El centro comercial: connecting commercial opportunities to community needs

El centro comercial: connecting commercial opportunities to community needs

Material Information

El centro comercial: connecting commercial opportunities to community needs
Translated Title:
El centro comercial: conectando oportunidades comerciales con necesidades comunales
Campbell, Todd Carroll, Madeline Desilva, Adrian Dorsey, Candaco Hamidi, Saba McCarthy, John Noga, Adam Panglao, Ruemel Ramirez, Luis
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Community development ( lcsh )
Shopping centers ( lcsh )
Urban planning and environment ( lcsh )
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone--Santa Elena ( lcsh )
Desarrollo comunal
Centros comerciales
Urbanismo y medio ambiente
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde--Santa Elena
Sustainable Futures 2010
Futuros Sostenibles 2010
Reports ( lcsh )


This final report focuses on the creation of plans for Centro Comercial Monteverde, including the economic benefits of incorporating strategies to meet the needs of the local community along with sustainable measures to enhance the local ecology. Maps and architectural drawings are included in the report.
Este informe final se centra en la creación de planes para el Centro Comercial Monteverde, incluyendo los beneficios económicos de la incorporación de estrategias para satisfacer las necesidades de la comunidad local, junto con medidas sostenibles para mejorar la ecología local. Se incluyen mapas y planos arquitectónicos en el informe.
Text in English.
General Note:
Born Digital

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University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
M37-00441 ( USFLDC DOI )
m37.441 ( USFLDC Handle )

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Campbell, Todd Carroll, Madeline Desilva, Adrian Dorsey, Candaco Hamidi, Saba McCarthy, John Noga, Adam Panglao, Ruemel Ramirez, Luis
El centro comercial: conectando oportunidades comerciales con necesidades comunales
El centro comercial: connecting commercial opportunities to community needs
c 2010-08
Born Digital
3 520
This final report focuses on the creation of plans for Centro Comercial Monteverde, including the economic benefits of incorporating strategies to meet the needs of the local community along with sustainable measures to enhance the local ecology. Maps and architectural drawings are included in the report.
Este informe final se centra en la creacin de planes para el Centro Comercial Monteverde, incluyendo los beneficios econmicos de la incorporacin de estrategias para satisfacer las necesidades de la comunidad local, junto con medidas sostenibles para mejorar la ecologa local. Se incluyen mapas y planos arquitectnicos en el informe.
Text in English.
Community development
Shopping centers
Urban planning and environment
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone--Santa Elena
Desarrollo comunal
Centros comerciales
Urbanismo y medio ambiente
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde--Santa Elena
Sustainable Futures 2010
Futuros Sostenibles 2010
t Monteverde Institute : Sustainable Futures
DOI: M39-00439 (Accompanying Spanish language presentation) and DOI: M39-00440 (Accompanying English language presentation)
i Related document;
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?m37.441


EL CENTRO COMERCIALConnecting commercial opportunities to community needs Sustainable Futures 2O1O


Sponsoring Organization: I nstitNSTIT U toT O M onteONTE V erER D eE AP DD O 69-5655, M onteONTE V erER D eE PU ntarenasNT ARENAS C ostaOST A R icaICA T: (506) 2645.5053 F: (506) 2645.5219 E: I nfoNFO @ mM V institINSTIT U teTE orOR G T ype of Work: M asterASTER planPLAN ofOF centroCENTRO commercialCOMMERCIAL recommenRECOMMEN D ationsATIONS forFOR participatorP ARTICIPATOR Y D esiESI G nN processPROCESS Clients: comm COMM U nitNIT Y ofOF monteMONTE V erER D eE reRE G ionIONcosta COSTA ricaRICA


MADELINE CARROLL University of OO r egon Master of LL andscape AA r chitecture A A DRIAN DESIL VA University at Buffalo Master of AA r chitecture ADA mM NOGA University at Buffalo Master of AA r chitecture T ODDODD CACA MPB ELLELL University at Buffalo Bachelor of AA r chitecture CANDACE DORSEY University of Maryland Bachelor of LL andscape AA r chitecture SA SA B AA H AA M IDIIDI University of Maryland Bachelor of LL andscape AA r chitecture J OO H NN M CCARCCAR TH YY University of Maryland Bachelor of LL andscape AA r chitecture R uEmUEM EL P AANGLAONGLAO University of Maryland Bachelor of LL andscape AA r chitecture Lu LU IS RR A mM IREZ University at Buffalo Bachelor of AA r chitecture C C H ARLESARLES SCSC HM IDID T University at Buffalo Bachelor of AA r chitecture SS pecial Thanks To: OO lman Quesada A A ide CC uadrado Justin Welch Monteverde II ntitute SS taf fDESIGN tT EA mMADVISING ADVISING F ACAC U LL T YY KELLY F LL EM INGING University of Maryland D D epartment of LL andscape AA r chitecture Ch CH RIS tT O phPH ER RR O mM AN OO University at Buffalo D D epartment of AA r chitecture J ILLILL B ELLENGERELLENGERS S U NYNY ESES F D D epartment of LL andscape AA r chitecture DENNIS A ANDRE jkJK O University at Buffalo D D epartment of AA r chitecture J AA J EANEAN ROSEROSE University at Buffalo D D epartment of Planning ED ED SS T EINEIN F ELDELD University at Buffalo D D epartment of AA r chitecture The Monteverde II nstituteHosted By: CC O uU RSE CC OORDINA tT OR AA NI bB AL TORRES Monteverde II nstitute




PART I: introINTRO DU ctionCTION & oO V erER V iewIEW


ecoloECOLO GY moMO B ilitILIT Y C UU LT UU R eE BU iltILT formFORM Sustainable Futures 2O1O 2


The value and potential of the built assets currently situated at the Centro Comercial Monteverde (CCM) are substantial. With enough indoor space to house most of downtown Santa Elena and enough outdoor space to host a town fair, the site presents a unique opportunity for the surrounding community. As As the project changes ownership, it stands at a critical juncture. Lack of patronage due to negative local sentiment has demonstrated that community support is a necessary element in the CCMs future success. This report aims to address the economic benefits of incorporating strategies to meet the needs of the local community along with sustainable measures to enhance the local ecology. Neither CCMs owners nor the Monteverde area residents of current and future generations can afford to let the materials, energy, capital, and space already invested in this project go to waste. In a place like Monteverde where the natural environment is the crux of the ecotourism economy, every decision that affects the environment must be calculated carefully. Sustainability in respect to a built project, however, does not just entail the application of environmentally sensitive design. The CCMs master plan must consider the projects viability in terms of cultural and economic sustainability as well. Fortunately, these factors work hand in hand. BB y synthesizing ecologically sustainable pr actices with design for community needs, the master plan could greatly improve the economic vitality of the site. This report will demonstrate that cultural, economic, and environmental interests can be addressed with an integrated solution. The future success of the CCM requires careful planning for all three factors. This plan proposes to transform the CCM into an asset that addresses community and ecological needs. BB y doing so this project will draw the tenants and patrons needed to make it financially viable and by incorporating sustainable design strategies, will significantly reduce its long-term operating costs. proPRO J ectECT pP U rposeRPOSE Sustainable Futures 2O1O 3


200 0 metros Site Context Santa Elena (Centro de Negocios) La Reserva Santa Elena Cerro Plano El Centro Comercial La Reserva Monteverde Limite del Sitio Sustainable Futures 2O1O 4


S iteITE DescriptionDESCRIPTION The site is located in Cerro Plano within the Rio GG uacimal w atershed. Its physical boundaries are determined by two bordering roads which connect the site to Santa Elena at the northwest intersection and the Monteverde Reserve at the northeast intersection. The current topography of the site is the result of previous development that manipulated the landform into a series of terraces that step down from Cerro Plano toward downtown Santa Elena. This alteration to the grade influences the hydrological movement on site, for all runoff flows to the western region, which is in close proximity to major waterways. The site covers a total area of thirty five thousand four hundred fifty seven meters squared (35,457 m2). Five thousand four hundred eleven meters squared (5,411 m2) encompasses the building and parking footprint, and the total floor space amounts to six thousand five hundred seventy four meters squared (6,574 m2). The folowing diagram outlines the buildings spatial capacity and existing retail usage. The built environment on site consists of a sloped parking lot and pedestrian walkways situated within an inward facing structure. From the interior space, the building maintains no strong visual connections to the street. The undeveloped portion of the site is characterized by sparse vegetation due to improper stormwater runoff management, which results in erosion of top soil. This condition has prevented the site vegetation from returning to its original state. BUILDING FOOTPRINT: 5,411 MT2TOTAL SITE FOOTPRINT:35,457 MT2BUILDING FLOOR SPACE (BOTH FLOORS): 6,574 MT2 Sustainable Futures 2O1O 5


espacios pequeos espacios medianos espacios grandes espacios ocupados Primero Piso Secundo Piso espacios de almacenamiento espacios de servicio = 64parqueo total de espacios de negocios espacios de negocios ocupados caseta del guarda = 50 = 5 3 1 = 1 1ropa abarrotes mascotas Sustainable Futures 2O1O 6


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 7 PART II: CONTEXT & siteSITE analANAL Y sisSIS


COSTA RICA Costa Rica is located in Central America, bordering Panama to the north and Nicaragua to the south. The country is divided into seven provinces: San JJ ose, Alajuela, Heredia, GG uanacaste Puntarenas, Cartago, and Limon. These provinces are divided into counties and are further subdivided into districts. The country is also separated based on the Continental DD ivide where all places to the w est are classified as being on the Pacific side and the areas to the east are labeled as being on the Atlantic side. Monteverde is located in DD istrict 9 of Puntarenas County which is part of the Province of Puntarenas, situated on the Pacific Coast near the Continental DD ivide in the Tilar an Cordillera. In addition, the Monteverde district is located in the Rio GG uacimal W atershed. Most of Monteverde lies in the tropical montane cloud forest. Out of the twelve lifezones of Costa Rica, the Monteverde region contains seven. The area also has 2 seasons: wet (May October) and dry (February May) and an accompanying transitional period (November JJ anuary). Much of the region is divided between forested areas and agricultural land. (Nadkarni 2000, 15) nationalNATIONAL contextCONTEXTre RE G ionalIONAL contextCONTEXT L anAN D C oO V erERD D isturbed F orest: UU ndisturbed f orest land that has fallen as a result of deforestation due to urban development, agrarian uses, or natural disturbances such as forest fires. Secondary Forest: An area that has been reforested after disturbance where the effects are no longer apparent. These are considered young forests that are not primeval or old-growth. (Source: wikipedia.org Landcover/ Landuse) In the case of Monteverde, much of the reforested abandoned agricultural and pasture lands are considered secondary forest. At this point, many pasture lands are transitioning back into forest land due to a huge increase in deforestation for agricultural use. GG r asslands: Areas where grass (herbaceous cover) is the main vegetation. These areas are also known as agricultural lands and pastures. Charral: An uncultivated area that has been dormant for less than three years. VV egetation f ound in these areas consists of thorny plants and shrubs with a small portion of woody plants. Monteverde Sustainable Futures 2O1O 8


reREGionalIONAL contextCONTEXT Monteverde District Province Boundary Rivers Bosque Intervenid4,400 0 metersBosque Natural Bosque Secundario Charral / Tacotal PastoGUANACASTE PUNTARENAS ALAJUELASanta Elena EL CENTRO COMMERCIAL GUANACASTE PUNTARENAS ALAJUELASanta Elena EL CENTRO COMMERCIALSan Luis Lindora Monteverde Los LLanos Cerro Plano Monteverde District Province Boundary Rivers Humedo Premontano Trasicion a Tropical Muy Humedo Montano Bajo Pluvial Montano Bajo Humedo Premontano Muy Humedo Premontano Pluvial Premontano Humedo TropicalPUNTARENAS Tacotal: An area of a property that remained uncultivated for more than four years where plants were planted and introduced, encompassing natives & non-natives. L ifeIFE Z onesONES Lifezones are calculated based on mean annual temperatures and the amount of rainfall. These factors determine the type of vegetation that can grow in each lifezone and the wildlife that can be supported. The Pre-Montane wet forest spreads between eight hundred and one thousand five hundred meters along the Pacific slope. (Nadkarni,41) BiocorriBIOCORRI D orsORSB B iological corridors consist of protected land that works to preserve the connections between larger conservation areas, aiming to prevent the fragmentation of natural habitats. These areas of protection usually span along streams or rivers since they are major links in respect to wildlife migration patterns. ADD itionalITIONAL I nformationNFORMA TION Many of the biological corridors in Costa Rica exist to protect designated areas from certain types of development (e.g. urban conditions). DD ue to def orestation of highland forests in Costa Rica, the plant and wildlife diversity of Monteverde has been significantly impacted. Making matters worse, the large expanses of pastures, roads, and urban development found in the region further disconnect preservation areas, rendering them useless in some cases. BB iological corridors alread y exist in the Monteverde area, but, with a lack of law and policy enforcement from the municipality, these sites are not protected by law. The corridors follow the building codes for river buffers, requiring that development not encroach within fifteen meters of the river Land Cover Life Zones Sustainable Futures 2O1O 9


