xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader ntm 22 Ka 4500
controlfield tag 008 s flunnn| ||||ineng
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a M37-00093
Plan de manejo finca Amapala[Materiales de apoyo: Datos]
Finca Amapala management plan [Supporting materials : Data]
Data and analysis
Sustainable Futures 2006
t Sustainable Futures
Ant Management The main citrus crops we were looking into planting include lemon-lime, orange and avocado. While the citrus industry as a whole is mentioned as being affected by ant pests, the ones we are concentration were not direc tly mentioned. It appears that the main crop targeted by ants is honeydew. Several we bsites were dedicated to ant management solely of honeydew. "Certain tree-forag ing species feed on honeydew produced by homopterous pests such as soft scales, mealybug and aphids. The ants' activity in the trees disturbs the natural enemies of honeydew-producing homopterans and prevents them from maintaining pest populations at commercially acceptable levels" (Bownes, Structure). It appears that while ants have negative effects i n the citrus industry, there are ways to minimize their impact and turn their presence into a benefit for these orchards. When the industry as a whole was discussed it seemed lik e management of ants was indeed possible and highly successful. While there are se veral species of ants that are in fact pests in the citrus industry, the brown house ant a nd the pugnacious ant are both abundant and widespread in citrus production areas. They have serious negative effects on citrus and are by far the most economically impo rtant ants. Current management strategies for these ants include poisons and the u se of ant bands which act as a physical barrier, preventing ants from entering the trees. T hrough management strategies and the manipulation of predatory ant populations to the di sadvantage of the pest species, the impact of ant predation on pest populations can be substantial. Research shows that antÂ’s harmful affects can be reduced with the use o f ant bands, which eliminates the problem they cause but allows them to play a role i n control of other pest species. Ants in fact are beneficial because they not only contro l other species but also aerate soil and facilitate the cycling of nutrients in the soil (Bo wnes, Pests). Ant Bands Research seemed to point to ant bands as a method f or controlling ants that is ecologically appropriate, environmenta lly friendly, and cost effective. Due to the nature of our project an d wanting to protect natural wildlife and promote a sustainable design, this seems like a good method to control the harmful affects of ants as they occur. Ant bands are collars fastened around the tree trun k and smeared with sticky chemicals that prevent ants from climbi ng the tree to collect the fruit. It should be noted that for the most effective and economical ant control, trees should be treated whe n ants are active following winter rains and again in late August. C ultural controls, including the use of sticky materials are acceptabl e for use in organically managed citrus groves (Bownes, Pests).
Lemon Lemons are known for having a more or less continuo us state of growth; thus, the lemon is more sensitive to cold than the orange and less able to recover from cold injury. The temperatures in this part of Costa Rica are not in a range that would slow growth or affect the lemon crop. The tree is defoli ated at 22 to 24 F. Flowers and young fruits are killed by 29 F and nearly mature fruits are badly damaged below 28 F. The high altitude regions of Costa Rica have temper atures that range from 50-81 F, which points to the temperature not being a factor in lemon production in this region. This hearty tree has the reputation of tolerating v ery infertile, very poor soil. For example, in Florida, groves are mostly on sand; in California, excellent growth is maintained on silty clay loam of high water-holding capacity; and. in Guatemala, recommended soils are sand, clay and sandy-clay-dee p, with high permeability and good drainage. Black soils are also suitable if not lying over calcareous subsoil. Interestingly research showed that Guatemalan and M exican growers interplant shortterm crops such as beans, cassava, yauta in the rainy season, and tomatoes and peppers during the winter when the lemon trees will be irri gated and fertilized (Morton-Lemon). Orange The orange has become the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world. Lesser quantities are produced in Puerto Rico, Central Ame rica (especially Guatemala), some of the Pacific Islands, New Zealand, and West Afric a, where the fruit does not acquire an appealing color but is popular for its quality a nd sweetness. This holds true for the Costa Rican area where oranges do not turn the idea l orange color but rather yellow or green. During the growing period, the temperature s hould range from 55 to 100 F. Mature, dormant trees have survived 10 hours at tem peratures below 25 F but fruit is damaged by freezingÂ–30 to 26 F. While it discuss ed several different types of soil for orange trees, it is important to remember to select the appropriate rootstock for particular soil conditions. For example, the best soil for orange-growing in Florida is known as Lakeland fine sand, well-drained, and ofte n identified as high hammock or high pineland soil; in Egypt, it has been found tha t where the water table is too highÂ–30 in or less below the surface of the soilÂ–root growt h, vegetative vigor and fruit yield of orange trees are greatly reduced; in the alkaline s oil of South Florida, neglected orange trees develop chlorosis and gradually decline; and in California, the best soils for orange groves are deep loams (Morton-Orange). Avacado The Guatemalan race--which is the closest for our p ruposes--is somewhat hardier than other varities of avocados, having arisen in subtro pical highlands of tropical America. There are three distinct types of fruit: the fruit of Mexican has a thin, smooth, soft skin; the West Indian fruit skin is smooth, thin and leat hery; the Guatemalan type has a warty, pebbly, brittle skin. All have a single, large seed and their pulp between peel and seed is soft and buttery when ripe. It is important for ou r purposes to note that in areas of strong winds, wind-breaks are necessary. Wind reduc es humidity, debydrates the flowers and interferes with pollination, and also c auses many fruits to fall prematurely. The avocado tree is remarkably versatile as to soil adaptability, doing well on such diverse types as red clay, sand, volcanic loam, lat eritic soils, or limestone. The tree's primary requirement is good drainage. It cannot sta nd excessive soil moisture or even temporary water-logging. Sites with underlying hard pan must be avoided. Interestingly
research shows that some growers find it profitable to interplant bananas until the avocado trees reach bearing ageÂ—which should be loo ked at as a possibility for our purposes (Morton-Avacado).
