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Centro de Educación Creativa

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Title:
Centro de Educación Creativa
Translated Title:
Centro de Educación Creativa ( )
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Gordon, Brandon Hamidi, Saba McCarthy, John McCarville, Colin Ramirez, Luis Sanders, Alana Schmidt, Charles
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
School facilities   ( lcsh )
Design & planning   ( lcsh )
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone--Cerro Plano   ( lcsh )
Instalaciones escolares
Diseño y planeamiento
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde--Cerro Plano
Sustainable Futures 2010
Futuros Sostenibles 2010
Genre:
Reports   ( lcsh )
Reports

Notes

Abstract:
This report focuses on the process of determining the best and most efficient ways of improving the Centro de Educacion campus and facilities. The document provides the CEC with sustainable design recommendations related to additional facilities, land use, water management, and sustainable practices that can be implemented in the future. Photos, site plans, architectural drawings, drawings, and maps are included in the report.
Abstract:
Este informe se centra en el proceso de determinación de las mejores y más eficientes maneras de mejorar el campus del Centro de Educación e instalaciones. El documento proporciona al CEC con recomendaciones de diseño sostenible relacionados con las instalaciones adicionales, uso del suelo, gestión del agua, y las prácticas sostenibles que se pueden implementar en el futuro. Se incluyen en este informe fotos, planos del sitio, planos arquitectónicos, dibujos y mapas.
Language:
Text in English.
General Note:
Born Digital

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - M37-00444
usfldc handle - m37.444
System ID:
SFS0001069:00001


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CENTRO DE EDUCACION CREATIVOFUTUROS SOSTENIBLES 2010 UPDATED JULY 15, 2010 bB RANDON GORDON SABA HAMIDI JOHN Mc CARTHY COLIN McCARVILLE LUIS RAMIREZ ALANA SANDERS CHARLES SCHMIDTIncrease opportunities Strive for justice and peace Conserve biodiversity Creative education Integrate environment into school Provide a bilingual education A sustainable future for earth Enrich community life Respect the environment

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Sponsoring Organization: I nstituto NSTITUTO M onteverde ONTEVERDE APDO 69-5655, M onteverde ONTEVERDE P untarenas UNTARENAS C osta OSTA R ica ICA T: (506) 2645.5053 F: (506) 2645.5219 E: I nfo NFO @ mvinstitute MVINSTITUTE org ORG Type of Work: M aster ASTER P lanning LANNING of OF cec CEC campus CAMPUS T hree HREE SINGLE UNIT F aculty ACULTY RESIDENTS P rincipal RINCIPAL D irector IRECTOR H ome OME Clients: C loud LOUD F orest OREST S chool CHOOL C entro ENTRO de DE E ducaci DUCACI n N C reativa REATIVA A partado PARTADO 23-5655 M onteverde ONTEVERDE P untarenas UNTARENAS C osta OSTA R ica ICA imageIMAGE byBY luisLUIS ramirezRAMIREZ + chrisCHRIS romanoROMANO

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B randon RANDON G ordon ORDON University of Maryland Bachelor of Landscape Architecture S aba ABA H amidi AMIDI University of Maryland Bachelor of Landscape Architecture J ohn OHN McC arthy ARTHY University of Maryland Bachelor of Landscape Architecture C olin OLIN McC arville ARVILLE University at Buffalo Bachelor of Architecture L uis UIS R amirez AMIREZ University at Buffalo Bachelor of Architecture alana ALANA sanders SANDERS University of Maryland Bachelor of Landscape Architecture CHARLES SCHMIDT University at Buffalo Bachelor of ArchitectureSpecial Thanks To: CEC O fficials FFICIALS : M ilton ILTON brenes BRENES L aura AURA grenholm GRENHOLM R ichard ICHARD laual LAUAL E lizabeth LIZABETH lowell LOWELL C indy INDY stancil STANCIL W illiam ILLIAM vargas VARGAS M egan EGAN wallus WALLUS designDESIGN teamTEAM ADVISING FACULTY C hristopherHRISTOPHER R omanOMAN O ( leadLEAD facultyFACULTY ) University at Buffalo Department of Architecture K elly ELLY FL e E MING ( advising ADVISING faculty FACULTY ) University of Maryland Department of Landscape Architecture The Monteverde Institute Hosted By:C ourseOURSE C oordinatorOORDINATOR A nibalNIBAL T orresORRES Monteverde Institute

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PART I: introduction INTRODUCTION part PART i I I: program PROGRAM and AND site SITE analysis ANALYSIS Mon-31-May-2010 Fri-04j J une-2010 P art ART ii II I: P rinciples RINCIPLES of OF S ustainable USTAINABLE design DESIGN Mon-07-June-2010 Fri-11j J une-2010 part PART IV: M aster ASTER P lan LAN Mon-14-June-2010 Fri-18j J une-2010 part PART v V : proposed PROPOSED design DESIGN Mon-21-June-2010 Fri-25j J une-2010 PART VI: PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE ENERGY p P ART vii VII : CONCLUSION + a A PPENDIX Building/Building Types Circulation Nodes/Hubs Conceptual Themes Conservation Electricity in Building Environmental Cycles Historical Data Hydroelectric Systems No Build Zones Photographs Precedents/Research Recreation Reforestation Scaled Mapping Solar Energy Systems Thematic Gardens Water Collection Systems Wind Energy Systems Black Water Gray Water Sustainable Education tableTABLE ofOF contentsCONTENTS

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Geothermal Gain Hydrology Air Movement Sustainability Solar Patterns Site Ecology Teacher Housing bookBOOK C ompositionOMPOSITION andAND editingEDITING byBY L uisUIS R amirezAMIREZicon ICON system SYSTEM by BY charles CHARLES schmidt SCHMIDT

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84 W Long., 10 N LatLOCATION OF MONTEVERDE imageIMAGE byBY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY 1

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MONTEVERDEH otOT / humidHUMID climateCLIMATEdry DRY season SEASON : DEC APR (Summer)Mountain rages and trade winds play a large role in the weather of costa rica, which in turn affects the countrys ecosystems. cloudCLOUD forestFOREST climateCLIMATE anaylsisANAYLSIS byBY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY Annual rainfall: 2404 mm Mean depth of daily rainfall for days with rain: 7.91 mm Average Temperature: 17.2C Average Relative Humidity: 91% Average Daily Solar Radiation: 170 W/m2 Average Wind Speed 1.8 m/s MVI is 1300 Meters Above Sea Level 1300 meters = 4,265 feet = .81 miles wetWET seasonSEASON : mayMAY novNOV ( wW inter) 2

