USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Jardin ecológico del Instituto Monteverde

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Jardin ecológico del Instituto Monteverde
Translated Title:
Monteverde Institute’s ecological garden ( )
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Hettler, Brian Fraser, Kevin Waery, Amber
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Demostración de jardines--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde   ( lcsh )
Permacultura--Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Agricultura sostenible--Costa Rica   ( lcsh )
Demonstration gardens--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde
Permaculture--Costa Rica
Sustainable agriculture--Costa Rica
Futuros Sostenibles 2009
Reporte final
Sustainable Futures 2009
Final report
Genre:
Reports   ( lcsh )
Reports

Notes

Abstract:
Una propuesta para una comunidad basada en el espacio educativo demostrando los principios de la permacultura, basado en un sistema natural de agricultura sostenible. Incluye un análisis del sitio, una metodología, y los diversos componentes que deberán incluirse, es decir, la incorporación del higuerón del Instituto de Monteverde en la entrada, la creación de un centro de interpretación, espacios para jardines comunitarios, área de compostaje, jardín sensorial, colonia de abejas, y las especies que atraen a la fauna silvestre en la zona.
Abstract:
Proposal for a community based educational space demonstrating the principles of permaculture, a nature based design system for sustainable agricultural practices. Includes site analysis, methology, and the various components to be included: an entrance that incorporates the Monteverde Institute’s iconic fig tree into the design, an interpretive center, community garden spaces and a sensory garden using species that attract area wildlife, a composting area, and a bee colony.
General Note:
Born Digital

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - M37-00434
usfldc handle - m37.434
System ID:
SFS0001059:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 2

Table of Contents Page Introduction Background/Concept ............................................................................................... 1 Objectives .............................................................................................................. 2 Permaculture ......................................................................................................... 3 Responsible Food Production .................................................................................... 4 Agriculture in Costa Rica .......................................................................................... 5 Designing El Jardin Ecologico Site Analysis ........................................................................................................... 6 Reforestation .......................................................................................................... 7 Planting Methods .................................................................................................... 8 Path Layout ............................................................................................................ 9 Narrative Narrative .............. .................................................................................................... 10 Fig Tree Entrance .................................................................................................... 11 Interpretive Center .................................................................................................. 12 Community Agriculture ............................................................................................ 14 Polyculture ............................................................................................................. 15 Composting ............................................................................................................ 16 Sensory Garden ....................................................................................................... 17 Meliponiculture ...................................................................................................... 18 Heliconia Garden .................................................................................................... 19 Lookout Tower ........................................................................................................ 20 Community Involvement ............................................................................................. 21 Evolving Garden .......................................................................................................... 22 Endnotes ...................................................................................................................... 24 Appendix Planting Plan ....... .................................................................................................... 25 Plant List ............. .................................................................................................... 26 Acknowledgments ........................................................................................................ 32

PAGE 3

Introductionen BackgroundFormerly planted with non-native pine trees, the space behind the Monteverde Institute has been unmaintained since their harvest. Many people have realized the vast potential of this site, including opportunities for an MVI dormatory. We were asked to explore ideas and develop an overall more sustainable vision for the space.Concept StatementThe intent of this project is to create a community based educational space demonstrating the principles of permaculture, a nature based design system. This space will promote the integration of human food production with natural ecosystems by illustrating the importance of complex relationships between people, plants, animals, birds and insects. A narrative sequence of spaces takes visitors through a series of spaces beginning with domesticated plants for human consumption and transitioning to wild sources of food for both people and animals. This narrative is meant to foster a sense of conservation by demonstrating the interconnectedness between our food sources and the natural world. 1 Master Site Plan MVI Fox Maple Interpretive Center Observation Tower

PAGE 4

ObjectivesOur objectives are based on a series of meetings with MVI staff, Patricia Ortiz, Sofa Improve Habitat: regenerative context, as well as establish biological corridors. Reuse Materials: Support Community Needs: Support MVI Needs: tourists. Foster Education: visitors. 2