Works Cited Bownes, Angela, Sean Moore, and Martin Villet. "Tur ning Pests Into Allies for Citrus Farmers." Science in Africa Feb. 2006. 25 July 2006 . Bownes, Angela. "The Structure of Ant Communities a nd Their Impact on SoilPupating Pests in Citrus Orchards in the Grahamstow n Area of the Eastern Cape." The Department of Zoology and Entomology Rhodes University. 25 July 2006 . Morton, Julia. "Avacado." 1987. Purdue University. 27 July 2006 . Morton, Julia. "Lemon." 1987. Purdue University. 27 July 2006 < http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/lemon.h tml>. Morton, Julia. "Orange." 1987. Purdue University. 2 7 July 2006 .
1. How did you learn about the existence of Finca Amap ala? 2. What was the purpose of your visit to Finca Amapala ? 3. What attraction on the site interested you most? 4. How much time did you spend at Finca Amapala? Response Percent Response Total Monteverde Institute 53.9% 14 San Luis Eco-Lodge 26.9% 7 Local Residents 7.7% 2 Quaker Earthcare Witness Service Trip 3.8% 1 University of Missouri 7.7% 2 Total Respondents 24 Response Percent Response Total Hiking 28.3% 15 Lodging 28.3% 15 Research 13.2% 7 Site Seeing 22.6% 12 Education 7.6% 4 Total Respondents 24 Response Percent Response Total The streams 10.9% 5 The agriculture 15.2% 7 The views 37.0% 17 The forests 21.7% 10 The wildlife 15.2% 7 Total Respondents 24 Response Percent Response Total Half day 8.3% 2 One overnight 62.5% 15 Two or more overnights 29.2% 7 Total Respondents 24
5. What type of agriculture would you have liked to le arn more about? 6. If you had the opportunity to return to Finca Amapa la would you? 7. What did you enjoy most during your visit to Finca Amapala? Response Percent Response Total Coffee 35.2% 13 Banana 18.9% 7 Corn 5.4% 2 Citrus 18.9% 7 Cattle Grazing and Dairy 18.9% 7 Avocado 2.7% 1 Total Respondents 20 Skipped the question 4 Response Percent Response Total Yes 95.8% 23 No 4.2% 1 Total Respondents 24 Response Percent Response Total The meals 9.3% 5 The hike 14.8% 8 The views 22.1% 12 The wildlife 9.3% 5 The remoteness 11.1% 6 Spending time with friends 5.6% 3 Meeting local farmers 16.7% 9 History and background information 11.1% 6 Total Respondents 22 Skipped the question 2
8. Gender: 9. Age: 10. What recommendations for further improvements d o you have for Finca Amapala? Response Percent Response Total Male 33.3% 8 Female 66.7% 16 Total Respondents 24 Response Percent Response Total 15-24 62.5% 15 25-34 12.5% 3 35-44 0 44-55 8.3% 2 55+ 16.7% 4 Total Respondents 24 Response Percent Response Total Lodging Improvements 23.5% 4 Lighting Improvements 29.4% 5 More activities 17.6% 3 Education about the area 17.6% 3 Advertising 11.8% 2 Total Respondents 17 Skipped the question 7
nnr nrrn 39x12x19 Concrete block  approx. Corrugated Galvanized Sheets 83x3.66M  new 83x183  used 29x183  used Mixed stone var. 20-50cm [2-3] cub. Meters 300x12x3 Boards  4Â’x8Â’ Plycam Sheets  full sheets Â“ Â“  half sheets n256x16x2 rough cut planks  210x15x2.5-4.0 rough cut  Mixed wood & fence posts [Qt] unknown? See photos