ortiz alive on a wooden rack. At the last minute, the chief’s wife and daughter persuaded the angry chief to spare the young man’s life. Ortiz lived among the Indians for eleven years, until he was rescued by the de Soto expedition. A published account of his adventure may have inspired Captain John Smith’s much later Pocahontas story. 1536Cabeza de Vaca and his three fellow survivors reached a Spanish outpost in Mexico, and Spain finally learned the fate of the missing Narvaez expedition that had vanished into the Florida wilderness eight years before. 1537Cabeza de Vaca returned to Spain and applied to take over Narvaez’s royal contract to conquer and settle Florida. However, on April 20, 1537, the contract was awarded instead to the wealthy Hernando de Soto, a veteran conquistador who had served with Francisco Pizzaro in the conquest of the Inca Empire. 1539Hernando de Soto landed at Tampa Bay on May 25, 1539 with an expedition of over 600 men. Because his landing took place on the Feast of the Holy Spirit, he named the bay Espiritu Santo. Like Narveaz before him de Soto and his men were lured northward by Indian tales of rich lands and treasure. De Soto left

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Tampa Bay on July 15, beginning a six-year journey that would take his men through the southeast as far north as Tennesse, and across the Mississippi into Texas. 1539De Soto and his men spent the winter of 1539 encamped on a small hill about a half mile from the present Florida Capitol building in Tallahassee. On this site, they celebrated the first Christmas in Florida’s history. In March, 1987, state archaeologist Calvin Jones discovered the remains of de Soto’s winter camp. 1540De Soto fought a fierce battle with the Indians near the Alabama River on October 15, 1540. 1542De Soto died on May 21, 1542. His body was placed in a hollowed out log and buried in the Mississippi River. Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado took command of the expedition. 1543The survivors of de Soto’s expedition, about half the original company, reached safety in Mexico on September 10, 1543. Although the de Soto expedition gave Spain much valuable information about the interior of the vast North American continent she claimed, it had also established that la Florida held nothing that Spain could not obtain easier and more profitably in other areas of her vast new world empire. 1549In June, 1549, Dominican priest Father Luis Cancer de Barbastro, led a group of missionaries to Florida. Father Cancer intended to go ashore at a spot where the natives had not been abused by conquistadores, but was landed at Tampa Bay instead. Going ashore, he and his companions were clubbed to death by the local tribesmen, who had scores to settle with Spain. 1551Hernando d’Escalante Fontaneda, a thirteen year old traveling from Carthagena on his way to school in Spain, was shipwrecked in the Florida Keys. He spent the next seventeen years living among the Calusa and other south Florida Indians before being rescued. Around 1574, he wrote his Memoir which is an important source of information about Florida’s aboriginal people. It is the first source to mention the name “Tampa,” which Fontaneda spells “Tanpa.” 1558Tristran de Luna y Arellano, a veteran of Coronado’s 1540-1542 expedition to the American southwest, was named governor of Florida, with the duty to colonize the territory for Spain. 1558Guido de Labazaris explored the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. 1559On August 15, 1559, Tristan de Luna established a colony at Pensacola, the first European settlement established within the boundaries of modern Florida.

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1559Angel de Villafane explored the Santa Elena area in what is now Georgia. 1561After two years of increasing hardship, de Luna’s Florida settlement was abandoned in late 1561. Having established that neither wealth nor Christian converts would be easy to come by in la Florida, Spain decided to focus her efforts on developing more promising areas of her vast empire. 1562A French Huguenot [Protestant] expedition of three ships under the command of Jean Ribault explored the coast of Florida. On April 30, 1562, the French expedition entered the St. Johns River. Exploring the river on May 1, Ribault named it the “River of May” in honor of the day. Before leaving, he had a column erected claiming the area for France. Sailing north to what is now South Carolina, Ribault established a French colony he named Charlesfort on Port Royal Island. He also erected another column to mark the northern limit of France’s claim.The colony was abandoned due to lack of food shortly after Ribault’s ships left for France to seek more colonists. The colonists built a boat to try to sail to Europe. After great suffering, the few survivors were rescued by an English ship. 1563Learning of Ribault’s 1562 Florida expedition in January of 1563, King Phillip II of Spain ordered that the French be sought out and expelled from his Florida domain. 1564 A search by Hernan Manrique de Rojas in May and June of 1564 located one of the French columns and a survivor of the Charlesfort settlement. By the time his report reached Spain, however, word of a new French attempt to intrude on Philip’s Florida province had been received. 1564Rene de Goulaine de Laudonniere, Ribault’s second in command during the 1562 French expedition, led a fleet of three ships in a second attempt to establish a French Huguenot colony in Florida. 1564On June 29, 1564, Laudonniere established a fortified settlement on the St. Johns River, which he named Fort Caroline in honor of French King Charles IX. Among the Frenchmen at the fort was artist Jacques le Moyne de Morgues, whose water color paintings recorded the appearance and life style of the Florida Indians as well as the activities of the French expedition. Although only one of Le Moyne’s original water colors is known to survive today, engravings of his pictures of early Florida and its natives may still be seen in Le Moyne’s book Brevis Narratio eorvm qva in Florida, published in 1591 by Flemish engraver Theodore de Bry. 1565While Spain no longer saw Florida as a particularly attractive part of her New World empire, she reacted quickly to news that Frenchmen, especially heretical Protestant Frenchmen, had established an outpost threatening her vital sea lane

