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Comparison of economic impacts of outages

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Material Information

Title:
Comparison of economic impacts of outages REMI versus IMPLAN
Physical Description:
1 online resource (37 p.) : ill., maps ;
Language:
English
Creator:
University of South Florida -- Center for Economic Development Research
Publisher:
Center for Economic Development Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Electric utilities -- Econometric models -- Florida -- Tampa Bay Region   ( lcsh )
Energy industries -- Econometric models -- Florida -- Tampa Bay Region   ( lcsh )
Infrastructure (Economics) -- Florida -- Tampa Bay Region   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Tampa Bay Region (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
Working from the Los Alamos National Laboratory's model of the natural gas pipeline system and electric power grid for the Tampa Bay region, this report estimates the economic impacts of specified outage areas in the seven-county Tampa Bay region, comparing results gathered using the REMI and IMPLAN methods.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for Los Alamos National Laboratory by Center for Economic Development Research, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page (viewed Aug. 6, 2009).
General Note:
"November 2003."

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002023042
oclc - 429487096
usfldc doi - C63-00014
usfldc handle - c63.14
System ID:
SFS0000292:00001


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PAGE 1

Comparison of Economic Impacts of Outages REMI versus IMPLAN Prepared for Los Alamos National Laboratory by CENTER FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH College of Business Administration 1101 Channelside Dr., 2nd Floor N., Tampa, Florida 33602 Office: (813) 905-5854 or Fax: (813) 905-5856 November, 2003

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Preface Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the Nation’s critical infrastructures for more than a decade. Although this evaluation has focused primarily on national security concerns, these critical infrastructures are an integral component of the Nation’s economic activity and whose vulnerabilities have economic impacts that are important to understand. As an outgrowth of their research, LANL has developed a model of the natural gas pipeline system and electric power grid for the Tampa Bay region that is resolved to a very detailed level of description. Using this model to simulate outages of electric power and natural gas, LANL commissioned the Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR) to estimate the economic impacts of specified outage areas in the seven-county Tampa Bay region. To estimate the economic impacts CEDR used the REMITM Policy Insight model. CEDR provided its findings of economic impact to LANL in the report titled “Electric Power and Natural Gas Outage Study,” dated March 2003. Subsequently, LANL commissioned CEDR to compare the economic impacts of the previously specified outages as estimated using the REMI model with the impacts estimated from using the IMPLANTM Professional model. The document is a report of the comparison of estimates of the two models. The Center for Economic Development Research initiates and conducts innovative research on economic development. The Center’s education programs are designed to cultivate excellence in regional development. Our information system serves to enhance development efforts at the University of South Florida, its College of Business, and throughout the Tampa Bay region. Robert Anderson, Dean, College of Business Administration (COBA), USF Dennis Colie, Director, Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR), COBA, USF, Economist and Principal Investigator Alex McPherson, Research Associate, CEDR, COBA, USF Davor Soldo, Economist, CEDR, COBA, USF

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Executive Summary This study compares the estimated economic impacts of power outages using the REMITM Policy Insight and the IMPLANTM Professional models. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) provided the geographical definitions of the nine outage areas. The same definition of each outage area is used to estimate the economic impacts using both models. The measure of economic impact we use is value-added. For the purpose of comparison, impact results at the division level are presented in this report. Division level results using the REMI model are taken from a previous research project performed for LANL and are repeated in this report. Results using the IMPLAN model were aggregated at the 1-digit SIC, or division, level. Total impacts are generally higher using the REMI model, and average about 7% higher than total impacts generated using the IMPLAN model. Most of the differences in total impact can be traced to differences in impacts generated by each model in the Manufacturing division. Generally, REMI reports impacts in the Manufacturing division that are about twice as much as impacts reported using the IMPLAN model.

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Introduction The purpose of this study is to compare the estimated economic impacts of power outages using the REMITM Policy Insight and the IMPLANTM Professional models. In an earlier research project1, we estimated the economic impacts of outages, defined by geographic area and duration, using the REMI model. In this study, we use the same outage definition and estimate the economic impacts using the IMPLAN model. We then compare the two estimates of economic impact. Our methodology, whether using REMI or IMPLAN, is unique in that we seek to directly estimate the economic impact of an interruption of electrical power or natural gas within specific outage areas. Using geographic information system (GIS) software, we merge detailed establishment databases with outage areas generated by a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) simulation model to identify with great precision exactly which establishments are affected by a given outage. Incorporating establishment data with a nationally recognized economic impact model, we are then able to estimate a measure of impact that considers the specific industry mix and density within the outage area. This approach provides a greater understanding of how hypothetical outages may impact specific areas than previous studies, which rely upon simple linear trends of aggregate or survey data. Method The method employed to determine the economic impact of a business interruption due to an outage of electricity or natural gas is a multi-step procedure requiring the integration of several distinct processes. First, simulated outages are generated using a variant of LANL’s Energy Interdependence Simulation (EISIMS) model (Unal et al. 2002) developed for the Tampa Bay region. Geographical Information System (GIS) shape files are then created to delineate the areas affected by the outage. The shape files and duration for each outage are then sent to the Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR) to estimate the economic impact. The method used to estimate the economic impact is outlined in Figure 1 1 “Electric Power and Natural Gas Outage Study,” March 2003, prepared for Los Alamos National Laboratory, by the Center of Economic Development Research, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida.