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Located 5,000 feet above sea level, in the Tilaran Mountains of Monteverde, Costa Rica, The Cloud Forest School, or best known by the locals as Centro de Educacion Creativa (CEC), remains one of the only institutions dedicated to bilingual instruction with an emphasis on integrating environmental education into the curriculum. Founded in 1991, this independent school was started by local parents answering the call for an increase in educational opportunities for the children population. The parents recognized a critical and immediate need for an academically sound, bilingual, environmentally-focused school for the rural children of Monteverde, Costa Rica. They felt as if the public school system wasnt adequately preparing the local children for a professional career, nor were they prepared to move beyond the borders of Costa Rica, where being bilingual is not only an advantage but sometimes a requirement. The CECs mission is to encourage a new generation of ecologically aware, bilingual individuals with the skills and motivation to make environmentally and socially conscious decisions on a local, national, and global scale. The school opened with 30 students and a few passionate parents and has since grown to 200 students with over 30 teachers both foreign and domestic. In addition, since its opening in 1991 the school has added an additional grade level each year to accommodate its rising enrollment, and since 2005 has offered all grade levels, pre-school through 11th grade, needed to complete primary education in Costa Rica. The Campus is located on 106 acres of pristine cloud forest and pasture land slated for reforestation. The property was originally farm land cleared for crops and grazing. When CEC began building on the land they focused on the already cleared areas and were able to develop without removing to trees. In 1992, the land was leased to CEC on a buy-back basis by The Nature Conservancy. In 2000, with the help of the Cloud Forest School Foundation, CEC was able to purchase the land which included an agreement, or conservation easement, permanently protecting this area containing virgin cloud forest. Today, the institution continues to expand and provide the best possible education for its students. However, the recent economic recession in the United States has greatly impacted donations, the schools primary source of funding. That coupled with upper level mismanagement, has slowed recent development school back into a stable and promising future.H istoryISTORY ofOF cloudCLOUD forestFOREST schoolSCHOOL preparedPREPARED byBY brandonBRANDON gordonGORDON 4

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PART II: PROGRAM AND SITE ANALYSISWEEK 1 OF 4: M onON -31-M ayAY -2010 F riRI -04juneJUNE -2010

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MASTER PROGRAM PHOTO BY JOHN McCARTHY7

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PROGRAM OUTLINE BY BRANDON GORDON HOUSING ADDITIONAL FACILITIES OUTDOOR AMENITIES EDUCATIONAL FEATURES SUSTAINABILITY D irectorsIRECTORS H ouseOUSE Future funding may allow for the construction of a new facility, however the existing library could be renovated to accommodate the Directors family and any potential guest. T eacher EACHER H ousing OUSING Developable land located near the High School facilities is a potential site for new teacher housing. Three Duplex homes are suggested to accommodate teachers and their families. C afeteria AFETERIA and AND K itchen ITCHEN Children need a place to gather during lunch and snack time M ulti ULTI -P urpose URPOSE R oom OOM A new facility is needed to accommodate large gatherings of more than 200 people. The New facility must also be able to accommodate recreational activities such as soccer and basketball. M aintence AINTENCE B uildings UILDINGS A new facility is needed to store all the equipment   that is used to maintain the campus. T rails RAILS Trails can be used to attract tourist to explore the area both within the school grounds and around campus. Proper signage could not only but used to orient people but also educate students and visitors about the features around campus. S econdary ECONDARY A ccess CCESS R oad OAD The Cloud Forest Lodge is located near the property and could serve as a second access road to the school. T hematic HEMATIC G ardens ARDENS enhance outdoor views by also the hands on educational experience. A nimal NIMAL F arm ARM or OR F ish ISH F arm ARM Education of animal science as children could learn how to care for small animals. L ibrary IBRARY and AND C omputer OMPUTER room ROOM There is a need for a larger facility to house the books for the children and could potentially serve as a classroom as well as a computer room. The high school needs its own library that is located within close proximity to its facilities. A rt RT R oom OOM Children need a place for a creative outlet; potentially located near the library. S ustainable USTAINABLE F eatures EATURES Sustainable practices related to Energy and Water management can be explored here. There is also and opportunity to expand some practices as it pertains to wind and solar energy. B io IO C orridor ORRIDOR Patches of forest have been segregated throughout the campus due to roads and trails. A reconnection of these areas will allowed undisturbed movement of animals in the area. D evelopable EVELOPABLE L and AND vs VS P reservation RESERVATION L and AND An attempt should be made to only develop those areas not heavily forested to reduced deforestation. Those areas that are heavily forested should be considered for preservation to insure its future prosperity. R eforestation EFORESTATION vs VS F uture UTURE D evelopment EVELOPMENT Areas that have been cleared in passed should be considered for reforestation while leaving the most suitable and relevant areas for future development. 8

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IMAGE BY CHRIS ROMANO 99

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In 1991 The Cloud Forest School, locally known as the Centro de Educacin Creativa (CEC), opened its doors with a goal to nurture generations of ecologically aware, academically well-rounded bilingual students. Today they have more than reached that goal and strive to improve the education and income generation of the school. With a new Principle Director just hired and promising hopes of future funding, CEC plans to use this opportunity to improve their campus and to better serve their students. To best use this time of prosperity Centro de Educacin Creativa has requested the assistance of the Sustainable Futures 2010 Program located document will provide CEC with recommendations related to addition facilities, land use, water management, and sustainable practices that can be implemented in the future. on implementing sustainable practices into the campus, as well as reforestation and bio-corridor projects. A detailed analysis of the project elements and focus can be found in the program overview. GOALS Housing for the new Principle Director Faculty housing for foreign and domestic staff members Master plan of the entire property MEETING WITH CEC OFFICIALSINTRODUCTION TO CLOUD FOREST SCHOOLPHOTOS BY LUIS RAMIREZ preparedPREPARED by BY brandon BRANDON gordon GORDON MEETING WITH CEC OFFICIALS 1010

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PROTECTED FORESTIMAGE BY joJO HN mM c CARTHYThe proximity of the school to the protected forest illustrates the need for a strong focus on environmental education.11

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CREATIVE LEARNING CENTER PROPERTY LINEIMAGE BY joJO HN mM c CARTHY QUEBRADA CALLE PUB LICAQUEBRADA SUCIA CONTINENTAL DIVIDE 78 X BOEING: 747-400 (225ft X 211ft) SITE AREA: 106 ACRES N0m100200300400500 This site analysis illustrates scale by placing 78 scaled boeing 747s into the site. 12 QUEBRADACALLE PUBLICAQUEBRADA SUCIA CONTINENTAL DIVIDE 78 X BOEING: 747-400 (225ft X 211ft) AREA: 106 ACRES N 0m100200 300400500 This site analysis illustrates scale by placing 78 scaled Boeing 747s into the site.