San Luis Lindora Monteverde Los LLanos Cerro Plano Monteverde District Continental Divide Province Boundary Reserva Los Llanos Reserva Santa Elena Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve ArenalMonteverde Cabeceras Abangares Cuenca Del Rio Abangares Curi Cancha Para Aves Volc. Arenal ZP Abangares No Protegido Nesting Bird Migrating BirdGUANACASTE PUNTARENAS ALAJUELASanta Elena EL CENTRO COMMERCIAL Monteverde District Province Boundary Rivers Rio Abangares y Otros Rio Guacimal Rio Barranca Rio Bebedero Rio San Carlos San Luis Lindora Monteverde Los LLanos Cerro Plano GUANACASTE PUNTARENAS ALAJUELASanta Elena EL CENTRO COMMERCIAL or stream. An exception to the rule exists, however, in which the buffer zone area increases according to increasing elevation. BirBIR D M iI G rationRA TION Restoring biodiv ersity in an area is usually an initial step in preservation efforts, so, to work towards this goal, birds are introduced into an area by way of planting native trees to attract local bird populations, utilizing the various properties of the tree, including its fruit, insects inhabitants, or nesting potential. In this area, the premontane wet forest, a diverse mix of birds reside that would nest longer in the area if trees were planted and connections between the forested areas were made. Many of the birds in Zone 2, the premontane wet forest lifezone, are elevational migrants, meaning that migration occurs at one elevation on the mountain slopes, and, during breeding/non-breeding times, the birds move up and down the mountain or to the coastal areas. (Nadkarni 2000, 183) The Resplendent Quetzal has a fourstage migration process. DD uring cour tship and nesting, it starts in the cloud forest of Monteverde Pacific coast ( JJ anuary May). After nesting the bird moves to lower elevations down the coast and then ventures back up to higher elevations, crossing the Continental DD ivide Eventually, it makes its way to the Caribbean coast until nesting season begins again. (Nadkarni 2000, 183) The Three-Wattled BB ellbird star ts breeding near the Continental DD ivide in the cloud f orest (March JJ uly). Afterw ards, it moves down the Pacific slope (Aug Oct), proceeding to fly north to Nicaragua (Oct DD ec). Pr oceeding Nicaragua, it relocates back to the Pacific coast to the Monteverde region by March. BB ef ore bellbirds flew to Nicaragua, they BB ird Migration & BB iocorridors Watersheds Sustainable Futures 2O1O 10


San Luis Lindora Monteverde Los LLanos Cerro Plano Monteverde District Major roads Minor roadsPuntarenas Province Boundary Guanacaste Santa Elena Alajuela stopped in the lowland areas of Costa Rica; after substantial deforestation in the country, their migration pattern shifted due to loss of habitat. (Nadkarni 2000) W atersheATERSHE D The Montev erde region is located inside the Rio GG uacimal w atershed where many major streams and tributaries descend rapidly down the Continental DD ivide Consequently, water and its use are major issues for this region because of both the dry and wet seasons. The infrastructure intended to handle water in the upper portion of the Rio GG uacimal w atershed is not centralized, ignoring the requirements of municipal governments. Therefore, a large amount of the wastewater, aqueducts, and surface water are not being supervised thereby causing problems such as the introduction of greywater in freshwater streams. In the region, a substantial portion of the groundwater is undocumented, and many of the uses of springs and freshwater remains unclassified. VehicVEHIC U larLAR C ircIRC U lationLA TION Considering downto wn Santa Elenas relationship to the broader region is critical in grasping the varying dynamics that have influenced its urban form. Within three hours, visitors can reach the Liberia International Airport, serving the province of GG uanacaste while the JJ uan Santamaria Inter national Airport in San JJ ose that serv es the central valley of Alajuela is only three and a half hours away. Even closer, the passenger ship terminal in Puntarenas is only two hours away. Though the influences of these international-reaching terminals do not immediately manifest as a particular urban form, the degree of accessibility to three major gateways has undoubtedly subjected the Monteverde apex with urbanizing pressures, influencing its development and design. The most notable aspect of Santa Elenas urban geometry is its figure, informed by the convergence of roads, the thoroughfares that draw the keen adventurists, inquisitive ecotourists, and residents alike. For these users, the opportunities for accessing Monteverde are possible through both public and private modes of vehicular transportation. Within the realm VV ehicular Circulation Sustainable Futures 2O1O 11


of public services, buses are available to and from San JJ ose, the countrys seat of government and finance, Puntarenas, the provincial capital of Monteverde, and Tilaran, Monteverdes neighboring town. Shuttles between frequented locations provide an alternative to the public bus, and, at the other end of the spectrum, car rentals allow for a private means of visiting the town, accessing the one thousand four hundred sixty meter peak of Monteverde. DD espite these par ticular users and their preference of transport, entrance into Monteverde occurs on the regions primary network of roadways. The Pan-American Highway in particular is a major thoroughfare which journeys through the mainland countries of the Americas and, to Monteverdes convenience, is only 35km away. These roads serve as Monteverdes arteries to the regional transportation infrastructure and have been the sole means of accessing the cloud forests rich and world renowned biodiversity but not without consequence to the local ecosystem. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 12


MO BB ILIT YY The region s primary roads lead to a juncture of commercial, religious, political, and cultural institutions, Santa Elenas constituent parts. Arguably the most profound aspect of Santa Elenas existing urban form is the diversity of users it aims to accommodate, and, as the city saw an increasing presence of commercial establishments, a comparative rise in the users of DD o wntown Santa Elena followed suit. The roads of downtown Santa Elena arouse an arr ay of visual, physical, and emotional receptions, all induced by its street life, a way of life increasingly marked by congestion. Here the air is undeniably saturated by an industry that constantly drives the evolution of the cultural and ecological landscapes of the cloud forests municipality. Santa Elena stands as the epicenter of the localitys eco and adventure tourism industries. GG auging the vitality of Santa Elenas tourist-commercialism is a process that requires no means of calculation. Through innate human senses, congestion in the heart of downtown can be read by seeing and hearing the volumes of vehicular traffic and breathing in their exhaust. These choking roads are by no means a consequence of an esoteric phenomenon; in fact, it is a red flag that reflects an area starved of economic diversity. Tourism has a profound presence in this speedily developing rural-commercial hub. As an industry committed to providing an array of services to the foreigner, tourism by now has inscribed its history since conception unto the regions urban fabric. These influences interestingly, for the better or worse, crucial in understanding the regions evolving built environment, have generated a typology that epitomizes the Monteverde districts shifting interest and economic base. Santa Elena particularly exemplifies these interests, overwhelmingly evident by the type of businesses located within the triform convergence. However, these implications are localLOCAL contextCONTEXT To Santa Elena Reserve Downtown Santa Elena El Centro Comercial To Monteverde Reserve 200 Roads Two-Way Traffic River One-Way Traffic Area of Congestion Site Boundary 9m 1 0 0 1.5m 1.5m Sustainable Futures 2O1O 13The Centro Comercial is located near congested Santa ElenaThe roads in downtown Santa Elena are narrow, with parking and sidewalks on both sides


far more reaching than the outspoken signs that resonate with hospitality. The extreme growth of the areas tourism sector has taken on various manifestations; one in particular has taken to the streets. Here, tourism has materialized as a barrier between the areas ecologies. The high presence of tourist-oriented businesses have subsequently focused Santa Elenas taxi base in the heart of town. Along with all the businesses that depend on the delivery of goods, Santa Elenas triform has become a shared crossing between pedestrians, trucks, and others, reflecting a growing industry that holds much uncertainty for the future of its congested streets. CU ltL T U reRE Population v T ourism Since the opening of the Monteverde Reserve in 1974, the population of the Monteverde area has grown at a relatively steady rate of two to four percent and has leveled off at around four thousand. The rate of growth, at this point, has not exceeded the capacity of the area, for there are still many sites suited for potential development; however, increased development should not be the focus of the town, for part of what defines the area of Monteverde is the high volume of undisturbed land. In stark contrast, the rate of growth of tourism in Monteverde was steady until around 1990, but, from then to the mid nineties, the area experienced exponential growth, for the amount of tourists increased from twenty-five thousand to sixty-fifty thousand in the span of five years based on the Monteverde and Santa Elena Reserve DD ata. Ecotourism became a w ell-established industry in the area as Monteverdes popularity grew internationally. Capitalizing on this influx of people, travel companies and more businesses opened to provide services and activities to visitors. Monteverde Region 1985 100 Residents 100 Tourists Sources: INEC Monteverde Reserve 1,575*Estimated Average*6,786 Sustainable Futures 2O1O 14 Congestion makes pedestrian crossings perilous In 1985 there were four times as many tourists as there were residents


It should be noted that the numbers from the two reserves, although generally considered the most accurate statistics in the area in terms of tourism data, do not reflect the actual number but rather the proportion of which tourism has grown. Most residents of the community and members of the Monteverde Institute staff place the volume of annual tourism at about two hundred fifty thousand. The amount of tourism occurring in the region, however, is reaching its limit in terms of what the town can provide. If it continues to grow, commercial development in the area will have to increase and expand to compensate, a prospect that most residents are opposed to. Furthermore, this disparity between population and tourism numbers underscores the difficulty the municipality faces today in building and maintaining infrastructure, such as water systems and roadways, for the combined populations since funding must be generated solely by the local population. Tourism Timeline The growth of tourism does not directly match the growth in the population of the region. However, the rise in tourism directly corresponds with certain events in Monteverdes history. The opening of the Monteverde Reserve in 1974 unofficially made the area a tourist destination, triggering an incremental increase in the rate of tourism annually. In 1983, National GG eogr aphic published a feature article on the area, raving about the amazing sights and sounds the region had to offer, and, after that, the international spotlight focused on Monteverde, spurring the high rate increase of tourism in the area and the establishment of other major tourist attractions in the area for a fifteen year period. BB etw een the Childrens Rainforest opening in 1983, the BB utterfly Sustainable Futures 2O1O 15In 1995 and 2005, there were nearly thirty times as many tourists as there were residents




GG arden opening in 1990, the Santa Elena Reser ve opening in 1992, the Skywalk company opening and the publication of the BB irds of Costa Rica in 1995, and the Selvatura zip-lining company opening in 1996, the area grew in popularity as a tourist hot spot and therefore the amount of tourism rose exponentially, more than doubling between 1990 and 2000. At present, tourism stands as the main source of revenue of the town; when the last global recession came, the amount of people visiting the region decreased and businesses were struggling to make ends meet, portraying the reliance and importance of foreign revenue. For example, Poco a Poco Hotel in Santa Elena experienced waves of reservation cancellations in the midst of a building renovation during the recession of the late 2000s; in that situation, they were forced to request loans from various banks. Therefore, tourism is vital for the region and any new development should work to foster and maintain a sustainable level of tourists in the area. It should be noted that many locals believe that the area is reaching its unofficial capacity. The Monteverde Reserve, in an effort to control the tourism numbers, imposed a daily cap in 2007 to limit the amount of people touring the forest at any given time. The reserve cap most likely stems from the belief that the town does not have enough infrastructure or resources to support a greater tourist population. However, this year the JJ uan Santamaria Inter national Airport in San JJ ose increased its number of ter minals, allowing for more planes and consequently even greater tourism in the country as a whole. Whether this development works for or against tourism in Monteverde remains to be seen. Cerro Plano Downtown Santa Elena Commercial Residential Site Boundary 2009 1986 Commercial Residential Site Boundary Cerro Plano Downtown Santa Elena Sustainable Futures 2O1O 17Commercial and residential development expanded exponentially in Santa Elena between 1986 and 2009


