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[Corredor biolgico Sather--Materiales de apoyo--Notas]
[Sather Easements--Supporting materials--Notes]
Notes on reforestation and regeneration of the Sather easement area. Also some project plan notes.
Notas de reforestacin y regeneracin del area del corredor biolgico Sather. Tambin algunas notas de los planos del proyecto.
t Sustainable Futures
N a t u r a l R e g e n e r a t i o n Natural regeneration would allow the forest in the pasture land to grow back without any planting or seeding of the site. Seeds would f all from the other species in the area or would be brought to the site by birds and animal s. Pros: Costs for regenerating are less because no seeds or seedlings are being purchased. There is also no labor required because the process is supposed to be natural. The trees that grow will have root systems that are naturally developed and adapted to their environment; where as plants g rown in a nursery may not have root systems that are able to withstan d the natural conditions. The regenerated part of the forest will have the lo ok of a natural forest because the placement of the trees will be random, not planted in rows or another pattern. Cons: Insects, birds, and small animals may consume most or all of the seeds before they have the chance to germinate. A successful regeneration may take longer to become established than with direct seeding or planting of seedlings. The institute would have no control over the specie s that were growing so they would not be able to encourage some less co mmon species to grow. A s s i s t e d R e g e n e r a t i o n Assisted regeneration could be direct seeding or pl anting seedlings on the site. Direct seeding is when the site is prepared and a labor fo rce physically plants the desired seeds. The other assisted method is growing seedlings in a greenhouse or nursery and then panting them on the site when they are ready. Pros: Because the institute would be able to choose the s eeds or seedlings that were being planted, it would be possible to introdu ce some less common species into the forest. Seedlings that are planted will grow faster initial ly than seeds so they have a better chance of competing with other vegeta tion for moisture, sunlight, and nutrients. They also have a better c hance of surviving insect and animal attacks. If direct seeding is used the quality of the seed c an be examined before it is planted so that only the best seeds are used. Cons: The seeds need to be treated with chemicals in orde r to prevent birds, animals, and insects from destroying the planted cr op.
Initial costs would be higher because the institute would have to buy seeds or seedlings and pay for labor. More maintenance is required to make sure the new s eeds or seedlings are going to survive and provide a successful fores t.
Establish land uses: Different uses that are appropriate to different p arts of the property. Establish areas to be used by MVI students for fiel d projects. Different conservation zones. Zones for complete protection Zones for research o Natural regeneration o Assisted regeneration Zones for more intense human use, limits? Development areas. Parking lot. Pine plantation (remove it) Encourage or discourage activities and land uses of all three properties. Management plan of property. Options include very general plan and very specifi c plan. One objective is to harmonize intensive use areas w ith biological corridors and conservation zones. The lower areas will be intensive use zones while u pper areas will be conservation and research zones. During this proce ss we must respect the environmental importance of the lower area such a n ative trees and water treatment. Upper area is important Bell-bird habit at. (this was a general comment from the committee) LOWER MVI PROPERTY Proposal A Open areas continue to be open, 4th building can be located at garage site, parking lot is needed with handicap access to all b uildings, possible location is area behind Fox Maple. Botanical gardens and arboretum. *the edges should be protected by windbreak six met ers wide. Identify and mark native trees. Proposal A is the preferred proposal, marking impor tant native trees within the pine plantation is important. Proposal B Parking lot in front of main MVI building. Replacing pine forest with native trees. Using pin e for resources (cash, building materials). *Bernie is creating an inventory of ra w pine material. Use the clearing for regeneration research. Conserving and enhancing existing forest strip near garage. The comment from the committee was that parking in the green space was undesirable but possible putting it lower on the pr operty and having ramp access to the MVI buildings.