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CEC SITEJOHN CALLE PUBLICA High SchoolProposed Teacher Housing Elementary School Solar HouseElementary School N 0m120240 360480600 IMAGE BY COLIN mM c CARVILLE + J ohn OHN Mc carthy CARTHY 14

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EXISTING SITE CONDITIONSPLAYGROUNDPHOTO BY LUIS RAMIREZColin Saba15

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AlanaColinSabaChris Richard Brandon 16

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EXISTING SITE CONDITIONSSOCCER FIELDPHOTO BY LUIS RAMIREZ17 TOWARDS SOLAR HOUSE

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18 TOWARDS HIGH SCHOOL

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EXISTING SITE CONDITIONSPROPOSED TEACHERS HOUSING SITEPHOTO BY JOHN Mc c C ARTHYBrandon19

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AlanaRichardLuisColin 20

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SITE ANALYSISSUN AND WINDIMAGE BY SABA HAMIDI AND ALANA SANDERSPREVAILING WIND FROM NORTH WEST N 21 MOVEMENT OF THE SUN ACROSS SITE

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SITE ANALYSISLAND USE AND CIRCULATIONIMAGES BY SABA HAMIDI AND ALANA SANDERS N 22 FORESTED AREA EDUCATION A dministration DMINISTRATIONopen OPEN green GREENrecreation RECREATION P edestrianEDESTRIAN V ehicular EHICULAR

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SITE ANALYSISSLOPE AND DRAINAGEIMAGES BY SABA HAMIDI AND ALANA SANDERS N 23 B uiltUILT structureSTRUCTURE runoffRUNOFFforest FOREST runoff RUNOFF +HP LP

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SITE ANALYSISNO-BUILD ZONESIMAGE BY SABA HAMIDI AND ALANA SANDERS N 24 T he HE highlightedHIGHLIGHTED zonesZONES depictDEPICT areasAREAS whereWHERE itIT isIS hazardousHAZARDOUS toTO constructCONSTRUCT T hey HEY areARE areasAREAS locatedLOCATED nearNEAR trees TREES suitable SUITABLE to TO fall FALL from FROM strong STRONG winds WINDS

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CERRO PLANOPHOTO BY COLIN mM c CARVILLE25

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ALONG TRAIL TO INSTITUTE CLINIC CREATIVE LEARNING CENTER CERRO PLANO26

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N SEISMIC ZONE CONSTRUCTIONPREPARED BY lL UIS rR AMIREZ + jJ OHN mM c CARTHY 27

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Like most of Central America, Costa Ricas Geologic history can be traced to the impact of the Cocos Plate moving northeast and crashing into the Caribbean Plate at a rate of about 10cm every year quite fast by geological standards. The point of impact is called a subduction zone, and this is the Cocos Plate forces the edge of the Caribbean Plate to break up and become uplifted. It is not a smooth process, and hence Central America is an area prone to earthquakes and ongoing volcanic activity. Lonely Planet 2010 PREPARED BY CHRIS ROMANO + luisLUIS ramirezRAMIREZ SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONSCodigo Sismico de Costa Rica JSA Investigaciones Juridicas S.A Required reinforcement for concrete footings 28

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PART I iI I: PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGNWEEK 2 OF 4: M onON -07-M ayAY -2010 F riRI -11juneJUNE -2010

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W hatHAT isIS S ustainabilityUSTAINABILITY ?Sustainability means meeting our needs today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. UIA/AIA World Congress of Architects, June 1993 Sustainability attempts to achieve a balance between the consumption of our natural resources and the renewal of those resources. Sustainable design is concerned with a holistic approach that understands the coexistence between the inhabitants and the natural environment in which architecture is placed. A Sustainable approach leads the architect to design the site and building in sympathy with the ecology or natural conditions of the area in which the building is placed. The philosophy encourages a new, more environmentally sensitive approach to architectural design and construction. Mantra, Do not harm, and be designed to be integrated within the cycle of all living things. Reduce what you can, offset what you cannot. Sustainable design should have four goals: 1. Designs that use less 2. Designs that recycle components 3. Designs that have components that are easily recyclable 4. Designs that have components that are fully biodegradable Sustainability should consider the life cycle cost of materials. Life Cycle considers the impact that raw material extraction will have through all phases of fabrication, installation, operation, maintenance, and disposal. All of humanity had always been determined by the sun and climate until the industrial revolution. Oil made us theoretically independent. The world allowed itself to be misled, so to speak. But as time went by, everything went off the rails. I think making a mistake is not the problem. That happens all the time. Only there comes a time when one should admit it and remedy it. That is what we are trying to do in Masdar city. -Stefan Behling Foster and PartnersSUSTAINABLE FUTURES 2010PREPARED BY CHRISTOPHER ROMANO31

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S ustainabilityUSTAINABILITY SUSTAINABILITY MATRIXPREPARED BY cC HRISTOPHER ROMANO WATER SUN WIND BUILDING ENERGY LANDSCAPE32CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY WIND TURBINES GEOTHERMAL BIOMASS SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC HYDRO ELECTRIC STACK EFFECT CROSS VENTILATION P revailing REVAILING WINDS VENTILATION WIND ROUTING POSITIVE PRESSURE DAY LIGHTING SHADING PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN HEATING TEMP: 17.2C Avg MATERIALS FORM LOCATION VEGETATION REFORESTATION BIO-CORRIDORS BIO-SWALES PERMEABLE SURFACES COHESION STORM WATER POTABLE GREYWATER BLACK WATER SEPTIC SYSTEM RAINFALL: 2404 mm/yr

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D evelopmentEVELOPMENT In the same way we take care of our house, we must take of the planet. What is the impact of all of this development? We encourage small development. We do not want to Americanize Costa Rica. That would be the worst possible outcome to overdevelop and overpopulate. A sustainable town is one with many micro businesses run by local families. The money needs to stay in the country not to large corporations abroad. Our human problems do not balance with nature. Much of this has happened to fast and thus their has been a lack of control. CR has a lot of legislation to protect its natural resources. But much of this legislation is not enforced. Big hotels have stepped over these laws. While the municipality has turned a blind eye. W ater ATER in IN C osta OSTA R ica ICA Water for one golf coarse = water used by a village of 5,000-10,000 people. Water is the equivalent of our Oil. Water and the forest are valued in Costa Rica. Do not cut down the trees. If we protect our forest, we will have work, and will be able to generate wealth. We are in danger of losing the value the forest has created. It is about water and ethics. Large hotels have consumed large quantities of water leaving little for the locals. C omparison OMPARISON of OF volume VOLUME tourism TOURISM vs VS small SMALL groups GROUPS of OF tourists TOURISTS Volume tourists spend approximately $67.00 per trip. Small groups stay longer and spend approximately $1,000.00 per trip. If we have to many people, we will have too much negative impact. Cruise ship tourists leave little money in country. Cruise ship companies get all the money. The locals are left on the outside. The cruise ship industry does not contribute to the local economy. CRACKING THE GOLDEN EGG DVDPREPARED BY cC HRISTOPHER ROMANO33