Downtown Santa Elena Cerro Plano General Sales and Services Restaurants and Bars Downtown Santa Elena Cerro Plano Tourist Services and Sales City Land UU se DD evelopment Holistically, the region of Monteverde has grown both residentially and commercially over the past thirty years. The bulk of the growth has occurred in Santa Elena and Cerro Plano while Monteverde, the village, has only slightly changed. Santa Elena has experienced the densification of both residential and commercial areas in the north and main downtown areas from the 1980s to the present. Interestingly, in the early nineties, the southwest side of Santa Elena was barely developed; however, from that point to the present, a major commercial and residential area has been established. This development corresponds with the exponential growth of tourism in the same time period; with that fact in consideration and the constant densification of residential and commercial areas in the city, the increase in tourism necessitated the need for more people working and living in the area due to the increase in commercial establishments. Consequently, development grew with the demand in tourism. The same type of growth occurred in neighboring Cerro Plano in which residential and commercial areas were established at a large rate during the 1990s. Since tourism has leveled off, however, the establishment of commercial areas has slowed, but the residential areas in town continue to expand. As the amount of tourism in the area has reached a plateau, the development rate slowed dramatically. However, the rate of development correlates directly to the growth in tourism, so, as long as the amount of tourism remains constant, development rates will not be significant. Many members of the community do not want more annual tourism than what they have currently and are opposed to substantial commercial Sustainable Futures 2O1O 18 The majority of development in downtown Santa Elena is commercial, catering to residents, tourists, and sometimes both


development. The relationship between these two factors rationalizes their concern. DD o wntown Land UU se DD ev elopment In 1986, the area in the vicinity of the nowpresent Centro Comercial was primarily residential and pasture land, most of which was concentrated in downtown Santa Elena. BB y 1992, man y of the residential areas were converted into commercial establishments and additional commercial areas were built. Over the next decade, more residential and commercial structures materialized, concentrating on downtown Santa Elena and radiating outward, a concept portrayed in multiple downtown areas throughout the world such as DD o wntown Silver Spring in Maryland ( UU SA) or on a larger scale, Washington DD C ( UU SA) in relation to the surr ounding suburbs. The growth in tourism and population also necessitated the development of the southwest area of Santa Elena; between 2001 and 2009, the sector experienced rapid growth, spawning multiple residential and commercial clusters. In general, development occurs in the area based on need, whether for the locals or tourists. E coloCOL O GY The land occup ying Centro Comercial was originally used as pasture land, and, because the land was dormant for a substantial period, natural vegetation and forest began to reestablish itself on-site. However, in the late 2000s, the site was purchased, and Centro Comercial finished construction in late 2009. This development reshaped the landform and altered the ecology of the site. Centro Comercial is located in a classified disturbed forest area. This type of land cover means that is was once undisturbed Centro Comercial Site Centro Comercial Site Centro Comercial Site Centro Comercial Site Sustainable Futures 2O1O 19


Santa Elena (Downtown) Centro de Comercial 200 0 meters Dumping Points at Stream/Road Intersections 200 0 meters Dumping Points at Stream/Road Intersections Santa Elena (Downtown) Centro de ComercialStorm water runoff from rooftops with colors coordinated to their eventual dumping points Storm water runoff from street surfaces with colors coordinated to their eventual dumping points On the Centro Comercial site itself, there is a large amount of impermeable surface area. Storm water runoff from the roof flows into seventy-two drainpipes, and sixty-two of those redirect the water into an underground drainage system. The other ten dump directly onto the ground. Water from the paved surfaces flows into the ditches on the side of the streets. Both the ditches and the underground drainage system direct all of their water into the nearby tributary at two points just beyond the borders of the site. The total untreated runoff from the site is approximately 1 million liters per year. forest area, but, due to development in the area, the vegetation has changed, and areas that were once forested are now bare ground. The site is in a developed area that has a patch of forest on opposite ends and bare ground from construction regradng. Centro Comercial is located in the Pre-Montane Wet Forest zone that is fairly wet all year long. This lifezone has tree species compatible to the climate and the wildlife associated with vegetation in this lifezone. Most of the vegetation in this lifezone are evergreen forest with a few deciduous species. The soil is suitable for agricultural purposes. Epiphytes are also common in many forests. Centro Comercial is located in the BB ellBB ird BB iological Corridor This corridor is in the process of becoming a law-protected wildlife corridor for those animals that follow the Rio GG uacimal. W astewater (three types): GG re ywater water that has been sullied beyond the point of potability but has not come in contact with human or animal waste. The criteria includes wastewater from sinks, showers, bathtubs, and laundry machines. GG re ywater has the capacity to be reused for laundry, toilet-flushing, or irrigation after simple sanitary treatment. BB lac kwater also known as sewage, blackwater is water that has come in contact with human or animal waste. GG re ywater, when deposited into the same receptacle as blackwater, becomes blackwater. It is important to separate the two so that each can be appropriately treated. BB lac kwater is rich in nutrients that can be Santa Elena (Downtown) Centro de Comercial The five main storm/grey water dumping points Storm water runoff from rooftops with colors coordinated to their eventual dumping points Sustainable Futures 2O1O 20


reused as fertilizer, but it is also more difficult and time-consuming to treat than greywater. Stormwater or runoff, is any volume of water from rainfall that must be handled upon reaching impermeable surfaces. This water should not be allowed to flow directly back into the natural environment for several reasons. For instance, when water flows over rooftops, concrete, or pavement, it collects toxins, trash, and heat, all of which can be very harmful to any natural ecosystem. Furthermore, a concentration of water flowing into a piece of land or a river has the potential to increase erosion and river flow rates. These are two more examples of stormwater effects that negatively impact the environment. In the greater Santa Elena area, blackwater is mainly treated through the use of septic systems. Much of the greywater that is produced, however, is not treated. Instead, it is redirected into the storm drains that line most of the paved roads in the area. The majority of the combined stormwater/greywater that flows into the drains ends up in the Quebrada Sucia tributaries that pass beneath the streets. This occurrence can have negative impacts on the environment such as increases in water temperature, pollution, sedimentation, and flow rates. Furthermore, the water travels down through the GG uacimal w atershed, inflicting distant and unknown effects. Taking into account the amount of rainfall that Monteverde receives during the rainy season, as well as the annual flux of waste-creating tourist populations, it is important for Santa Elena to strive for an overall wastewater management system that is as clean and sustainable as possible. Santa Elena (Downtown) Centro de Comercial Santa Elena (Downtown) Centro de Comercial 200 0 meters Dumping Points at Stream/Road Intersections 200 0 meters Dumping Points at Stream/Road Intersections Santa Elena (Downtown) Centro de ComercialStorm water runoff from rooftops with colors coordinated to their eventual dumping points Storm water runoff from street surfaces with colors coordinated to their eventual dumping points On the Centro Comercial site itself, there is a large amount of impermeable surface area. Storm water runoff from the roof flows into seventy-two drainpipes, and sixty-two of those redirect the water into an underground drainage system. The other ten dump directly onto the ground. Water from the paved surfaces flows into the ditches on the side of the streets. Both the ditches and the underground drainage system direct all of their water into the nearby tributary at two points just beyond the borders of the site. The total untreated runoff from the site is approximately 1 million liters per year. Storm water runoff from street surfaces with colors coordinated to their eventual dumping points Site DD r ainage Sustainable Futures 2O1O 21


On the Centro Comercial site itself, there is a large amount of impermeable surface area. Stormwater runoff from the roof flows into seventy-two drainpipes, and sixty-two of those redirect the water into an underground drainage system while the other ten dump directly onto the ground. Water from the paved surfaces flows into the ditches on the side of the streets. BB oth the ditc hes and the underground drainage system direct all of their water into the nearby tributary at two points just beyond the borders of the site. The total untreated runoff from the site is approximately one million liters per year. BB U iltIL T F ormORM Materials and Te xture The aesthetics of downtown Santa Elena differ greatly from those found within Central Comercial. Santa Elena benefits from a vibrancy of materials and colors that enhance the visitors visual stimulation and brings the buildings to life. In contrast, Centro Comercial suffers from a bland, cold appearance, serving as a further reminder of its foreign nature and lack of integration within its surrounding context. Santa Elena over time has become a melting pot of forms, colors, and materials. This disparity between the different elements creates another layer of texture onto the city, illustrating its uniqueness and engaging nature. In particular, the city lacks a common building typology which allows the visitor to always experience a new perspective or view of the town. Much like the topography found in the region, the streetscape itself varies in heights and degrees of accessibility, for the roads are constantly congested with pedestrian and vehicular traffic, forcing the pedestrian onto narrow sidewalks with little room for maneuvering. Entrances lack Typical Santa Elena development takes on a variety of styles and colors, while the Centro Comercial has little variety VV ie ws of the Centro Comercial from Santa Elena Sustainable Futures 2O1O 22


prominence relative to the overall facade of the buildings since they are often situated either stepped back or elevated off of street level. The materials used within the downtown area are no different than those found in homes around the area and much of Costa Rica itself. Corrugated metal decking is one of the most common building materials used for roofs due to its ease of use, pleasing appearance, and low cost. Additionally, concrete, another regularly applied material, is utilized in order to take advantage of its structural capabilties and thermal properties which allows it to passively cool spaces during hot days; increasing the amount of cooling, perforations to the concrete faades enable air to enter the space. Large windows located along the store front permit a substantial amount of light to fall within the area, lowering electricity costs and also offering bystanders a view into the space. The material makeup of Centro Comercial is composed of concrete, metal decking, large windows, and plastic awnings similar to downtown; however, they are used in an inefficient manner. The architect selected a bland pallet, making the complex appear as a giant, intimidating mass that fails to connect with the surrounding landscape. The large windows, all facing inward, neglect to garner the attention or interest of the sites potential visitors, contrasting the welcoming storefronts downtown. Furthermore, the orientation of the windows also disregards the consideration of wind and sun conditions on-site, focusing solely on visual continuity as opposed to sustainable practicality. Only the concrete on the site offers sustainable benefits since it can cool the spaces by virtue of its thermal properties. VV iews of the Centro Comercial from the site boundaries The enclosed Centro Comercial bloc ks views outward Sustainable Futures 2O1O 23


VV isual Connection Centro Comercial suffers fr om numerous problems that hinder the visual connections to and from the site. These restricting elements originate primarily from the buildings, topography and vegetation, and promote the disconnection of the complex to its surroundings on a variety of scales, adding to the growing stigma and distaste of the site. Santa Elena sits lower than Centro Comercial, so, to see the site, people in Santa Elena are forced to look up. The angle of this viewpoint distorts the perception of actual conditions, for it makes the complex appear to be farther away than it actually is. Currently, the site is only visible from two of the three corners of the downtown triangle. The two viewing points depict the mall as a backdrop to other businesses, including an aesthetically-unpleasing junkyard, but, because of the buildings orientation, the movement and activity on site is imperceptible. The northeastern point, found near the Chamber of Tourism, offers no glimpse of the site due to a grouping of trees and VV itosi s drugstore. Since most visitors focus their activities in this area, the site finds itself at a disadvantage since the lack of a visual link will essentially render people unaware of the sites existence. Walking the border of the site also provides minimal knowledge of what the space has to offer. As it stands, the site, because of its design, offer only a few instances of clear visual connection inward. These obstructions are the result of the steep topography found onsite along with vegetation lining the borders. Where the building is actually visible, the prominent element is the large white roof when looking from the eastern border or, from other locations, a series of bare white walls with a few plastic brick accents. Currently, there are no windows or doors on the exterior walls to permit streetside entry into the various establishments. Stepping into the complex, the visitor essentially disconnects themselves from the culture found in downtown Santa Elena. With buildings covering three hundred sixty degrees of the interior spaces and, it is nearly impossible to look out. The repetition of building elements harks back to the monotony of many structures found in the UU nited States r ather than Costa Rica, making for a further visual and cultural conflict. Immediately outside of the site, the visitor is easily able to see a panorama of the landscape, ranging from Los Llanos to downtown Santa Elena. The beauty of these views provides an opportunity to link Centro Comercial with downtown, mimicking the triangular form of the downtown area and forming a larger triangular connection. BB oth downtown Santa Elena and parts of the Cemetery can be seen from the western end of the Centro Comercial Sustainable Futures 2O1O 24


Opportunity to link Centro Comercial with downtown, mimicking the triangular form of the downtown area and forming a larger triangular connection Sustainable Futures 2O1O 25


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 26


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 27 P artART iI II: challenCHALLEN G esES G oalsO ALS & oO BJ ectiECTI V esES


challenCHALLEN G esES ECOLO GYGY and a lac k of native plant material increases er osion and sedimentation MO BB ILIT YY entering the site BUBU IL T FORM street-facing entr ances or windows C UU LT UU RE comm unity input and involvement in initial planning Throughout the analysis phase of the project, many goals, challenges, and objectives were identified based on the established categories of mobility, culture, built form, and ecology. The goals of the project were first established, aiming to address the outstanding problems and issues found on-site. From that, the challenges and obstacles hindering the accomplishment of the aforementioned goals were then determined. The objectives then aimed to provide solutions to the challenges, allowing for the achievement of the originally outlined goals. This process required collaboration between the four initial categories of mobility, culture, built form, and ecology to create effective solutions for the site.O VV ER VV IEW Sustainable Futures 2O1O 28


GoalsGOALS & oO BJ ectiECTI V esES ECOLO GYGYGG oal: Improve environmental conditions Objectives: and r unoff G G oal: Pr omote Environmental Awareness Objectives: sustainable design implementation comm unity institutions MO BB ILIT YY GG oal: Improve vehicular and pedestrian accessibility Objectives: elder ly and disabled BUBU IL T FORM GG oal: Improve integration with existing community character and context Objectives: urban fabric GG oal: Pr omote sustainable design Objectives: C UU L T UU RE GG oal: Increase community stewardship Objectives: implementation process Sustainable Futures 2O1O 29