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through the Straits of Florida. On March 20, 1565, one of Spain’s greatest naval officers, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, was named Adelantado [Governor] of Florida and tasked with eliminating the French settlement and establishing a permanent Spanish occupation of the land. 1565Menendez reached the St. Johns River vicinity on September 4, 1565 with five ships and about 600 men. As it chanced, Jean Ribault had arrived the preceding day with a French fleet of reinforcements. 1565On September 8, 1565, Menendez established a base ashore, which he named St. Augustine, the first permanent European settlement in North America. Ribault sailed from Fort Caroline to attack St. Augustine, but his fleet was blown south and wrecked on the Florida coast by an unexpected hurricane. 1565On September 18, Menendez seized the opportunity to strike Fort Caroline while the French fleet was away. He marched through the storm to take the French garrison by surprise on the morning of September 20. Although a few Frenchmen escaped, including Laudonniere and the artist Le Moyne, most of the garrision was put to the sword. Menendez renamed the captured fort San Mateo for the saint on whose day it was taken. 1565After capturing the French fort, Menendez marched south along the coast from St. Augustine. On September 29, he met the survivors of three of the French ships at an inlet fifteen miles south of St. Augustine. After taking them prisoner, he executed them as heretics and enemies of Spain. Two weeks later, Ribault and his surviving men reached the same spot, and were likewise massacred, except for a few who claimed to be Catholics. Menendez posted a notice saying, “I do this not as unto French men, but as unto Lutherans.” The inlet ever after was known as “Matanzas,” the Spanish word for “slaughters.” 1566On St. Lucie’s Day, December 13, 1566, Diego de Amaya, one of Menendez’ officers, established Fort Santa Lucia at Jupiter Inlet. 1566During 1566, Menendez cruised the coasts of Florida. Visiting Charlotte Harbor, he established relations with Carlos, chief of the Calusa. He then visited Guale on the Georgia coast, where he ordered a fort to be constructed. From Guale, he continued north and established Fort San Felipe at Santa Elena, on what is now Parris Island, South Carolina. Menendez intended that Santa Elena rather than St. Augustine would become the capital city of Florida. 1566Captain Juan Pardo left Santa Elena on November 1, 1566 to explore the interior, traveling as far as the foothills of the Appalachians and returning to Santa Elena on March 7, 1567.

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1566Jesuit missionary Father Pedro Martinez was killed by the Indians on September 29, 1566 near Fort San Mateo. Martinez and two other Jesuits, Father Juan Rogel and Friar Francisco Villareal had been sent from Spain as the vanguard of a Jesuit mission to the Florida Indians. 1567Menendez again visited the Calusa at Charlotte Harbor in March, 1567, then sailed north to Tocobaga [now Safety Harbor on Old Tampa Bay], where he left a garrison of thirty men under Captain Garcia Martinez de Cos. Returning to Charlotte Harbor, Menendez established Fort San Anton de Padua. Later in 1567, he also established a fort and mission among the Tequesta Indians at what is now Miami. 1567In may, 1567, the Spanish evacuated Fort Santa Lucia at Jupiter Inlet. The fort had become untenable due to continued Indian attacks, which the garrison had provoked by killing a prominent local chief. 1567In the fall of 1567, Captain Juan Pardo left Santa Elena and conducted a second expedition to explore the lands of the interior, reaching as far west as what is now northern Alabama. 1568In an elaborate ceremony on January 1, 1568 in the cathedral of Seville, Spain five Florida Indians were baptised into the Roman Catholic faith. 1568In January, 1568, Pedro Menendez de Avile’s nephew, Pedro Mendendez Marquez arrived at Tocobaga on Old Tampa Bay with three ships.to check on the garrison his uncle had established there the previous March.. He found the village abandoned except for the bodies of two Spanish soldiers. Learning that the entire garrison had been killed by the Indians, he burned Tocobaga and sailed for Charlotte Harbor. 1568Just after Good Friday in 1568, French corsair Dominique de Gourgues avenged the massacre of Ribault and his Huguenots by attacking and burning Fort San Mateo. He posted a notice over the slain Spanish soldiers saying, “I do this not as unto Spaniards, nor as unto mariners, but as unto Traitors, Robbers, and Murderers.” 1569With the Calusa increasingly hostile, Fort San Antonio de Padua at Charlotte Harbor was abandoned on June 15, 1569. 1570Jesuit priest Father Bautiste de Seguera and eleven other Jesuits established a mission at Bahia de Santa Maria [Chesapeake Bay] in 1570. 1571Father Seguera and his companions were killed by the Indians and their Chesapeake mission was destroyed.

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1572Due to intractability of the Florida Indians, the Jesuit authorities in Spain decided to terminate missionary activities in Florida. 1572Pedro Menendez de Aviles left Florida for the last time in April, 1572. For the remainder of his life, he was occupied with Spanish military and naval affairs for the Crown and was unable to return to Florida. 1573The Franciscan Order assumed responsibility for the conversion of the Florida Indians. 1573The King of Spain issued a royal license to Menendez authorizing him to send fifty families from Asturias to Florida. 1574On September 17, 1574, Pedro Menendez de Aviles died at Santander, Spain, while serving as Captain General of a large fleet being prepared to sail against the Flanders pirates. 1575Following Pedro Menendez de Aviles’ death, Hernando de Miranda succeeded him as governor of Florida and served until 1577. 1577Pedro Menendez Marques, nephew of Pedro Menendez de Aviles, served as interim governor of Florida in 1577 and 1578 and was subsequently confirmed as regular governor. He held the office until 1589. 1577Father Alonzo de Reynoso arrived in Florida late in 1577, one of the first arrivals in a wave of Franciscan missionaries tasked with building a mission system in Florida and converting the natives to the Catholic faith. 1578Alvaro Flores conducted a detailed inspection of the forts of Florida, enumerating the military equipment each contained. 1586English sea rover Sir Francis Drake sacked and burned St. Augustine. 1587Sir Walter Raleigh established the English colony of Virginia on Roanoke Island, an area claimed by Spain as part of Florida. The colony failed however, and the colonists vanished without a trace, their fate remaining a mystery to this day. 1589Guttiero de Mirando served as governor of Florida from 1589 to 1592. 1592Rodrigo de Junco served briefly as governor of Florida in 1592. 1594Domingo Martinez de Avandano became governor of Florida in 1594, serving until 1595.