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Many people have wondered, where does the garbage go once it leaves Monteverde? This region alone produced 3,120 cubic meters needs major improvement and argue that there is a directly correlation between cleanliness and public health. The biggest problem right now Nicaraguan immigrants looking for work and they claim that much of what is thrown away, is not actually trash, and could potentially be reused for glass and tin, which are valuable enough materials to be resold for small amounts of money. This process could be reversible if the garbage were sorted before it got onto the truck. The second issue presented in this video is the need for better garbage containers that have the ability to keep rain and animals from getting in. Bags can be turned upside down to keep water out but that alone will not keep the animals from tossing the garbage all over the street. Thus, either the municipality or the individual property owner should invest in new garbage containers that do not allow the loose trash to contaminate the groundwater during heavy rains. In any case, it seems that the Monteverde region should look at modernizing their garbage disposal system or to at least have everyone think about the following statement, I will ask people to be responsible for how they contaminate earth, big or small. This town sits on the top of a giant mountain but that does not mean that once the garbage travels down the hill it is no longer their responsibility. GARBAGE IN MONTEVERDE DVDPREPARED BY cC HRISTOPHER ROMANO34 glassGLASSorganic ORGANIC C ommon OMMONplastic PLASTICpaper PAPER

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H istoryISTORY In the 1950s during the global energy crisis Costa Rica decided to invest in renewable forms of energy. It was based on a need and the lack government decided to move away from fossil fuels entirely. Energy is supplied through the ICE and a handful of small private companies and it is estimated that the average Costa Rican home uses 300km/month of electricity. ICEICE is the only national energy provider for the country. Its mission is to protect, ration, and conserve water and energy within Costa Rica. Currently, 98% of the population receives electricity either from the ICE or from a consortium of private companies. This is one of the highest percentages in world, and one of the most affordable in the world. The country has attempted to balance energy demands between wind, hydro, and geothermal energy. During peak energy consumption all 3 forms of renewable energy can generate approximately 2/3 of the countries demand. The ICE is also concerned with the natural environment and over the last 50 years has reforested 350 hectares of land and another 700 hectares is undergoing a natural regenerative process. They believe the wildlife has returned to these areas because of these ongoing efforts. P rivateRIVATE C ompaniesOMPANIES There is serious concern about the increasing percentage of private companies that are moving into the power supply market. Most of these worries are that the companies generate power and sell it back to the population at a much high rate than what ICE sells its power for. Many C entralENTRAL A mericaMERICA Costa Rica is a member of a power sharing agreement that links all the countries Costa between Mexico and Panama. Its goal its to provide the wet season when the power generated exceeds the countries demand. Columbia is the next country looking to join in the power sharing agreement due to a lack of energy production within its borders. H ydroYDRO (71% ofOF energyENERGY productionPRODUCTION )We visited the Planta Hidroelectricas Arenal, Miguel Pablo Dengo B., and Y Sandillal on Thursday, June 15th, 2010, which is a hydroelectric plant in Tilaran. The plant was built in 1968, predicted to last 100 years, and generates the majority of power in Costa Rica. The dam is protected from as a large tank to supply water to the hydro plant. It was built over existing town that was relocated nearby but this lake creates the ability to harvest water all year round, thus having the capability to generate power all, albeit at a reduced capacity in the dry season. The hydro plant and the lake. This tall tank also increases the pressure to generate additional power once it reaches the turbines. Currently 1 out of 2 tubes are sec that turns 3 turbines, each 33 square meters in diameter. Each of the three turbines can generate 53,00KM/hr of electricity but the entire hydroelectric project (3 plants) can generate a total of 360,000km/hr, which is enough to provide 2/3 of the energy during peak demand. This energy is believed to be clean, renewable, and cheap: Costa Ricans pay 0.18/km compared to the USA that pays $0.90/km. Excess water is reused down stream in the dry lowlands for irrigation and other purposes once it passed through all 2 power plants. A lternativeLTERNATIVE E nergyNERGY T ripRIP 35PREPARED BY cC HRISTOPHER ROMANO

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W indIND (10% ofOF energyENERGY productionPRODUCTION )Our site visit to the ICE wind farm was on Thursday, June 15th, 2010 and is located just outside Tilaran. This farm is the second largest in Costa Rica totaling 30 turbines built in Holland that can generate 70,000 KM/hr in the dry season. An additional 40 wind turbines are to be added in 2012 to increase the capacity of the wind farm. The original 30 windmills are 8 years old and the new units will have the ability to generate more power due to newer technology. Each unit costs 1 million USD but pays for it self in only 4 months that is an extremely quick return on the initial investment. The height it optimized to catch the most wind coming off of Lake Arenal and the units can swivel to search for the greatest wind speed (The creation of the lake created the possibility for a wind farm). They are spaced apart (2x the diameter of the blades) and can be during extremely high winds the turbines shut down and turn their blades to avoid damage. G eothermalEOTHERMAL (12% ofOF energyENERGY productionPRODUCTION )We visited the Centro de Generacion Miravalles power plant on Friday, June 16th, 2010. The plant is located in the northern western part of the Geothermal energy is operates by extracting super hot water from ground where volcanic activity is found. The water remains trapped between two insulating layers of clay that contain the water. The Process is fairly simple. A deep well is dug into the reservoir and high-pressure steam Although the CO2 off gassing is minimal it is still a concern for environmentalists. The current solution is to reuse the CO2 in a greenhouse to grow algae that will be used to create bio-diesel. ICE is trying to create a closed loop system with no waste or pollution. To that end, the water is reused in a binary plant that generates power by taking heat from the water. When this process is complete the water is cooled down via a chilling tower and put back into ground to be reused again once the ground reheats it. Water must be re-injected into ground away from energy all year round and many believe this form of energy is more environmentally sustainable than hydroelectric plants. All 5 plants generate a total of 142km/hr. Currently the ICE is using only 10% of the available resources so major expansion of the project is a strong possibility. The disadvantages are that lots of underground reservoirs exist inside national parks that cannot be tapped into because environmentalists do not the area is providing without damaging the ecosystem. The environmental goal is to extend the life of the well as long as possible by drawing less than the well provides. Each well that is drilled costs 2 million USD although determining where to drill is a complex and lengthy process. Additionally, all of the technology in the country is purchased from the Japanese, Italian, or Israeli and there is a long training process. S olarOLAR (C urrentlyURRENTLY 0% ofOF energyENERGY productionPRODUCTION ) country. The ICE currently has n o experience using this type of energy production and plans to use this project to do research and test the addition will help the country generate 100% of its power needs from renewable energy. F ossilOSSIL F uelsUELS (7% ofOF energyENERGY productionPRODUCTION )Are used only in the dry season. They typically burn diesel fuel and oil that is purchased from countries such as Venezuela but this is an expensive alternative that the country hopes to end in the near future. Some believe it may be cheaper to buy cleaner energy from neighboring countries then to burn fossil fuels that are purchased at a high rate. This is now possible due to the Central American power sharing agreement. 36

