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Perceptions of Monteverde youth (14-18 years of age) towards pro- and anti-tobacco advertising in Costa Rica

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Title:
Perceptions of Monteverde youth (14-18 years of age) towards pro- and anti-tobacco advertising in Costa Rica
Translated Title:
Percepciones de los jóvenes de Monteverde (14-18 años) a favor y en contra de la publicidad del tabaco en Costa Rica ( )
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Lee, Joanne
Publication Date:
Frequency:
normalized irregular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Advertising--Tobacco--Costa Rica--Puntarenas-Monteverde Zone
Teenagers--Tobacco use--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Youth--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Cigarette smokers--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Community Health 2004
Genre:
Books/Reports/Directories
Books/Reports/Directories

Notes

Summary:
A study on the youth perceptions of tobacco advertising in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica.
Summary:
Un estudio sobre la percepción de la publicidad del tabaco en la region de Monteverde, Costa Rica.
Abstract:
Although health risks associated with tobacco use are well documented in the world, tobacco companies continue to seek new smokers to increase sales. As a result, youth have been one of the main targets of tobacco advertising because smokers usually begin smoking in their teen years. This study focused on the youth perceptions of tobacco advertising in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica. Our hypothesis states that while pro-tobacco advertisements attract the attention of youth (between ages 14 and 18 years) to become smokers and/or to continue smoking, anti-tobacco advertisements do not adequately target this same youth audience. Our study used preliminary interviews with adults, focus groups with youth, and a survey to gather data. The focus groups were comprised of three to four participants from the Colegio de Santa Elena. The volunteers were also asked what they would like to see on pro- and anti-tobacco advertisements. Based on their responses, we found that there is a greater consensus of their perceptions with the pro advertising than the anti-tobacco advertising, and that youth feel that anti-tobacco advertising should be more abundant in the area as well as more appealing for youth. We believe that this study has implications for future youth anti-tobacco campaigns and interventions.
Language:
EN

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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usfldc doi - M38-00046
usfldc handle - m38.46
System ID:
SFS0000240:00001


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Although health risks associated with tobacco use are well documented in the world, tobacco companies continue to seek new smokers to increase sales. As a result, youth have been one of the main targets of tobacco advertising because smokers usually begin smoking in their teen years. This study focused on the youth perceptions of tobacco advertising in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica. Our hypothesis states that while pro-tobacco advertisements attract the attention of youth (between ages 14 and 18 years) to become smokers and/or to continue smoking, anti-tobacco advertisements do not adequately target this same youth audience. Our study used preliminary interviews with adults, focus groups with youth, and a survey to gather data. The focus groups were comprised of three to four participants from the Colegio de Santa Elena. The volunteers were also asked what they would like to see on pro- and anti-tobacco advertisements. Based on their responses, we found that there is a greater consensus of their perceptions with the pro advertising than the anti-tobacco advertising, and that youth feel that anti-tobacco advertising should be more abundant in the area as well as more appealing for youth. We believe that this study has implications for future youth anti-tobacco campaigns and interventions.
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1 Perceptions of Monteverde Youth (14 18 years of age) Towards Pro and Anti Tobacco Advertising in Costa Rica Researchers Joanne Lee, Harvard College, Massachusetts Sandra Oh, University of California, Santa Cruz Diana Oliva, B.A., University of California, Berkeley Myriam Scally, B.Sc., MPHTM Advisors Lynn Morgan, Ph.D., M.A Hu bert h Blanco Lizano Nancy Romero Daza, Ph.D. David Himmelgreen, Ph.D. Elsa Batres Bo ni, B.A. Field Methods for Community Health Monteverde Institute June 19 to August 1, 2004 Educacin para un Futuro Sostenible... Education for a Sustainable Future