PAGE 5

3PermaculturePermaculture is design based on systematic relationships found in nature. Permaculture is most often used in sustainable agricultural systems that largely function on their own. This term was coined by Bill Mollison and Permaculture One, and is a combination of the words Permanent and Agriculture. A main goal of without using environmentally damaging industrial agricultural processes. from the book Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability Holmgren that are important to integrate into our site plan and narrative. 1. Observe and Interact. By taking the time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation. 2. Catch and Store Energy. By developing systems that collect resources when they are abundant, we can use them in times of need 3. Obtain a Yield. Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the work that you are doing. 4. Use and Value Renewable Resources and Services. Make the best use of natures abundance to reduce our consumptive behaviour and dependence on non-renewable resources. 5. Produce No Wastes. By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste. back, we can observe patterns in nature and 7. Integrate Rather Than Segregate. By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other. advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides. events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system. MVI Garden Permaculture Principles

PAGE 6

4Importance of Responsible Food ProductionGlobal food production is one of the most important issues facing the world today. In 2007 the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that there were 102 1 worse as population continues to grow exponentially while food production grows at a linear rate. Much of the worlds food supply is produced using environmentally damaging agricultural practices. Many farms use monoculture practices, which rely on growing a single crop over a large area of land. Large groups of the same plant are susceptible to catastrophic crop failure from pest infestation and disease, requiring the use of chemical pesticides and herbicides. These chemicals interrupt natural methods of soil regeneration including worm castings and leaf decomposition while also disrupting natural pollination methods by killing insects. Toxic chemicals also end up in the human food and water supplies leading to a variety of health problems, many of which are still unknown.2Monoculture requires clearing large tracts of land in order to produce cheap food through hurt local ecosystems by eliminating wildlife habitat and fragmenting species populations leading to reduced genetic diversity. Farmers employ widespread use of petroleum-based fertilizers in order to ensure fertile soil and healthy crops. These fertilizers are expensive Fertilizers also travel underground into local water systems, leading to the degradation of water systems through eutrophication; a term referring to an increase in nutrients within a body of water leading to a decrease in water animal species. Modern industrial agricultural practices used today help a small number of farmers provide food for many people over a large geographic area. However, these environmentally harmful practices are decreasing the long-term carrying capacity of the land in favor of short-term production. A shift towards more localized, ecologically friendly food production would help provide a more stable food supply in the long run. 1 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2 Rabideau.Left: Large scale monoculture farming Photograph: http://aboutenvironment.wordpress.com/

PAGE 7

Agriculture In Costa RicaCosta Rica has many examples of good and bad agricultural practices, making it an ideal learning environment. There are many large-scale banana plantations throughout Costa Rica using a variety of environmentally destructive methods. Banana companies spread pesticides over huge areas in order to combat diseases. They also wrap banana bunches with chemically infused plastic bags to protect fruit against pests and encourage growth. Many of these bags end up in the ground or nearby water systems. The use of chemicals on these plantations has also resulted in widely publicized health problems among workers.1The clearing of land for agricultural use has been one of the driving forces behind deforestation within Costa Rica. Costa Rica has one of the highest deforestation rates governmental policy and popular opinion leading to the creation of several national parks and private reserves such as the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve. Even still, 6.8% of 2 habitat and to connect protected forests patches with biological corridors. Biological corridors create connections between habitats and help increase genetic diversity among wildlife populations. An example is the Pajaro Campana Biological Corridor, which aims to connect the Gulf of Nicoya with the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve. The main goal of this corridor is to protect the Three Wattled Bell-Bird, a migratory bird that visits a with farmers to reforest areas of their property and aim to link them all together forming regional biological corridors. There are many positive examples of agricultural practices within Costa Rica. Many evident on coffee farms. Hardwood trees are planted among coffee trees providing necessary shade and blocking wind. These trees can also serve as a source of secondary natural method of returning nutrients to the soil. Several food crops such as peppers grow 1 McCauley. 2 Chemical infused banana bag, cause pollution and health problemswell with coffee plants and provide food for from being located in close proximity to forests that house natural pollinators such as bees. of growing organic coffee, which has less environmental impacts and a growing market. Costa Rica has been a leader in agro ecological practices within Central throughout the country, there is a widespread understanding of both the biological and economic importance of land and species conservation. Many farmers have realized that forest preservation or reforestation on their property can provide more additional income through tourism than might be possible with crop production. There are also a large number of organic farms within Costa Rica, many of which also function as tourism destinations through educational tours and volunteer involvement. 5