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Figure 1. CEDR Business Interruption Economic Impact Procedure As shown above, once CEDR has received simulated outage area shape files from LANL, the shape fields are integrated into the front-end database and direct economic impacts are determined. We then formatted the results from this process for input into the REMI model, which estimates the total economic impacts. Total impacts are the primary effects, i.e. direct impacts plus the secondary effects as the primary effects ripple through the economy. Similarly, for this study we format the direct economic impacts for input into the IMPLAN model. Thus, for a given set of direct economic impacts, we compare each model’s estimate of the total impacts. Tampa Bay GIS Overlays ( Front-end Database ) The foundation of our analysis is the creation of the front-end database a geographical model of the seven county Tampa Bay region comprised of several linked geographical overlays and databases. Using the Environmental Systems Research Institute’s (ESRI) ArcView 3.2 GIS software, linked geographic overlays were created for the census tracts, counties, and zip codes in the Tampa Bay study area. These overlays were integrated with comprehensive street maps of the region. Outage area received from LANL Compare REMI vs. IMPLAN results of outage Reconfigure direct impacts for IMPLANTMmodel Query front-end database and estimate direct im p acts REMITM Policy Insight model estimates total economic impact IMPLANTM Professional model estimates total economic impact Reconfigure direct impacts for REMITMmodel

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Linking the Tampa Bay spatial overlays with comprehensive street maps allow for the geo-coding of individual establishments by street address to the combined GIS project area. The geo-coding process is the identification and addition of point locations to an existing geographical overlay. Typically, as in this case, the point locations are linked to databases that contain additional characteristic data that are associated with the point locations. Databases including street address, employment, and industry group as defined by the 3-digit Standard Industry Classification (SIC) code of all business and educational establishments in the Tampa Bay region were geo-coded to the project area to complete the front-end database A detailed description of the data sets used to create the frontend database and results of the geo-coding process is included in the Data portion of CEDR’s March 2003 report (reference footnote 1). Measures of Economic Impact We examine the economic impact of an outage of electricity or natural gas through primary effects, i.e. direct impacts, and secondary effects. We first measure the direct impacts as the number of establishments and employees of those establishments immediately affected by the outage. Then, using the REMI or IMPLAN model, we estimate the total impacts. Total impacts are the sum of the primary and secondary effects. We measure total impacts by the value of lost production caused by the outage. This lost production includes both the production of industries directly affected by the business interruption and the production lost through the “ripple effect” as the flow of goods and services is momentarily slowed down or halted through the economy. Lost production is the sum of annual value-added for each industry group uniformly scaled to the duration of the outage. We use the counter-factual approach with the REMI or IMPLAN models. With this approach, we use a model to simulate the removal of the output by workers directly affected by the power outage. A key assumption inherent within our measure of lost production is that all production lost due to a business interruption cannot be made up later during the business year. While this assumption may be untenable for very short interruptions in the production process, the value of any recovered lost production still represents the opportunity cost of using additional resources to compensate for the interruption and thus a tangible economic loss. Additionally, because we measure lost production as a proportion of annual value-added, we do not capture inventories lost during the outage, such as products requiring refrigeration or further production lost after the interruption that may occur while manufacturers set-up to restart production. This imparts a downward bias in our estimate of total economic impacts. The value-added is measured using a counterfactual approach in application of the REMI model. REMI is a dynamic model that predicts how changes in an economy will occur on a year-by-year basis. The model is sensitive to a wide range of policy and project alternatives as well as interactions between regional economies and the national