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1594On June 25, 1594, Father Diego de Sambrana baptised an infant named Maria in the parish church of St. Augustine and recorded the event as the first entry in the St. Augustine Parish Register. This page is the oldest surviving official record written in what is now the United States. 1596Gonzalo Mendez de Canzo became governor of Florida in 1596. Governor Mendez Canzo was largely responsible for the ground plan of early St. Augustine. He laid out the plaza and built the first town market. During his administration, the Franciscan program of converting the Indians of Guale to Catholicism and settling them in mission villages provoked a revolt which Mendez Canzo’s troops put down. He completed his term as governor in 1603. 1599On March 14, 1599, St. Augustine’s Franciscan monastery burned down, along with anumber of houses. 1603Pedro de Ybarra served as governor of Florida from 1603 to 1609. 1604Governor Ybarra completed the restoration of Spanish control in Guale begun by his predecessor. 1605Franciscan friars conducted an elementary school for St. Augustine’s children as early as 1605. 1606Bishop Juan de los Cabejos Altimarano arrived in Florida for a six month visitation, during which he confirmed over 2,000 Indians and nearly 400 whites. 1607Jamestown, the first successful English settlement in North America, was established on May 14, 1607, on land that Spain considered part of northern Florida. This marked the beginning of a series of encroachments that would over the next two hundred years nibble away at Spain’s vast Florida province and by 1821 reduce it to the dimensions of the modern state of Florida. 1608The Franciscans began to spread their mission system into the interior of the Florida province of Timucua [the northern part of the peninsula]. 1609Juan Fernandez de Olivera served as governor of Florida from 1609 to 1612. 1613Juan de Tribino Guillamas became governor of Florida in 1613, holding the office until 1618. 1618Juan de Salinas served as governor of Florida from 1618 to 1623. 1622The twenty eight ships of the annual Spanish plate fleet for 1622 left Havana for Spain on September 4, 1622. The next day, the fleet was caught by a hurricane

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and eight to ten ships, including the galleon Neustra Senora de Atocha, were wrecked in the Florida Keys. The Atocha remained lost until July 16, 1985, when salvor Mel Fisher located her remains. 1624Luis de Rojas y Borja became governor of Florida in 1624 and held the post until 1629. 1630 Andres Rodriguez de Villegas served as governor of Florida for two years, from 1630 to 1631. 1633Luis Horruytiner was appointed governor of Florida, serving until 1638. 1633The Franciscans formally extended their mission system into Apalachee [western Florida] on October 16, 1633, when friars Pedro Munoz and Francisco Martinez were sent to begin work among the Apalachee Indians. 1634Three ships from the fleet of the Marquis de Caderyta bound for Spain were wrecked on the Florida keys. 1638A small group of Spanish soldiers was sent to Apalachee in 1638. About this time, a port was established at St. Marks in Wakulla County to bring in supplies to the Franciscan missions and ship native produce to St. Augustine and Havana. 1639Damian de Vega Castro y Pardo served as governor of Florida from 1639 to 1645. 1645Benito Ruiz de Salazar Ballecila became governor of Florida in 1645. He was deposed in 1646 but restored to office in 1647. His administration ended in 1650. 1645Governor Salazar appointed Claudio Luis de Florencia as the first deputy governor for the province of Apalachee. 1647The Indians of Apalachee rose in a revolt against growing Spanish control in February, 1647, killing Deputy Governor Florencia and his family. A force of thirty-one Spanish soldiers and 500 Timucuan warriors was sent to Apalachee. After a drawn battle, the Apalachees were disheartened by their losses, and the revolt collapsed. Twelve rebel leaders were executed and twenty-six others were sentenced to terms of forced labor in St. Augustine. 1655Diego de Rebolledo served as governor of Florida from 1655 to 1659. 1656The western Timucua revolted in 1656, but were put down with little or no fighting by a small force of Spanish soldiers assisted ironically by a large contingent of Apalachee warriors, whose own revolt nine years earlier had been suppressed with Timucuan aid.