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 30


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 31 P artART I VV : proposePROPOSE D participatorP ARTICIPATOR Y D esiESI G nN processPROCESS


The design process for the Centro Comercial project values the element of community involvement to help ensure its success. This participatory design process was based on enhancing the sustainability of the economy, ecology, and culture of the site. The main goal of the process, therefore, was to garner community input and gain support in order to develop a master plan that directly meets the needs of the community, thus creating a truly sustainable space. Although this project presents a master plan for the site, it is meant to be a catalyst for continued planning to address community needs. The initial phase of the continuation of this process would entail bringing the project to the attention of the local community and gaining user interest through different community events. Simple and inexpensive design interventions would draw people to the site and develop interest in the projects future. Once initial community support is established, a phased final master plan could be developed and implemented based on a timeline that is both financially and environmentally feasible. BB ased on inf ormation collected from previous Sustainable Futures reports ranging from 1996 to 2007 and informal polling of people in the community, particularly homestay siblings and parents, the needs of the community have not changed over the last fourteen years; in particular, the significance of this fact rests in the idea that two generations of people, despite changes in cultural trends globally, still yearn for the same things. Therefore, these needs are unlikely to change in the future and consequently should be implemented in the community. Specifically, the people of the town have consistently requested a gym, movie theater, public library, performing/fine arts center, and community park. The youth of the area have always desired, as it was coined in the YY outh in the Zone Sustainable Futures 1996 report, a place to be . The reasons for these programmatic requests bring up several cultural disparities. DD espite the substantial amount of runners in Monteverde, a gym does not exist to further facilitate their needs. Furthermore, the community would benefit from a gym because it would promote healthy living. This would increase the overall well being of the community, reducing health and stress problems for people in area. BB ecause of the long-standing desire for a gym, it would not suffer from underuse. Another long-running desire of the community is the establishment of a movie theater. At the moment, no formal movie theater exists in the Monteverde region. The Centro Comercial area therefore lends itself to having such an establishment because it is located close to the most developed area in Monteverde, downtown Santa Elena. Access to national and international films serve to entertain and inspire people, and this community would truly benefit from this amenity. A public library in most American towns stands as an institutional structure, one existing solely for the benefit of the community. The resource of a library in any town promotes the spread of information and the education of present and future generations. One of the greatest features of any library is the ability to borrow books from a limitless amount of topics and genres, making it an almost infinite source of information, especially when connected to the internet. Furthermore, people are drawn to the enforced silence of libraries, providing them with a safe place to do homework, read a book, or study. In many cases, the library also becomes the main tool in teaching children how to read. reinREIN V entinENTIN G theTHE siteSITEcomm COMM U nitNIT Y neeNEE D sS Sustainable Futures 2O1O 32


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 33


Monteverde would be able to take advantage of this amenity, allowing them a quiet place to do work as well as increase their literacy rates. Within the area, a substantial amount of people practice all forms of performing and fine arts ranging from dancing, singing, playing an instrument, photography, drawing, painting, and other various creative activities. Currently, no place is available to foster these talents within the community nor does a dedicated facility exist for performances of any kind. This problem hinders the potential growth of the budding artists and performers of Monteverde. Furthermore, performing and fine arts have always been a major source and illustration of the culture of a region; coupled with the strong sense of culture instilled into the residents of the community, a performing and fine arts center of some sort would work to foster and showcase the cultural facets of the region on a larger scale. Finally, the community has been clamoring for a public park because of the lack of an open green space in the area. A dedicated park would provide a source of recreation and relaxation for the community. Furthermore, it would provide a safe place for people to gather, exercise, or to be by themselves. In addition, it could be used to hold public festivals and events; consequently, it could stand as the perfect multipurpose space depending on its design. Each of the previously mentioned elements would work to bolster the cultural, social, and physical well being of the community, and can satisfy the need of youth for a place to be. Whether a teenager wants to hang out at the park, take dance lessons, work out, read, or relax, those options would all be open to them. In the initial presentation reviewing the overall analysis of the site, various members of the community took the opportunity to voice their opinions and worries regarding Centro Comercial. The feedback covered a variety of topics, including circulation, culture, and money to name a few. BB ecause one of the primary focuses of the project was addressing community needs and concerns, the discussion with the people was invaluable in terms of guiding the next steps of the project. From that, various problems and points of interest were able to be addressed in the design process. 1. GG ener al positive feelings for the relocation of the bus terminal, but there is need for services and shops on site first 2. Sharp turn and a steep slope makes the main entrance dangerous 3. People need to be able to leave their mark on the site to make it their own 4. DD esire f or child care and a community center 5. New ideas demonstrat potential and raise expectations for the site 6. Need for cost versus benefit analysis 7. Small changes over time may be more beneficial 8. Positive reactions to opening up the built form 10. Entrances or windows to the street could be a solution to the disconnected form of the building, but it may encourage people to park on the street 11. Agreement that rain water is an important issue on the site 12. Community would like to see how steps could be phased 13. Public entities such as the public bus authority need to be consulted 14. Local artists appreciated addition of art center 15. Relocation of a bank branch to the site is a programming alternativeG athereATHERE D feeFEE DB acAC K Sustainable Futures 2O1O 34


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 35 P artART VV : initialINITIAL D esiESI G nN strateSTRA TE G iesIES


BB y organizing community events such as treeplantings, clean-up da ys, public art projects, or social gatherings that are centered around a theme of reclaiming the site, the initial steps could be taken to improve Centro Comercials public image. These types of occasions would bring community members together to share ideas and sentiments and begin to foster a public interest in the future of the project. The current problems with the Centro Comercial will not fix themselves, and it is important that people are aware of the ways in which they can individually impact how the center develops into a part of the community. BB y sponsoring these ev ents, local businesses that are planning for future growth could invest in Centro Comercial as a venue for expanding commerce. Other organizations such as schools, artist groups, athletic clubs, and church groups could use these events as opportunities for community service, fundraising, or educational projects. The formation of a voluntary organizing committee for these G ettinETTIN G starteSTARTE DNew signage and murals can improve the aesthetics of the exterior seen from the western end of the Centro Comercialevents might be an early step in the effort to link the community with this project. Another preliminary measure could be to change the name of Centro Comercial itself. The utterance of the current name to any member of the local population immediately spurs negative perceptions and thoughts. This stigma prevents many people from envisioning the possibility of Centro Comercial becoming a useful and integral part of the community. DD uring inf ormal interviews where residents were asked about what they thought would improve the site and make it a desirable destination, the overwhelming response was to tear it down. Since this course of action is not a viable or sustainable option due to the money and resources already invested into the project, the incorporation of a project name change would show residents that the area is heading in a new direction with a vision that incorporates their needs. Work-based site improvement events have the potential to bring the community together, for the labor force could consist of a varying cross section of interested citizens, volunteer organizations, church groups, students, children, and other stakeholders in the community. These events could be educational in the sense that participants would be able to familiarize themselves with Sustainable Futures 2O1O 36


the ecological, programmatic, cultural, and economic opportunities that exist on the site. S pecificPECIFIC O pportPPORT U nitiesNITIES : people in the community to g et their hands dirty in an effort to improve the appearance of the site. In such an event, people are empowered because they are able to make individual, measurable differences that they can be proud of. This celebration of the space would also be a first step towards the final goal of successfully revegetating the site. local artists and c hildren, using the white walls on the buildings as blank canvases to create murals displaying not only their talents but aspects of the local culture of Monteverde. There is no shortage of local artistic talent, and incorporating their designs in a highly visible location such as the streetside outer walls would further build on the feeling of community ownership of the site. from under use, could provide food for a social event/picnic/cookout that might take place in the sites open space. BB y doing so the store could prove its commitment to community interests and gain some business. UU nused space can become public recreation space Events lik e tree plantings can create wildlife habitat and promote community stewardship of the site Sustainable Futures 2O1O 37


T emporarEMPORAR Y P lazaLAZA /PUB licLIC S eatinEA TIN G A tempor ary tent structure, benches, and other creative modes of weather protection and seating in front of the newly located Chamber of Tourism would provide an outdoor space that could facilitate medium to large scale public events. This large covered area could be used for art festivals, picnics, community meetings, a bus shelter, farmers markets, holiday celebrations, or a rest area for tourists who are just arriving to the site. The creation of this space, due to its flexibility of use, would be an important catalyst for bringing activity to the Centro Comercial site. R elocationEL OCATION ofOF S erER V icesICESD D o wntown Santa Elena currently hosts the main but informal, bus stop for the Monteverde area at the northern point of the triangular loop, contributing to congestion problems on the loops limited one-way streets. Local, regional, and tourist buses block the narrow streets and hinder visibility for both vehicles and pedestrians. Riders exiting the buses are confronted with competing tour vendors, service representatives, and taxi drivers. This causes regular confusion and frustration for the potential patrons of the downtown establishments. 50 25 0 metros Parqueo de Taxi Terminal de BB uses Plaza Cubier ta Centro de Turismo Parqueo Providing space for buses and taxis can reduce Santa Elena congestion and provide patrons for Centro Comercial businessesThe proposed relocation of the main bus terminal to the Centro Comercial site would allow for an enlarged transit avenue that does not block any public streets. DD epar ting passengers waiting for their bus to arrive would have access to amenities such as public restrooms and covered public seating, and arriving passengers would be introduced to the Monteverde area through the relocated Chamber of Tourism office. Official taxi parking on site would provide for convenient pick-up and drop-off. This change, combined with new public policy to limit parking in the downtown loop, would work to calm traffic and open up streetscapes for pedestrians. A more pleasant pedestrian experience will encourage patrons to stay longer, increasing the amount of business for the restaurants, bars, markets and retail establishments of the area. Meanwhile, newly arriving tourists will be quickly oriented with what Monteverde has to offer at the newly relocated Chamber of Tourism. They would learn about ecotourism in Costa Rica and be educated about measures they can take to be a more sustainable tourist. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 38


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 39 P artART VV I: masterMASTER planPLAN strateSTRA TE G iesIES


100 5075 25 0 metros La Reserva Santa Elena El Centro Comercial La Reserva Monteverde Santa Elena (Centro de Negocios) EAST ZONE CENTRAL ZONE WEST ZONE D owntownOWNTOWN Sustainable Futures 2O1O 40


Centro Comercial, in the proposal, has a direct link to the present and future conditions of the downtown center of Santa Elena. BB ased on this principle the master planning phase proposes four distinct yet interrelated zones. The East Zone defines all of the proposed space above the existing commercial center which is situated in closest relation to the Monteverde Reserve. The Central Zone encompasses the alterations both within the parking courtyard and built structure. The West Zone consists of the remaining lower portion of the site, closest to the triangle of downtown. The fourth region is the DD o wntown Zone which provides a new vision of what Santa Elena could be as a result of the proposals to the Centro Comercial site.M asterASTER planPLAN oO V erER V iewIEW EAST ZONE CENTRAL ZONE WEST ZONE Sustainable Futures 2O1O 41


50 25 0 metros Reforested area Observation platform Neighborhood access JJ ardin de Eden Pedestrian platf orm Rainwater harvesting walk Sustainable Futures 2O1O 42


Reforested area Observation platform Neighborhood access JJ ardin de Eden Pedestrian platform Rainwater harvesting walk Entrance: The entry points to the GG arden of Eden aim to become recognizable, non-obstructiv e landmarks of the Centro Commercial site as well welcoming spots to locals and tourist alike. The GG arden of Eden entrance works to transform the character of the Centro Commercial site, immersing any visitor with the nature and culture that defines the region of Monteverde. E astAST zoneZONE The main goal of the eastern zone of Centro Comercial is to reinvigorate biodiversity onsite while allowing local residents to enjoy open green space. This part of the site is less engaging in terms of attracting tourists because it lacks set activities, offering a more tranquil and organic like area with pockets of open space and vegetation. The sections of this space would include a new garden space within the zone called the GG arden of Eden, an interpretive and educational rain walk, and a culminating view platform. These features would form visual connections throughout site along with providing educational aspects and biodiversity. In particular, the GG arden of Eden would be a hidden space in the site that allows visitors to see color in the midst of green in the form of fruit trees and shrubs, affording the opportunity for people to see some of the fruits and vegetables native to Costa Rica. The rain walk feature of the site would raise awareness about the practice of rainwater harvesting. Rainwater is captured from the roof of the building then shuttled down through rain sills and collected in rain barrels. Afterwards, it The Outlook Platform: This platform serves as an outlook, offering a view of downtown Santa Elena and the pedestrian bridge to create a visual connection from Centro Comercial to the town. Furthermore, the platform offers a great place for watching birds and other wildlife in the area. Educational signs are lined across parts of the railing along with impressions in the wood of native plants and animals found on site. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 43


wildlife and their surrounding environment. To supplement the learning experience, information signs indicating wildlife types and site connections would also be available. The open green space on-site is designed informally, providing open lawn areas that could be used for either a community picnic or just to lay out in the sun. Essentially, the use of these areas would be left to the discretion of the occupants, allowing for a degree of freedom and flexibility. With respect to pedestrian circulation, walkability and feasibility presented themselves as the main issues. The paths needed to connect the local residents on one side of the road to the other, necessitating the need for a shortcut, instead of forcing people to walk on the section of the street lacking a sidewalk because of an unreasonable slope. From this path, visitors can either take the long or the short route to access the GG arden of Eden, offering the opportunity to explore local specimen trees and wildlife. The overall site design is a case study in terms of biodiversity and biocorridors. If this site could regenerate itself and restore diversity, the connections between the currently protected forest spaces and the reforested area of the site could be established. The connections, in turn, could help this portion of the site become protected by law. is recycled back into the building to toilets and laundry machines. Exhibiting the management of stormwater would raise awareness of water issues and show that it can be handled on-site. The rain barrels would also feature artist renderings as a cultural element. The platform would stand as a main attraction because it would create visual connections from the site to the surrounding areas. From the platform, the GG ulf of Nicoya, Santa Elena, and Los Llanos, Cemetario, and the pedestrian bridge would all be visible. It would also provide a lookout point for birds and other wildlife of the area. Furthermore, it would include an educational component where the prints of animals and leaves would be engraved into the wood. This type of visual learning is geared towards the youth, interactively engaging them with the EAST ZONE Sustainable Futures 2O1O 44