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2 Research Team Background A group of five students from the Monteverde Institute conducted a study of the perceptions of youth towards tobacco advertising, in t he Monteverde region of Costa Rica. The students came from diverse bac kgrounds, representing several u niversities and countries. Joanne Lee is a biological anthropology student at Harvard College, Massachusetts, and is an advanced Spanish speaker. She h as volunteered for the American Cancer Society, working with the youth anti tobacco campaign. Sandra Oh is an Anthropology student at the University of California, Santa Cruz and will be receiving her B.A. in 2005. She has an A.A. from Foothill College, and is a beginner Spanish speaker. Diana Oliva has a B.A. in Ethnic Studies and Xicanos Studies from the University of California, Berkeley. She is currently completing pre medicine requirements and strives to be an obstetric gynecologist. She is a nat ive Spanish Myriam Scally is a fluent Spanish speaker who has been living in Monteverde for the last year. She has worked for the Monteverde Institute in conjunction with the tropical biology studies program and has been with a Minor in Psychology from the University of California, San Diego, and has just completed her MPHTM from James Cook University in Australia. Her goals are to work internationally with communicable diseases and the societies they affect. Susan Walker is a Christian University M.S.N. and F.N.P. from the University of Texas at Arlington. She is currently a clinical instructor at UTA School of Nursing and a family nurse practitioner in an emergency department in a hospital in Fort Worth. She is a beginning Spanish speaker. A bstract Although health risks associated with tobacco use are well documented in the world, tobacco companies continue to seek new smokers to increase sales. As a result, youth have been one of the main targets of tobacco advertising because smokers usua lly begin smoking in their teen years. This study focused on the youth perceptions of tobacco advertising in the Monteverde region of Costa Rica. Our hypothesis states that w hile pr o tobacco advertisements attract the attention of youth (between ages 14 and 18 years) to become smokers and/or to continue smoking, anti tobacco advertisements do not adequately target this same youth audience. Our study used preliminary interviews with adults, focus groups with youth, and a survey to gather data. The focus groups were comprised of three to four participants from the Colegio de Santa Elena. The volunteers were also asked what they would like to see on pro and anti tobacco advertisements. Based on their responses, we found that there is a greater consensus of their perceptions with the pro advertising than the anti tobacco advertising, and that youth feel that anti tobacco advertising should be more abundant in the area as well as more appealing for youth. We believe that this study has implications for futu re youth anti tobacco campaigns and interventions.

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3 Introduction The health hazards associated with smoking are well known internationally. In particular, it is considered important to prevent tobacco use among minors because studies have shown that t he majority of adult smokers started smoking before the age of 18. In youth, tobacco has been documented to hamper the rate of lung growth, reduce the level of maximum lung function, and produce phlegm, shortness of breath, and wheezing (CDC 17, Arday DR, et al.; Am J of Health Promotion, 1995; 10(2):111 116). Smoking has also been associated with a number of other risk behaviors such as alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use (CDC, p. 36, 104). Despite the documentation of these risks, each day new teenager s become tobacco users (Stjerna et. al. Social Science and Medicine. Vol 59, pp. 573 583. 2004 ) Quite often, youth become cigarette smokers due to powerful influences, such as advertising. Advertising is an instrument that is taken advantage of by the t obacco industry a imed to attract the general public, such as adolescents. However advertising can be a powerful tool to prevent youth from starting to or the Costa Rican Social Securi ty launched a television campaign aiming to educate teens on the harmful effects of tobacco. This campaign was followed by a student thesis looking into the perceptions of teenagers in the capital of San Jose, towards the education and anti tobacco advert ising they were receiving ( Navarro Moreno, Rosa Elena; tesis de graduacin para bachiller universitaria, Junio del 2003). They approached their study believing that in all publicity campaigns it is important to know the market towards which the advertis ement is directed. In the case of preventative campaigns for adolescents it is neces sary to know what youth them selves are attracted to and what their preferences are for advertising ( Navarro Moreno, Rosa Elena; tesis de graduacin para bachiller univers itaria, Junio del 2003) Purpose s gr owing concerns on tobacco use among teenagers, our group conducted an exploratory investigation to gain better insight into the perceptions of youth (ages 14 18 years ) with regards to advert isements both in favor of and against tobacco. The study was designed to complement a recent study conducted by Rosa Elena Na varro Moreno on San Jose youth attitudes towards anti tobacco and tobacco advertising. The study plans to provide the Instituto s obre Alcoholismo y Farmacodependencia (IAFA) (The Institute on Alcoholism and Farmacodependency) and the local Monteverde community with valuable information on youth attitudes towards advertising in rural areas. Our question addressed: What are the perc eptions high school adolescents develop in the public school system of Santa Elena, Monteverde, in reference to pro and anti tobacco advertisements they are exposed to by living in a rural area? The investigation wished to ascertain whether pro and ant i tobacco campaigns influence community and the IAFA, we hope to provide a stepping stone towards future interventions that directly address the specific needs of youth in o rder to better protect youth from harmful tobacco advertising.