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economy. Given the relatively static nature of a short-duration business interruption analysis, the model has been specified according to the assumptions of a traditional InputOutput model. CEDR’s March 2003 report contains a discussion of alternative REMI specifications (reference footnote 1). The REMI specification we use for this report approximates Type II Multipliers. IMPLAN is a proprietary economic impact assessment software system which, according to its developers, the Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc. (MIG, Inc.) is a traditional Input-Output model. IMPLAN is static in nature in that can analyze changes in an economy at a particular point in time. A region is defined in IMPLAN as a collection of counties. For example, the Tampa Bay region is defined by constructing a representative model containing the seven component counties: Hernando, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk, and Sarasota. Input into the IMPLAN model is specified as an impact to the region, as compared to the REMI model where input is specified as an impact to an individual county within the region. The methodology used to construct an IMPLAN model of the Tampa Bay region includes use of Type II Multipliers with 100% Local Purchasing Coefficients. Use of Type II Multipliers indicates that both indirect and induced effects of an impact are included in the total impact. IMPLAN defines indirect effects as the second round of spending by industries which provide inputs to the directly affected industry. Induced effects include all subsequent rounds of spending, including household spending of income. Use of 100% Local Purchasing Coefficients is necessary to foment the entire direct effect to the region. This means, for instance, that in order to counterfactually remove 50 jobs from the region, 100% of the output associated with these 50 jobs must be extracted from the region’s economy. The primary distinction between the REMI and IMPLAN models is the difference between a dynamic general equilibrium model and a static Input-Output model, respectively. The prior has the ability to forecast into the future while the latter is attuned to analysis of a specific point in time. Significant differences also exist in industry aggregation between the REMI and IMPLAN models. The REMI model contains 53 sectors, most of which relate to one or more 2-digit SIC codes. The IMPLAN model contains 528 sectors, many of which contain only one 4-digit SIC code. In addition, several 4-digit SIC-codes have parts included in more than one IMPLAN sector. These facts complicate bridging between REMI and IMPLAN. For this project, input into REMI was compiled from source files of 3-digit SIC employment data for each outage area extracted from the front-end database. Each 3-digit SIC was assigned to an appropriate REMI sector and the employment data totaled by county for each of the 53 sectors for input into the model. For IMPLAN input, the same source files of 3-digit SIC employment data were used. Each 3-digit SIC was either reassigned or apportioned to the proper IMPLAN sector or sectors, then employment data was totaled for each of the 528 sectors for the Tampa Bay region. The total number of employees counterfactually removed is the same in both models.

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Results of Test Outage OA1 This document reports the results of the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name : oa1.shp Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 191,366.7 Area (Km2): 774.436 The outage area contains 37 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, and Pinellas Major Cities: Clearwater, Oldsmar, Palmetto, Tampa, Wesley Chapel, and Zephyrhills Zip Codes: 33510 33511 33525 33540 33541 33543 33544 33547 33549 33556 33569 33570 33572 33573 33576 33592 33594 33598 33602 33603 33606 33607 33609 33610 33612 33613 33614 33615 33617 33619 33624 33625 33626 33629 33634 33635 33647 33702 33716 33755 33756 33760 33762 33764 33765 33767 33781 33782 34202 34205 34208 34209 34219 34221 34222 34639 34653 34655 34677 34683 34684 34685 34689 34690 34691 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 6,986 establishments where 165,471 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 23.892 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 1 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 23.789 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 2 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Although the size of the overall effect is reasonably comparable between the two models, several differences are noticeable at the division level. For instance, the REMI combined durables and non-durables Manufacturing divisions total an impact of about $4.78 million while the IMPLAN model reports a total effect of just over $2.16 million in Manufacturing. A portion of the difference between models in the Manufacturing division is offset by opposing differences in the FIRE division. For the FIRE division, REMI reports an impact of about $4.40 million, while IMPLAN reports an impact of almost $6.16 million. Other minor differences between divisions are also noticeable.

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Value-added Division of Econom y p er day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-2.177 Non-Durbls Manuf-2.601 Mining-0.010 Construction-0.622 Trans.&Public Util.-1.723 Fin&Ins&Real Est-4.405 Retail Trade-2.869 Wholesale Trade-2.555 Services-6.273 Agri&For&Fish Ser v -0.178 Total Private Non-farm-23.413 Government-0.480 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-23.892 Table 1 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA1 REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-426,516-42,357-53,513-522,386 Mining (AGG)0-9,073-3,566-12,639 Construction (AGG)-492,379-117,381-95,552-705,313 Manufacturing (AGG)-1,673,338-309,801-178,310-2,161,449 TCPU (AGG)-592,448-440,617-481,208-1,514,273 Trade (AGG)-2,984,921-532,065-1,718,100-5,235,086 FIRE (AGG)-3,294,403-1,070,431-1,791,223-6,156,057 Services (AGG)-3,415,967-1,323,816-2,051,597-6,791,380 Government (AGG)-488,221-79,337-95,037-662,595 Other (AGG)-2,3400-25,349-27,689 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-13,370,533-3,924,879-6,493,457-23,788,868 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 2 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA1