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siteSITE vistVIST HYDRO ELECTRIC PLANT, tilaranTILARAN COSTA RICAA lternativeLTERNATIVE energyENERGYsiteSITE visitVISIT tilaranTILARAN HYDRO ELECTRIC PLANT, COSTA RICA HYDROPOWER current of electricity. A dvantages DVANTAGES D isadvantages ISADVANTAGES D ams AMS energy built up from the water moving downward through pipes is used to turn turbines at the bottom of the pipe. ALTERNATIVE WATER ENERGIES resulting vapor turns a turbine. Hydrogen and fuel cellsNot strictly renewable energy resources but are very abundant in availability and are very low in pollution when utilized. reduction of pollution in cities. Or the hydrogen can be used in fuel cells, which are similar to batteries, to power an electric motor. In either case relocation of pollution from the cities to the power plants. There are several promising methods to produce hydrogen, such as solar power, that may alter this picture drastically. A dvantages DVANTAGES D isadvantages ISADVANTAGES 37

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siteSITE visitVISIT tilaranTILARAN HYDRO ELECTRIC PLANT, COSTA RICA siteSITE visitVISIT iceICE windWIND farmFARM tilaranTILARAN C ostaOSTA R icaICAsolar SOLAR panel PANEL H otel OTEL P oco OCO a A P oco OCO C osta OSTA R ica ICA W ind IND TURBINES to turn a magnet through a coil wire. This generates a raw energy that is referred to as uniform-frequency electricity. This raw energy is then channeled through a convertor that conditions it into an electrical current that can be used in homes. pumping water or powering a small home. utility scale needs. wind, unlike standard turbines that only rotate at a constant rate no matter the wind speed. Kinetic turbines capture wind energy more A dvantages DVANTAGES D isadvantages ISADVANTAGES S olar OLAR PASSIVE the use of machines or devices other than glass, insulation, and heat a heat absorbing box. As the box increases in temperature for the suns rays it heats the water inside the tank. tubing heated by the suns radiating heat water. The water is continually moved through the heated copper tubes as it heats. A dvantages DVANTAGES traditional systems without using any fossil fuels. D isadvantages ISADVANTAGES ACTIVE electricity. A dvantages DVANTAGES D isadvantages ISADVANTAGES 38

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S iteITE visitVISIT GEOTHERMAL PLANT, miravallesMIRAVALLES COSTA RICA 39 G eothermal EOTHERMAL H ydrothermalYDROTHERMAL a number of uses including heating home and generating electricity. directly turn turbines and generate electricity. ALTERNATIVE GEOTHERMAL ENERGIES layer of hot rock. If successful you could pump steady streams of water through the rock, heating the water to temperatures over boiling. The water could be used to develop steam to turn turbines. 20 miles below sea level. If successfully extracted .5 cubic mile of magma could run a 1,000 megawatt power plant for thirty years. been discovered that produce hot, salty water under high pressure containing high levels of methane and other hydrocarbon gases. The idea is to harness the gases for burning and use the water to turn turbines. A dvantages DVANTAGES D isadvantages ISADVANTAGES geothermal reservoirs. B iomassIOMASS scraps) to boil water and provide steam to turn turbines. A dvantages DVANTAGES variety of waste) D isadvantages ISADVANTAGES as burning fossil fuels.

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OVERHANG FLATC limateLIMATEoverhangOVERHANG vs flatFLAT CEC highschoolHIGHSCHOOLsanta SANTA elena ELENA clinic CLINIC L essESS E xpensiveXPENSIVE M ore ORE D urable URABLE M ore ORE A ppealing PPEALING L eaks EAKS S hadingH ADING / E xteriorX TERIOR protectionPROTECTION L ongest ONGEST L ifespan IFESPAN FLAT overhangOVERHANG PREPARED BY LUIS RAMIREZ41 JOHN

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SLAB vs noNO SLAB EXTERIOR CONDITION L essESS E xpensiveXPENSIVE M ore ORE D urable URABLE M ore ORE A ppealing PPEALING H umidity UMIDITY C ontrol ONTROL E nhanced NHANCED E xterior XTERIOR M ovement OVEMENT NO SLAB SLABSLAB POCO A POCO HOTEL NO SLAB mviMVI LA CASA DE VIDRIO 42 PREPARED BY LUIS RAMIREZ

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FOUNDATIONPIER vs SLAB ON GRADE L essESS E xpensiveXPENSIVE M ore ORE D urable URABLE M ore ORE A ppealing PPEALING H umidity UMIDITY C ontrol ONTROL F lood LOOD C ontrol ONTROL E xpansion XPANSION P ossibilities OSSIBILITIES SLAB ON GRADE PIERCEMENT FOUNDATION LIFTED ON CEMENT PILLERS cecCEC classroomCLASSROOMmvi MVI DIRECTORS HOUSE43 PREPARED BY LUIS RAMIREZ

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woodWOOD vs concreteCONCRETE boardBOARDcladdingCLADDING WOOD CLADDING CONCRETE BOARD CLADDING L essESS expensiveEXPENSIVE M ore ORE D urable URABLE M ore ORE A ppealing PPEALING H ighest IGHEST B oard OARD stabilitySTABILITY H ighest IGHEST moisture MOISTURE absorbanceABSORBANCE L ongest ONGEST L ifespan IFESPAN C oncrete ONCRETE WOOD mviMVI STORAGE FACILITY mviMVI m M AIN BUILDING CLADDING44 PREPARED BY LUIS RAMIREZ

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CONCRETEAT GRADE vs ABOVE GRADE L essESS expensiveEXPENSIVE M ore ORE D urable URABLE M ore ORE A ppealing PPEALING H umidity UMIDITY C ontrol ONTROL L ess ESS amount AMOUNT of OF materialMATERIAL ABOVE GRADE AT GRADETOTAL WOOD FORM CONCRETE FOUNDATION ANIBAL TORRES CABIN HOUSE 50 METERS EAST OF MVI DIRECTORS HOUSE45 PREPARED BY LUIS RAMIREZ

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WOOD CONSTRUCTIONSTEEL STUD CONSTRUCTION STRUCTUREWOOD vs STEEL L essESS expensiveEXPENSIVE M ore ORE D urable URABLE M ore ORE A ppealing PPEALING F aster ASTER constructionCONSTRUCTION L ess ESS material MATERIAL L ongest ONGEST L ifespan IFESPAN ATTRACTS SCORPIONS STEEL WOODCEC ADMINISTRATOR BUILDING MVI FOX maple MAPLE STUDIO46 PREPARED BY LUIS RAMIREZ

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HOT/HUMID DESIGN47

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Provide shade for all openings Use light colors for the building exteriorHOT/HUMID CONSIDERATIONSARCHITECTURAL RECOMMENDATIONSPREPARED BY L uisUIS R amirezAMIREZ Maximize natural ventilation with large openings, high ceilings, and cross ventilation Construct building using light materials; minimize thermal mass 49

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LANDSCAPE RECOMMENDATIONS Reform landscape for optimal drainage Install native plants and trees Use permeable surfaces to minimize runoff Locate trees near building to provide shading 50PREPARED BY L uisUIS R amirezAMIREZ