PAGE 8

MVI Existing Trees LocationsSite AnalysisThe clearing of the non-native pine trees behind the Monteverde Institute created a unique opportunity for development. were tagged as important for protection, including several trees in the Lauraceae family. This tree family serves as an important food source for the Resplendent Quetzal and other threatened birds. While several of these trees were damaged during logging efforts, many healthy trees remain making it an important area for local ecology. In order to preserve existing trees, we trees that would be suitable for higher impact development. The eastern side of the least trees and therefore offers the most opportunities. A temporary structure stands behind Fox Maple that is used to as the best spot for the construction of a building due to the level footprint, space between trees and proximity to the road creating a good gateway to the site. To minimize impacts, access should be from the road. North of the lumber shed, near the bend in the road, is another area with relatively few as a good location for community agriculture plots because of available sunlight, gradual slope and easy access. Just uphill from this corner is another area with a large clearing in the trees. This area sits atop one of the steeper slopes on the site, and is protected from the wind by tall pine trees across the road. This was the planting of fruit bearing trees because the area is well drained and protected from the elements. Tree cover throughout the rest of the site is fairly consistent. An exception is the space in the middle of the site, which is relatively uncovered, making it a good location for the propagation of sun loving plant species. Most of the rest of the site would be best suited to either regenerate naturally or helped with the planting of native species. Water drainage throughout the site does not present rainstorms the constant slope evenly distributes water without channelizing runoff except in amounts of vegetation also aid the drainage process by absorbing water and preventing erosion. The only problematic area for water runoff occurs on the road bordering the site and on the existing path leading uphill. Water draining from the forest above is channelized on the road causing erosion of the road surface into the site. The walking path also runs directly against the contours resulting in fast moving water and erosion. 6MVI Fox Maple

PAGE 9

7ReforestationCoexistence between agricultural land and wildlife habitat is important for regional biodiversity. It is important to have biological corridors incorporated into agricultural land in order to prevent population fragmentation and the disruption of normal migration patterns. There are several local reforestation groups that work with farmers to plant trees on their property with the overall goal of connecting small pieces of land to create a larger corridor between protected areas of forests. Planting the northern edge of the site using methods employed by reforestation groups creates an opportunity for people to learn about local reforestation efforts. Most reforestation organizations choose trees that provide food sources for threatened bird species and plant them in similar ratios to the tree species found in naturally occurring forests. Some of the trees used by reforestation groups include Citharexylum costaricensis, Casimiroa edulis, Myrcianthes fragrans and Ocotea rely on volunteer labor to plant trees. Widening the stretch of forest along the northern edge of the site helps connect forests down the mountain, such as Bajo del Tigre, with the forests behind the Institute and the adjacent Cloud Forest Preserve. These plantings would eventually create shady, protected environments functioning as wildlife habitat and a place to grow shade-loving plants such as ferns and mushrooms. Most importantly, this reforestation educates people on the importance of work being done to create continuous habitat for wildlife species. Monteverde Cloud Forest Edible Mushrooms