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1656The mission of San Luis de Talimali near the site of Tallahassee became the headquarters of the deputy governor for Apalachee in 1656, and remained the province’s capital until Apalachee was abandoned by the Spanish in mid-1704. 1659Alfonso de Aranguiz y Cotes became governor of Florida in 1659 and held the post until 1663. 1659A measles epidemic killed 10,000 Florida Indians. 1663King Charles II of England granted the Lord Proprietors of Carolina a charter to establish a new American colony, the southeastern border of which ran to twentynine degrees north latitude, a point well south of Spanish St. Augustine. 1664Francisco de la Guerra y de la Vega served as governor of Florida from 1664 to 1670. 1668English buccaneer Robert Searles captured and sacked St. Augustine in May, 1668. 1670Manuel de Cendoya became governor of Florida, holding the post until 1673. Governor Cendoya opened the coquina [shell rock] quarries on Anastasia Island to provide stone for fortifying St. Augustine. 1670The English established Charleston, first settlement in the new Carolina colony. Carolina became the new frontier between the Spanish and English colonial empires. 1672On November 9, 1672, construction began on the Castillo de San Marcos, Spain’s great stone fortress at St. Augustine. Built of coquina, a rock formed from shell and sand quarried on Anastasia Island near St. Augustine, Castillo de San Marcos took thirty years to finish. The fortress was officially completed in 1698, though improvements continued to be made until the end of the First Spanish Period in 1763. 1674In August, 1674, Bishop Gabriel Diaz Vara Calderon visited Florida, the first bishop to do so in 68 years. Calderon visited each of the Spanish missions and settlements in Florida, counting 13,152 Christianized Indians. He left Florida in June, 1675. His report on the state of the Florida missions provides a unique portrait of seventeenth century Florida in its heyday. 1675Pablo de Hita Salazar was appointed governor of Florida in 1675 and held the post until 1680. His administration marked the “golden age” of Spanish Florida, when a chain of forty missions housing 26,000 Christianized Indians reached from Guale in the north to Apalache in the west, and extensive cattle ranchos

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were being developed in the Apalache and Timucua provinces. Even during this period of relative prosperity, however, the Florida Indian population was decreasing and discontent led many Indians to leave the mission settlements for areas outside Spanish control. 1677English pirates captured the Spanish ship “The Nativity of St. Francis of Padua” at the port of San Marcos de Apalache [St. Marks] in the provice of Apalache. 1679The Apalachicola Indians rejected a Spanish proposal to found a mission in their land. 1680Juan Marques Cabrera served as governor of Florida from 1680 to 1687. During his administration, Indians under the influence of the English began to raid the Spanish missions in Guale while the British colony of Carolina increased pressure on the northern border. 1680A wooden fortification was erected at San Marcos de Aplache on the site that later became St. Marks in Wakulla County. 1682In March, 1682, French pirates captured and destroyed the Spanish fort at San Marcos de Apalache [St. Marks]. 1683On March 30, 1683, the Spanish watchtower at Matanzas was surprised and taken by English pirates, who marched towards St. Augustine. An escaping Spanish soldier warned the St. Augustine garrison in time for them to ambush the pirates and drive them off with heavy losses. 1684Large numbers of Spanish mission Indians in northern Guale deserted to the English. 1685The Yamasee, incited by the English, raided the mission of Santa Catalina de Afuica in the Florida province of Timucua. 1685Fort San Fernando was built on the site of Fernandina on Santa Maria Island [later Amelia Island]. 1686The few Guale Indians who had not joined the English were removed southward, and the northern missions totally abandoned. The new frontier was located on the St. Marys River. 1687Diego de Quiroga y Lozada was appointed governor of Florida in 1687, and held the post until 1693. During his administration, Quiroga faced an increasing threat from the English South Carolina colony. He also had to deal with the French threat to Spanish control of western Florida posed by LaSalle’s activities

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in the Mississippi River area. 1693Laureano de Torres y Ayala became governor of Florida in 1693, holding the post until 1699. 1696Jonathan Dickinson was shipwrecked on the Florida coast near Jupiter Inlet on September 23, 1696. After considerable suffering from cold and lack of food, Dickinson and his companions eventually reached safety in St. Augustine. His book God’s Protecting Providence narrating his deliverance from “the cruel, devouring jaws of the inhumane canibals of Florida,” was published in Philadelphia in 1699. It provides an illuminating view of conditions in late seventeenth century Florida. 1697By 1697, no Spanish missions remained north of Santa Maria on what is now Amelia Island. 1698In November, 1698, Andres de Arriola built a fort at Pensacola, reasserting Spanish control over the area for the first time since the failure of the de Luna colony in 1561. 1699Joseph de Zuniga y Cerda became governor of Florida, holding the post until 1706. His administration saw the destruction of the Franciscan missions and the cattle ranchos, which marked the end of Florida’s hopes to become a self-sufficient Spanish colony rather than a poverty-stricken military outpost. 1702With the outbreak of Queen Anne’s War, James Moore, governor of South Carolina, led a force of Englishmen with many Indian allies to attack Spanish Florida. Moore destroyed many of the Franciscan missions of Florida and occupied the town of St. Augustine on October 22, but was unable to take the Castillo de San Marcos. After an unsuccessful siege lasting 50 days, the British burned the town and marched back to South Carolina. 1704In January, 1704, James Moore of South Carolina led a second invasion of Florida with a force including 1,500 Indians. This attack virtually obliterated the chain of Spanish missions in Florida’s provinces of Apalache. and Timucua. The destruction of the mission system also accelerated an inexorable slide towards extinction for Florida’s original Indian tribes, who by the end of the 1760's had ceased to exist as distinct peoples. Their remnants were absorbed by Creeks and other tribes moving into Florida, except for a handful evacuated with the Spanish colonists in 1763. 1706Francisco de Corcoles y Martinez became governor of Florida, holding the post until 1716.