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4 Methodology D esign experimental, exploratory study design was chosen as the method of investigation. Wit h this design it was possible to collect both qualitative data using focus groups and surveys, and quantitative date using a 5 point Likert like scale as the research framework. Both focus groups and a questionnaire with a Likert like scale are useful too attitudes and beliefs. Sample The study population consisted of a convenience sample of 14 18 year old students attending the Colegio de Santa Elena. Permission to recruit volunteers through classroom discussions was speaking researchers visited numerous classrooms requesting study volunteers. A sign up sheet for name and contact phone number was distributed (Appendix A) Approximately 45 students consented by sign ing the form. Three Spanish speaking researchers obtained parental consent via telephone, by following a pre scripted outline. Reconfirmation of student participation was also done at this time. Snacks and salsa lessons were offered as incentives. Instr uments The demographic form contained a 5 point Likert like scale survey seeking opinions and perceptions Additionally, each student was asked to answer two questions expressing their feelings about each poster presented on the demographic form ( What calls your attention to this advertisement? How does the advertisement make you feel?) ( Appe ndix B ). Ten questions exploring perceptions and opinions about 5 pro and 5 anti smoking posters were developed for the focus groups. All questions were open ended to promote unstructured discussions amongst the students. Procedure After school focus gr oups were to be held on two consecutive days at the Colegio. Upon arrival to the classroom, each participant completed a written consent form (Appendix C) and a demographic sheet for age, gender, grade in school and smoking history. Additionally, each dem ographic survey displayed 3 pro and 3 anti posters that were also used in the focus groups. After viewing each photo of a poster, the students were asked to rate their desire to smoke or not smoke based upon the photo. One Spanish speaking researcher mo derated the focus groups each day (Appendix D, E) with an observer recording participant interactions and correlating student responses to posters being discussed on both days On day two, when seve n students participated, they were randomly assigned to o

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5 Photos of pro and anti smoking posters were obtained with digital cameras from the Monteverde region prior to the focus groups (Appendix F) These photos were then numbered, enlarged and place d on colored paper for ease of viewing. At the start of each focus group, the photos were placed on the floor in front of the participants for discussion. Each focus group contained 3 4 students, and lasted approximately 45 minutes to one hour. The studen ts were informed that their responses would be recorded with a tape recorder provide by the Institute. The research o bserver recorded which poster was being discussed and any significant participant observations. At the completion of the focus questions, each student was encouraged by the moderator to make further comments if desired. Following the discussions, a salsa lesson was provided, as well as additional snacks and drinks. Immediately following the focus groups, the Spanish speaking researchers tra nscribed the tape recordings of the focus group discussion and translated the transcription into English for analysis (because some group members were not proficient in Spanish). Then, significant keywords were taken from individual survey responses and c lustered into themes. The occurrences of these words were taken into account, and these keyword clusters were then categorized to create main themes, both by question and by pro and anti posters, for analysis. Results The quantative and qualitative fin 14 18) individual perceptions towards anti and pro tobacco poster advertising in the Monteverde zone. Quantative Out of a total of 10 participants, 9 identify themselves as non smokers and 1 pa rt icipant as someone whom had tried smoking cigarettes a couple of times According to our quantitive scale, the highest response for any poster against tobacco was 6 out of 10 participants answering that Poster 4 Me quita completamente las ganas de fumar Figure 1 ). Conversely, the highest response for a poster in favor of tobacco was 6 out under posters against t (Figure 2 ). The Likert lik e scale results provide a picture of the overall sentiment of pro and anti tobacco advert isement in the Monteverde zone.

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6 Figure 1: Monteverde Youth Sentiments Towards Anti Tobacco Advertisements in Costa Rica 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel much desire to smoke I feel the desire to smoke It doesn't affect me It takes away my desire to smoke It completely takes away my desire to smoke No response Measure of Desire to Smoke Number of Responses Responses Poster 1 Poster 4 Poster 5 Figure 2: Monteverde Youth Sentiments Towards P ro Tobacco Advertisements in Costa Rica 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I feel much desire to smoke It feel the desire to smoke It doesn't affect me It takes away my desire to smoke It completely takes away my desire to smoke No response Measure of De sire to Smoke Number of Responses Responses Poster 2 Poster 3 Poster 6

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7 Qualitative The qualitative responses provided by the students in the survey yield patterns in the types of words participants used to describe: (1) what most called their attention visually in the poster, and (2) how the presented advertisements made them feel. Among pro tobacco advertisements, main themes are: oferta cigarillo (cigarette, 17 occurrences), and asco ( 7 occurrences). Main anti tobacco themes are: no fumar occurrences), calavera dao ) ( Tables 1, 2 ) In our qualitative findings, the focus group participants mention recurring them es per pro and anti poster advertising. The majority of participant responses with regards to anti tobacco posters reflect an awareness of the harmful effects of smoking as well as a negative criticism of their advertising strategies. Our particpants had descriptions such as: dao prohibicin muy simple tobacco not think in th eir not that I will quit tobacco advertisements consist largely of positive connotations. For example: relajados ), promocion ganar autntico pro a favor son frecuentados por jvenes en una disco, attention of youth....yes, because those in favor are frequented by youth in dance clubs, corner g to attract us a lot and it really leaves you thinking like the entire world ( If I smoke I will be very cool, ); ( 90% i s to call attention to smoke ); and the rest is pure Youth were especially attracted to bright colors, often mentioning them as potentials for future anti tobacco advertisments.

