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Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 1 CPCC / School Project Sustainable Futures 2003 FacultyDennis A. Andrejko, AIA and Stacy Harwood, Ph.D Student MembersAnne Elrod, Ryan Fitzsimmons, Adam Linton, Hannah Robinson, Kathleen Wilson, and Tim Wilson
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 2Outline of Document 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Goals and Objectives 3.0 Site Analysis 3.1 Landscape Elements 3.2 Wind Elements 4.0 Precedent Studies 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Definition of Sustainability 4.3 Fisher Pavilion in Seattle, Washington 4.4 Pinecote Pavilion in Picayune, Mississippi 4.5 Crossroads CPCC at Prescott College in Arizona 4.6 Phillip Merrill Environmental CPCC in Annapolis Maryland 5.0 Programming 6.0 Design Proposals 6.1 Introduction and Overview 6.2 Sustainable Design Concepts 6.3 Scheme A 6.4 Scheme B 7.0 Summary/Critique 7.1 Summary 7.2 Critical Reflections 7.3 Next Steps 8.0 Appendices 8.1 Resources 8.2 Figures
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 3 1.0 Introduction In Cerro Plano, the school, bullring, and salon, ad jacent land sites owned by the Ministry of Educatio n, present the opportunity to develop a better utilized community center. The CP C (CPS) plans to build a new school where the salon is presently located with twice as many classrooms and additional education s pace as well as adding new programs like music, com puters, and art. Development of this area into the Cerro Plano Cultu ral Center (CPCC) will serve as an extension of thi s new school while constructing a landmark community area serving a va riety of community needs. The school administratio n, along with Monteverde Institute and greater community, has many goals the y want to see for this space. 2.0 Goals and Objectives Sustainable design features Balance between cultures in Monteverde Zone Better academic program for CPS Increased economic viability (through renting exist ing school as well as new facilities) Offer a family center for community o Recreation o Culture o Education Generate new options for entertainment and employme nt Indoor sports facilities o Soccer o Basketball o Volleyball o Tennis o Roller Skating Outdoor play space o Play structure o Open multi-use field Diversify tourism
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 4 o Eco-tourism o Bio-Diversity o Local and international influences Good indoor multi-use community space o Graduations o Art fairs o Musical and theatrical performances Improved site drainage 3.0 Site Analysis 3.1 Site Conditions The future CPCC and CPS site is located across the street and west from the existing school site as sh own on the site analysis map (Appendix Figures 1 & 2). The current bullring s its on the Northwest portion of the site. Currentl y the bullring is only officially used once a year for a bull festival. The site has steep grade changes on the north, west, and east s ides, with the road bordering on the south side. The site itself, however, is relativel y flat. The open areas south of the bullring have had standing water during relatively dry periods indicating the sites poor drainage. B ehind the bullring is a large hole containing illeg ally dumped garbage, as well as 4 non-functional bathrooms. The bullring itself is s tructurally sound although the exterior sheet metal walls are gapping in spots and most residents agree that the exterior is unattract ive. The bullring site is 3 meters higher in eleva tion than the salon and potential future school site. 3.2 Climate Conditions The site is mostly flat and open, leaving it expose d to high winds in the dry season (from December April), but also supplying sunlight on pleasant days. The wet seasons (May November) high rainfall means that spaces need to have some shelter from precipitation, as well as the need for efficient dr ainage systems to prevent erosion. The steep topog raphy on three sides of the site requires additional drainage to manage runoff onto other properties.