PAGE 10

8Planting MethodsAs the narrative transitions out of agricultural areas, it is important to mention general planting methods throughout the rest of the site. An extensive plant list has been assembled and included with this report and covers a wide variety of plants that have been chosen because of edible, medicinal or ecological value. Many of the plants are wild, forest dwelling relatives of food that humans regularly eat such as Lauraceae and Avocados. Other plants to consider are genetic progenitors and heirloom species to stress the long-term domestication of plants. The majority of the site will be allowed to naturally regenerate except for along western trails, which should be planted with plants of interest to create educational opportunities. with their respective narrative description and most desired species are included in the plant list. Planting schemes should consider providing sources of food for a the year. These more domesticated species create a gradient on the easter end of the site. The inclusion of educational signage gives background information on why certain plants are important and would create an arboretum of edible, medicinal and ecologically important plants. Plant Type Site Map

PAGE 11

After analyzing the site we designed a system of paths to provide adequate circulation and create educational opportunities while having minimal environmental impact. Trails were designed to run along contour lines and around existing trees. Steep areas that require switchbacks utilize drainage outlets in which logs divert water off of the path and into vegetated areas to prevent erosion. A primary trail leads from the designated entryway near Fox Maple through the agricultural areas and into the rest of the site more suited for natural regeneration. Additional secondary paths, the smaller dark brown paths, were included to facilitate more direct circulation. MVI Path Layout MVI Fox Maple Interpretive Primary Trail Secondary Path Center Observation Tower Path Construction

PAGE 12

10NarrativeThe Monteverde Institute Ecological Garden tells a story through an experiential walk through an engaging sequence of spaces to foster an improved awareness of local and global environmental issues, while also stimulating community interaction. The primary path transverses a gradient from areas designated as more suitable for development to those that are better suited reverting to forests. This transition between land use types became a key element in the layout of a narrative sequence and was used to demonstrate the interconnectedness between the domesticated and the wild. The numbers on the right represents, in sequence, each station of the ecological garden. Each are important components to the garden narrative.Telling of a Story Narrative of a GardenGarden Narrative Site Plan refer to section drawing, pg. 20 MVI Fox Maple Interpretive Center Observation Tower1 Interpretive Center 2 Community Agriculture 3 Polyculture 4 Composting 5 Sensory Garden 6 Meliponiculture 7 Heliconia Garden 8 Lookout Tower

PAGE 13

11Fig Tree Entrance Gateway Institute serves as the organizations logo and is an ideal introductory element to the garden. Keeping low-impact principles in mind, an elevated boardwalk allows visitors to pass intimately close to the tree without directly treading on its roots. Green screens and the narrowing of the driveway are utilized to improve the aesthetics of Fox Maple maintenance facilities. Signage also plays an important role, indicating the main entrance and arrival while directing pedestrians and vehicles to the interpretive center.

PAGE 14

12Interpretive Center Perspective Interpretive CenterThis structure serves as a key introductory space and microcosm of the garden by integrating constructed environments with the natural environment. This building seeks to blend the distinction between indoor and outdoor spaces by incorporating a structural gradient along existing contour lines that features varying amounts of indoor plant materials. The building is designed with sustainability in mind. It reduces the need for lighting by utilizing day lighting through open walls and skylights. The structure is naturally ventilated with a breezeway and open walls. Rainwater is also harvested with cisterns and a green roof while composing toilets help minimize waste. The southern most section of the building is an enclosed area for kitchen, storage and bathroom facilities. This placement allows for easy maintenance access under the building due to changes in terrain, while also shielding the structure from the road and cheese factory. Adjacent to these facilities is a breezeway that provides a clear path through the building while also creating indoor/outdoor space for seating or information displays. To the north of the breezeway is a large multi-use space that can function as an information center, auditorium, seating area, exhibition space or a combination of several of these programs. This space functions as a place for visitors to receive information that is important to consider throughout the rest of their time in the garden. An example is signage about global food and environmental issues so that visitors understand the importance of learning alternate methods of food production. This area could be adapted to focus on different elements of the garden such as medicinal plants or various wildlife themes. It could also be used for events indirectly related to the garden including art exhibits, community dining events and performances. The use of movable walls as either display boards or dividing walls helps this space adapt to any required use. The western side of this space has revolving doors that connect indoor space with the outdoor patio for additional room. A green roof further blends the line between built and natural environments while helping with water runoff and creating an educational opportunity about alternative building methods. The northern end of this space has integration of indoor plant materials. Planting tree ferns in these openings would let natural elements function as architectural elements with the formation of pillars and an overhead canopy.