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8 Table 2: PRO TOBACCO ADVERTISEMENTS QUESTION 1: What calls your attention the most in this poster? MAIN THEME WORDS OCCURENCES cigarillo cigarro, fumando, insentivar al fumado, cigarillos fumado 17 oferta promoci n, rebaja, oferta, barato precio, paquete, mismo precio, se bajan, opo rtunidad, abundancia, mas, mont n 15 QUESTION 2: How does this poster make you feel? MAIN THEME WORDS OCCURENCES asco asco, repusividad, desagradable, mal o, no tiene ganas, desprecio, incomodidad 7 oferta bajar el precio, compran, aprovech ar, promocion, rebajas, traen ms, ganar m s en un instante 10 Table 2: ANTI TOBACCO ADVERTISEMENTS QUESTION 1: What calls your attention the most in this poster? MA IN THEME WORDS OCCURENCES calavera calavera, huesos, cara 6 no fumar prohibido fumar, no fumar, el area de no fumar, prohibido 15 QUESTION 2: How does this poster make you feel? MAIN THEME WORDS OCCURENCES dano dana, no es bueno fumar, danino causar enfermedades, danino para la salud, danar 6 Analysis and Discussion Quantitative In the Likert like scale meas ure of participant desire to smoke, participants respond ed most we can conclude that the techniques (i.e. colors, wording, etc.) used in Poster 4, were most ef fective in conveying to the participants the prohibition of smoking. The highest response for pro This leads us to believe that the pro tobacco advertisements a re not as effective, a point which will contradict our analysis of qualitative data. Qualitative In our qualitative survey responses, comparative themes between anti and pro tobacco posters reflect ed general participant perceptions on tobacco advertisi ng. Among pro tobacco advertisements, a sco was the least prevalent theme. However, it demonstrates a rejection of the pro tobacco message among participants since the theme includes descriptions such as desprecio

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9 (rejection) and repulsividad (repulsion) This supports the findings in the Likert like scale analysis since participants felt a sense of rejection towards smoking. In contrast, the high occurrences of cigarillo and oferta seem ingly contradict the quantative data which showed the participant s rejection of pro tobacco ad vertising. H igh occurrences of cigarillo and oferta demonstrate how participants perceive themes pro tobacco advertisements convey. Despite the evident contradiction between their rejection towards pro tobacco advertisments w ith terms like asco the high occurence s of cigarillo and oferta still strongly demonstrate a participant consensus on positive pro tobacco themes in advertising. On the other hand, survey responses to anti tobacco advertising display themes of no fumar (5 occurrences), calavera (6 occurrences), and dao Calavera and dao occurrences demonstrate participant associations of anti tobacco advertising with the harmful effects of smoking. Similarly, the most prevalent theme, no fuma r also reflects a degree of success in communicating that one should not smoke in a given area However, low occurrences of anti tobacco themes in contrast to high occurrences of pro tobacco themes demonstrates relatively poor success of anti tobacco adv ertising in targeting participants. Furthermore, examining qualitative focus group responses supports this conclusion. Beginning with the anti tobacco advertisements, the main themes in the focus group discussion ( dao prohibicin muy simple ) demonst rate the lack of success in anti tobacco advertising in targeting the participants. Although participants understand the harmful effects of smoking and/or the prohibition of it in certain areas, they consider the anti tobacco advertisements too simplistic referenced in Results). Moreover, relajados, promocin, ganar, and autntico reflect an attraction towards pro tobacco advertising Once more, th is reinforces the success of pro tobacco advertising since its portrayal of cigarettes effectively produces positive responses from participants (See quotes referenced in Results). Additionally we wanted to include youths views as to what they would like to see in the community. We addressed this during the focus groups by asking the participants what they would do if they had the power to change things The following are some of the recommendations we were given: Youths recommendations Telephone hel p line People to respect the smoking and non smoking areas More anti tobacco advertising to be placed in schools, super markets, pulperias, etc. Workshops o With former smokers who have suffered the ill effects of smoking Communicate the realities of smoki ng Youth designed posters Before and after pictures of smokers Do not write the most important information in the smallest font Make the anti tobacco advertisements larger than the pro tobacco advertisements