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1709On June 23, 1709, Dionisio Resino arrived in St. Augustine as the first resident Bishop of Florida. Disheartened by the poverty of the province and its inability to support a bishop and his staff, Resino sailed back to Cuba only three weeks later. 1712In the spring of 1712, the English captured the ship carrying the Florida situado to St. Augustine from Mexico. The situado was the annual government subsidy intended to supply and pay the soldiers and officials of Florida. With little food or other goods being produced in Florida, when the situado was overdue or lost to shipwreck or enemies, the people of St. Augustine were sometimes reduced to eating dogs and cats. 1715On July 27, 1715, the Spanish plate fleet left Havana for Spain carrying 14,000,000 pesos in silver and large quantities of gold. On July 31, the fleet was hit by a hurricane that wrecked twelve ships on the coast of eastern Florida in the vicinity of what is now Fort Pierce. Only one ship of the fleet survived. Treasure and artifacts from a number of these ships were salvaged by the Real Eight Company in the 1960's. 1715The Spanish were able to retrieve a considerable amount of treasure from the wrecks of the 1715 plate fleet. In November, 1715, English pirate Henry Jennings captured the Spanish salvage camp and made off with 300,000 pieces of eight. 1716Jennings raided the Spanish salvage camp again in January, 1716, and looted over 25,000 additional pieces of eight. The Spanish finished their salvage effort in April, 1716, having recovered about eighty percent of the treasure on board the wrecks. 1716Pedro de Olivera y Fullana became governor of Florida but died at St. Augustine after only three months in office. 1716Juan de Ayala Escobar was appointed interim governor of Florida following the death of Governor Olivera, holding the post until 1718. 1718Antonio de Benavides was one of the longest serving Florida governor, second only to Enrique White [nineteen years] in the Second Spanish Period. He assumed the governorship of Florida in 1718 and held the post until 1734, a period of almost seventeen years, broken only by a trip to Havana in 1726 for an appendicitis operation. King Philip V twice extended Benavides’ term, despite the governor’s repeated requests that he be relieved due to poor health. 1718Spanish captain Jose Primo de Rivera built a wooden fort at San Marcos de Apalache [St. Marks in Wakulla County] in March, 1718 to replace the one destroyed by pirates in .1682.

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1719The French captured Pensacola on May 13, 1719 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance, 1719-1721. It was soon returned to Spain in the interests of promoting a Franco-Spanish alliance against the English. 1722Don Alejandro Wauchope received Pensacola back from France on November 26, 1722 under the treaty ending the War of the Quadruple Alliance. Wauchope also developed a settlement on Santa Rosa Island at the mouth of Pensacola Bay, which served as the main population center in the area until a hurricane washed it away in 1752. 1726Captain Ignacio Rodriguez Rozo served as interim governor of Florida for three months while Governor de Benavides was incapacited in Havana by an operation for appendicitis. 1732James Oglethorpe established the British colony of Georgia in what was once Florida’s province of Guale. 1733On July 13, 1733, the most of the New Spain fleet of twenty-one or twenty-two ships were wrecked on the Florida Keys by a hurricane. Spanish salvors were able to retrieve almost all the treasure aboard the wrecks, but the valuable cargos of perishable colonial products like indigo and sugar were lost. 1734Fracisco de Moral y Sanchez became governor of Florida in 1734. He alienated most of the colony through corrupt and arbitrary rule and was dismissed from his post in 1737. 1734In 1734, English pirates captured the annual situado [supply] ship carrying 97,000 pesos worth of money and supplies destined for St. Augustine. Unable to pay his men in cash or food, Governor Moral paid the soldiers with rum, which was available in good supply. 1735In 1735 and 1736, severe shortages of food and other supplies forced Governor Moral to permit Florida’s citizens to buy goods from English traders from the Carolinas, in violation of the rigid Spanish laws forbidding colonies to trade with foreigners. 1735In July, 1735, Bishop Francisco de San Buenaventura y Tejada arrived in St. Augustine as the new resident Bishop of Florida, the first since 1709. He revitalized religious life in St. Augustine, and remained until 1745, when he was elevated to the See of Yucatan. 1736James Oglethorpe, founder of the British colony of Georgia, led an expedition along the Florida coast in 1736 as far south as the St. Johns River, giving English names to all the islands he encountered. While visiting the the Spanish island of

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Santa Maria., he gave it the name Amelia Island in honor of Princess Amelia, daughter of England’s King George II. 1736The Spanish established a fortified settlement of former African slaves who had escaped from the British colony in Carolina. Located about two miles north of St. Augustine, the fort was named Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose. Spanish policy in Florida was to give protection and freedom to any escaped British slave who would accept Catholicism. Fort Mose was the first free black settlement in what is now the United States. 1737Manuel Joseph de Justis served briefly as interim governor of Florida following Governor Moral’s dismissal. 1737Manuel de Montiano became governor of Florida, holding the post until 1749. He strengthened the defenses of St. Augustine during the period 1737 to 1739, and withstood a British siege of the Castillo de San Marcos in 1740. 1740A British force from Georgia under James Oglethorpe invaded Florida during the War of Jenkin’s Ear. Oglethorpe occupied the town of St. Augustine, but was unable to take the great stone fortress of Castillo de San Marcos. Following a siege of twenty-seven days, the English withdrew after burning the town. 1742With reinforcements arriving for the Florida garrison, the Spanish counterattacked the British in Georgia with a force of fifty ships and 2,800 men. After being ambushed and defeated in the Battle of Bloody Marsh, the Spanish withdrew to Florida once more. 1742The Spanish replaced the wooden watchtower at Matanzas with a stone tower and artillery platform. The stone fort is now Fort Matanzas National Monument. 1743Two Jesuit priests establish a short-lived and unsuccessful mission in the Florida Keys. 1745Father Pedro Ponce y Carrasco succeeded Bishop San Buenaventura in 1745 as Bishop of Florida, but did not visit the province until nine years later and then remained only ten months before sailing back to Cuba. 1746In February, 1746, the King of Spain ordered the Viceroy of New Spain to mint a special issue of 150,000 pesos worth of gold and silver coins for use in Florida. The coins would have a face value of 600,000 pesos, and would be for use only in the colony,or for paying English and other foreign traders. The special devalued coinage never reached Florida... perhaps the Viceroy ignored the King’s order, or the money was lost at sea en route.