PAGE 15

13Interpretive Center Perpective 2 Above: Interior The northern end of the building consists of a greenhouse for propagating plants for use throughout the site. The greenhouse captures the energy from the sun to create an ideal, protected environment for growing plants that can be relocated in the agricultural and forested areas of the site. The greenhouse serves as a later stop in the narrative where people can observe plant propagation from an elevated walkway. The diverse array of plants grown in the greenhouse makes this narrative station a transition point from agricultural plants to forest plants.

PAGE 16

14Community AgricultureCommunity agricultural plots provide a place for local community members to grow and harvest crops for their personal use. Raised planting beds are used to improve drainage by creating sub layers of course soil and preventing water inundation during the rainy season. These beds would be separated into a variety of sizes to create growing opportunities for people with a wide range of needs. The inclusion of a more elevated bed near the parking spots would allow access for the elderly and physically disabled. Trellises provide a place to grow edible vines such as chayote while also creating green tunnels to pass through. An educational course on permaculture and organic agriculture would help ensure that users practice sustainable techniques within the garden. Community users with gardening practice could also share their knowledge with those who have less experience. The pond within this area has many important uses and learning opportunities. Water from a bio-swale along the road is directed into the pond serving as an example of positive storm water management. This pond creates habitat for amphibious creatures that feed on insects, making it a part of a wider integrated pest management system to protect food crops. The pond can also be used for irrigation purposes during dry spells. This space would serve as an educational demonstration tool that is conducive to dialogue amongst expert and amateur alike.

PAGE 17

15PolycultureA secondary agriculture area is dedicated to the cultivation of fruiting trees and the study of companion planting. Plantings would be arranged to utilize naturally occurring relationships promoting growth and preventing pests. Hexagonal planting schemes maximize relationships between plants help their neighbors through a variety of methods including changing soil composition, altering water levels and repelling pests. A famous historical example of companion planting involves maize, beans and squash, the Mayan farming technique is called Milpa. Maize provides trellises on which beans can grow, while dense squash plants discourage animals on the ground. The beans enrich the soil with nitrogen after they die and decompose. Beans are part of the Fabaceae and Cojoba costaricensis and these trees are often grown with food crops to ensure soil fertility. Banana plants and avocado trees grow well together because bananas absorb large amounts of water and prevent Avocado trees from becoming water logged. Bananas are helped by the decomposition of potassium rich leaves from Cecropia obtusifolia. Citrus trees and Guayabas are another example of fruit bearing trees that grow well near each other. These examples are just a sampling of the many different techniques that farmers use to maximize crop yields. Involving local farmers could help make the garden a compendium of local knowledge on companion planting and form a testing ground for growing food in Polyculture Perspective