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10 Cartoon drawings (e.g. sponge bob) and/or real p ersons they could relate to Creating smoking areas restricted to adults D uring community presentations we also asked what they felt was needed with respect to Community needs: Dynami c workshops on all drugs including tobacco (e.g. theatrical representations of risks) Relevant interventions Conclusions In conclusion, our results and analysis partially support our initial hypothesis that: while pro tobacco advertising effectively pers uades youth (14 18 years) to begin smoking or to continue smoking, anti tobacco advertising does not utilize appropriate strategies to direct a youth audience. Examination of quantitative ve rsus qualitative results reveal a contradiction in participant re reflect a strong identification with anti tobacco advertisements and apathetic responses to pro tobacco advertisements. Individual qualitative responses to the survey d isplay both a disgust for pro tobacco advertising as well as a strong identification with positive advertising strategies. Thus, the individual responses provide an intriguing contrast to the qualitative focus group results, which show a general consensus on the attractive qualitites of pro tobacco advertising and the ineffective simplicity of anti tobacco posters. Based on the high occurences of pro tobacco theme references (as compared to relatively few occurences of anti t obacco theme references), it a ppears that pro tobacco advertisements are more outstanding to participants than anti tobacco advertisements. Finally, p articipants identify more with messages of promotions/cigarettes than with messages of harm/prohibition in anti tobacco advertising. L imitations of the study In this study, our research team encountered a series of limitations. We attempted to address these limitations as well as we could while conducting the research, but inevitably there were certain factors that could not be control led for. The main limitations we encountered were: Sample size The low accessibility of educational centers to develop the topic of the investigation The lack of interest of adolescents in topic referring to the consumption of tobacco The possible dis com fort in answering by adolescents thereby altering the research The short length of time given to the development of this research Responses could be biased because only female respondents wished to participate in the study Recommendations for Future Studi es

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11 Looking at male youth perceptions of anti and pro tobacco advertising in the Monteverde zone. Expanding study beyond the Santa Elena Colegio to gain a more comprehensive understanding of youth perceptions. Investigating the enforcement and production of anti tobacco policies in the Monteverde area Exploring youth perceptions and consumption towards drugs other than tobacco in the Monteverde zone. Examining effective youth oriented strategies in anti tobacco advertising in the Monteverde zone, e.g. cre ating effective youth directed interventions. o Some examples given participants this year include: Dynamic workshops with recovering smokers Anti tobacco help line for youth Develop a youth designed anti tobacco campaign: Youth designed posters with messag es such as: Es tu decisin. Eso es lo que queires? o Show before and after photos of affected smokers o Use both photos and caricatures. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Lynn M. Morgan for her in valuable consul tation to the team. To Hu berth Blanco Lizano for his help in obtaining previous research from San Jose and in advising us on the rural applicability of the study. Also we would like to thank Nancy Romero Daza, David Himmelgreen and Elsa Ba tres Boni for their important contributions to the application of focal groups, the community presentation, and data analysis. Thank you to F. Leondro Casta eda director of the Santa Elena Colegio for permitting us to utilize the facilities and for enab ling us to have access to the high school students. To all the students who participated in the study thank you for being willing to share with us your perceptions. A special thanks to Gaudy Picado for all of her assistance throughout the course. Finall y we would like to thank the rest of the staff and students of the Field Methods course 2004 for their welcoming spirit and participation. References 1. American Public Health Association. Global Tobacco Control: WFPHA Position Paper. < http://www.apha.org/wrpna/tob.ntm > 2. Arday DR, Giovino GA, Schulman J, Nelson DE, Mowery P, Samet JM. Cigarette smoking and self reported health problems among US high school seniors, 1982 1989. Am J of Health Promotion, 1995; 10(2):111 116 3. CDC, Preventing tobacco use among young people, pp 17, 36,104. www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/youth/ythsprt.htm 4. La Encuesta Mundial Sobre Tobaco en Jvenes: Cos ta Rica, 2002. Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2002.

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12 5. The New York Times. 19 May 2003. < http://www.nytimes.com > 6. Navarro Moreno Rosa Elena, tesis de graduac in para obtener en grado de bachiller universitaria es: "La percepcin que tienen los adolescentes de educacin general bsica de los colegios pblicos del cantn de Montes de Oca, ante la campaa televisiva preventiva del fumado emitida por la Caja Costa rricense del Seguro Social en junio del 2003" 7. Pan Amercian Health Association. < http://www.paho.org/English/HPP/HPM/TOH/profits_over_people.pdf > Accessed 28 June 2004. 8. Stjerna Marie Social Science and Medicine. Vol 59, pp. 573 583. 2004. 9. World Health Organiz ation. 2003. 10. Tobacco free kids. < http://www.tobaccofreekids.org > Accessed 29 June 2004.

