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The Impact of Medicaid Expenditures on Floridas Sales Tax Revenues An Analysis Performed by CENTER FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH College of Business Administration 1101 Channelside Dr., 2 nd Floor N., Tampa, Florida 33602 Office: (813) 905-5854 or Fax: (813) 905-5856 March, 2005
i Table of Contents Preface........................................................................................................................ .....................ii Executive Summary.............................................................................................................. .........iii I. Introduction ...............................................................................................................................1 II. Analysis and Findings..................................................................................................... ...........2 Appendix A. REMI Policy Insight TM Model..................................................................................................5
ii Preface The Florida Hospital Association (FHA) is a statewide organization representing the interests of hospitals and health care systems. The FHA provides advocacy before the state legislature, Congress, state, and federal regulatory agencies, and the court system. This study was commissioned by the FHA and performed by the Center for Economic Development Research, College of Business Admi nistration, University of South Florida. The Center for Economic Development Research provides information and conducts research on issues related to economic growth and development in the Nation, in the state of Florida, and particularly in the central Florida region. The Center serves the faculty, staff, and students of the College of Business Administration, the University, and individuals and organizations in the Tampa Bay region and statewide. Activities of the Center for Economic Development Research are designed to further the objectives of the University and specifically the objectives of the College of Business Administration. Robert Anderson, Dean, College of Business Administration (COBA), USF Dennis G. Colie, Director, Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR), COBA, USF, Economist and Principal Investigator
iii Executive Summary The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the fiscal impact of FY 2004-05 Medicaid expenditures on Floridas sales tax revenues. We use the REMI TM Policy Insight model to make our estimate of the fiscal impact. To implement the model we use the traditional counter-factual approach. That is, we virtually remove th e projected FY 2004-05 Medicaid expenditures from Floridas economy and allow the model to find a new general equilibrium. The new general equilibrium takes into account the loss of continued circulation of the initial Medicaid expenditures throughout Floridas economy. Then, for this research we compare the estimated sales tax revenues at the new equilibrium with the projected sales tax revenues before removal of the projected Medicaid expenditures. Medicaid pays for medical and health-related services for eligible individuals and families with limited income. In FY 2004-05, almost $14.5 billion is projected to be spent in Florida by the Medicaid program. This spending will occur in seven main sectors of Floridas economy: Health and Personal Care Stores (Retail Trade) Insurance Carriers and Related Activities Ambulatory Health Care Services Hospitals Nursing and Residential Care Facilities Social Assistance Administration of Human Resource Programs (Public Administration) If FY 2004-05 projected Medicaid expenditures were withheld from the economy, and in the absence of substitute funds, we estimate that Floridas total sales tax revenues would decline by approximately 2.19%, or a decrease of about $495 million. That is, the FY 2004-05 projected Medicaid expenditures will contribute $495 million to Florida in sales tax revenues.
1 I. Introduction According to the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Medicaid is a program that pays for medical assistance for certain individuals and families with low incomes and resources. This program became law in 1965 and is jointly funded by the Federal and State governments (including the District of Columbia a nd the Territories) to assist States in providing medical long-term care assistance to people who meet certain eligibility criteria Medicaid is the largest source of funding for medical and health-related services for people with limited income. 