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1749Melchor de Navarrete became governor of Florida, holding the post until 1752. Navarette had spent over 40 years in the Spanish army before being appointed to govern Florida. 1752Fulgencio Garcia de Solis served as interim governor of Florida from 1752 to 1755. 1752On November 3, 1752, a disastrous hurricane destroyed the Spanish settlement on Santa Rosa Island at the mouth of Pensacola Bay. Thereafter, the town on the site of modern Pensacola became the principle Spanish population center in western Florida. 1755Alonso Fernandez de Heredia became governor of Florida, holding the post until 1758. 1756In April, 1756, with the support of Governor Heredia, several St. Augustine colonists began the manufacture of naval stores [tar and pitch] from Florida’s abundant pine forests. By 1760, Floridians had developed the beginnings of a naval stores industry that might alleviate the colony’s grinding poverty. However, the transfer of Florida to Britain in 1763 cut short this promising endeavor. 1757From April 24 to April 27, 1757, Francisco Maria Celi, pilot of the Spanish fleet in Havana, conducted the first survey of Tampa Bay. During his survey, Celi explored the Hillsborough River, which he named Rio de San Julian y Arriaga. 1758Lucas Fernando de Palacio y Valenzuela became governor of Florida, holding the post until his death at St. Augustine in 1761. He was the only Spanish governor to marry while in office, which he did in the spring of 1761 shortly before his death. 1759The wooden fort of San Marcos de Apalache was replaced by one built of stone in 1759. 1761Alonso de Cardenas was appointed interim governor of Florida and served until 1762. 1762Melchor Feliu’ was the last governor of Florida in the First Spanish Period, holding the post until the province was turned over to the English in 1763. 1763The Treaty of Paris, ending the Seven Years War between England, France and Spain, gave Spain’s Florida provinces to Britain in return for the British evacuation of Havana, which the English had captured during the war.

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1763On July 20, 1763, British Captain John Hedges took formal possession of St. Augustine for Great Britain. 1763On August 6, 1763, Lieutenant Colonel Augustin Prevot formally received Pensacola for Great Britain. 1764By February, 1764, Spain completed the evacuation of Florida. Only a handful of the Catholic Spanish colonists chose to remain under the rule of Protestant England. With the Spanish went the remnants of their Catholicized Indian subjects. This marked the end of the First Spanish Period in Florida’s history. For the next twenty years, East and West Florida would be part of Britain’s colonial empire, until a victorious Spain took them back in 1783.The Second Spanish Period, 1783 to 1821When Spain recovered East and West Florida in 1783, the Spanish Crown was faced with the problem of maintaining two remote, sparsely populated and poverty-stricken frontier provinces. Throughout the Second Spanish Period, Spain lacked the demographic and economic resources to develop the provinces into viable colonies, and her hold on the Floridas progressively weakened. Since the sixteenth century, the Spanish had held Florida primarily as a shield for Mexico and Spain’s rich possessions to the south. When the Spanish Central and South American provinces were lost to wars of independence in the early years of the nineteenth century, Florida lost its strategic importance to Spain as well. In 1821, Spain accepted the inevitable and ceded East and West Florida to the United States. 1776When England’s thirteen northern American colonies began the American Revolution, the British colonies of East and West Florida remained loyal to the mother country. Spain, still smarting from her defeat in 1763, observed Britain’s troubles with great interest. 1780Spain declared war on Great Britain in 1780, joining the fledgling United States and France as a co-belligerent, though not formally allied to the Americans rebels. Operating from Spanish Louisiana, General Bernardo de Galvez rapidly occupied Britain’s West Florida outposts, capturing Mobile in 1780. 1781On May 10, 1781, the British garrison at Pensacola surrendered to the Spanish forces of General Bernardo de Galvez, returning the province of West Florida to Spanish control. 1781Arturo O’Neill was appointed governor of West Florida after its capture by

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Galvez in 1781, and held the office until 1793. He was thus the first governor to take office during the Second Spanish Period. 1782Galvez captured the Bahamas from the British, giving Spain the bargaining chip that she would later trade for the return of the rest of the Floridas. 1783By the 1783 Treaty of Paris ending the war between Britain, France, Spain and the United States, East and West Florida were returned to Spain. Though Spain recovered her Florida colonies, she was never able to adequately garrison and develop them, and the Second Spanish Period saw her control progressively weaken as the years passed. 1783Vincente Manuel de Zespedes was appointed as the first Spanish governor of East Florida, assuming control in 1784. The dominating concerns of Governor Zespedes were building a Spanish administration for East Florida after twenty years of British rule, guarding the border with the new United States, and maintaining favorable relations with the Indians. Zespedes’ term ended in 1790, and he died in Havana four years later. 1784The British completed their evacuation of East and West Florida, with most of the evacuated colonists going to the Bahamas, Newfoundland and other parts of the British Empire. A small number however chose to remain behind and accept Spanish rule. The Spanish authorities took formal possesion of East Florida on June 12. 1784According to legend, 1784 was the year that Jose Gaspar, a Spanish naval officer, led a mutiny that seized the Spanish naval vessel on which he served. As Gasparilla, the Pirate, he established a stronghold on Florida’s Gasparilla Island and embarked on a 38-year career of piracy. According to the story, after amassing a huge treasure which he buried at various Florida locales, Gasparilla drowned himself in 1822 to escape capture by a U.S. naval vessel. Unfortunately, the story of Gasparilla the Pirate is a myth with no historical basis. It does, however, provide a colorful theme for the city of Tampa’s annual Gasparilla Festival. 1785Pedro Piernas served as acting governor of West Florida in 1785. 1785King Charles III of Spain decreed a new Spanish national flag in 1785 to replace the Burgundian saltire [a red x-shaped knobby cross on a white field] that had flown over Spanish Florida from 1565 to 1763. The new flag consisted of a wide gold band with narrower red bands at top and bottom, with a small crowned oval castle-and-lion coat of arms on the central band. This flag flew over Florida until 1821.