PASTURE AREA Removing cypress trees and merging cleared area wit h pasture land. This area can be used for educational buildings and lodging. 1. Natural regeneration 2. Assisted regeneration 3. Combination of both CRESSON AREA Designing lodging solution *25 students + 4 faculty including beds, kitchen, bathroom, (multi-use). We must also consider linki ng and cleaning environment in the process. The buildings can have multi-use rooms in them as w ell as being multi-use, meaning they could be student housing or temporary housing for someone doing work at the institute. Clean technologies would be incorporated into the s ite plan of this area. Phases: The project needs to be built in phases so that money from phase one can be used for future projects. This is an area where we can demonstrate perma-cult ure, grey water treatment, and erosion control, etc. Illustrate ideas: keep houses, lodge facilities GENERAL NOTES People using property should use conservation ethic The mixed forested area below the Cresson property Could be used as a site for future development Could be allowed to reforest The second option is the preferred option by the co mmittee because there is an opportunity to get money from t he World Wildlife Fund if the institute can make the 50% mat ch in land; so devoting this land to conservation would give the i nstitute a better chance of making the match. Detailed Site Inventory Necessary Diff land use areas Diff Imp species Diff Imp feature (buildings, roads, trails, slope, water) Consider topography and its effects on space, using section to derive greater understanding of the site.
Features of Different Phases: Phase 1: Elimination of parking lot in front of the main bui lding and allowing that forest corridor to expand out another 10 meters to try to make a stronger connection to the adjacent patch of forest across the street Removal of the pines in the pine plantation and mix ed cypress/secondary forest while trying to preserve as many native specimens a s possible To site a new parking lot behind the Bodega to allo w for parking for 10 cars while trying to respect selected native trees First phase of a botanical garden behind the Instit ute which would be used to display native and ornamental plants of the Monteverde regi on Relocation of the plant nursery to the area below N ats house Remodeling of the glass house to turn it into a pla nt propagation lab that would be used in conjunction with the nursery Introduction of a reed bed grey water treatment sys tem to treat the grey water from the two rental houses and the plant propagation lab Phase 2: Expansion of the botanical garden up to the road in order to include a larger variety of plants as well as to site a gazebo for a social/educational space To site the first floor of a dormitory building in the upper Cresson property between the two rental houses which will be used to house students who come to visit the institute To site a parking lot on the upper Cresson property to handle five cars for the use of people visiting the dormitory or rental hous es Expansion of grey water treatment system to handle the extra water outflow from the dormitory Phase 3: Expansion of the bodega to accommodate the introduc tion of the Art Center onto the MVI property To site bamboo structure at the entrance to make th e Institute and Art Center more visible from the street Introduction of sculptures into the botanical garde n Expansion of the dormitory to a second level to all ow for more students and some classroom space Introduction of several clustered bungalows to be r ented to professors and other people affiliated with the Institute Relocation of grey water treatment system to the ot her side of the path cutting into a small piece of the regenerating forest Construction of a terraced community space for the use of all the people staying on the upper Cresson property Introduction of community permaculture crops to be used for all of the housing on the upper Cresson property
Descriptions: Phase 1 This phase is the first out of three phases of deve lopment proposed for the MVI, and is the least land intensive. Every subsequent phase o f development will build on the prior and become more land intensive. The focus for the initial phase is primarily to take down the pines in the pine plantation behind the ma in building while trying to preserve as many native specimens as possible, and to re-sit e the parking lot. This phase is the most foreseeable for the future of the Institute. Phase 2 The second phase is slightly more intensive and sta rts to develop a more diverse program for the campus. The main focus for this ph ase is the introduction of dormitory space. Also during this phase the botanical garden s will be expanded to create a more comprehensive collection for display and research. This might become necessary in conjunction with, or in replacement of the faciliti es currently located at Los Llanos depending on how the land use committee decides to handle the properties. Phase 3 This third and final phase of development is meant to maximize the use of the intensive use zones of the property. There are two parts to t his phase; the first one is the introduction of the Art Center onto the campus whic h could become a reality if the Institute has to sell that property. And secondly, this phase will include the addition of more lodging on the property which will bring in ex tra income for the Institute.