1 In Florida, the States Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) administers the Medicaid program, which is authorized under Chapter 409, F.S., and Chapter 59-G, F.A.C. The program is funded through federal and state cost-sharing and with Florida counties contributing a portion of inpatient hospital care and nursing home services costs. Matching federal funds are contingent upon the States continued compliance with Title XIX of the Social Security Act and regulations in Title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Eligibility for Medicaid participation is determined by one of two agencies: the Department of Children and Families for low income children and family programs and the institutional care program, or the Social Security Administration for aged, blind, or disabled recipients. Each agency has separate and distinct requirements for eligibility. Performance-based program budgeting is used in ACHAs budget process to determine how established goals are being met in the use of public funds. Analysis of results for 58 separate measures is compared to legislated targets to judge the program efficiency. 2 In 2003, average monthly caseload exceeded 2 million individuals. Budgeted expenditures of $12.5 billion were available for FY 2003-04. 1 See http://www.cms.hhs.gov/medicaid/default.asp? 2 From The 2003 Annual Report on Medicaid Outcome Measures AHCA, September, 2003, found at http://www.fdhc.state.fl.us/Medicaid/deputy_secretary/ recent_presentations/2003_Medicaid_Outcome_Measures.pd f
2 II. Analysis and Findings The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the fiscal impact of FY 2004-05 Medicaid expenditures on Floridas sales tax revenues. We use the REMI TM Policy Insight model to make our estimate of the fiscal impact. (See Appendix A for a brief description of the model.) To implement the model we use the traditional counter-factual approach. That is, we virtually remove the projected FY 2004-05 Medicaid expenditures from Floridas economy and allow the model to find a new general equilibrium. The new general equilibrium takes into account the loss of continued circulation of the initial Medicaid expenditures throughout Floridas economy. This circulation is often referred to as the ripple effect or the multiplier effect. Then, for this research we compare the estimated sales tax revenues at the new equilibrium with the projected sales tax revenues before removal of the projected Medicaid expenditures. The ripple effect is the consequence of an initial round of spending. The initial spending is called the direct, or first round, spending. This spending is used to purchase goods and services, which in this study is Medicaid-funded health care. The suppliers of the health care must spend additional amounts to purchase raw materials, labor and other inputs to their production processes. The spending of these additional amounts in Florida constitutes the second and subsequent rounds of spending, known as indirect or secondary spending. Thus, the direct spending ripples through the economy and di rect spending plus indirect spending equals total spending. Table 1 shows projected FY 2004-05 Medicaid expenditures. The basic data is from the February 25, 2005 Social Services Estimating Conference and provided to us by the Florida Hospital Association (FHA). Based on the description provided with the data, we can determine applicable industry subsectors of the economy in which these funds will purchase goods and services. The North American Industry Classifi cation System (NAICS) was developed jointly by the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to provide comparability in statistics about business activity across North America and defines all categories of economic activity. We take the basic data, shown in the Expense column of Table 1 and allocate these expenses to various NAICS industry subsectors as shown in the columns to the right of the Expense column. This allows us to input the dollar amounts of projected Medicaid spending into appropriate REMI model sectors. For example, NAICS sector 446 Health and Personal Care Stores and the REMI Retail sector captures Medicaid spending for Prescribed Medicine / Drugs. Table 2 Florida Sales Taxes, reports the results of our analysis. The first column of Table 2 lists the type of sales tax. The second column reports the models FY 2004-05 projected sales taxes with Medicaid spending at its project ed FY 2004-05 levels reflected in Table 1. The third column reports estimated sales tax revenues without the projected Medicaid spending. An implicit assumption is that Medicaid recipients do not substitute funds from other sources, such as savings or local governments, to continue heath care services that would otherwise be paid for by Medicaid. To the extent that there is such substitution the loss of sales tax revenues may be less than reported here.
3 The fourth column of Table 2 shows the difference in sales tax revenues in dollars, and the fifth column shows the difference expressed as a percentage of total projected sales tax revenues (including sales tax generated by the projected FY 2004-05 Medicaid expenditures). In summary, if FY 2004-05 projected Medicaid expenditures were withheld from the economy, and without substitute funds, we estimate that Floridas total sales tax revenues would decline by approximately 2.19%, or a decrease of about $495 million. That is, we estimate that FY 2004-05 projected Medicaid expenditures will contribute $495 million to Florida in sales tax revenues.