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13 Appendix A: Oral Parental Consent, Telephone Script Percepciones de Tabaco Grupos Focales 1 and 2 July 19, 2004 Tele phone Script Parental Oral Consent NOMBRE DE USUARIA __________________________________ FECHA ______________________ [INTRODUCTION] Buenas, mi nombre es [Your Name] Llamo de parte del Instituto Monteverde. Me podr a comunica r con [Nombre del Partici pante]? Llamo de parte de un estudio que estamos tratando de conducir con jvenes de las edades de 14 18 aos. Estamos interesados en o r las opiniones de jvenes como [ Nombre del Participante]. Est ella/el ah para hablar de la pa rticipa cin en esta investigaci n? [ ] [TO YOUTH] Buenas, mi nombre es [Your Name]. Llamo departe del Instituto Monte verde. Nosotros recibimos su n mero de t elefono cuando usted se incribi en u na peque a presentacin que dos muchachas de nuestro equipo hicieron en colegio de Santa Elena hace dos semanas. Quisiramos si usted todava esta interesado de participar en los grupos focales sobre opiniones de los avisos de tabaco? Muchas gracias por su tiempo. Nada m s quisiera saber. ¡ Gracias! Si cambia su opinin por favor ll menos al Instituto de Monteverde. Nuestro nmero de telfono es 645 5053 y pida a Elsa Batres Bon. El Curso de Salud Pblica del Instituto Monteverde est interesado en las opiniones de los jvenes de la zona Monteverde sobre los anuncios a favor y en contra del tabaco. Entonces, esto es solamente un grupo de discusin en que podemos or las voces de jvenes. Tambin ofrecemos bocadillos y una clase de baile de msica salsera gratis despus de la discusin Vamos a tener los grupos en la tarde inmendiatemente despus de las clases en unos aulas en el colegio de San ta Elena. Entonces, usted no necesita ir lejos para participar. Los grupos van a ser la prxima semana, martes or mircoles cualquier es ms conveniente para usted Tambin vamos a ofrecer un bus que va por un recorrido del colegio de Santa Elena hasta e l Instituto Monteverde para los estudiantes que necesitan regresar a sus casas despus de la discusin. ¡Muchas gracias! Entonces, antes de seguir podemos hablar con su mama o papa para tener consentimiento? [TO PAREN TS] Buenas, mi nombre es [Your Name] y llamo del Instituto de Monteverde. Quisiera tener su permiso en hablar con su hijo/hija como parte de un estudio sobre las opiniones de los jvenes hacia los anuncios de tabaco. Hemos selecionado a su hijo/hija porq ue que creemos que las opiniones de ella/el son representativas de los jovenes viviendo en Monteverde. Estamos dirigiendo un grupo focal de jvenes del Colegio de Santa Elena donde ellos pueden conversar sobre sus percepciones de los avisos de pro y anti tabaco. Toda la informacion que nos den va hacer confidencial. Si usted accepta que el/ella pueda Appendix A (continued): Oral Parental Consent, Telephone Script

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14 participar en esta investigacion esta informacion va hacer utilizada para documentar las voces de la juventud. Entonces, muchas gracias por su tiempo. Nada ms quisiera saber. ¡Gracias! Si cambia so opinin, por favor llmenos al Instituto de Monteverde. Nuestro nmero de telfono es 645 50 53. IMPORTANT CONSENT INFORMATION! DO NOT LEAVE OUT!] E s un grupo focal en que le preguntaremos a su hijo/hija sobre sus actitudes hacia varios anuncios de pro y anti tabaco. La discusin durar aproximadamente una hora y m edia. El/ella tiene el derecho de no contestar cualquier pregunta en esta conversacin, y puede retirarse de la discusin en cualquier momento sin ninguna consecuencia. La participacin de su hijo/hija es completamente voluntaria y tiene el derecho de de cidir si quiere participar. Tambin, n o le pagaremos a su hijo/hija por su participacin pero le ofrecemos bocadillos y una clase de baile de msica salsera gratis despus de la discusin [CONFIDENTIALITY INFORMATION. ALSO, DO NOT LEAVE OUT!!] M antend remos confidencial la informacin que nos brinde. No utilizaremos el nombre de su hijo/hija, ni otros datos personales que podran identificarlo en la presentacin de los resultados. Las respuestas de la discusin solamente nos ayudarn comprender mejor las opiniones y actitudes hacia los anuncios a favor y en contra del tabaco. Vamos a tener los grupos en la tarde despus de las clases en el colegio de Santa Elena para que su hijo/hija no necesita ir lejos para participar Los grupos v an a ser la prxima semana, martes or mircoles cu alquier es ms conveniente para su hijo/hija Tambin vamos a ofrecer una buseta que va a manejar un recorrido del colegio hasta Monteverde para los estudiantes que necesitan regresar a sus casas despus d e la discusin. EST DE ACUERDO DE QUE SU HIJO/HIJA PARTICIPA EN LA DISCUSI"N? ] Bueno. Gracias por su consentimiento oficial y tiempo. Si tiene ms preguntas puede contactar a Elsa Batres Bon en el Instituto Montever de al 645 5053 Agradecemos mucho usted y su hijo/hija por su contribucin a nuestra estudio. Vamos a tener una presentacin de nuestros resultos al fin de julio, y ustedes estn invitados. Podemos dar su hijo/hija ms informacin sobre este dato despu s del grupo focal. ¡Muchas gracias! NOMBRE DE PARTICIPANTE __________________________________________________________ NOMBRE Y APELLIDO DE PADRE/MADRE _______________________________________________ FECHA______________________________________________ _______