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WIND51

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TYPE PASSIVE ACTIVE DEFINITION The use of wind energy or its cooling affects without using any active mechanical systems. The capturing of the winds energy to produce electricity or harness its cooling effects. Active wind systems use mechanical equipment, such as fans or turbines, to capture or enhance the winds energy. COLLECTION AND TREATMENT Passive wind design Cooling fans Wind turbines RE-USE Used to cool buildings Used to enhance the winds cooling affect Used to produce electricity WIND TERMINOLOGY PREPARED BY B randonRANDON G ordonORDON 52

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W indIND andAND A rchitectureRCHITECTURE Persian houses orient large openings, the iwanes, in the direction lets the slightest breeze bring refreshment into the structure, and performs much the same function as the porches of the West. The close-packed Egyptian houses use roof ventilators, the Mulguf, to catch air currents. Ventilation towers in Charga give the Persian town an architectural accent, while in the valley of the Indus the town of Hyderabad is strangely silhouetted with air-shafts and wind scoops standing erect on the roofs. pg. 94L ocalOCAL F actorsACTORS inIN W indIND O rientationRIENTATION Adaptation for wind orientation is not of great importance in low buildings; where the use of windbreaks, the arrangement of openings in the high and low-pressure areas, and the directional ation. However, for non-airconditioned high buildingswhere surrounding terrain has little effect on the upper stories careful consideration has to be given to wind orientation. In order to evaluate annual and monthly variations of prevalence, the velocity, and the temperature of the winds must be analyzed by direction. pgs. 94-95 The relative importance of sun factors and wind factors for orientation has to be evaluated. pg. 96 W indbreaksINDBREAKS velocities near the living, or ground, level can be controlled to a certain extent. The frictional drag of vegetation and the resistance and obstruction created by trees can cause diversions thetic and shade giving properties, the value of tree windbreaks lies in their ability to reduce wind velocities. This mechanical effect brings perceptible changes both in the temperature and humidity of the air, in evaporative effects. pg. 98DESIGN WITH CLIMATE EXCERPTS, BY VICTOR OLGAYDESCRIPTION OF SUSTAINABLE FEATURESPREPARED BY charlesCHARLES schmidtSCHMIDT 53 tienne TIENNE -J ules ULES M arey AREY smoke SMOKE test TEST i Ih H YDERABAD SKYLINE imagesIMAGES provided PROVIDED by BY http://davidderrick.wordpress.com/2007/12/19/hyderabad-sindh/

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A windbreakdiverts the air currents upward, and while they soon turn back and again sweep the ground, an area of relative calm is created near the ground. The most protected part of this area is fairly close to the windbreak on the leeward side; it becomes more exposed as the distance from the windbreak increases until a point is reached where the air currents have again reached full velocity. pg. 98 W ind IND D irection IRECTION and AND H ousing OUSING L ayouts AYOUTS Buildings positioned to perpendicular to the wind direction receive on their exposed side at the full sweep of the velocitiesAn arrangement of staggered units takes advantage of the bouncing pat -pg. 100 E ffect FFECT of OF L andscaping ANDSCAPING on ON A reas REAS A djacent DJACENT to TO S tructures TRUCTURES The immediate surroundings near low structures velocitiesThe landscape design elements, including plant materials, trees and shrubs, walls and fences, can create high and low pressure areas around a house with reference to its aperturesand planting should be designed to building. pg. 100 F low LOW P atterns ATTERNS I nside NSIDE B uildings UILDINGS V entilation ENTILATION by BY W ind IND F orces ORCES A house placed in the air stream slows down and piles up the moving air at its windward side, causing an building creates low-pressure areas on the sides adjacent to the windward face. At the leeward side a wind shadow with relatively low pressure is producedThe mined by the geometry of the building, and are independent of air speedsThe pressure differences on windward building. pg. 102 I nertia NERTIA E ffect FFECT external pressures are equal. With asymmetrically arranged openings, in accordance with the difference in component pressure forces, the air will enter the building at an oblique angle. The inside toward the outlet. pgs. 105-106 D ivisions IVISIONS I nside NSIDE the THE H ouse OUSE Walls and furniture have profound effects on wind speed and direction. Walls parallel to wind direction have minimal effect. 54 hH YDERABAD, sS OUTHERN PAKISTAN tienne TIENNE -J ules ULES M arey AREY smoke SMOKE test TEST ii IIimages IMAGES provided PROVIDED by BY http://davidderrick.wordpress.com/2007/12/19/hyderabad-sindh/

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C limateLIMATE B asedASED C oolingOOLING Dog trot or centrally open plans maximize cross breezes. Thermosyphon ventilation is the application of the stack effect to induce ventilation. PREPARED BY charlesCHARLES schmidtSCHMIDT Section Plan Section55

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WATER AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL, MONTEVERDE, COSTA RICASHAQUILLE ONEALDWIGHT HOWARD57 2.1 m 2.7 mFLIPPER THE DOLPHIN7.0 ft 9.0 ft I mageMAGE BY JOHN Mc c C ARTHY + alana ALANA sanders SANDERS

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TYPE STORMWATER GREYWATER BLACKWATER DEFINITION Stormwater us water that accumulates on land as a result of storms, and can include runoff from urban areas such as roads and roofs. Greywater is wastewater generated from domestic activities such as laundry, dish washing, and bathing. Blackwater is wastewater containing fecal matter and urine. It is also known as brown water, foul water, or sewage. COLLECTION AND TREATMENT Bioretention Swales Retention Ponds Detention Ponds Rain Water Harvesting Permeable Pavement Rain Gardens Rain Barrels Constructed Wetlands Mechanical Systems (sand UV radiation) Biological Systems (plant systems such as treatment ponds, constructed wetlands and reed beds) Septic System RE-USE Environmental Wetland Toilets Irrigation Toilets Laundry Showers Hand Sinks Landscape Irrigation Landscape Irrigation Compost WATER TERMINOLOGY PREPARED BY JOHN Mc c C ARTHY58