MEDICAID SERVICES TO INDIVIDUALS Service NAICSExpense NAICS 446NAICS 524NAICS 621NAICS 622NAICS 623NAICS 624NAICS 923 Case Management Services 621$101,219,926 $101,219,926 Therapeutic Services for Children 621$235,994,239 $235,994,239 Community Mental Health Services 621$59,772,790 $59,772,790 Adult Dental Services 621$14,517,907 $14,517,907 Dev Evaluation / Early Intervention Svcs 621$3,599,931 $3,599,931 Early & Periodic Screening / Children 621$127,261,066 $127,261,066 G/A Rural Hosp Financial Assist / DSH 622$12,746,090 $12,746,090 Family Planning Services 621$7,724,249 $7,724,249 Healthy Start Services 621$13,634,401 $13,634,401 Home Health Services 621$165,070,061 $165,070,061 Hospice Services 623$218,870,458 $218,870,458 Hospital Inpatient Services 622$1,999,907,739 $1,999,907,739 Hospital Inpatient Special Medicaid Payments622$582,196,096 $582,196,096 Regular Disproportionate Share 622$226,923,978 $226,923,978 Freestanding Dialysis Centers 621$13,434,427 $13,434,427 Hospital Insurance Benefits 524$140,962,450 $140,962,450 Hospital Outpatient Services 621$551,312,544 $551,312,544 Hospital Outpatient Special Medicaid Pymts 621$8,383,501 $8,383,501 Respitory Therapy Services 621$4,716,108 $4,716,108 Nurse Practioner Services 621$5,341,798 $5,341,798 Birthing Center Services 621$1,243,176 $1,243,176 Othe Lab and X-ray Services 621$45,687,802 $45,687,802 Patient Transportation 621$112,690,977 $112,690,977 Physician Assistant Services 621$2,128,163 $2,128,163 Personal Care Services 621$21,472,458 $21,472,458 Physical Therapy Services 621$17,844,485 $17,844,485 Physician Services 621$666,766,804 $666,766,804 Physician Svs Special Medicaid Payments 621$102,196,275 $102,196,275 Prescribed Medicine / Drugs 446$2,617,296,082 $2,617,296,082 Private Duty Nursing Services 621$128,057,073 $128,057,073 Rural Health Clinics 621$53,814,512 $53,814,512 Speech Therapy Services 621$29,719,809 $29,719,809 MediPass Services 621$28,860,500 $28,860,500 G/A RPICC DSH 622$168,300 $168,300 Supplemental Medical Insurance 524$603,660,421 $603,660,421 Occupational Theraphy Services 621$21,777,436 $21,777,436 Clinic Services 621$74,350,063 $74,350,063 Medicaid School Refinancing 923$50,000,000 $50,000,000 Total Medicaid Services to Individuals $9,071,324,095 $2,617,296,082$744,622,871$2,618,592,481$2,821,942,203$218,870,458 $0$50,000 ,000 Table 1 FY 04-05 Projected Medicaid Expenditures 4
MEDICAID LONG TERM CARE Service NAICSExpense NAICS 446NAICS 524NAICS 621NAICS 622NAICS 623NAICS 624NAICS 923 Assistive Care Services 623$32,917,835 $32,917,835 Home & Community Based Services 624$777,778,695 $777,778,695 ALF Resident Waiver 623$30,022,154 $30,022,154 Intermediate Care Fac./ Sunland Ctrs 923$139,093,059 $139,093,059 Intermediate Care Fac./ Community 923$199,057,315 $199,057,315 Nursing Home Care 623$2,355,015,969 $2,355,015,969 Nursing Home Special Medicaid Payments 623$11,069,716 $11,069,716 State Mental Health Hospital Services 923$7,555,206 $7,555,206 Mental Health DSH 622$68,635,186 $68,635,186 TB Hospital DSH 622$2,444,444 $2,444,444 Community Supported Living Waiver 923$21,408,819 $21,408,819 Nursing Home Diversion Waive r 923$131,712,008 $131,712,008 Total Medicaid Long Term Care $3,776,710,406 $0 $0 $0$71,079,630$2,429,025,674$777,778,695$498,826,407 MEDICAID PREPAID HEALTH PLANS Service NAICSExpense NAICS 446NAICS 524NAICS 621NAICS 622NAICS 623NAICS 624NAICS 923 Prepaid Health Plans Elderly and Disabled 524$694,200,692 $694,200,692 Prepaid Health Plans Families 524$863,888,370 $863,888,370 Total Medicaid Prepaid Health Plans $1,558,089,062 $0$1,558,089,062 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 EXECUTIVE DIRECTION & SUPPORT SERVICES Service NAICSExpense NAICS 446NAICS 524NAICS 621NAICS 622NAICS 623NAICS 624NAICS 923 Medicaid Fiscal Contract 923$79,851,714 $79,851,714 TOTAL MEDICAID $14,485,975,277 $2,617,296,082$2,302,711,933$2,618,592,481$2,893,021,833$2,647,896,132$777,778,695$628,678,121 Key to NAICS codes: 446Health and Personal Care Stores (Retail Trade) 524Insurance Carriers and Related Activities 621Ambulatory Health Care Services 622Hospitals 623Nursing and Residential Care Facilities 624Social Assistance 923Administration of Human Resource Programs (Public Administration) Table 1 (continued) FY 04-05 Projected Medicaid Expenditures 5
Projected Estimated Difference Difference with Medicaid Spendingwithout Medicaid Spendingw & w/o Medicaid Spendingas % of Projected FY 2004-05 FY 2004-05 FY 2004-05 FY 2004-05 Type (2004 $) (2004 $) (2004 $) General Sales Tax $17,591,000,000 $17,188,000,000 -$403,000,000 -2.29% Motor Fuel Sales Tax $1,944,000,000 $1,908,000,000 -$36,000,000 -1.85% Alcoholic Bev Sales Tax $694,000,000 $681,000,000 -$13,000,000 -1.87% Tobacco Sales Tax $593,000,000 $589,000,000 -$4,000,000 -0.67% Public Utility Sales Tax $770,000,000 $754,000,000 -$16,000,000 -2.08% Other Sales Tax $988,000,000 $965,000,000 -$23,000,000 -2.33% Total Sales Taxes $22,580,000,000 $22,085,000,000 -$495,000,000 -2.19% Table 2 Florida Sales Taxes 6