Rainwater Harvesting Walk: This feature is a walk that permits visitors to see the process of rainwater harvesting. The rain flows from the roof of the building and moves into the rain sills which then lead into the rain barrels. The water, once it is collected, is then reused on-site through P VV C pipes in non-potable water sources The rainwater barrels are adorned with art from the local community, adding cultural significance. The GG arden: The ov erall design and plant selection within the GG arden of Eden strives to educate the visitor about the flora and fauna of the site and the region as a whole. The different species of trees each have a sign indicating the fruit they produce and the wildlife they attract. The visitors are welcome to pick a fruit as they stroll along and are reminded to spread their knowledge to others. The GG arden also ser ves as a bio-corridor or natural connection to the nearby forest. Through this newly reforested area, wildlife would once again be able to pass through with more ease. This link also provides an opportunity for visitors to become spectators in the midst of active wildlife and learn how a bio-corridor functions. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 45


Zone Illustrative Plan 50 25 0 metros 1 Erosion control / GG reening 2 Rainw ater harvesting Sustainable Futures 2O1O 46


1 Erosion Control/ GG reening For the purposes of slope protection and erosion and sedimentation control, the vetiver grass system is applied to earthen slopes to reduce the potential for landslides and pollution of downstream water bodies. VV etiver gr ass is effective because of its high tensile strength and deep growing, fibrous roots. This system proves to be cost effective and requires little to no maintenance. In one year, vetiver grass roots, on average, can grow two to three meters. 2 Rainwater Harvesting The large surface area of the mall provides the opportunity for a rainwater collection system. The slope to the rear of the building could be a location to place rain barrels which would serve to both collect stormwater runoff and stabilize an already eroding slope. Locating a path between the slope and the building would bring people under the catchment display as an opportunity for education. The existing gutter system could be modified to shuttle water from the roof into rain sills which would direct water flow across the path sS U stainaSTAINA B leLE elementsELEMENTS Overflow Pipe Water barrel Gutter Restroom Water Sill PVC Pipe Concrete Base Slope Pump GrifoWater Pipe into the barrels. From the barrel collection system, the water would cross back over to the building to be channeled into pipes for nonpotable use in toilets, laundry systems, and other amenities. Not only would the catchment system inject free water into the building for the inhabitants, it could also be released slowly to irrigate plantings within the site and to recharge groundwater levels. The rain sill configuration would be designed artfully, creating a focal point during a rainstorm and dry periods when water travels out of the barrels. Implementing a cultural element, the rain barrels would encourage community involvement through barrel painting projects. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 47


50 25 0 metros Childcare and Recreation Center Taxi Parking BB us T erminal Covered Plaza Tourism Center Art Center DD emonstr ation Water BB arrel DD r ainage Swale Pedestrian Pathway Parking Lot Information BB ooth GG ym Libr ary Theater Sustainable Futures 2O1O 48


P UBUB LIC PLAZA In considering how to pr ovide a space that will allow the community to take back what was originally designated for the motor vehicle, an opportunity emerged to address the communitys general wellbeing. Through reclaiming parking spaces and establishing a culture that embraces foot traffic, the objectives of the sites plaza require simple design solutions, leaving lasting effects on the environment and community. BB eginning with the established par king spaces ahead of the proposed structure housing the Chamber of Tourism and museum, a multiplicity of functions can be adopted in place of the narrowed parking area. In its place would stand a canopy whose assembly would keep to the tradition of simple construction and reuse the awnings which dress the under lip of the buildings which face the central zone. The canopy would function as more than a cover from the elements but would afford a place for the public to take part in leisurely activities. As the plaza contains the bus terminus for the Puntarenas, Tilaran, and San JJ ose buses, it mak es for an exceptionally ideal waiting area for the passenger amidst his or her travels. BB e yond addressing the opportunities for physical wellness, the psychological state of the plazas users is also considered by integrating the presence of centralCENTRAL zoneZONE Illustrations of the redesigned parking lot and a new public plaza Sustainable Futures 2O1O 49




water. With drainage swales in the form of riverbeds, this presence can be established, functioning with the two polar seasons of the Monteverde region. DD uring the six months of rain, stormwater runoff from the ascending pavement would be filtered before it is released into areas network of drains. Through the regions arid season, the absence of water from the swale would symbolize a period of reverence for the element whose blessings have brought the richness of the flora of the area. With planters and moveable tables and chairs, the plaza would be a true treasure for the public realm. The eastern most area of the plaza, in front of the sites largest building which houses the proposed fitness center, library, and theater, allows for parking space on the flanking ends of this square yet challenges the manner parking is demarcated. Rather than allowing for bands of white markings on the asphalt surface, concrete blocks would be used to divide one parking space from another, which could possibly serve the base for simple plantings. As part of challenging the culture of driving within the site, speed tables and distinguished pavers would mark zones for crossing within the shared plaza, designing a procession that promotes the safety of the pedestrian. BB ollards w ould also be used as a flamboyant strategy to indicate zones where motor vehicles are prohibited, solidifying the notion of a pedestrian culture the redesign of the site aims to achieve. Moreover, the determination of these strategies will set a model for greater Monteverde, and possibly the nation, setting a precedent for a pedestrian-oriented ethos. PROPOSE DD PRO GG RAMMIN GG The integration of fundamental needs as expressed by the community of Monteverde is the ultimate objective projected by Centro Comercials reclamation, an ambition to impart new life to the site and region. BB y incorpor ating key services within the schematic design, architectural conditions can be given an opportunity to engage its users for the betterment of their wellbeing. An unprecedented opportunity exists for Monteverde to transform its still unfamiliar mall typology into a corridor that actively engages its periphery by rooting itself in the wide-ranging needs of the region. BB e yond the recommended strategies that promote the health, safety, and accessibility of the site and its immediate environs, the programs seek to address Monteverdes social and economic ecologies. Through dedicating services which aim to invest and develop the regions social infrastructure, the community is ensured to yield gains from a site that formerly lacked any vision for the prosperity of future generations. The injection of programs never originally meant to exist within Centro Comercial provides unique challenges whose solutions are capable of being delivered through design, an opportunity to critique the tunnel vision conception that currently occupies the six thousand five hundred Sustainable Futures 2O1O 51


seventy four meters squared (6,574m2) of floor space. Among the services proposed in the programmatic scheme, the sites security guard station, grocery, and three existing retail spaces will remain, leaving a considerable amount of space to reclaim. In view of the sites future potential, there is an opportunity to recharge the site with usage for users who can significantly benefit from the services provided by such a grand scheme. Accommodating the needs of the greater community, visitors, merchants, and artisans, establishes an opportunity that must appropriately address a variety of scales. The designation of program must be considered without nearsighted tunnel vision and must resonate with purpose beyond a single class of user. One service must compliment another, reinforcing the worth of economic diversity and creativity. BB y delineating space dedicated to civic, financial, medical, and institutional ser vices, the foundations that uphold the community of Monteverde may be reinforced. It is critical to provide such services to a growing community, moreover, by housing these services within proximity to one another, and DD o wntown Santa Elena especially, a degree of transparency can be achieved where all members of the community have equal access to financial counseling, knowledge, specialized health services, and municipal support. In establishing the Monteverde Fine Arts Alliance, an organization dedicated to the advancement of the painting, sculpting, and illustrative arts, the communitys artists will be given a place to call their second home. Through the Alliance, the public will have the ability to informally engage the exhibition art and view artists work on pieces in progress. Through workshops which provide artistic and inventive services, the Alliance will help channel the artists creative energy into building strong business infrastructures that will support their work over the long term, seeding opportunities for the prospect of creative wealth and capital. As for on-site retailers, a similar concept holds true. BB y soliciting business o wners who think creatively about their practices, in particular those with deep-seated interests in seeing their local economy benefit from their daily commerce, it is possible to achieve a model for best sustainable business practices for the Monteverde region and beyond. Retail Tourism Center Offices Main BB loc k Sustainable Futures 2O1O 52


Ticketing Tourism Center Local History Museum Public Restrooms Proposed Tourism Center Sustainable Futures 2O1O 53


C entroENTRO D eE TU rismoRISMO The trapezoidal section of the building near the proposed bus stop presents itself as the ideal spot for the relocation of the Chamber of Tourism office. The location allows for building alterations to create a visual draw, attracting tourists into the site. The outer faade of the building, however, would remain untouched to facilitate transition and encourage movement into the mall interior. The center would house the welcome center desk, providing pamphlets and local area information. Furthermore, the ticketing counter for the bus system would also be located in the center with an auxiliary, canopy-covered waiting space. The creation of the tourism center is the first step in the process of the buildings transformation and is necessary in creating visitor attractions to the site. In line with the projects adaptive reuse agenda, the alteration of the building does not entail the removal of old or the addition of new materials. In particular, the ticketing counter would take advantage of the existing building composition, for it would be placed in two existing closets in which the dividing wall would be removed to create one space with access to the visitors center floor. This alternation would create a focal point within the tourism center and would work to increase foot traffic on site. Outside of the building, the canopy ties into the roof of the tourism center to create the waiting area for those waiting for the bus. Its construction consists of the reuse of site materials of various sizes and texture removed from other sections of the site. The multitude and variety of materials would interact with the sun and affect the ground plane, crafting a unique visual experience. MU seoSEO The museum w ould be situated between the tourism center and the public bathroom, creating a cultural focal point within the site. Connections would easily be established between the restrooms, museum, and tourism center by removing various walls. The museum would allow for artistic and architectural insight into the Monteverde region and its rich cultural history. It would also feature information on sustainable practices implemented throughout the site. Tourism Center Sustainable Futures 2O1O 54


BB y removing the interior walls of the museum, an open space would be f ormed, sculpting a coherent visual and circulatory flow between the tourism office and the museum. Through two ramp systems, universal accessibility would be achieved for those with mobility based disabilities, allowing for multiple paths that would act as the base for an educational and exploratory interaction within the space. Two of the existing tiered floor levels are delegated to an exhibition of Monteverdes history while the next level is for sustainable practices. The last level is open to new exhibitions. Acting within the premise of adaptive reuse, many of the walls from the existing bathrooms and offices would be reutilized to create display areas. A rchitectRCHITECT U ralRAL I nterNTER V entionsENTIONS The deconstruction of the building would see the removal of interior wall framing and gypsum board. Within the museum space, many of the large windows must be removed in order to eliminate direct lighting on historical artifacts. The glass would then be reused for informational walls to segment the spaces or within other areas that require more lighting such as the gym or retail spaces. Replacing the windows with removable display boxes that fit the dimensions of the window frame allows for further customization of the display space. Open, glass-covered sections in the roof, situated above the displays, would allow for passive lighting into the museum space. Also, high ceilings and window openings would act as passive cooling in the redesign of the building showcase the value of sustainable design and would therefore influence future building practices. M ainAIN BlocBL OC K The east building of Central Comercial occupies a total floor space of three thousand three hundred seventy eight meters squared, two thousand three hundred fourteen meters squared on the ground floor, and one thousand sixty four meters squared on the second level. It is the only commercial space currently operational within the whole complex, accommodating a large super market, three small clothing stores and a pet store on the ground floor. The remainder of the space, one thousand three hundred nineteen meters squared, remains unfinished and unoccupied. There are many challenges to programming these spaces due to the large Retail Art Center Main BB loc k Sustainable Futures 2O1O 55