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Results of Test Outage OA2 This document reports the results of the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name : oa2.shp Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 114,579.9 Area (Km2): 463.691 The outage area contains 36 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Major Cities: Clearwater, Plant City, Saint Petersburg, and Tampa Zip Codes: 33511 33525 33527 33534 33540 33541 33565 33567 33569 33570 33572 33573 33584 33592 33594 33602 33603 33604 33605 33606 33607 33609 33610 33612 33613 33614 33617 33618 33619 33626 33629 33635 33707 33710 33711 33713 33760 33761 33762 33764 33771 33773 33782 34677 34683 34684 34685 34689 34695 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 5,297 establishments where 117,276 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 30.890 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 3 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 27.987 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 4 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Similar to the findings in outage area OA1, the size of the overall effect is reasonably comparable between the two models yet several differences are noticeable at the division level. The REMI combined durables and non-durables Manufacturing divisions total an impact of about $6.28 million while the IMPLAN model reports a total effect of almost $3.19 million in Manufacturing. Most of the difference between models in the Manufacturing division is offset by the difference in total impact. However, an opposing difference in the FIRE division is reported between the models. For the FIRE division, REMI reports an impact of about $3.70 million, while IMPLAN reports an impact of almost $4.30 million. Other minor differences between divisions are also noticeable.

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Value-added Division of Economyper day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-3.211 Non-Durbls Manuf-3.067 Mining-0.023 Construction-0.832 Trans.&Public Util.-3.077 Fin&Ins&Real Est-3.696 Retail Trade-3.844 Wholesale Trade-4.027 Services-8.538 A gri&For&Fish Serv-0.224 Total Private Non-farm-30.538 Government-0.352 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-30.890 Table 3 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA2 REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-266,262-53,335-61,586-381,183 Mining (AGG)-135-27,543-4,104-31,782 Construction (AGG)-649,087-201,453-109,967-960,507 Manufacturing (AGG)-2,510,340-471,299-205,209-3,186,849 TCPU (AGG)-1,680,936-745,306-553,802-2,980,044 Trade (AGG)-3,996,234-781,624-1,977,287-6,755,145 FIRE (AGG)-1,276,579-963,414-2,061,441-4,301,434 Services (AGG)-4,407,291-2,057,611-2,361,094-8,825,996 Government (AGG)-299,549-123,990-109,374-532,913 Other (AGG)-2,1500-29,173-31,323 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-15,088,564-5,425,577-7,473,037-27,987,177 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 4 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA2

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Results of Test Outage OA3 This document reports the results of the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name: oa3.shp Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 85,583.24 Area (Km2): 346.346 The outage area contains 29 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Major Cities: Clearwater, Largo, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Temple Terrace Zip Codes: 33510 33549 33556 33584 33592 33602 33605 33606 33607 33609 33610 33611 33612 33613 33617 33618 33619 33624 33629 33637 33647 33702 33703 33704 33714 33716 33756 33759 33762 33764 33765 33770 33771 33773 33777 33781 33782 34639 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 5,827 establishments where 188,942 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 55.261 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 5 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 51.805 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 6 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Consistent with previous findings in outage areas OA1 and OA2, the size of the overall effect is reasonably comparable between the two models but several differences are noticeable at the division level. Again, the REMI combined durables and nondurables Manufacturing divisions total an impact of about twice the IMPLAN impact, REMI reported an impact of about $8.89 million while the IMPLAN model reports a total effect of almost $4.64 million in Manufacturing. A portion of the difference between models in the Manufacturing division is offset by opposing differences in the FIRE and Services divisions.

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Value-added Division of Econom y p er day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-4.159 Non-Durbls Manuf-4.732 Mining-0.064 Construction-0.945 Trans.&Public Util.-11.595 Fin&Ins&Real Est-8.677 Retail Trade-7.035 Wholesale Trade-4.052 Services-13.290 Agri&For&Fish Ser v -0.190 Total Private Non-farm-54.739 Government-0.522 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-55.261 Table 5 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA3 REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-56,866-53,388-108,243-218,498 Mining (AGG)-5,254-17,068-7,213-29,536 Construction (AGG)-677,041-455,958-193,277-1,326,276 Manufacturing (AGG)-3,285,889-988,711-360,674-4,635,274 TCPU (AGG)-7,151,624-1,284,713-973,359-9,409,695 Trade (AGG)-5,276,030-1,034,438-3,475,268-9,785,737 FIRE (AGG)-4,179,314-2,003,664-3,623,178-9,806,156 Services (AGG)-7,465,787-3,393,090-4,149,847-15,008,723 Government (AGG)-1,140,027-196,912-192,236-1,529,175 Other (AGG)-4,9010-51,275-56,176 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-29,242,733-9,427,942-13,134,570-51,805,245 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 6 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA3

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Results of Test Outage OA4 This document reports the results of the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name : oa4.shp Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 95,651.27 Area (Km2): 387.093 The outage area contains 31 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Major Cities: New Port Richey, Largo, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Tarpon Springs Zip Codes: 33534 33547 33549 33556 33569 33598 33605 33607 33610 33611 33614 33615 33616 33617 33619 33621 33624 33625 33626 33634 33637 33701 33702 33704 33705 33712 33713 33714 33756 33759 33761 33763 33764 33765 33770 33771 33774 33778 33781 34652 34653 34655 34668 34683 34689 34690 34691 34698 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 5,841 establishments where 108,329 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 27.076 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 7 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 25.997 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 8 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Consistent with findings in outage areas OA1 through OA3, IMPLAN results show a smaller total impact than the REMI results. Again, comparison of model results indicates that differences between individual divisions are generally offset by opposing differences in other divisions.