7 Appendix A REMI Policy Insight TM Model The Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR), College of Business Administration, University of South Florida (USF), uses the REMI Policy Insight TM model to estimate economic and demographic effects that policy initiatives or external events may cause on a regional economy. Data the last available historical year is 2000 for each of USFs seven county economic development region, Hernando, Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk and Sarasota; as well as the counties of Brevard, Lake, Orange, Osceola, Seminole and Volusia; and a consolidation of the remaining 54 Florida counties are available. The REMI software is managed by CEDR and available to the USF community for research and teaching purposes. The following article briefly explains the policy insight model. Founded in 1980, Regional Economic Models, Inc. (REMI) constructs models that reveal the economic and demographic effects that policy initiatives or external events may cause on a local economy. REMI TM Policy Insight model users include national, regional, state, and city governments, as well as universities, nonprofit organizations, public utilities and private consulting firms. REMI TM users in Florida include the State of Florida (Legislature, Governors Office, Agency for Workforce Innovation), Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council, the University of South Florida, Florida State University, City of Jacksonville, Floridas Space Coast Economic Development Commission, and the Northeast Florida Regional Planning Council. REMI TM is a dynamic model that predicts how changes in an economy will occur on a year-by-year basis. The model is sensitive to a wide range of policy and project alternatives as well as interactions between regional economies and the national economy. The model uses data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Department of Energy, the Census Bureau and other public sources. The models dynamic property means that it forecasts not only what will happen but also when it will happen. This results in long-term predictions that have general equilibrium properties. This means that the long-term properties of general equilibrium models are preserved without sacrificing the accuracy of event timing predictions and without simply taking elasticity estimates from secondary sources. REMI TM is a structural model, meaning that it clearly includes cause and effect relationships. The model shares two key underlying assumptions with mainstream economic theory: households maximize utility and producers maximize profits. Because these assumptions make sense to most people, the model can be understood by intelligent lay people as well as trained economists. In the model, businesses produce goods to sell to other firms, consumers, investors, governments and purchasers outside of the region. The output is produced using labor, capital, fuel and intermediate inputs. The demand for labor, capital and fuel per unit of output depends on
8 their relative costs, because an increase in the pr ice of any one of these inputs leads to substitution away from that input to other inputs. The supply of labor in the model depends on the number of people in the population and the proportion of those people who participate in the labor force. Economic migration affects the population size. People will move into an area if the real after-tax wage rates or the likelihood of being employed increases in a region. Supply and demand for labor in the model determines the wage rates. These wage rates, along with other prices and productivity, determine the cost of doing business for every industry in the model. An increase in the cost of doing business causes either an increase in price or a cut in profits depending on the market for the product. In either case, an increase in cost would decrease the share of the local and US market supplied by local firms. This market share combined with the demand described above determines the amount of local output. There are also many other feedback loops in the model such as the feedback from changes in wages and employment to income and consumption, the feedback of economic expansion to investment, and the feedback of population to government spending. The model brings together the fundamental economic elements mentioned in the previous two paragraphs to determine a baseline forecast for each year The model includes all the interindustry relationships that are in an i nput-output model, like IMPLAN Professional TM and goes beyond the input-output model by including added relationships with population, labor supply, wages, prices, profits, and market shares.
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The impact of Medicaid expenditures on Florida's sales tax revenues
h [electronic resource] /
an analysis performed by Center for Economic Development Research, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida.
Tampa, Fla. :
b Center for Economic Development Research,
1 online resource (iii, 8 p.)
Title from PDF of cover (viewed Aug. 14, 2009).
Includes bibliographical references.
Commissioned by the Florida Hospital Association (FHA), this report estimates the fiscal impact of FY 2004-05 Medicaid expenditures on Florida's sales tax revenues by using the REMI policy insight mode.
x Economic conditions.
University of South Florida.
Center for Economic Development Research.
t Center for Economic Development Research (CEDR) Collection