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1787A census of non-Indian inhabitants of East Florida taken in 1787 showed only 900 white persons and 490 persons of color, mostly slaves. In West Florida, the population of Pensacola, capital city of the province totaled 265. 1789Francisco Cruzat and Jacobo Dubreuil both served periods as acting governor of West Florida in 1789 during Governor O’Neill’s absences. 1790Juan Nepomuceno de Quesada was appointed governor of East Florida, serving from 1790 to 1796. 1793Enrique White served as governor of West Florida from 1793 to 1795. 1795Bartolome Morales served as acting governor of East Florida for part of 1795. 1795On October 27, 1795, the Treaty of San Lorenzo established the border between Spanish Florida and the United States. 1796Juan Vincente Folch was appointed governor of West Florida in 1796 and held the office until 1811. Holding office for nearly fifteen years, he was the thirdlongest serving governor in Florida’s history. 1796Enrique White, who had served as governor of West Florida from 1793 to 1795 was appointed governor of East Florida in 1796, holding that office until 1811. His nineteen years of service in the two Florida provinces made him the longest serving governor in the history of Spanish Florida, edging out the almost seventeen year administration of Antonio Benavides from 1718 to 1734. 1797In August, 1797, a new stone church for St. Augustine was completed, built of coquina blocks from the quarries of Anastasia Island. This church still stands on the main Plaza in modern St. Augustine. 1798Andrew Ellicott was appointed to survey the border between the United States and Florida. By October, 1799, his survey had reached the Apalachicola River, but threats from local Indians prevented him from completing the survey. As a result, the line between Florida and Georgia was a subject of dispute until Georgia finally accepted the present border in 1866. 1799William Augustus Bowles, an ex-English officer, married into an influential Creek Indian clan and attempted to establish an independent Indian state in Spanish Florida with clandestine British backing. In 1799, he convinced an assembly of Creeks and Seminoles to name him “Director General of the State of Muskogee.” At the high point of his influence, he managed to capture the Spanish fort of San Marcos de Apalache, and commissioned several privateers to prey on Spanish ships. When he proved unable to provide the Indians with a

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reliable source of needed trade goods, his influence declined. He was turned over to Spanish authorities by a party Indians in 1803 and died a prisoner in Havana’s Morro Castle on December 23, 1805. 1803Spain rejected an offer from the United States to buy the Floridas. 1805The United States again attempted unsuccessfully to buy the Floridas from Spain. 1809Francisco Maximiliano de Saint Maxent served as acting governor of West Florida from 1809 to 1811, and as governor from 1811 to 1812. He held the post again for part of 1816. 1810Juan Estrada began his first term as governor of East Florida in 1810, holding the post until 1811. He returned to the governorship for a second term in 1815-1816. 1810American immigrants who had settled in West Florida revolted against Spain, and on September 23, 1810 proclaimed the area between the Pearl and Mississippi Rivers to be the “Free and Independent State of West Florida.” [at that time, the Mississippi River was the western border of Florida]. The “State of West Florida” was then annexed by the United States 58 days later.. No part of this area is within the borders of modern Florida. 1812Mauricio de Zuniga served as governor of West Florida in 1812 and 1813, and again in 1816. 1812Sebastian Kindelan y Oregon was appointed governor of East Florida in 1812 and served until 1815. 1812With the encouragement of United States authorities, settlers of American extraction living in northeastern Florida revolted against Spain on March 12, 1812 and declared themselves the “Territory of East Florida.” In this struggle, called “The Patriot War,” the insurgents seized Fernandina on March 17, but were unable to capture St. Augustine. Defeated by the Spanish and their Seminole allies, the “Patriot” movement collapsed after U.S. President James Madison repudiated it on April 4, 1812. 1813Mateo Gonzalez Manrique became governor of West Florida in 1813, holding the office until 1815. Lacking the military strength to defend his capital of Pensacola, Manrique was unable to prevent first the British, then the United States from occupying the town during the War of 1812. 1814Britain occupied Pensacola over Spanish objections during the War of 1812 to use as a base against the southern United States. Spain, weakened by the struggle to