Proposed Athletics GG ym Sustainable Futures 2O1O 56


size and layout of these buildings. Original plans for the building included a bodega, large supermarket, gym and ten small retail stores. The second level of the east building is solely accessible via a staircase found at the sidewalk level. Although accessible bathrooms are provided for, there is currently no access to them besides the stairs. The second level is currently divided into four large rooms, three of them averaging over two hundred meters sqaured and the fourth approximately four hundred meters squared. Original plans designated this area as office space. CU rrentRRENT O ccCC U pancP ANC Y At the souther n corner of the complex, MegaSuper rents a single story, nine hundred fifty meters squared (950mt2) space. It is fully serviced by public utilities and maintains an office space, restrooms and direct access to a two bay loading dock. Adjacent the MegaSuper are five single story retail spaces, approximately fifteen meters squared in size. Three of those units are occupied by clothing stores and one by a pet store. DD ue to the size limitations of these retail stores, there is no provision for office space or restrooms. BB ased on current occupanc y trends and negative public sentiment that prevents local patronage, the Centro Comercial is economically unsustainable and faces a difficult future. MAIN BB L OC KK M asterASTER P lanLAN The proposed master plan f or the east building provides the Monteverde region with a comprehensive vision that takes an unused commercial area and transforms it into a vibrant public space that meets the health, educational and entertainment needs of the community. These public facilities establish a framework that has the potential to engage the community and connect them to the site, attracting investment and commerce. M onteONTE V erER D eE S portsPORTS C lL UB The proposed Montev erde Sports Club, located in the northeastern corner of the east building, Proposed Athletics GG ym Pr oposed Multiuse Theater Sustainable Futures 2O1O 57


Stage Restrooms Multiuse Theater Ticketing Snack BB ar Stadium Seating BB alcony Proposed Multiuse Theater Sustainable Futures 2O1O 58


plays a valuable role in the community, offering unique fitness programs, experienced trainers and top of the line equipment. The sports club would aim to improve the health and wellbeing of the local population by providing access to low cost activities and courses. These courses would be designed to improve physical fitness and provide recommendations on nutrition and healthy living. Studies show that regular aerobic physical activity increases fitness levels and mental well being. It also plays a role in the prevention of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease. The Sports Club would occupy two levels within the east building, maintaining a total floor space of six hundred seventy five meters squared. UU po n entering the club, a large living green wall would frame a modern-style reception area. To the right, a wooden staircase would allow access to a second floor unstructured classroom space. The Multiuse Theater GG r ocery Store Public Library GG ym g round floor of the gym would be divided into a space for cardio and weights. The remainder of the space would be allocated as changing rooms. KK ee ping universal access in mind, the ground floor of the gym would incorporate wider doorways and handicap accessible bathrooms. The Monteverde Sports Club would be dedicated to supporting sustainable design by including many green features in its facilities. This purpose built gymnasium would utilize the collection of rainwater to irrigate a unique green wall that brings nature into the building. The green wall would help to refresh stale air within the facilities and also serve as a visual statement, marketing the clubs commitment to sustainability. In addition to irrigating the green wall, recycled greywater would also be used to flush toilets. This supplement to the existing water system would cut down on wasteful water consumption and reduce annual water costs. Other sustainable measures that would be practiced by the gym include recycled rubber mats from the tire production industry, providing a durable slip resistant surface on the gym floor. This application decreases joint stress during physical activity. Along the northern wall, large windows allow indirect sunlight to enter the building, decreasing electrical consumption and creating a connection with the street level. A large extractor fan in the gyms roof pulls cool air from the rear of the facilities throughout the building, offsetting the need for costly air conditioning. C oliOLI B rR T heatreHEA TRE The one hundred fifty seat Colibr Theatre, located in the hear t of Centro Comercial, would provide the community with access to live performances and cinematic productions. Local and international movies would play on a large screen throughout the week, Sustainable Futures 2O1O 59


attracting locals and visitors alike. A large stage with spacious backstage facilities would work to accommodate both local and regional performance groups. Access to a performance space would provide an opportunity to showcase local talents and may encourage the establishment of a theatre group. The goal of the theatre would be to provide educational programs that engage community members of all ages. The proposed Colibr theatre would take advantage of the existing building composition. The thirty foot ceiling in the rear of the space is ideal to accommodate a large multi-use stage, stadium seating, and viewing balcony. The stage would be constructed to accommodate both large and small groups with changing rooms located on either side. The front of the building would house a ticketing office, concession stand, and accessible bathrooms. Outside of scheduled live events, the theatre would remain operational, showing domestic and international movies on a retractable screen. Nightly events at the Colibri theatre would bring vibrancy and life to the Centro Comercial following the closure of the other stores. Multi hour programming increases commerce and reduces the need for additional nighttime security by keeping people on-site. Sustainable features of the Colibr Theatre would include bamboo flooring, rainwater harvesting that supplies water to the toilets, and palm fiber acoustic boards, a recycled waste product of the palm oil industry. Other sustainable features would consist of low cost, upholstered bench seating and a passive ventilation system that pulls air through the space, maintaining a comfortable environment. The decor of the theatre promotes local art and incorporates the color and texture of the area into its design features. M onteONTE V erER D eE PUB licLIC L iI B rarRAR Y There are three public libraries located within the Montev erde region, each associated with a particular school, including the Monteverde Friends School, Monteverde Institute, and the local High School. Each library is subject Main BB loc k DD a ycare Soda Rec Storage Sustainable Futures 2O1O 60


specific or maintains a limited selection of literature that does not meet the overall needs of the Monteverde population. The proposed Monteverde Public Library, situated within Centro Comercial, would offer universal, public access to information and literature. The library would provide a diverse range of multimedia outlets, consisting of a computer station and a library of books that service the publics informational and entertainment needs. Free wireless internet access would allow users unlimited access to the Internet, attracting both locals and visitors into the site. It is often noted that a community with access to a public library maintains an educated and literate population. Sustainable features of the Monteverde Library would include plantation wood shelving, bamboo flooring, greywater recycling, and compact fluorescent lighting. The library would also provide access to a digital library which reduces the need for print material. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 61


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 62 50 25 0 metros 1 Reuse of Material 2 Stormwater Filtration 3 Interior GG reen W all 4 Passive VV entilation 5 Natural DD a ylighting 6 Eco-Friendly BB amboo Flooring 7 R ecycled Rubber GG ym Mats 8 P alm Fiber Acoustic BB oards


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 63 1 Reuse of Material With the proposed programming for interior space of Centro Comercial, there are many opportunities to recycle building material. As walls, windows, and plumbing features are removed in various locations, the potential would exist to reincorporate them elsewhere on the property. Plumbing fixtures and windows would be relocated to the east building where they would be reused in both the changing rooms and main gym floor. The awning removed from various parts of the building would be retrofitted into a staggered metal canopy that shelters the central courtyard. 2 Stormwater Filtration The stormwater collected from the central paved area would be diverted into a drainage swale where it would be filtered through gravel as it flows downhill. The water would then be directed into the vegetated swales at the west end of the site for further filtration and absorbtion into the soil. This process slows the flow of runoff, preventing erosion, and mitigates pollutants from the paved surfaces before water is reintegrated into local streams. 3 Interior GG reen W all The custom designed green wall for the proposed Monteverde Sports Club is a sustainable feature that would help filter stale air and provide an aesthetic backdrop for the gym facilities. It would further improve air quality if it were used as a bio-filter in conjunction with an air recirculation system. The structure is built vertically, accommodating seasonal or permanent plantings. Metal brackets attach to the wall which support custom made stainless steel cells that house the plants. DD rip tr ays allow recycled greywater to move between planting cells and drain to a lower catchment tray. 4 Passive VV entilation Passiv e ventilation is the natural process of air exchange within a structure. Fresh air enters through building openings on the shaded side and exits at the highest point, creating a steady, comfortable cross breeze. Passive ventilation is the least expensive and most environmentally friendly method of ventilating a space. 5 Natural DD a ylighting Natural daylighting refers to the placement of windows to allow for the permeation of indirect natural sunlight into a space. Large windows along the northern wall of the gym would allow indirect light to illuminate the space during the day, reducing the need for electrical lighting and thus saving energy. 6 Eco Friendly BB amboo Flooring Costa Rica has the larg est woody bamboo diversity in Central America. At present, eight genera and thirty nine species of woody bamboos have been recorded (Montiel 2000). BB amboo is an eco-friendly alter native to hardwood flooring, growing to maturity in five to seven years. Hardwoods generally take an average of fifty to one hundred fifty years to reach the same level. The natural qualities of bamboo, particularly its durability and structural stability, make it an ideal material choice in a variety of high traffic applications. BB amboo flooring is also av ailable in a variety of shapes, sizes and finishes and is generally less expensive than traditional hardwood flooring. sS U stainaSTAINA B leLE elementsELEMENTS


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 64 7 Recycled Rubber GG ym Mats UU sed tires g enerate the largest and most problematic source of waste around the world due to their durability and slow decomposition. Recycling tires is an effective way of combating this issue. Ecofriendly, one hundred percent recycled rubber gym mats use ground crumb rubber from used tires as the base ingredient, reducing the amount of waste entering landfills. They are durable, slip resistant, low impact and easy to maintain. DD emand f or this product may influence an untapped market in Costa Rica. 8 Palm Fiber Acoustic BB oards Costa Rica is one of the top ten palm oil producing countries in the world, providing a great opportunity to recycle the waste material from the production process. Palm fiber is a natural fiber obtained from the empty fruit bunch of the palm tree after the oil has been extracted. To transform the fiber into an acoustic board, the fiber is first shredded then separated, refined and dried. No toxic chemicals are used throughout its creation. Therefore, palm fiber is clean, biodegradable and environmentally friendly.


CENTRAL ZONE Sustainable Futures 2O1O 65


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 66 50 25 0 metros Ampitheater Seating Pedestrian BB ridg e G G aze bo Open Air Seating Playground Skate Park BB io-s wales Rain GG ardens VV ehicular Access Road R eed BB ed


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 67 The main design goal for the western zone of the site is based around the creation of separate experiential conditions that use the sites natural form to connect to one another. The design was heavily influenced by the desire to work with the existing topography, establishing a framework for the plan that divided the zone into two specific regions. The first region, the eastern portion of the zone and directly west of the proposed daycare, cafe, and recreational storage room, was designated as the public space that would contain the most programmed section of the zone because of its relatively flat topography. The second region, located at the western edge, was labeled as the private space because of its location at the lowest point of the site, where dense vegetation used for storm water management is implemented to create a more intimate space for users. A gradual transition from the more rigidly programmed public space to the more organic and natural private space thereby creates an uninterrupted connection between the two regions that allows for the most efficient use of the zone while refraining from manipulating or altering the existing conditions. The public space was specifically programmed to create immediate connections between the built form and the landscape interventions on the lower end of the site. This region contains a skate park and a playground that both work in conjunction with the proposed daycare center in the adjacent building. Next to the playground, an area defined for outdoor seating, overlooking an open green field, provides an opportunity to create an outdoor room for the proposed cafe in the adjacent building, linking it with the landscape. In addition, a large portion of the region is dedicated to a multi-use WE stST zoneZONE Proposed DD aycare Center and Skate Park


area covered by grass-pave, a permeable pavement solution consisting of a plastic grid system that holds grass and its growing media, that could be used for both overflow parking as well as outdoor activities hosted by the proposed recreational facility. A vehicular access road to the overflow lot is provided from the southwestern point of the zone where the slope meets the road; the existing topography is used to create a dirt road spanning across the property line up to the lot. BB e yond the parking area, the regions existing terraced land form allows for the installation of amphitheater seating with a clear view of downtown Santa Elena, further enhancing the sites ability to create connections to places outside of its immediate boundaries. As the public area extends further out into the region, the gazebo acts as the final programmatic element, serving as the beginning of the transition into private space. It will provide a covered gathering space that can be used both in conjunction with the activities taking place in the public space as well as providing a view towards Santa Elena or the forested transition space found to the west. As the space transitions between public and private, the plantings thicken and become fragmented, and paths diverge in order to segment the space and decrease the fields of vision, gradually creating more intimate, sequestered pockets of space. Storm water management systems such as bioswales and a series of small rain gardens are utilized here to both redirect water throughout the site as well as guide circulation by creating informal paths. The organic feel of the meandering paths and the lack of a specified program in this section of the region allows for an easy transition into the last segment of the site where the existing tree line is pulled in through reforestation; this revegetation creates an enclosed and intimate space around the final rain garden, strategically located at the lowest point to gather all remaining runoff that has surpassed all other water catchment systems up to that point. The public region of the western zone is dedicated to programmatic elements that correspond with the proposed uses of the existing building on-site. A playground and skate park area is designated for the day care center while an outdoor seating area and open green space are proposed in conjunction with the new cafe. The remainder of the space is dedicated to a multi-use, grasspaved field that may be employed as either overflow parking or outdoor activity space hosted by the proposed recreational center. WEST ZONE Sustainable Futures 2O1O 68