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Value-added Division of Econom y p er day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-1.111 Non-Durbls Manuf-3.211 Mining-0.041 Construction-0.804 Trans.&Public Util.-2.080 Fin&Ins&Real Est-4.379 Retail Trade-3.302 Wholesale Trade-3.702 Services-7.215 Agri&For&Fish Ser v -0.135 Total Private Non-farm-25.980 Government-1.096 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-27.076 Table 7 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA4 REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-127,220-41,245-56,854-225,319 Mining (AGG)-5,254-17,868-3,789-26,911 Construction (AGG)-625,603-147,801-101,517-874,920 Manufacturing (AGG)-1,402,496-285,594-189,441-1,877,530 TCPU (AGG)-814,925-577,751-511,247-1,903,923 Trade (AGG)-3,665,835-592,239-1,825,350-6,083,424 FIRE (AGG)-2,778,841-1,185,700-1,903,038-5,867,580 Services (AGG)-3,985,137-1,694,760-2,179,666-7,859,563 Government (AGG)-1,035,746-110,401-100,970-1,247,117 Other (AGG)-3,7000-26,931-30,631 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-14,444,757-4,653,358-6,898,802-25,996,918 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 8 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA4

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Results of Test Outage OA5 This document reports the results of the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name : oa5.shp Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 75,250.67 Area (Km2): 304.53 The outage area contains 33 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Major Cities: Dunedin, New Port Richey, Saint Petersburg, Seminole, and Tampa Zip Codes: 33510 33511 33527 33541 33543 33549 33584 33592 33594 33602 33604 33605 33606 33607 33609 33611 33612 33613 33614 33615 33616 33617 33620 33624 33625 33634 33637 33647 33707 33708 33709 33710 33713 33714 33755 33761 33763 33765 33772 33773 33774 33776 33777 33778 33785 34652 34653 34655 34683 34690 34691 34698 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 5,738 establishments where 169,658 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 37.482 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 9 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 35.771 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 10 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Consistent with findings in outage areas OA1 through OA4, IMPLAN results show a smaller total impact than the REMI results. Again, comparison of model results indicates that differences between individual divisions are generally offset by opposing differences in other divisions.

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Value-added Division of Econom y p er day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-1.266 Non-Durbls Manuf-3.652 Mining-0.014 Construction-0.773 Trans.&Public Util.-3.667 Fin&Ins&Real Est-7.048 Retail Trade-6.431 Wholesale Trade-2.506 Services-11.175 Agri&For&Fish Ser v -0.159 Total Private Non-farm-36.691 Government-0.791 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-37.482 Table 9 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA5 REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-29,236-44,591-78,526-152,353 Mining (AGG)0-9,386-5,233-14,619 Construction (AGG)-538,271-259,416-140,215-937,902 Manufacturing (AGG)-1,455,359-387,404-261,655-2,104,417 TCPU (AGG)-2,021,212-760,947-706,133-3,488,291 Trade (AGG)-4,663,836-672,258-2,521,167-7,857,261 FIRE (AGG)-3,906,619-1,556,846-2,628,469-8,091,935 Services (AGG)-6,715,245-2,378,123-3,010,546-12,103,914 Government (AGG)-693,485-146,838-139,459-979,782 Other (AGG)-2,9090-37,198-40,107 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-20,026,171-6,215,810-9,528,601-35,770,582 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 10 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA5

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Results of Test Outage OA6 This document reports the results of the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name : oa6.shp Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 77,324 Area (Km2): 312.919 The outage area contains 30 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hillsborough and Pinellas Major Cities: Clearwater, Palm Harbor, Pinellas Park, Saint Petersburg, and Tampa Zip Codes: 33511 33527 33565 33584 33592 33594 33602 33603 33604 33605 33606 33610 33611 33614 33615 33618 33624 33629 33634 33635 33637 33647 33701 33705 33706 33708 33709 33710 33711 33712 33713 33714 33759 33761 33763 33772 33773 33777 33781 34677 34683 34684 34685 34695 34698 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 6,034 establishments where 112,158 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 26.430 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 11 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 23.613 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 12 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Similar to previously mentioned findings, total IMPLAN results are lower than indicated by REMI. Individual division differences are generally minimal, with the exception of the Manufacturing division, in which REMI shows a combined total effect nearly three times as large as IMPLAN. However, this difference is offset mainly by the lower IMPLAN total effect.