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expel Napoleon’s troops from the homeland, was unable to protect the neutrality of her Spanish provinces. In 1814, U.S. General Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish West Florida and expelled the British from Pensacola. 1815In 1815, Juan Estrada, governor of East Florida in 1810-1811, began a second term, which ended in 1816. 1815Jose de Soto held the governorship of West Florida in 1815-1816. 1816Mauricio de Zuniga and Francisco Maximiliano de Saint Maxent both held the governorship of West Florida in 1816. 1816Jose Masot served as governor of West Florida from 1816 to 1819. During his administration, the population of Pensacola had fallen to only 400 people. He suffered the humilation of being unable to prevent Andrew Jackson’s troops from occupying the city for five days in 1818 and fighting the First Seminole War on Spanish territory. 1816Jose Coppinger served as acting governor of East Florida in 1816, and governor in 1817 to 1818. 1816In the aftermath of the War of 1812, several hundred free blacks and escaped slaves occupied a fort the British had built on the Apalachicola River during the war. Viewing “Negro Fort” as a threat to the southern United States, a U.S. force invaded Spanish territory and destroyed the fort. 1817After their defeat in the Creek War of 1813-1814, Indians hostile to the United States migrated into northwestern Florida to mingle with their Seminole kin. The embittered Indians engaged in raids on U.S. territory that the Spanish were unable to prevent. In 1817, U.S. forces under Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish Florida, ignoring the international border and beginning launching the First Seminole War. 1817On June 20, 1817, Sir Gregor MacGregor, a Scottish soldier serving under Simon Bolivar, seized Amelia Island and captured Fernandina in the name of “the Republics of Venezuela, New Grenada, Mexico and Rio de la Plata,” but abandoned the island four months later. 1817On October 4, 1817, Fernandina was occupied by Luis Aury, a pirate who claimed to hold a commission from the “Republic of Mexico,” then fighting for independence from Spain. He raised a Mexican flag and claimed Amelia Island for Mexico. In the short time Aury held Fernandina, pirates and slavers flocked to the area to sell their cargoes. An estimated 1,000 African slaves were smuggled through Fernandina into the the United States in the three months of Aury’s rule.

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Since the Spansh authorities lacked the resources to expel Aury, on December 23, 1817 a U.S. force occupied the town. Aury hauled down his flag and departed without resistance, ending the brief interlude when Amelia Island was nominally at least part of Mexico. 1818The First Seminole War ended with the defeat of the Creeks and Seminoles and the destruction of their north Florida villages. Andrew Jackson withdrew his troops from Spanish territory, having stirred up an international furor that would cause him political trouble for years to come. His incursion demonstrated to the world, and to Spain herself, that Spain was unable to defend and control her Florida provinces. 1819Jose Maria Callava became the last governor of West Florida in 1819, holding the post until the transfer of the Floridas to U.S. sovereignty in 1821. 1819 On February 22, 1819, American Secretary of State John Adams and Spanish Minister Luis de Onis negotiated an agreement transferring the Spanish provinces of East and West Florida to the United States. Contrary to legend, the United States did not buy the Florida’s from Spain. Although the United States agreed to pay $4,000,000, this money did not go to Spain but was used by the United States to pay off American citizens with claims against the Spanish government. The two governments ratified the Adams-Onis Treaty on February 22, 1821. 1821In the Plaza at Pensacola on July 17, 1821, the red-and-gold banner of Spain came down for the last time as the Spanish Governor Jose Callava formally turned the provinces of East and West Florida over to General Andrew Jackson. The twentythree star flag of the United States rose over the new American territories of East and West Florida. Spain’s 256-year Florida adventure was over, though her mark remained indelibly on the land in place names, ancestry and history.Sources ConsultedBarcia, Carballido y Zuniga, Andres Gonzales. Barcia’s Chronological History of the Continent of Florida. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, c1951. Boyd, Mark F., Smith, Hale G. and Griffin, John W. Here They Once Stood: The Tragic End of the Apalachee Missions. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1951. Escalante Fontaneda, Hernando d’. Memoir of Do. d’Escalante Fontenada Respecting Florida... Miami: University of Miami and the Historical Association of Southern Florida, c1944.

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Fuson, Robert H. Juan Ponce de Leon and the Spanish Discovery of Puerto Rico and Florida. Blacksburg: McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co., c2000. Gallagher, Jim. Hernando de Soto and the Exploration of Florida. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, c2000. Gannon, Michael V. The Cross in the Sand: The Early Catholic Church in Florida, 1513-1870. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, c1965. Hann, John H. and McEwan, Bonnie G. The Apalachee Indians and Mission San Luis. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, c1988. Henderson, Ann L. and Mormino, Garry R. Spanish Pathways in Florida: 1492-1992. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, c1991. Hodge, Frederick W. and Lewis, Theodore H. Spanish Explorers in the Southern United States, 1528-1543. New York: Barnes and Noble, c1907; reprinted 1959. Hoffman, Paul E. A New Andalucia and a Way to the Orient: The American Southeast during the Sixteenth Century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, c1990. Lowery, Woodbury. The Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits of the United States: Florida, 1562-1574. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1905. Lyon, Eugene. The Enterprise of Florida: Pedro Menendez de Aviles and the Spanish Conquest of 1565-1568. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, c1976. McCarthy, Kevin M. Twenty Florida Pirates. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, c1994. McGrath, John T. The French in Early Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, c2000. Marks, Henry S. Who Was Who in Florida. Huntsville: Strode Publishers, c1973. Morris, Allen. The Florida Handbook, 1999-2000. 27th edition. Tallahassee: Peninsular Publishing Co., c1999. Morris, Allen. Florida Place Names. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, c1995. Patrick, Rembert W. and Morris, Allen. Florida Under Five Flags. 4th edition. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, c1967. Singer, Steven D. Shipwrecks of Florida. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, c1992. Tebeau, Charlton W. and Carson, Ruby Leach. Florida from Indian Trail to Space Age. Volume

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1. Delray Beach: Southern Publishing Co., c1965. TePaske, John Jay. The Governorship of Spanish Florida, 1700-1763. Durham: Duke University Press, 1964. Whitman, Sylvia. Hernando de Soto and the Explorers of the American South. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, c1991.


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