An ecological easement is a conservation strategy w ith a long history in the United States that is quickly gaining popularity in Costa Rica. It is a legal agreement that ensures that a property will be used in a way that benefits conservation and production. The easement can place restrictions on development, lodging, and can ensure conservation of a property while preserving its productivity. There are many different reasons for placing a conservation easeme nt on a private property; they can range from preserving natural habitats to preservin g aesthetic areas for eco-tourism. The MVI campus and Sather property fit into three o f these categories: biological corridors, forest patches, and deforested and erode d farms with potential for reforestation. 1. Biological Corridors: These properties are intended to preserve areas of forest that connect other parks, reserves, and protected zones so that animal s can migrate between them. These types of easements also benefit the owner bec ause they do not have to sell their land and they receive income from the reserve s or parks that encouraged the easement. 2. Forest Patches: These properties are made up of small forest patche s that are important to the lively hood of animals in the area. In the case of our property the Quetzal migrates here at certain times during the year to f eed on the Avocado fruits in the secondary forest on the upper property. An eas ement on the property would ensure that these patches of forest were not distur bed so the Quetzal can continue its migration to the Monteverde area. 3. Deforested and Eroded Farms with Potential for Reforestation: These properties are most likely farms that are no longer being used for agriculture. There has been severe deforestation a nd the soil is most likely eroded and damaged. By placing an easement that re quired reforestation on these properties biological corridors and forest pa tches can be expanded and strengthened. There are a few areas in the MVI Cam pus and Sather properties that are in need of reforestation. Biological Corridor within a Biological Corridor One of the most important reasons to set aside lan d for conservation is to guarantee that biological corridors within Costa Ri ca are preserved or completed. A secondary reason is that the country of Costa Rica is its own biological corridor. It is three million year old land bridge that allows the movement of plant and animal species from north to south. Costa Rica is a treasure trov e of biodiversity, it is home to five percent of all plant and animal species know to exi st and biologists believe there are many species that have not yet been discovered. Pr eserving the integrity of the habitats in Costa Rica is very important for the environment of the planet. The country is divided into different life zones; most of the Monteverde region is in the Lower Montane Rain Forest. The MVI Campus a nd Sather property are part of an important link in the ecological inter-dependenc e process. An example of this process that takes place on the property is the fee ding habits of the Quetzals. Quetzals eat the avocado fruit of the Lauraceae tree that is growing in the upper portions of the
MVI property. After feeding they fly to different parts of the forest and regurgitate the seeds onto the forest floor. Other animals and ins ects rely on this process for food. The seeds that are not eaten by other animals germinate and grow into new trees. If the trees were cut down the Quetzals would no longer come to this area which would in turn eliminate the species that depend on them for food. Other animals that are important to the inter-dependency process of this area are: Comm on Opossum, Kinkajous, Pucas, Agouti, Brocket Deer, Collared Peccary, Coatimundi, and Hoghosed Skunks. People in the Monteverde region also depend on the conservation of the forest for survival. The rivers of the cloud forest suppl y water for residents for crop irrigation, drinking, and electricity during the dry season. F rom December to March warm moisture filled air rises up the Atlantic slope fro m the Caribbean; the trade winds rise and a process called Â“fog-strippingÂ” occurs. Durin g this process moisture settles on leaves, mosses and tree trunks. This allows for an almost constant drip from the uppermost canopy down to the ground. This keeps the str eams flowing without the influence of direct rain. Without the forest the mist would never have the opportunity to reach the streams and rivers. Enlace Verde is a local initiative within Monteve rde that is striving to place easements on private properties along the Guacimal River. It would be called the Â“Guacimal River GreenwayÂ”. This greenway would bec ome and important corridor for the altitudinal migration of birds and mammals. Th e farms shown in pink in the map above are farms that are being considered for the E nlace Verde. These sites were also considered important because they are close to the Monteverde Reserve and the Santa Elena Reserve, two significant wildlife habitats in the area. The site that this project is looking at is owned by the Monteverde Institute. T he mission of the institute is to: Promote educational, cultural, and scientific inves tigation in the areas of biology and agriculture. Organize musical and dramatic presentations, as wel l as congresses, symposia, conferences, courses, and talks on cultural, educat ional, or scientific themes. Besides being a key feeding ground for the Quetzal s some of the Sather property is also an essential Bellbird habitat. The lower S ather property provides unique opportunities for researching different reforestati on techniques, taking full advantage of the educational goals of the Institute. By placing an easement on the property the institu te can ensure that these goals will be met during their time as owners or if the n eed arises to sell some of the property. The easement will provide guidelines for the types of access allowed to the upper Sather property, the types of reforestation practiced on t he lower Sather property, as well as the types of development allowed on the Cresson propert y and MVI campus.