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I nN theTHE U nitedNITED S tatesTATES thereTHERE areARE twoTWO differingDIFFERING approachesAPPROACHES to TO determining DETERMINING water WATER rights RIGHTS : R iparian IPARIAN W ater ATER R ights IGHTS : Are typically practiced in the Eastern United States where, water is legally and historically a public resource. Although private property rights can be perfected in the use of water, it remains essentially public; private rights are always incomplete and subject to the publics common needs (eerc.ra.utk.edu) A ppropriation PPROPRIATION W ater ATER R ights IGHTS : Are typically practiced in the Western United States, where water rights are based on the principle of First in Time, First in Right. The has a higher priority of right than a subsequent user. Under drought water. Appropriative rights can be lost through nonuse; they can also be sold or transferred apart from the land (ga.water.usgs.gov). W ater ATER C ap AP : In the United States water use is capped by region not by individual use. C osta OSTA R ica ICA W ater ATER R ights IGHTS : resource and guarantees all citizens access to clean water. There are over 100 pieces of legislation that protect this right. water resources under public domain. In Costa Rica there is a great emphasis on distributing clean water and very little investment in waste water treatment facilities. community aqueduct systems found within the region. to Costa Ricans under the national constitution, water quality and mandating responsible government entities to Regulate and Control the use of water resources, as well as requiring wastewater dischargers groundwater are controlled via concession permitting by the MINAE. Concessions are granted based on individual environmental impact studies. J ustinUSTIN W elchELCH lectureLECTURE U. sS andAND costaCOSTA ricanRICAN W aterATER rightsRIGHTS T huHU -07-J uneUNE -2010PREPARED BY JOHN Mc c C ARTHY W ater ATER C ap AP : In Costa Rica water use is capped on the individual user with no limitation on the total amount of water that can be used in a particular region P ollution OLLUTION : N on ON P oint OINT S ource OURCE S olution OLUTION : Unlike pollution from industrial and sewage treatment plants, comes from many diffuse sources. NPS pollution is caused by rainfall moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters (EPA.Gov). P oint OINT S ource OURCE S olution OLUTION : Is pollution that can be traced back to a single origin or source such as a malfunctioning septic tank or burst sewage pipe on an individuals property. (EPA.Gov). U rban RBAN P ollution OLLUTION : Typically refers to stormwater runoff, greywater, blackwater and solid waste. In Monteverde, 98% of the local population utilizes private septic systems to treat black and grey water. Based on a perched water table water runoff entering local creeks and streams. R ural URAL pollution POLLUTION : Typically refers to agricultural runoff, organic waste and erosion. S atan ATAN E lena LENA : The infrastructure in Santa Elana is based on a resident population of 5500 people and not on the 75000 annual tourist population. This additional pressure on public resources and infrastructure creates a disparity between the actual number of water users and local tax base from municipal system.(Welch 2008) water treatment facilities, which can cost anywhere from $100,000 to $1,000,000. SOLUTION: Projects must strive to have a Net Zero Discharge in order to reduce the negative impact on the local watershed. 59

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60 PREPARED BY CANDACE DORSEY

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W aterATER U seSE T ypesYPES 1. Domestic 2. Commercial 3. AgriculturalG oalOAL Balance the need of natural systems with human population.B ackgroundACKGROUND Monteverde is within the Guacimal Watershed which ranges in elevation from 0-1800M. The watershed is 37km long and drains an area of 18,850ha. inter-tropical convergence zones. From Nov-April trade winds blow westward. The rest of the year conventional storms build up and release rainfall. Cloud moisture accounts for 22% of total precipitation. Monteverde region has more than 29,000 hectares (71,000 the retention of water. Natural land cover affects absorption and protects soil from erosion. highly porous and possess high volumetric moisture content and moisture conductivity.P otableOTABLE W aterATER community aqueduct systems found within the region. The Monteverde system receives high quality potable water from four springs in the reserve and a static number of users. in Santa Elena (Water Management Company). System supplied 899 homes, 249 businesses and 31 government installations in February 2007.S upplyUPPLY ofOF P otableOTABLE W aterATER The area is rich in groundwater springs suitable for potable wa ter. In 1951 the Quakers arrived, they recognized the need to set aside about 1500 acres of forest in order to protect the watershed. Research shows that availability of water during the dry season is not clear. The accuracy of the analysis may be limited due to certain assumptions and data used in the calculations.G overnmentOVERNMENT A genciesGENCIES R esponsibleESPONSIBLE forFOR M anaging ANAGING W ater ATER Local water districts are responsible for maintaining and managing expensive infrastructure with a minimal budget. Where municipal government doesnt exist, the institute of Aqueducts and sewers is obligated to assist rural communities with the construction and maintenance of small aqueduct systems and manage wastewater via constructed sewer and drainage systems. and ground water, granting discharge permits & monitoring potable water supply systems. The Ministry of environment and energy observes a national framework for water resource management which include: 1. Potable water supply 2. Public & environmental health 3. Agriculture & commercial utilization 4. Hydro electric.W aterATER C onsumptionONSUMPTION From 2003 to 2006 shows a growth of 20.7% in total consumption of the AyA System. I n areas of established development, such as Santa Elena, there is only slight growth. Maximum water use occurs during the middle of the dry season, which coincides with the peak in local tourism. Tourism data should be incorporated into the water resource planning process. Low water consumption rates for individuals and household exist in rural households.WATER RESOURCE OF THE UPPER RIO GUACIMAL WATERSHED:SUMMARY, ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BY JUSTIN WELCH focusFOCUS pointsPOINTS PREPARED BY JOHN Mc C art ART H y Y + luis LUIS ramirez RAMIREZ 61

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R egionalEGIONAL S ocioOCIO economicsECONOMICS year and now sits around 5,500 people. eco-tourism. c alculate current and future water demand from the commercial sector. other private entities to systematically collect and disseminate water-related statistics would facilitate more accurate analyses of local water supply and demand.D ischargeISCHARGE S tudyTUDY A 10 year study by Dallas recorded 97.5% of the MV region uses septic tanks for treatment of black water. Optimal treatment of natural treatment processes. A study of local water quality indicated an increase in the presence of fecal coliform during the rainy season due to saturated soils, poor maintenance and construction of septic systems. discharge grey water directly to the environment despite legislative restrictions that prohibit it. 70% of household water consumption goes to grey water. about the quality of water in the lowlands where surface and groundwater can potentially mix.W aterATER -R elatedELATED E ffortsFFORTS U nderwayNDERWAY a nd documents research that is conducted within the region and shares it with the community.M onteverdeONTEVERDE -G ulfULF ofOF N icoyaICOYA B iologicalIOLOGICAL C orridorORRIDOR between the mountaintops of Monteverde and the Gulf of Nicoya. credits.A doptDOPT -A-S treamTREAM physical, chemical and biological parameters of Guacimals headwater streams. members.B anderaANDERA A zulZUL P rogramROGRAM agencies which recognizes whole communities for their efforts in local water resource management. C onclusionsONCLUSIONS development, communities must examine and understand the condition of their water resources. related information of the region to make good predictions and calculations for future water demand. management institutions of the water-related data sets.R ecommendationsECOMMENDATIONS groundwater resources of the entire Rio Guacimal watershed. understand the impact of human-caused pollution on stream health and the risk to public health. watershed. reduction goals, water use and conservation and sustainable community development. avoid unnecessary repetition in research. order to provide consistent water-related records for the publicly available digital library. 62