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15 Appendix B: Survey Grupos Focales de Tabaco Instrucciones: Favor de completar este formulario sin ayuda. Edad: ________ Genero: Masculino ___ Femenino ___ Otro____ Grado: _______ Ha fumad o alguna vez? Si _____ No _____ Si ha fumado, cuantos cigarrillos En su vida __________ Por da?_______ ______ Por semana?________ Por mes?__________ Nos gustara saber lo que piensa / siente usted sobre los siguientes avisos? 1 2 3 4 5 Me dan muchas ganas de fumar Me dan ganas de fumar Me da lo mismo Me quita un poco las ganas de fumar Me quita completamente las ganas de fumar Qu le llama mas la atencin en este poster? Qu le hace sentir este poster? 1 2 3 4 5 Me dan muchas ganas de fumar Me dan ganas de fumar Me da lo mismo Me quita un poco las ganas de fumar Me quita completamente las ganas de fumar Qu le llama mas la atencin en este poster? Qu le hace s entir este poster?

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16 Appendix B (continued): Survey 1 2 3 4 5 Me dan muchas ganas de fumar Me dan ganas de fumar Me da lo mismo Me quita un poco las ganas de fumar Me quita completamente las ganas de fumar Que es lo que ven en este aviso? Qu le hace sentir este poster? 1 2 3 4 5 Me dan muchas ganas de fumar Me dan ganas de fumar Me da lo mismo Me quita un poco las ganas de fumar Me quita completamente las ganas de fumar Que es lo que ven en este aviso? Qu le hace sentir este poster? 1 2 3 4 5 Me dan muchas ganas de fumar Me dan ganas de fumar Me da lo mismo Me quita un poco las ganas de fumar Me quita completamente las ganas de fumar 1 2 3 4 5 Me dan muchas ganas de fumar Me dan ganas de fumar Me da lo mismo Me quita un poco las ganas de fumar Me quita completamente las ganas de fumar

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17 Que es lo que ven en este aviso? Qu le hace sentir este poster? Que es lo que ven en este aviso? Qu le hace sentir este poster? Si necesita es pacio adicional para describir como se siente, favor de usar la pagina de atrs. Appendix B (continued): Survey

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18 Appendix C : Participant Written Informed Consent Form Educacin para un Futuro Sostenible... Education for a Sustainable Future Constancia de Consentimiento para Parti cipantes del Grupo de Discusin Nosotros, estudiantes del Instituto Monteverde con el Curso de Salud Pblica, estamos solicitando su participacin en un estudio sobre percepciones de los jvenes haca los anuncios de tabaco en la Zona de Monteverde. Esta informacin nos servir para entender mejor las percepciones de los jvenes costarricenses de una zona rural. Si decide participar, necesitara venir a una reunin donde se llevar acabo un grupo focal. En este grupo focal, usted compartir sus opinione s sobre avisos del tabaco. En esta discusin le preguntaremos sobre sus actitudes y sentimientos hacia varios anuncios (a favor y en contra del tabaco). La discusin durar aproximadamente una hora y media. Usted tiene el derecho de no contestar cualqui er pregunta en esta conversacin, y puede retirarse de la discusin en cualquier momento sin ninguna consecuencia. Nosotros le pedimos su consentimiento para participar en este proyecto. Su participacin es completamente voluntaria y tiene el derecho de decidir si usted quiere participar o no en la discusin. Nosotros mantendremos confidencial la informacin que nos brinde como requisito de derechos humanos. No utilizaremos su nombre, ni otros datos personales que podran identificarlo en la presentaci n de los resultados. Las respuestas solamente nos ayudarn comprender mejor las opiniones y actitudes hacia los anuncios a favor y en contra del tabaco. Usted tendr el derecho de ver los resultados y nuestro informe de este estudio en presentaciones pb licas o en el Instituto Monteverde. Presentaremos los resultados en una pltica abierta a la comunidad durante la semana del 26 de julio en Caitas. Le invitamos a participar en este da. Se har otra presentacin en el Instituto Monteverde durante la m isma semana y tambin est invitado a participar. No le pagaremos por su participacin. ¡Pero le ofrecemos quedarse despus de nuestra reunin de grupos focales para disfrutar de refrescos, bocadillos y una clase de baile en msica salsera! Le agradecem os por su participacin y riqueza de sabidura. ¡Gracias! Si tiene preguntas adicionales favor de contactar a Elsa Batres Bon en el Instituto Monteverde al 645 5053, 645 5219, o 645 5365. Est de acuerdo en participar en la discusin? _____ S ____ No Est de acuerdo que le citamos en forma annima en nuestro informe? _____ S _____ No Est de acuerdo que se grabe esta discusin para referencia futura del equipo de investigacin? _____ S _____ No Nombre y Apellido del particip ante ________________________________________________ Firma de participante ________________________________________ Fecha ________________