PAGE 18

16CompostingComposting techniques turn food and organic litter into nutrient rich soil thereby eliminating waste while creating a useful product. There are two types of composting methods: aerobic and anaerobic processing. Although anaerobic composting requires less space and maintenance, it requires additional outside resources and tends to produce odors making aerobic composting as the preferred method. Aerobic composting requires tiny microbes or bacteria, which work together to decompose waste material. These microbes require a constant supply of oxygen throughout the composting process and generate heat while converting carbon and nitrogen. Many weed seeds and germs are killed through the generation of heat that organisms will use up available oxygen requiring the pile to be turned often to replenish oxygen levels. Heat is a good indicator of when a pile needs to be turned, a task that typically needs to be done after one week. It is important to keep the pile tightly packed, maintain constant moisture content and mix thoroughly to get the outside of the pile into the center thereby accessing the main location of microbiotic activity. It takes about two months for the carbon dioxide and nitrogen into nitrates and ammonia after which the pile can sit for another month or more. Native worms will begin to colonize the pile once there is a reduction of heat, helping to create nutrient rich organic material. Within just a few months, it is possible to turn waste into a clean product suitable for soil enrichment. The Monteverde Institute currently has composting facilities but they are not properly maintained. It is important to enhance composting facilities in order to better dispose of organic waste and to create nutrient rich soil to put in proposed garden spaces. The current compost location is well placed between the Institutes kitchen and planned trees around the compost area would help disguise unpleasant smells and provide an aesthetic improvement from the garden and Fox Maple. Plantings along the edges of the compost bins can also encourage worms to come to the surface and aid decomposition. Other improvements that should be made include easier access from planned paths and larger and more easily maintained composting bins. Including educational signage would help people understand the decomposition process as well as the ease and importance of reusing waste materials as composts for the gardens. Compost and Vermiculture Station

PAGE 19

Sensory Garden The sensory garden is designed to stimulate the senses of vision, smell, hearing and touch. This secluded space is designed to be a relaxing place for Institute employees, visitors and students to escape their daily routine. It provides an environment to sit and watch wildlife These organisms are attracted to the that stimulate the sense of smell. The buzz of insect wings creates background noise for the visitor to enjoy. Plants with experiences. The inclusion of seating and hammocks allows people to relax and enjoy the atmosphere of the garden. The space can also house artwork such as a sculptural birdbath that would attract birds for the sake of admiration and insect predation. Adjacent to this space is a medicinal plant and herb garden located within easy access of the Monteverde Institute kitchen and an outdoor classroom near Fox Maple and the Institute breezeway. These spaces are located along the narrative at a point stations while considering transition between various garden ecosystems. 17

PAGE 20

MeliponicultureMeliponiculture refers to the maintenance of stingless bee colonies, a practice that types of stingless bees are the Melipona and Trigona species. Melipona bees have a long history of being domesticated, dating back to the ancient Maya who valued these bees for their honey that was believed to have especially good taste and medicinal purposes. Many stingless bees are endangered due to habitat loss and beekeepers preference for the African honeybee. This problem is part of a larger issue as bee populations around the world are decreasing due to Colony Collapse disappearance of bee colonies. Reduced bee populations are problematic because of their function as important natural pollinators. Stingless bees use a process known as Buzz Pollination, which is a more in the world are pollinated this way as well as many important food crops including eggplant, tomatoes, chayote, tomatoes and blackberries. Tomatoes in greenhouses pollinated by bees, leading many farmers to include beehives near crops. Establishing bee colonies on this site would at the upper range of common bee keeping altitudes, there are numerous stingless bee colonies in the area. Many of the existing trees provide food for bee species including Eugenia montevidensis, Persea americana and Quercus insignis. Several agricultural plants also provide food such as corn, citrus, banana and guayaba in addition to those previously listed. Many popular ornamental plants and common reforestation trees also serve as food sources. It is important to have a broad range of plants that supply nectar and pollen year round in order to ensure healthy bee colonies and honey production. Attracting bee colonies can be as easy as drilling a hole in a tree while more complex methods including using hollow logs or modern box hives. Log hives similar to the ones used by the Mayans would be a good way to reuse logs while also creating a unique rustic aesthetic. The hives should be place slightly off of paths to allow for viewing, but far enough away to avoid bees becoming protective of their hives and biting visitors. Beekeeping could help people learn the importance of bees and the long history of bee domestication. They would also allow local scientists and biology students to conduct resident bee species, the beehives could also serve as a source of honey for consumption. 18Structures for Meliponiculture