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Value-added Division of Econom y p er day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-1.259 Non-Durbls Manuf-2.900 Mining-0.019 Construction-0.713 Trans.&Public Util.-2.419 Fin&Ins&Real Est-4.077 Retail Trade-3.485 Wholesale Trade-2.194 Services-8.400 Agri&For&Fish Ser v -0.180 Total Private Non-farm-25.644 Government-0.786 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-26.430 Table 11 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA6 REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-105,459-35,036-52,706-193,201 Mining (AGG)0-19,450-3,512-22,962 Construction (AGG)-536,899-172,348-94,111-803,359 Manufacturing (AGG)-963,723-305,229-175,621-1,444,573 TCPU (AGG)-1,056,987-484,181-473,952-2,015,119 Trade (AGG)-2,893,503-536,560-1,692,190-5,122,254 FIRE (AGG)-1,889,713-929,440-1,764,211-4,583,365 Services (AGG)-4,925,136-1,559,629-2,020,658-8,505,424 Government (AGG)-700,641-99,804-93,604-894,049 Other (AGG)-3,6680-24,967-28,635 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-13,075,730-4,141,677-6,395,533-23,612,940 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 12 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA6

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Results of Test Outage OA7 This document reports the results of the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name : oa7.shp Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 113,709.3 Area (Km2): 460.167 The outage area contains 30 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Major Cities: New Port Richey, Plant City, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Temple Terrace Zip Codes: 33510 33511 33527 33547 33549 33556 33567 33569 33594 33604 33605 33610 33612 33613 33615 33617 33618 33619 33624 33625 33626 33635 33637 33647 33705 33711 33712 33770 33771 33772 33773 33774 33776 33778 33785 34639 34652 34653 34654 34655 34668 34689 34690 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 5,509 establishments where 99,517 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 29.279 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by manhours of output. Table 13 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $ 24.544 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 14 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Similar to previous findings, total IMPLAN results are lower than indicated by REMI. Individual division differences are generally minimal, with the exception of the Manufacturing division, in which REMI shows a combined total effect over three times as large as IMPLAN. However, this difference is offset mainly by the lower IMPLAN total effect.

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Value-added Division of Econom y p er day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-1.539 Non-Durbls Manuf-3.050 Mining-0.064 Construction-0.794 Trans.&Public Util.-6.141 Fin&Ins&Real Est-3.491 Retail Trade-4.134 Wholesale Trade-3.359 Services-5.674 Agri&For&Fish Ser v -0.245 Total Private Non-farm-28.491 Government-0.788 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-29.279 Table 13 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA7 REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-174,827-46,702-49,505-271,034 Mining (AGG)0-9,894-3,299-13,193 Construction (AGG)-593,943-215,871-88,394-898,208 Manufacturing (AGG)-989,484-245,669-164,953-1,400,105 TCPU (AGG)-3,854,484-548,375-445,161-4,848,021 Trade (AGG)-4,360,256-546,784-1,589,397-6,496,437 FIRE (AGG)-1,045,870-740,512-1,657,043-3,443,425 Services (AGG)-2,321,277-1,430,031-1,897,912-5,649,220 Government (AGG)-1,326,346-84,763-87,918-1,499,027 Other (AGG)-2,1500-23,450-25,600 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-14,668,638-3,868,601-6,007,031-24,544,270 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 14 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: OA7

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Results of Test Outage SANEW This document reports the results of the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name : sanew.shp Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 753,465.1 Area (Km2): 3,049.182 The outage area contains 226 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, and Pinellas Major Cities: Clearwater, Dunedin, Largo, New Port Richey, Saint Petersburg, Seminole, Tampa, Tarpon Spring, Temple Terrace, Wesley Chapel, and Zephyrhills Zip Codes: 33510 33511 33525 33527 33534 33540 33541 33543 33544 33547 33549 33556 33565 33567 33569 33570 33572 33573 33576 33584 33592 33594 33598 33602 33603 33604 33605 33606 33607 33609 33610 33611 33612 33613 33614 33615 33616 33617 33618 33619 33620 33621 33624 33625 33626 33629 33634 33635 33637 33647 33701 33702 33703 33704 33705 33706 33707 33708 33709 33710 33711 33712 33713 33714 33716 33755 33756 33759 33760 33761 33762 33763 33764 33765 33767 33770 33771 33772 33773 33774 33776 33777 33778 33781 33782 33785 34202 34205 34208 34209 34219 34221 34222 34639 34652 34653 34654 34655 34668 34677 34683 34684 34685 34689 34690 34691 34695 34698 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 41,232 establishments where 961,351 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $233.967* million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 15 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $232.684 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 16 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Similar to previous findings, total IMPLAN results are lower than indicated by REMI. Individual division differences are generally minimal, with the exception of the Manufacturing division, in which REMI shows a combined total effect almost twice as large as IMPLAN. This major difference is generally offset by higher IMPLAN effects in other divisions. This estimate reflects modifications made to REMITM Pinellas county baseline to avoid potential doublecounting that occurs when ripple effects simultaneously reduce employment in sectors that are catastrophically impacted by the outage. This modification prevents reducing employment by more people than are actually employed in the affected sector.