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 69 A proposed pedestrian bridge can connect the Centro Comercial with downtown Santa Elena


50 25 0 metros 1 Pedestrian BB ridge 2 GG r asspave 3 BB ios wales 4 Rain GG ardens Sustainable Futures 2O1O 70


1 Pedestrian BB ridge The pedestrian bridge w ould act as a physical and visual link from Centro Comercial to downtown Santa Elena. The proposed bridge would work to encourage pedestrian flow and reduce vehicular transportation. Its application would find its sustainable aspect in its ability to promote a walkable and healthy community. Furthermore, the materials used for the bridge are locally sourced from recyclable/reused materials. It features an educational component, allowing the visitor to view the trees from their canopy and learn about the wildlife of the area. The concept of a canopy walk is to make the user feel as if they are actually walking on the tops of the canopies, increasing environmental awareness and appreciation of nature. 2 GG r asspave To avoid paving the overflow parking area near the building with asphalt, a permeable pavement grass solution, known as GG r asspave, would be implemented to maintain the spaces green and recreational properties. The system entails the use of a plastic grid where, in each of the openings, a portion of grass is placed. Its primary pupose is to prevent soil compaction, a major problem in respect to grass growth, for soil, by function, holds oxygen and air in small pockets; when the grass experiences constant loads, those pockets are eliminated, leaving the grass without the air and nutrients it needs to survive. The grid gives the grass a higher tolerance for compressive forces because of its ability to flex, negating the effects of soil compaction. GG r asspave is extremely durable and can withstand large amount of weight, such as a fire truck. To allow for the rapid infiltration of water during a storm event, in its installation, GG r asspave requires a sand and aggregate base. Overall, with the use of this system, the spaces intended recreational function would be maintained while providing for the legally required parking areas for the site. 3 BB ios wales BB ios wales are a landscaping technique used to slow down the velocity of stormwater flow during a storm event. The swales are a channeled depression, typically planted with deep rooted vegetation that creates friction as water passes through. UU nlik e concrete swales which channel water away from a site as rapidly as possible, bioswales attempt to decrease the flow of water and allow for groundwater recharge. In addition, bioswales are credited with toxin and sediment removal from storm water runoff. Applying this Low Impact DD ev elopment technique in the landscape creates many benefits and reduces the amount of polluted water reaching the countrys streams and oceans. It also reduces erosion and the risk of downstream flooding associated with large volumes of water produced during storm events. BB ios wales are a natural and cost effective way of handling storm water and reduce the violent impact stormwater runoff has on the environment and local ecology. BB ios wales are a visually attractive alternative to traditional concrete piping. As with all drainage techniques, bioswales need to move water away from critical areas such as buildings and roads. They must also have an outlet which can be a rain garden or other detention device that can handle the volume of water produced on site. DD uring larg e storm events, water may pool temporarily within the swale, draining soon after the storm event passes. sS U stainaSTAINA B leLE elementsELEMENTS Sustainable Futures 2O1O 71


In the design of the bioswales of the park space of Centro Comercial, concrete removed from portions of the built structure during the redesign could be utilized as another element in conjunction with the plantings to slow the runoff flow rate. 4 Rain GG ardens Among the man y forms of stormwater mitigation encompassed in Low Impact DD ev elopment techniques, rain gardens present themselves as an aesthetically pleasing, artful, and easy way to reduce the speed and infiltrate a large amount of runoff entering any site. The purpose of slowing the speed of the water and facilitating filtration is to prevent pollution, erosion, and sedimentation in the immediate area and in the watershed the runoff moves to. Rain gardens, although effective, will only function properly if they are situated in an appropriate area; therefore, the areas on a site where water is determined to flow make for ideal spots. Typically, these places are found on or near downhill slopes and in close proximity to buildings, streets, and other built structures, spots that encounter a substantial amount of rainfall. Plant selection is another important aspect in rain garden design. Although aesthetics may appear to be the primary goal, the varieties of plants chosen must be both drought and saturation tolerant to compensate for different seasons. Furthermore, they must be able to handle possible pollutants and heat gathered from the stormwaters journey over impervious surfaces. The composition of the soil, a mix of mulch, topsoil, and sand, is essential in terms of the infiltration of water. BB ecause of the high volume of water the gardens encounter, water must be able to move quickly down through the soil, eventually reaching the water table and recharging groundwater. In the design of the rain gardens of the park space of Centro Comercial, topsoil removed from other portions of the site during regrading could be utilized in the initial planting and establishment. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 72


Reed BB ed DD iagram ( DD allas 2005) Sustainable Futures 2O1O 73


Pedestrian Crosswalks Taxi Zones No Parking Zones DD o wntown Plaza Pedestrian BB ridg e Sustainable Futures 2O1O 74


Health, vitality, and comfort are critical concepts in the consideration of Santa Elenas paths and the public life that supports them. Moreover, the perception of the need to invest in pedestrian infrastructure must first be established. Then, the planning should be driven by the prospect of a universally accessible public life, considering the constraints and burdens of those afflicted with physical, psychological, and economical barriers. Neglecting to address these conditions works against the progressive growth and achievements of Santa Elena and Monteverde as a whole. The crucial question is whether or not the city, which was formerly built on the human scale, and in which the street existed primarily as a means of contact, is to be replaced by a megalopolis where the dimensions of the street are on the scale required for its primary use by mechanical transport? Are we going towards cities with [specialized] meeting facilities, all linked to each other by high speed motorways? (Tanghe, 1984, 6) The urban environment should again become a place [favorable] for human encounter; for looking around, listening and talking to people, walking about and sitting down. Streets and squares should once again be treated as outside rooms within the city, as places where the opportunity of contact between people is the primary consideration. (Tanghe, 1984, 3) Tanghes sentiment towards the living city sheds light to the vulnerability of the urban centers, an organism whose vitality is measurable by the livelihood of its walkways and nourishment that provides safety and comfort for its users. UU rban areas are fr agile containers that sustain life and, to survive, must breathe air actively saturated with culture. It is a physiological process whose stability and functionality relies on a harmonized coordination from the complexities that constitute urban areas, similar to the balanced gears required to operate a large clock. VV arying pressures stimulate the city and, as it responds in effort to maintain its social, economic, and political identities, a physical response emerges from the disturbed condition in the form of the built environment. Tourism in Monteverde has idealized a particular way of life, away from its tradition in agriculture to the art of hospitality; the built environment, therefore, must uphold the regions distinctiveness. Without careful consideration, Santa Elena could abruptly become a landscape sterile of the rich customs that the community of Monteverde shares. If issues concerning the conditions of impure air, congestion which threatens to arrest public life, and the withering wellbeing of the users of Santa Elenas paths are of great magnitude, then sustainable mobility management is not an alternative. The most motivating of the measures, sustainable mobility, seeks to alleviate the misery associated with traffic by resolving a multitude of issues concerning the quality of life dictated by the built environment. It also addresses social and environmental ecologies, beginning by reclaiming downtowns thoroughfares. The impression of roads is often misconstrued as a passage for vehicles; thus, change begins by shifting the psychological sentiments regarding streets. Roads should be thought of as paths that operate beyond their vehicular purpose as a conduit of social contact adapted for walkability; however, one set of means should not compromise the importance of the other. With traffic calming strategies, a harmony between these forms can materialize, and legislation does not necessarily have to be set in place for immediate results. Through thoughtful design, roads can promote reduced travel speeds as a means to enhance the overall safety of the pathway. Changes in road DD OWNTOWN Sustainable Futures 2O1O 75


surface at pedestrian crossings and even whole intersections, such as paved speed tables, raised sections of the pathway that allow both set of wheels on the top of the table surface, can greatly enhance public safety and accessibility. (CART, 1989, 24) Moreover, by encouraging a regulated flow of traffic with strategically designed landscaping, such as planters, vegetation, and spaces for leisure, the reception of downtown has the potential to return a sense of calm to the city and the region as a whole. In order to ensure healthy growth in Santa Elena, downtown should evolve in tandem with the Centro Comercial site. If these two areas become attractive to pedestrians while having easy access to each other, they could form a compound of commercial and community services that would be appealing to residents, tourists, and business investors. These maps show a possible evolution of the use of space in downtown Santa Elena. The above right section shows a narrowed street with wider sidewalks, added seating and vegetation, and also a stormwater mitigation swale. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 76


3. 4. Initial stages of pedestrian-friendly development, including two viewing platforms, and a link between the new parking lot and the open space in front of the Salon Development of remaining pedestrian zones including the plaza between the church and Bar Amigos, platforms linked to become a bridge Sustainable Futures 2O1O 77


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 78


Existing conditions of the space in front of the Salon Conceptual Rendering: Additional concrete combined with stone masonry to match the existing flagpole fountain breaks down the division between the sidewalk and the space itself, while creating planters, seating, variable privacy, and more engaging entrances. Conceptual collage of general streetscape improvements Sustainable Futures 2O1O 79


1 Reinvented Street GG utter System 2 Plantings 3 Walkability Sustainable Futures 2O1O 80


Sustainable Futures 2O1O 81 1 Reinvented Street GG utter System Cr ushed cinderblock recycled from the Centro Comercial building alterations could be used to create bioswales along the streetside drainage ditches. This aggregate would be held in place by intermittent wire mesh barriers made nearly invisible by the surrounding rubble. Recycled material from sections of the existing concrete gutters would supplement the aggregate by accommodating plantings and allowing for some groundwater recharge. The soil beneath these sections would be held in place by the root systems of the plants, and erosion would be reduced because of the slower flow rates achieved by the aggregate blockage. 2 Plantings VV egetation in an urban setting is beneficial in sev eral different ways. Plants naturally remove carbon dioxide from the air and also cool the temperature of the area in which they grow by providing shade and absorbing heat into their water-filled biomass. Furthermore, they can provide visual appeal to a highly developed area by adding a green, natural touch to the surrounding manmade material palette. These healthy characteristics of urban plantings contribute to the appeal of the streetscape in which they are applied, inviting pedestrian use. The plantings would act as part of the stormwater mitigation system but could also be applied in an earlier stage through the use of portable or permanent planters. If native plantings were used in downtown Santa Elena, people would have an appreciation for the surrounding environment even in the most densely developed part of town. 3 Walkability Walkability is the idea of designing a space to favor the pedestrian over the automobile. Complementary to this idea is the intent to improve the health of residents living within walkable neighborhoods. Reducing automobile use in an area like Santa Elena would contribute to cleaner air, increased physical activity, and improvement in the safety of the streetscape for pedestrians. Some strategies for achieving better walkability that could be implemented in downtown include widening the sidewalks, adding public seating, planting vegetation, implementing crosswalks, and providing rain protection. With creative design, some of these elements could be integrated with each other, such as a planter that also acts as a bench or an awning that is hidden by vines or trees. Catering to pedestrians and making a solid walkable connection to Centro Comercial would be a way to ensure the vitality of businesses in downtown Santa Elena because the area could aesthetically evolve into an attractive destination and a pleasant place to spend more than just a few hours. sS U stainaSTAINA B leLE elementsELEMENTS


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Sustainable Futures 2O1O 83 P artART VV II: conclCONCL U sionsSIONS


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As history has shown, the concept of a commercial center in Santa Elena was a misguided vision based on the regions economic and social needs. As it stands, Centro Comercial is a failing facility, unable to entice business investors and attract local patronage. Currently, it rests at a critical point and would benefit from forward thinking investors willing to reinvent its use and purpose. DD irectly inv olving the community at the onset would inform investors of the desires and concerns of the local population. BB y addressing some of these needs, savvy business owners could capitalize on an underserved market, combining elements of community, education, ecology, entertainment, and retail in the overall design. Outlined in this report are a number of community needs that can be fulfilled through the adaptive reuse of Centro Comercial, working to earn the peoples approval and igniting area commerce. The framework analyzes the sites positive features, including its central location relative to downtown Santa Elena, and offers suggestions for its success. In order to start the process of designing the master plan for the CCM, the new management would benefit from collaborative efforts with local community and environmental leaders. This endeavor would ensure the support of the people of Monteverde, increasing the economic potential of the development. To optimize the efficiency of the built structure and landscape, sustainable strategies must be carefully planned and applied. Advanced planning will benefit not only the precious local ecology but also increase the cost efficiency and cultural desirability of the CCM. How to organize efforts? Many ways exist to approach the adaptive reuse of the CCM. Preliminary steps would focus on organizing an open dialogue between investors and community members to map a practical and sustainable course for the future of the site. Careful preliminary planning from the early stages would encourage the economic, environmental, and cultural success of the project.NEXT STEPS ecoloECOLO GY moMO B ilitILIT Y C UU LT UU R eE BU iltILT formFORM Sustainable Futures 2O1O 85