PAGE 21

Heliconia GardenThe Heliconia genus is important to tropical ecosystems and highly visible throughout Costa Rica. These plants serve as a food source for curved billed hummingbirds and as a nesting location for many insects. Heliconia are sun-loving plants, making the center of the site an ideal growing location due to the lack of tree cover. Heliconia form a dense ground cover that would help prevent other plant growth thereby leaving a clearing in the center of the site creating a central focal point. In this area small, wandering paths diverge from the primary path to allow for exploration and learning about the many species and cultivars of Heliconia. Placing benches in this area creates a sitting area that would be a good place to observe hummingbirds and other wildlife in the surrounding trees. Left: Heliconia Garden Plan. Above: Heliconia Plant

PAGE 22

Examples of such concepts include demonstrating cyclical relationships with waste reuse processes, and highlighting transitional zones between habitats and the relationships that form in the margins. After visiting the tower signs direct people towards either the Institute, the interpretive center or forest trails.Lookout Tower site. The tower is intended to provide a general view of the garden and the surrounding scenery. Epiphytic plants that use hanging roots to reach the ground are the inspiration for the architectural design of the tower. Three wooden beams form a tripod that supports the viewing platform. These beams are held in place with concrete foundations and metal brackets in addition to being connected to each other with a metal bracket halfway up the suspended spiral staircase. The use of local lumber would make the construction of this tower feasible, as the other needed materials are readily available. The viewing platform would function as an ideal bird watching location with surrounding planting of shorter fruit bearing trees that attract birds. This canopy view would be a good Bird. However, it is important to plant trees that will not grow tall enough to obstruct views from the tower. The primary function of the lookout tower is to allow visitors to get a broad overview of the systems they previously observed up close. The addition of educational signage along the circular railings would create a vantage point to review broad permaculture concepts. 20Section Elevation of Tower in Relation to Institute Above: Elevation of Tower Structure Right: Plan View of Tower

PAGE 23

21 variable sized garden plots, parking spots and storage for the communities tools. The general reception from people in the community indicates that a project of this magnitude could be very successful. A dialogue with local artists has been initiated to further involve the community and give them a voice in the ongoing development of this project. The artists have expressed enthusiasm for contributing work and there would be a myriad of opportunities to employ artwork throughout the garden including ephemeral and permanent exhibit pieces, wayto the site, creating new, unique destinations, as well as enhance the concept of a narrative.Community InvolvementThe most crucial element to the success of this project is community involvement and the could host local dining events, art exhibits, and lectures. The underutilized Fox Maple building could be used for art workshops such as the construction of birdhouses for either knowledge. In an attempt to gauge interest, local community members were polled at the farmers market and the responses were enthusiastic. Twenty-one out of thirty people given the questionnaire responded that they would be interested in using a community garden. Seven people chose not to answer questions, most of which stated they lived outside of the area. Two others answered the questionnaire and said they were not interested because they already had a garden on their property. Eighteen people expressed interest in volunteering to help build the garden. The questionnaire also helped include the community in the design process by collecting feedback on topics such as what plants people would want to grow, what tools needed to be provided, and how most people would be arriving. Their answers were included in the design process with the inclusion of Left: Community Garden Work. Community Workshop with ProNativas

PAGE 24

Evolving GardenOne of the most important aspects of this space is its inevitable evolution. The design aims to embrace change by encouraging permaculture-based experimentation within a unique Monteverde climate, including rotating art exhibits and allowing natural regrowth. These changes could be documented with the use of time-lapse photography serving as a tool to understand forest regeneration. Unique experiences could also be provided through different programming within this multi-functional space. Potential tour foci include edible plants, medicinal plants and the roles of birds and insects in different experiences. The wide variety of possibilities within this garden would ensure repeated visits and continual interest going into the future. 22 Artist Sculpture as Part of Evolving Garden Leaf Cutter Ants, Example of Naturally Evolving