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 5 4.0 Precedent Studies 4.1 Introduction The four documented precedent studies have features that are applicable to the CPCC project. They are all multi-use facilities that incorporate sustainable design features. These stu dies gave inspiration to the CPCC projects design c oncepts by demonstrating sustainable development. 4.2 Definition of Sustainability Sustainability1 : capable of being sustained 2 a : of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting o r using a resource so that the resource is not depl eted or permanently damaged < sustainable techniques> < sustainable agriculture> b : of or relating to a lifestyle involving the use of sustainable methods < sustainable society> (Taken from the Merriam Webster Dictionary) 4.3 Fisher Pavilion at Seattle CPCC The Fisher Pavilion at Seattle CPCC in Seattle, Was hington is a multi-purpose exhibition hall nestled in the heart of the 74-acre Seattle CPCC campus completed in 2002. It replaces the old Flag Pavilion that was constructed on the s ame site 40 years ago as a temporary building for the Seattle World's Fair. F isher Pavilion is one of the first buildings in Sea ttle to be designed and constructed under the city policy requiring all public faciliti es over 5,000 square feet to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver rating. The primary function of Fishe r Pavilion is to promote community and sense of pla ce. Seattle CPCC has been described as the "front yard" of Seattle. The four major spaces of this 2.6-acre project (exhibition h all, upper plaza, lower plaza, and civic green) create a wide variety of opportunities for public gatherings and events within walking di stance of downtown. Significance of Fisher Pavilion to CPCC Project Multiple uses by multiple parties in one space Off-site parking
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 6 Sustainable building principles Use of an existing site 4.4 Pinecote Pavilion Pinecote Pavilion is located at the Crosby arboretu m in Picayune Mississippi. It is intended to ser ve as an outdoor meeting space and educational classroom for its visitors. Open constr uction allows for optimal ventilation, and maximum shading. The structure is an outdoor pavilion structure, situated near one of th e many water bodies at the Crosby arboretum. The P avilion was constructed from onsite Georgia Pine timber. The supporting members do not obstruct the main space. The Pavilion is lo cated in the Pearl River basin, an associated with high temperatures, humidity, and rainfall. Significance of Pinecote Pavilion to CPCC Project Uses on site materials for construction Open air construction Flexible design allows for multiple programs No extraneous costs associated with construction Uses on site materials for construction
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 7 4.5 Crossroads CPCC at Prescott College in Arizona The Crossroads CPCC is to be designed with a strong emphasis on utilizing ecological design principals (mentioned above in Fisher Pavilion discussion). The Project is intended to be registered with the U.S. Green Building Councils LEED Program and should strive for a certification level of Gold or Platinum. The project should be developed to maximize multi-functionality efficiency with a stro ng level of interrelationship between functional areas. Crossroads CPCC has spaces for b oth the community and campus with a community garden, auditorium, and quiet spaces fo r study and meditation. Crossroads CPCC is only a theoretical example. It will not be completed until August 2004. Significance of Crossroads CPCC to CPCC Project Environmentally conscience buildings and resources Space for art exhibits Multi-functional meeting space that can be utilized for multiple sized groups Miscellaneous indoor and outdoor social spaces and quite meditation spaces A community and educational gathering area 4.6 Phillip Merrill Environmental CPCCThe Chesape ake Bay Foundation in Annapolis, Maryland The Phillip Merrill CPCC is located along the Chesa peake Bay linking the foundation directly to the bay it seeks to protect. Construct ed on a former beach club, the CPCC itself is a preservation project. The Phillip Merr ill Environmental CPCC demonstrates an extension of this commitment to the environment. T he CPCC encourages environmentally sound transportation practices for all its employees. The center also functions as a teaching tool by giving tours and al lowing other groups to use facilities. The floor plan is open and simple and the interior is left raw to avoid harmful finishing. Cisterns collect water from the corrugated shed met al roof for use in the building. Solar energy heats all hot water. Composting toilets sav e water and create reducible waste.