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Value-added Division of Econom y p er day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-14.748 Non-Durbls Manuf-19.852 Mining-0.292 Construction-5.870 Trans.&Public Util.-29.702 Fin&Ins&Real Est-38.911 Retail Trade-31.148 Wholesale Trade-23.545 Services-62.730 Agri&For&Fish Ser v -1.432 Total Private Non-farm-228.229 Government-5.737 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-233.967 Table 15 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: SANEW REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-1,404,925-361,389-498,358-2,264,672 Mining (AGG)-81,184-120,194-33,209-234,587 Construction (AGG)-4,445,011-1,739,623-889,857-7,074,491 Manufacturing (AGG)-12,226,613-3,190,903-1,660,562-17,078,078 TCPU (AGG)-20,195,792-5,591,909-4,481,396-30,269,098 Trade (AGG)-29,133,765-5,032,439-16,000,313-50,166,517 FIRE (AGG)-21,241,322-9,548,384-16,681,295-47,471,002 Services (AGG)-35,272,477-15,487,376-19,106,105-69,865,955 Government (AGG)-6,161,463-956,486-885,063-8,003,013 Other (AGG)-20,9650-236,071-257,036 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-130,183,517-42,028,703-60,472,229-232,684,448 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 16 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: SANEW

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Results of Test Outage OA – Brookridge Substation This document reports the results for assessing the economic impact of a business interruption due to a simulated electrical outage. We describe the outage area as follows. Outage Area Description Outage Area Name : OA – Brookridge substation Outage Duration: 24 hours Physical Characteristics Area (acres): 60,216.23 Area (Km2): 243.688 The outage area contains 13 non-contiguous areas and encompasses all or part of the following: Counties: Hernando, Pasco, and Pinellas Major Cities: Clearwater, Largo, New Port Richey, Safety Harbor, and Saint Petersburg Zip Codes: 33701 33702 33703 33704 33705 33706 33708 33709 33710 33712 33713 33714 33755 33756 33759 33761 33764 33765 33767 33770 33771 33772 33773 33774 33776 33777 33778 33781 33782 33785 34606 34607 34613 34614 34654 34667 34668 34669 34683 34684 34689 34695 A map of the general location of the outage area within Tampa Bay follows.

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Economic Impact: The outage area contains 4,990 establishments where 115,963 workers are employed. We estimate, using REMI, that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $26.664 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 17 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using REMI. Comparatively, we estimate using IMPLAN that lost production in Tampa Bay due to a 24 hour outage would be $23.753 million, based on a proportional distribution of annual output scaled by man-hours of output. Table 18 describes the loss by divisions of the economy, as determined using IMPLAN. Similar to previous findings, total IMPLAN results are lower than indicated by REMI. Individual division differences are generally minimal, with the exception of the Manufacturing division, in which REMI shows a combined total effect almost Three times as large as IMPLAN. This major difference is generally offset by higher IMPLAN effects in other divisions.

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Value-added Division of Economyper day (Mil. $01) Durables Manuf-1.338 Non-Durbls Manuf-2.230 Mining-0.009 Construction-0.761 Trans.&Public Util.-1.976 Fin&Ins&Real Est-3.894 Retail Trade-6.922 Wholesale Trade-2.276 Services-6.805 Agri&For&Fish Serv-0.065 Total Private Non-farm-26.277 Government-0.387 Farm0.000 Total Value-added Lost-26.664 Table 17 Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: Brookridge REMI Results IndustryDirect*Indirect*Induced*Total* Agriculture (AGG)-21,473-27,395-50,943-99,811 Mining (AGG)0-9,364-3,395-12,759 Construction (AGG)-598,413-156,983-90,962-846,358 Manufacturing (AGG)-780,402-275,191-169,744-1,225,336 TCPU (AGG)-1,006,669-490,999-458,092-1,955,759 Trade (AGG)-5,215,569-485,599-1,635,566-7,336,734 FIRE (AGG)-1,794,238-876,518-1,705,176-4,375,932 Services (AGG)-3,763,644-1,443,301-1,953,042-7,159,988 Government (AGG)-533,258-90,092-90,472-713,821 Other (AGG)-2,2770-24,131-26,408 Instutitions ( AGG) 0000 Total-13,715,942-3,855,441-6,181,523-23,752,906 NOTE: ALL FIGURES ARE 2001$ Value Added per Day Table 18 IMPLAN Results Tampa Bay Lost Production due to Outage Outage Area Name: BROOKRIDGE