PAGE 25

InstituteImplementation of this project could be actualized through phasing. The design does not rely on the immediate construction of the tower and interpretive center because the garden can function independently of these elements. Most of the garden could be built using volunteer labor and donated plant materials. In just a few hours Sustainable Futures students built sample section of trails using only materials found on site. Much work and experimentation could be done by students at MVI. The positive impacts of this project would be numerous. Improvements to this hillside landscape would enhance the visual aesthetics of the Institute campus while also providing relaxation spaces and educational opportunities for students and visitors. The garden would also provide sources of fresh fruit, vegetables and herbs for use by the Institute. The Monteverde Institute Ecological Garden would increase the exposure of the institute and its programs within the community, creating an opportunity to encourage local dialogue while instilling a sense of involvement and ownership amongst residents and visitors alike. Perhaps most importantly, this space would help retain local agricultural traditions that are fading in the midst of the tourism boom. Establishing this garden as an important destination would allow these traditions to be shared with the many people that visit Monteverde each year, helping to spread sustainable Costa Rican agricultural practices throughout the world. 23 Left: Existing Conditions. Trail Construction by Volunteer Work. Below: Community Agricul ture.

PAGE 26

EndnotesFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1.02 billion people hungry. Rabideau, Christine L. Multiple pesticide exposure: Immunotoxicty and oxidative stress 2001. ing health outcomes in farmworker populations exposed to pesticides]. Environmental Health

PAGE 27

Planting Plan. Appendix MVI MVI Fox Fox Interpretive Observation Maple Maple Center TowerNew Tree Locations Planting Types

PAGE 28

Plant List. Appendix

PAGE 33

Bibliography.Zuchowski, Willow. Tropical Plants of Costa Rica. A Guide to Native and Exotic Flora. 2nd ed. Miami, Fl.; A Zona Tropical Publication, 2007. Haber, William A. An Introduction to Cloud Florest Trees. 2nd ed. Monteverde, Costa Rica; Mountain Gem Publishing, 2000.

PAGE 34

Acknowledgements.Tower design: Joshua Turner Thank you: MVI Professor Anibal Torres Visiting Professors Kevin Connors Jajean Rose-Burney Pam Harwood Kevin Gaughan MVI Staff Patricia Ortiz Willow Zuchowski


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
leader 00000nas 2200000Ka 4500
controlfield tag 008 000000c19749999pautr p s 0 0eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a M37-00434
040
FHM
0 041
049
FHmm
1 100
Hettler, Brian Fraser, Kevin Waery, Amber
242
Monteverde Institutes ecological garden
245
Jardin ecolgico del Instituto Monteverde
260
c 2009-08
500
Born Digital
3 520
Una propuesta para una comunidad basada en el espacio educativo demostrando los principios de la permacultura, basado en un sistema natural de agricultura sostenible. Incluye un anlisis del sitio, una metodologa, y los diversos componentes que debern incluirse, es decir, la incorporacin del higuern del Instituto de Monteverde en la entrada, la creacin de un centro de interpretacin, espacios para jardines comunitarios, rea de compostaje, jardn sensorial, colonia de abejas, y las especies que atraen a la fauna silvestre en la zona.
Proposal for a community based educational space demonstrating the principles of permaculture, a nature based design system for sustainable agricultural practices. Includes site analysis, methology, and the various components to be included: an entrance that incorporates the Monteverde Institutes iconic fig tree into the design, an interpretive center, community garden spaces and a sensory garden using species that attract area wildlife, a composting area, and a bee colony.
546
650
Demostracin de jardines--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde
Permacultura--Costa Rica
Agricultura sostenible--Costa Rica
4
Demonstration gardens--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde
Permaculture--Costa Rica
Sustainable agriculture--Costa Rica
653
Futuros Sostenibles 2009
Reporte final
Sustainable Futures 2009
Final report
655
Reports
720
MVI
773
t Monteverde Institute : Sustainable Futures
787
M37-000435, Jardin ecologico del Instituto Monteverde [ppt]
i Related document;
856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?m37.434