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 8 Flooring is made out of cork, bamboo, and natural l inoleum, all rapidly renewing resources. Designers avoided the use of virgin materials as much as possible. Significance of Phillip Merrill Environmental CPCC to bullring Project Educational building Sustainable design features Use of recycled materials Alternative energy resources Minimizing impact of transportation
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 9 5.0 Programming CPCC PROGRAM No. of Square Meters Basketball Court Playing Area 1 464 Restroom-Lower 2 5 Restroom-Upper 1 5 Offices 5 55 Lobby/Reception 1 55 Conference Room seats 14 table, 16 peripheral 1 7 5 Storage space, below offices 1 60 Art Room 1 60 Music Room 1 60 Seats 500 279.4 Tower 1 14 Hallways, structure, additional space 15% of total 169.86 SCHOOL PROGRAM Classrooms (each at 6m x 9m) 10 540 Computer Lab 1 40 Restrooms Lavatory style 2 24 Teacher Lounge / Prep Space 1 100 Outdoor meeting space TBD TBD Hallways and additional space 15% of total 106 TOTALS Multi-purpose facility 1302.26 TOTALS School 810 The CPCC programming reflects the many uses it is i ntended for (See Appendix Figure 3 for scheme conce pts). The playing floor area is designed for a basketball court, since it r equires the most space out of the desired indoor sp orts. At its fullest capacity, the
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 10 bleachers can accommodate 500 people (i.e. the crow d of the Monteverde Art Fair). It has three bathro oms, 2 on the first floor and 1 on the second, all of equal size. The five offices create space for administration, along with the co nference room. The art and music rooms are located in the CPCC so students can be cl ose to their performing spaces. The storage space will hold outdoor play equipment such as soccer goals. The tower will ser ve as community landmark and an example of sustaina ble design. The school needs 10 classrooms, twice as many as th ey have now. They also want a computer lab to help execute the schools goal of improved educational quality, as well as giving tea chers a lounge and preparation space. There will a lso be a restroom on each level. Potentially, an outdoor meeting space will allow th e school to hold meetings outside during nice weath er. Fifteen percent of the total building space is added in to account for hallways and other extra spaces needed in the school.
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 11 6.0 Design Proposals 6.1 Introduction and Overview Both schemes incorporate the CPC and the greater co mmunitys need for a multi-functional space with pr actical sustainable design principles (Appendix Figure 3). They seek to be an important fixture in the Monteverde region by incr easing economic viability, educational opportunities, and cultural functions. Both schemes also link the new school to the propo sed CPCC for enhancement of the schools new academic program. 6.2 Sustainable Design Features Both schemes actively incorporate sustainable desig n principles. The focal point of Scheme A, the win d observation tower, produces a portion of the schools electricity while educati ng students as well as the community on the generat ion of clean electricity. The overhead structure on the plaza contains recycled b eams from the old bullring structure. The offices have bamboo flooring, a rapidly renewing material. In both schemes roof runoff and other drainage are treated on site by rain gardens, reed beds, and bio-retention ponds. Both schemes also use skylights and clerest ory windows capitalize on the sites solar potentia l. 6.3 Scheme A Scheme A of the CPCC contains most of the desired c ommunity activities (Appendix Figure 4). The retra ctable bleachers can seat up to 500 people (Appendix Figure 5). The first floor and playing surface are sunk into the ground. Cle restory windows line the back edge to provide natural lighting and ventilation. Some walls are partially open to allow for ventilat ion and natural lighting. Multiple skylights in the roof allow for natural daytime lig hting. Storage areas on the first floor are large enough to hold all equipment necessary to transition the CPCC between uses. The roofs overhang drains water into the below rain g arden, with underground pipes leading to the bio-retention pond (Appendix Figure 6). Around the rain garden is a meter-high retaini ng wall. This wall, as well as the walls of the lobby, uses native stone. The lob by is left open to transition from indoor to outdoo r. Scheme A places a special focus on linking the CCPC and the CPC (Appendix Figure 7). The entrance to CPCC, the school, and the property entrance form a triangle with a tower as a hub. Linking these areas is an overhead structure composed of recycled steel beams from the original bullring, all over an openair plaza. The tower not only serves as a focal po int, it is also as an educational tool