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Conclusions Comparison of REMI and IMPLAN model results indicates that total impacts determined using REMI are consistently higher than total impacts determined using IMPLAN. Impacts at the division level were determined for comparison. Consistently, the most apparent differences were noticed in the Manufacturing division. We found that impacts determined for the Manufacturing division were higher using REMI than impacts determined using IMPLAN by a factor of about two in most cases. Differences between other divisions were not as extreme, and had a tendency to offset the major Manufacturing division differences. Table 19 shows the percentage difference that IMPLAN results are lower than REMI. In Panel A of Table 19, total results are compared. Also in Table 19, Panel B through Panel J inclusive, indicate comparisons of each division. IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA123.89223.7890.43% OA230.89027.9879.40% OA355.26151.8056.25% OA427.07625.9973.99% OA537.48235.7714.56% OA626.43023.61310.66% OA729.27924.54416.17% SANEW233.967232.6840.55% BROOKRIDGE26.66423.75310.92% Average6.99% Value-Added per Day, Millions of 2001 $. Table 19 Panel A Total Impact

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IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA10.1780.522-193.26% OA20.2240.381-70.09% OA30.1900.218-14.74% OA40.1350.225-66.67% OA50.1590.1524.40% OA60.1800.193-7.22% OA70.2450.271-10.61% SANEW1.4322.265-58.17% BROOKRIDGE0.0650.100-53.85% Average-52.24% IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA10.0100.013-30.00% OA20.0230.032-39.13% OA30.0640.03053.13% OA40.0410.02734.15% OA50.0140.015-7.14% OA60.0190.023-21.05% OA70.0640.01379.69% SANEW0.2920.23519.52% BROOKRIDGE0.0090.013-44.44% Average4.97% IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA10.6220.705-13.34% OA20.8320.961-15.50% OA30.9451.326-40.32% OA40.8040.875-8.83% OA50.7730.938-21.35% OA60.7130.803-12.62% OA70.7940.898-13.10% SANEW5.8707.074-20.51% BROOKRIDGE0.7610.846-11.17% Average-17.42% Value-Added per Day, Millions of 2001 $. Table 19 (continued) Division: Mining Division: Agriculture Panel D Division: Construction Panel B Panel C

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IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA14.7782.16154.77% OA26.2783.18749.24% OA38.8914.63547.87% OA44.3221.87856.55% OA54.9182.10457.22% OA64.1591.44565.26% OA74.5891.40069.49% SANEW34.60017.07850.64% BROOKRIDGE3.5681.22565.67% Average57.41% IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA11.7231.51412.13% OA23.0772.9803.15% OA311.5959.41018.84% OA42.0801.9048.46% OA53.6673.4884.88% OA62.4192.01516.70% OA76.1414.84821.06% SANEW29.70230.269-1.91% BROOKRIDGE1.9761.9561.01% Average9.37% IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA15.4245.2353.48% OA27.8716.75514.18% OA311.0879.78611.73% OA47.0046.08313.15% OA58.9377.85712.08% OA65.6795.1229.81% OA77.4936.49613.31% SANEW54.69350.1678.28% BROOKRIDGE9.1987.33720.23% Average11.81% Value-Added per Day, Millions of 2001 $. Division: Trade Table 19 (continued) Panel E Panel G Panel F Division: TCPU Division: Manufacturing

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IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA14.4056.156-39.75% OA23.6964.301-16.37% OA38.6779.806-13.01% OA44.3795.868-34.00% OA57.0488.092-14.81% OA64.0774.583-12.41% OA73.4913.4431.37% SANEW38.91147.471-22.00% BROOKRIDGE3.8944.376-12.38% Average-18.15% IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA16.2736.791-8.26% OA28.5388.826-3.37% OA313.29015.009-12.93% OA47.2157.860-8.94% OA511.17512.104-8.31% OA68.4008.505-1.25% OA75.6745.6490.44% SANEW62.7369.866-11.38% BROOKRIDGE6.8057.160-5.22% Average-6.58% IMPLAN less than REMI Outage AreaREMI*IMPLAN*by % Difference OA10.4800.691-43.96% OA20.3520.564-60.23% OA30.5221.585-203.64% OA41.0961.278-16.61% OA50.7911.020-28.95% OA60.7860.923-17.43% OA70.7881.525-93.53% SANEW5.7378.260-43.98% BROOKRIDGE0.3870.740-91.21% Average-66.61% Value-Added per Day, Millions of 2001 $. Table 19 (continued) Panel J Division: Government & Other Panel H Division: FIRE Panel I Division: Services