CART. Traffic Calming: The Solution to UU rban Traffic and a New Neighborhood VV ision for Neighborhood Livability Ashgrove, Qld., Australia: CART, 1989. DD allas Stewart C. Reedbeds for the Treatment of GG re ywater as an Application of Ecological Sanitation in Rural Costa Rica, Centr al America. Murdoch UU niv ersity. 2005. Thesis. DD avison, L. Headle y, T. Pratt, KK Aspects of DD esign, Str ucture, Performance and Operation of Reed BB eds Eight Y Y ears Experience in North Easter n New South Wales, Australia. Water Science and Technology. Press. DD a ylighting | Whole BB uilding DD esign GG uide . W BDGBDG The Whole BB uilding DD esign GG uide Web. 28 JJ uly 2010. . DD ong Anthony. Henry, Stacey. Loughry, E JJ oAnne. YY outh in the Zone Sustainable Futures Progr am, Monteverde Institute. Costa Rica 1996 Eco-Friendly Recycled Rubber Floor Tiles. DD oor Mats | GG ym Flooring | Rub ber Mats | GG ymnastics Equipment | Y Y oga Supplies | T rade Show BB ooth Flooring | DD a ycare Supplies MatsMatsMats.com. W eb. 28 JJ uly 2010. . EERE: Federal Energy Management Program Home Page. Web. 28 JJ uly 2010. . Feasability Study of Sustainable Sanitation Options for Santa Elena in the Zone of Monteverde Sustainable Futures Program, Monteverde Institute. 2002 GG ak enheimer, Ralph A. The Automobile and the Environment: an International Perspective. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1978. Print. Interior GG reen W all Pics | BB uilding GG reen T VV . Home | BB uilding GG reen T VV We b. 28 JJ uly 2010. . worWOR K sS citeCITE D Sustainable Futures 2O1O 86


Montiel, Mayra. Introduccin a La Flora DD e Costa Rica. San JJ os, Costa Rica: Editorial DD e La UU niv ersidad DD e Costa Rica, 2000. Print. Municipalidad de Montev erde. El Plan de DD esarr ollo Humano Local. Monteverde, Costa Rica 2009 Nadkarni, Nalin. Wheelwright T. Nathaniel.Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest. New YY ork Oxf ord UU niv ersity Press, 2000. Pages 15, 41,183. Print Oil Palm Fiber. Tawau City, Sabah, Malaysia. Web. 28 JJ uly 2010. . Pidou, Marc. Ali Memon, Fayyaz. Stephenson, Tom. JJ effferson, BB r uce. JJ effre y, Paul. GG re ywater Recycling: A Review of Treatment Options and Applications. Institution of Civil Engineers. Proceedings. Engineering Sustainability, vol. 160, page 119-131. Print. Tanghe, JJ an, Sieg VV laeminc k, and JJ F. BB erghoef Living Cities: a Case for UU rbanism and G G uidelines f or Re-urbanization. Oxford [Oxfordshire: Pergamon, Pages 6, 3.1984. Print. Sustainable Futures 2O1O 87


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P artART VV III: appenAPPEN D ixIX


W hH Y chooseCHOOSE sS U stainaSTAINA B ilitILIT Y Sustainable building designs and practices pr ovide a substantial benefit to the environment, defining the driving force of Monteverdes current, eco-tourist economy. Implementing sustainable design principles also allows for business owners to create a focus for their marketing schemes and agendas and minimize operating costs. Financially, the sustainable interventions would pay for themselves within a few years and afterwards result in reduced expenditures for the owner. To trim current building renovation costs, recycled materials from the site and other locations could be implemented into the buildings fabric. Another early phase design principle that can be applied to the building in its current state is the elimination of unnecessary finishes and features. This modification would reduce building costs and allow for other design solutions that explore the structural composition of the building. This technique of exposing the buildings structure in some instances would allow for the spaces to take specific internal forms and reuse of the existing, removed building materials in other spaces. Implementing sustainable features will increase costs in some areas but will dramatically reduce the costs in other areas which would save money in the long term. Facilities could reduce potable water costs by using rainwater collection systems to supplement landscaping and bathroom amenities. In addition, sustainable landscaping would decrease costs associated with fertilizers and plant growth. Also, the implementation of bioretention cells would prove to be cost-effective and also create habitats for local wildlife, bringing potential customers into the site. Studies have shown that sustainable buildings result in increased productivity, fewer errors, and less absences for the average worker, a good marketing strategy for potential clientele. Other economic benefits to the owner include lower complaints, building longevity, enhanced resale value, and an improved image. Indirectly, sustainable practices would aim to reduce negative impacts on the earth while improving the local ecology, a practice everyone can live with. P arAR K inIN G P olicOLIC Y : Pedestrians Have Rights In every city of the world the volume of traffic is limited, intentionally or unintentionally, by measures adopted by governments. If these measures were relaxed, there would be more traffic; if they were strengthened, there would be less. In other words, the volume of traffic in a city is not something like the rainfall that has to be accepted (OEC DD 1978, 132) DD ue to the restrictiv e parking policies dictated by the Costa Rican government, all new developments are required to allocate on-site parking based on the size and purpose of each individual commercial unit. Currently, the CCM maintains a total of sixty four parking spaces which is an inadequate amount if the site were to be fully occupied. Referencing the current floor plan and the policies set forth by the national government, the CCM would need to provide a total of one hundred parking spaces, consuming large portions of land on the lower section of the site. The master plan set forth in this report proposes a mixed use building program that accommodates commercial, office, retail, and entertainment use. BB ased on the pr ogram needs, the CCM needs to provide eighty parking spaces. To meet the current legal parking requirements, the preliminary proposal recommends re-grading the landscape in various areas to allow for overflow parking. Alternatively, the final master plan examines the reduction of public parking by applying for site-specific rezoning. Achieving this goal will open up much needed land within the Santa Elena area and allow for alternative land use, including central


courtyards and outdoor recreational space. BB ased on researc h and observation, this document identifies a low occurrence of automobile usage within the Monteverde region. A 2005 Sustainable Futures Report on Santa Elena Traffic Trends identifies a huge discrepancy between automobile and pedestrian traffic. The two day transportation study identifies pedestrian traffic at sixty six percent, automobiles (including taxis) at sixteen percent, motorcycles at seven percent, and buses at four percent. BB ased on these figures it is imper ative to spark a debate amongst the community regarding the future of DD o wntown Santa Elena and the district of Monteverde, and for those simply concerned for the future of their region. With a lack of planning and approach, the past will undoubtedly dictate the future. The community must be given the opportunity to innovatively shape its future. DD ue to Montev erdes unique transportation trends, this report suggests that developers apply for site-specific rezoning that addresses actual local parking needs and not those set forth by authorities in Puntarenas, a city requiring different parking policies to Monteverde. Encouraging the continuous use of alternative forms of transportation within the Monteverde region will work to reduce excessive surface parking outside the Santa Elena tri-form, decreasing ecological destruction and preserving local charm. CAPIT UU L O X VV III ESP ACIOS DD E EST ACIONAMIENTOS ARTIC UU L O X VV III. 1.Oficinas pblicas y par ticulares. En exceso de doscientos metros cuadrados (200 m2) de construccin, todo edificio desti nado a oficinas deber dejar un espacio par a estacionamiento por cada cien metros cuadrados (100 m2) o fraccin mayor de 50 m2 adicionales de rea bruta de construccin. ARTIC UU L O X VV III.2.Comercio En exceso de cien metros cuadrados de construccin (100 m2), para los edificios de uso comercial se considerar un estacionamiento por cada cincuenta metros cuadrados (50 m2) de rea comercial neta o fraccin mayor de 25 m2 adicionales. En centros comerciales planificados se considerar un estacionamiento por cada 50 m2 de construccin excluyendo reas de circulacin y servicios sanitarios. ARTIC UU L O X VV III.3.VV iviendas X VV III.3.1 VV iviendas unifamiliares En las viviendas unifamiliares cuya rea de lote sea de doscientos ochenta metros cuadrados (280 m2) o ms se dejar un espacio para estacionamiento dentro del lote por cada vivienda. X VV III.3.2 Apar tamientos. En los edificios de apartamientos para vivienda de tres recmaras se exigir un espacio de es tacionamiento por cada dos apartamientos y par a los de una y dos recmaras uno por cada cuatro apartamientos. En los casos calificados como apartamientos de inters social por el IN VV esta institucin fijar el rea requerida par a el estacionamiento. ARTIC UU L O X VV III.4.Edificios con facilidades de dor mitorio. En hoteles, pensiones, hospitales, sanatorios y otros lugares con facilidades de dormitorio, se dejar un espacio de estacionamiento por cada seis dormito rios o por cada quince camas o fraccin ma yor de diez, cualquiera que resulte en nmero mayor. ARTIC UU L O X VV III.5.Salas de espectculos y edificios depor tivos. Se requerir un espacio de estacionamiento por cada veinte (20) asientos o por cada veinte (20) personas, de acuerdo


con la capacidad mxima del local. ARTIC UU L O X VV III.6.R estaurantes y cafeteras. Los locales desti nados a cafeteras o restaurantes cuya rea exceda de ciento cincuenta metros cuadrados (150 m2) de construccin, debern prever un espacio de estacionamiento por cada veinticinco metros cuadrados (25 m2) en exceso de 150 m2 de rea de ventas utilizable. ARTIC UU L O X VV III.7.Industrias y depsitos Los locales destinados a industria y depsitos debern contar con un espacio de estacionamiento como mnimo. En exceso de ciento cincuenta metros cuadrados (150 m2) se deber proveer un espacio adicional por cada ciento cincuenta metros cuadrados o fraccin mayor de 75 m2. En casos calificados, segn tipo de industria, el IN VUVU y el Ministerio de Salud podrn aceptar un nmer o menor de estacionamientos. ARTIC UU L O X VV III.8.Centr os sociales. Se proveer un espacio de estacionamiento por cada quince metros cuadrados (15 m2) o fraccin mayor de ocho de rea de piso destinada al pblico. ARTIC UU L O X VV III.9.Locales de culto centros de enseanza y edificios comunales. Se deber prever un espacio para estacionamiento por cada cien metros cuadrados (100 m2) de rea de piso excluyendo circulacio nes y servicios sanitarios o por cada cuarenta (40) asientos o personas suponiendo la capacidad mxima, cualquier a que resulte en un nmero mayor. ARTIC UU L O X VV III. 10.DD imensiones mnimas Para los efectos de este captulo, se entiende por espacio para estacionamiento un rea con dimen siones no menores de cinco metros y medio por dos sesenta metr os netos (5,50 m x 2,60 m) ms las reas de acceso y de maniobras correspondientes. ARTIC UU L O X VV III. l1.UU bicacin. En caso de que por la ubicacin o car actersticas del terreno se haga difcil la provisin de los espacios reque ridos para estacionamiento en el edificio el propietario podr pagar a la municipalidad, si sta lo acepta, el costo requerido para que dicho espacio sea suplido por sta en otro sitio. Tambin podr el propietario proveer los espacios de estacionamiento requeridos por su edificio en otro lote, previa aprobacin de la municipalidad respectiva, siempre que no se exceda una distancia de doscientos metros (200 m) medida a lo largo de las vas pblicas, entre las entradas del edificio y e1 rea del establecimiento. En el caso de que la demanda de estacionamiento correspondiente a varios usos se presente en horas o das diferentes, el espacio de estaciona miento previsto para ellos conjuntamente puede ser acreditado en total a cada uno de los mismos. CAP T UU L O XII A GUGU A ART C UU L O 50.DD ominio pblico del agua El agua es de dominio pblico su conservacin y uso sostenible son de inters social. ART C UU L O 51.Criterios Para la conservacin y el uso sostenible del agua, deben aplicarse, entre otros, los siguientes criterios: a) Proteger, conservar y, en lo posible, recuperar los ecosistemas acuticos y los elementos que intervienen en el ciclo hidrolgico.


b) Proteger los ecosistemas que permiten regular el rgimen hdrico. c) Mantener el equilibrio del sistema agua, protegiendo cada uno de los componentes de las cuencas hidrogrficas. L ocalOCAL HU manMAN DeDE V elopmentEL OPMENT P lanLAN The Local Human DD ev elopment Plan, or el Plan de DD esarr ollo Humano Local, was a document compiled by the Municipality of Monteverde in 2009. The contents and results of the document originated from multiple community meetings and a serious survey of a representative selection of the people of Monteverde. In the endeavor, one of the main focuses was to ascertain the long-running desires and needs of the community. Therefore, the community values and respects the contents of this document immensely. The information provided was a primary resources in terms of the cultural research of this report.


Plantas Nativas de MonteverdeAlientos Santalucia Tabacon Tilaran anthurium No me toques VV ibor ana BB egonia Hammoc k fern GG uaca yamo BB ijagua GG uar amo Pacaya Azahar de monte Cana agria


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