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 12 for sustainable design. The wind observation tower consists of three horizontally opposed turbines st acked in a vertical fashion, with a spiral staircase at the core. Each level of the to wer has an observation platform at each level with safety guards, offering 3 different views of the Monteverde region. The electricity pro duced by the tower can help power the CPCC and scho ol. The tower also helps educate schoolchildren and the greater community ab out clean energy sources and sustainability. The remaining open space on the site serves importa nt functions. The site is largely left open and fl at to serve as a general open space for the school and community. The playground sits adjacent to plaza and close to the school and road for easy access by young children. Behind the CPCC sits the reed bed that t reats all of the grey water created by the school a nd CPCC. Next to the reedbed lies a bio-retention pond that will hold both the discha rged reedbed and rain garden treated water and abso rb it slowly. All water will be kept on site. Features in the new CPC seek to improve access to e ducation in the CPC (Appendix Figure 8). The entra nce is located near the road and play area. Roof drainage collects in rain gard ens in both the front and back of the building. Th e area behind the school also features a courtyard enclosed by vegetation. The s chool has 2 floors, with the first floor built into the grade. A breezeway through the center of the classrooms provides a space for gathe ring. The teachers lounge and prep area are in a s atellite building. 6.4 Scheme B Scheme B gives the CPCC building a domed roofline ( Appendix Figure 9). Roof runoff in this scheme goe s to boulder beds that create a waterfall effect (Appendix Figure 10). Th e water is then channeled into grass swales and eve ntually a bio-retention pond in the northwest corner of the property. The playing floor can fit a basketball court along with the oth er desired sports (Appendix Figure 11). The elevated space west of the court caters t o the artistic uses of the CPCC. This multi-level space can hold art exhibitions as well as serve a secondary theater on the lowest f urthest west level. Curtain partitions allow fle xibility in space size. This elevated space also contains a studio with sinks for more pe rmanent artist usage. The front portion of the ele vated space provides additional seating capacity for court activities. For normal capacity sports events bleachers will be pulled out from underneath the elevated space, where they are stored. The southeast portio n of the building provides enclosed rooms for use b y the community and the school. The lower level has bathrooms, an art room, and a m usic room. These facilities are linked to the scho ol building by an enclosed hallway. The school building in Scheme B in internally focus ed with a central amphitheatre serving the schools outdoor needs as well as providing a link between the school facilities and the community areas. The ten classrooms are organi zed with access to a sunken
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 13 amphitheatre for assemblies and small performances. Scheme B highly values indoor-outdoor space. A d omed arbor strengthens the negative-positive relationship created by the amphi theatre and the CPCCs roofline. This arbor connec ts the school to the CPCC as well as the informal play area which occupies the s outhwestern half of the site (Appendix Figure 12). Very near the arbor and partially underneath trees is an interpretive play structure for the school children. Beyond this is an open field with improved drainage for unstructured play. Moving north through this s pace is a bermed area, which allows spectators to w atch the goings on in the cancha. Beyond the berm is a grove of trees inte nded as a secondary but very informal play area. A djacent to this is one of the bioretention areas. The main community entrance to th e auditorium is via the arbor, which will provide s ome benches and spaces for relaxation. As a transition between the outdoor ar bor space and the indoor lobby of the auditorium, t he roof becomes glass in between the beams, allowing sunlight but sheltering incleme nt weather.
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 14 7.0 Final Thoughts 7.1 Summary The current bullring structure near the CPC is unde rutilized and the site can better serve as center f or the school and community in a different form. The two schemes proposed by the gr oups meet the expressed needs for the space: an in door sports area, space for art and cultural events, and a community gathering spac e. Both schemes also make the CPCC a destination f or community activity as well as an integral part of the CPCs improved educ ational programming. Both the school and center in corporate sustainable design principles to create as little impact as possible o n the existing environment and serve a model for su stainability in the community. 7.2 Critical Reflections Time and manpower constraints only allowed for the completion of a model of Scheme A. Having a model of both Schemes would have provided an easier visual comparison for the a udience. Both schemes might have benefited from mo re structured uses of the outdoor space. Indigenous architecture options wer e not thoroughly explored, for example a more rusti c pavilion-type structure for the center. The design could also benefit from the use of more sustainable building materials as the b uildings architecture becomes more detailed. Overall, the two schemes effectivel y meet the needs presented in an aesthetic and sust ainable design. 7.3 Next Steps Leaders of the CPC, the Monteverde Institute, and t he Monteverde Zone community need to assess what th ey like and dislike about the two schemes to begin completion. As the plans for the new school are finalized, features from eac h scheme can be incorporated into the final design. Also, more sustainable buil ding materials and educational features can be work ed into construction. Any problems that would prevent construction should be addressed as soon as possible to avoid delays.
Version 1 Updated July 7, 2003 15 8.0 Appendices 8.1 Resources Sustainable Futures 2002 bullring Project Report Highlighting High Performance: The Philip Merrill Environmental CPCC; Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Anna polis, Maryland. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Program s (BTS) Brochure by Molly Miller. (PDF file) Last modified April 30, 2002.
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