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19 Appendix D: Focus Group Agenda Perceptions on Tobacco Focus Group 1 and 2 AGENDA I. Setup A. Food: Food should b e setup in each room. B. Registration Table (Sandra and Susie): There should be a main table that deals with registering youth as they walk in. C. COLEGIO DE SANTA ELENA Rooms: There will be a main location for registration and break out rooms. Each room w ill be setup in a circular fashion by setting up 5 8 chairs in a circular way. D. Poster Coordination: In one room we will put up six posters in one room while filling out questionnaire. In each room, there will be ten posters in the center of the circle (5 pro tobacco and 5 anti tobacco). Each poster will be spread out, alternating pro and anti posters in the circle, and an easel will be placed in the center of the circle to display the poster of interest throughout the focus group dicussion. II. Registration A. As youth arrive each one will be given a questionnaire to fill out completely. We will give youth 15 minutes to fill out questionnaire. It is important that there is a stress to complete the questionnaire separately, with no help of other peers. Then the youth will return the completed questionnaire. As the person at the registration takes the questionnaire, she should check if the youth is a smoker or non smoker. Depending on the response, each youth will be given a number and then randomly placed into a focus group. (The number designate will only be used to tell the researchers how many smoking/nonsmoking teens are in each focus group, and to balance the numbers of each in each focus group). B. Students will then be asked to take a seat in a room. III. Focus Group

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20 Appendix D (continued): Focus Group Agenda A. Introduction: The moderator should introduce themselves and a brief description of the next 1hour discussion. Mi nombre es _______________. Yo soy un estudiante de el curso de salud publica de l IMV y trabajo en esta investigacion que trata de conocer las percepciones a favor o en contra avisos del tabaco. Las demas compaeras son parte de nuestro equipo y estan cayadas porque tienen dificultades en hablar espaol pero si entienden. Los hemo s invitados porque sentimos que es necesario oir las percepciones de los adolecentes sobre los avisos del tabaco No hay una respuesta corecta ni incorecta, no mas queremos oir sus voces y opiniones sobre este tema. Tienen preguntas? Ofrecemos clases de bai le de musica salsera despues de una hora de conversacion. Por favor tengan la confiensa en comer los bocadillos cuando quieran, pero regresen lo mas rapido que puedan para continuar la discusion. B. Focus group discussion: Ask guiding questions and presen t ads. (see list) IV. Closure of focus group V. Salsa lesson. VI. Everyone cleans up. Someone drives kids home.

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21 Appendix E: Focus Group Questions Preguntas Para el Grupo Focal Objetivos: Para mejor entender las actitudes y percepciones de jvenes en Monteverde ha cia los anuncios de pro y anti tabaco. Preguntas: (Empieza con las fotos de los anuncios) Si vemos cada poster, que es lo que notamos de ellos? Cuales son las emociones que sienten al ver estos posters? Cuando vemos estos posters ustedes creen que llam an la atencin de jvenes? Si o no, y porque? Ustedes creen que la gente que hace estos posters toman en cuenta la reali dad de los jovenes como ustedes? En su opinion, cuales son ms efectivos los posters a favor o en contra del tabaco y porque? SPLIT I NTO 2 QUESTIONS WITH A FAVOR Y EN CONTRA: Si ustedes estuvieran diseando un poster del tabaco para jvenes, que incluyera ese poster ideal? Adonde ven la mayora de avisos del tabaco? En cuales lugares? o Estos lugares son adecuados para jvenes? Si o n o, y porque? Que opinan sobre la publicidad del tabaco en Monteverde? Hay suficientes posters? Muchos? Poquitos? Son efectivos? Adecuados? Apropriados? En los ltimos anos, han habido cambios en la cantidad de posters en Monteverde? o Con que frecuen cia ven los posters del tabaco (en la televisin, el radio, pediodicos, revistas, en pulperas y supermercados, etc. Algn otro lugar?) Si ustedes pudieran, que cambiaran en la publicidad del tabaco en Monteverde. Hay algo ms que ustedes quieren a adir? CLOSURE: presentacin comunitaria (lugar, tiempo, da, etc.) o Any school meetings (with parents)? D ifferent place? Soccer field?

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22 Appendix F : Presented Posters Poster 6 Poster 5 Poster 3 Poster 2 Poster 1 Poster 4

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23 Poster 8 Appendix F (continued): Presented Posters Poster 10 Poster 9 Poster 7