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Poco A Poco Hotel was established in the year 2000. The four of which were rental units. The owner and his family occupied purchasing two additional land parcels to accommodate an expanded parking lot and reception area, as well as a covered pool and gardens. The site now occupies a land area of 2,900m2 (31,000ft2) and has a 75% occupancy rate during the high season and a 60% occupancy rate in the low. Recent renovations include a restaurant and dining room which accommodates 60-70 people. With the growth of the hotel the owner recognized the economic value of smart/sustainable growth. The hotel meets the need of a European market interested in supporting a sustainable tourism industry. The hotel currently holds a 4 leaf sustainability rating out of a maximum 5. In order to reach a four leaf rating the hotel has implemented a number of green technologies. The main reception area incorporates large windows which takes advantage of natural lighting and area views. The building is constructed of steel framing, with plantation wood-beams, concrete and glass. One drawback of the construction is the orientation of the building, which directly faces the prevailing winds. To combat driving wind and rain a small portico was erected to protect the reception entrance from the elements. The hotel has grown to include 4 different buildings. One of the newer buildings has 3 handicap accessible rooms. Costa Rican law requires that 5% of rooms must be handicap accessible. One section of the hotel has incorporated a solar water heating system on its roof. The system was built at a cost of $7000 and there is enough hot water to supply four rooms 365 days a year.POCO A POCO HOTEL SITE VISIT, TUES-08-JUNE-2010DESCRIPTION OF SUSTAINABLE FEATURESPREPARED BY JOHN McC art ART H y Y pocoPOCO aA pocoPOCO hotelHOTEL santaSANTA elenaELENA costaCOSTA ricaRICA 63

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In line with the hotels sustainability efforts a black water treatment system is located at the center of the property at a cost of $17,000. Bacteria are the main decomposers of the organic matter with the process being accelerated with the use of air pumps. The cycle operates on a 24 hour system where organic matter is broken down and settling at the bottom of a catchment basin. From there the sediment is removed to a second tank where the water is removed and chlorinated. The solids go through a drying process resulting in a dry clay like material which is then used as organic fertilizer at the property. The treated water is used for irrigating the landscape on a nightly basis. The black water treatment facility is operated on a continuous basis and is a large consumer of electricity for the hotel. The pool located on the lower terrace is the largest consumer of decision for the hotel. Future goals are to reduce its energy consumption by considering alternative sources of energy for the pool and the black water treatment system. The pool is electrically heated to a temp of 33oC. A back up gas system is used on occasion to heat the pool to a temp of 400C. As a reference, faucet water in Monteverde is typically 17oC. The hotel has recently moved from a chlorination cleaning process for the pool to a sustainable cleaning process that uses copper and silver ions. A large, expensive polystyrene awning over the pool protects the pool from prevailing winds that carry silt and dirt that in the past has destroyed the The landscaping at the hotel incorporates the use of native plants in an effort to highlight Monteverdes indigenous plants and to attract hotels sustainability efforts and is a critical part of its sustainability accreditation. The hotel is inspected every 2 years and the hotel owners are making every effort to reach a 5 leaf accreditation. The future goals of the hotel are to reduce energy consumption and increase its community involvement. nativeNATIVE seedlingsSEEDLINGSview VIEW of OF back BACK of OF poco POCO a A poco POCO hotel HOTEL S olar OLAR heating HEATING panel PANEL for FOR water WATERwater WATER retention RETENTION tanks TANKS 64

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Rain Water Collection Barrel Groundwater Recharge Retention Pond Bio SwaleSTORM WATER GREY WATERReed Bed Solid Waste Traps Septic Tank Leach FieldBLACK WATER Laundry Toilet Sink On Tuesday, June 08th, 2010 Anibal Torres (Sustainable Futures Program Coordinator) gave the SF2010 group a tour of the water treatment systems in place at the Monteverde Institute. Their system is an entirely gravity fed, and separates black water from grey water. Their rainwater collection system feeds their toilets and laundry machines but could also be used for irrigation if there was a need. In a region that receives high amounts of rainfall in the wet season but little in the dry, storing large quantities of water for the dry season could be an area where more research is needed. Please refer to the diagram for more information. MVI W aterATER managementMANAGEMENT tourTOUR TUES-08-JUNE-2010WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMPREPARED BY sabaSABA hamidiHAMIDI + CHRISTOPHER ROMANO66Groundwater Recharge

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ARCHITECT: Francis KereD anoANO secondarySECONDARY schoolSCHOOLdanoDANO burkinaBURKINA fasoFASO A fricaFRICA PREPARED BY sabaSABA hamidiHAMIDI + CHARLES SCHMIDT sS OURCE: gG reenSource: The Magazine of Sustainable Design 1 Metal Roof Cladding 2 Metal Beam Construction 3 Hanging brick ceiling, plastered 4 Reinforced concrete beams 5 Laterite stone walls 6 Lamella windows 7 Garnite basement67 imagesIMAGES providedPROVIDED byBY G reensourceREENSOURCE : T heHE M agazineAGAZINE ofOF sustainableSUSTAINABLE designDESIGN

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A ldoLDO L eopoldEOPOLD L egacyEGACY centerCENTER B arabooARABOO WIPREPARED BY sabaSABA hamidiHAMIDI ARCHITECT: The Kubala Washatko Architects sS OURCE: The Aldo Leopold Foundation 68 imagesIMAGES providedPROVIDED byBY theTHE aldoALDO leopoldLEOPOLD foundationFOUNDATION

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SOLAR69

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TYPE PASSIVE ACTIVE DEFINITION The use of sunlight for useful energy without use of active mechanical systems. Technologies are employed to convert solar energy into usable light, heat, cause air movement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use. Active solar uses electrical or mechanical equipment, such as pumps and fans to increase the usable heat in a system. COLLECTION AND TREATMENT Passive solar design Solar thermal Photovoltaic Panels Solar thermal electricity RE-USE Used to heat or cool homes Used to heat water Used to produce electricity SOLAR TERMINOLOGY PREPARED BY B randonRANDON G ordonORDON 70

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PV P anelANEL P lacementLACEMENT : 1. Typically installed on roves but they can be placed on the ground or on a pole. equivalent to the latitude of the site. within +10 degrees of south or +/5 degrees of the optimal angle. threeTHREE P rimaryRIMARY P lacementLACEMENT M ethodsETHODS : 1. F lush LUSH M ount OUNT a This orientation is optimal for a roof which faces close to south. b. This mounting technique can be performed on any slope but is effective on a steeply pitched roof. 2. A ngled NGLED M ount OUNT a. Typically done on a roof with a lower pitch. c. An alternative is ground mounts which is optimal in this situation. 3. F in IN M ount OUNT a. This mounting system is for buildings with shallows roof pitches where the roofs slope east and west.S olarOLAR C ontrolONTROL : between both indoor and outdoor conditions building envelope. 3. Shading devices perform the best in highly sunny areas and are E ffectiveFFECTIVE S hadingHADING M ethodsETHODS : color coating diation and convection heat impacts SUN ANALYSIS HOLCIM SITE VISIT, TUES-25-MAY-2010DESCRIPTION OF SUSTAINABLE FEATURESPREPARED BY ALANA SANDERS siteSITE visit VISIT holcim HOLCIM FACILITY + OFFICES, costa COSTA rica RICA SHADING construction CONSTRUCTION 71

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S olarOLAR O rientationRIENTATION :M onteverdeONTEVERDE C ostaOSTA R icaICA = H otOT /H umidUMID R egionEGION 1. The lower portion of the Thermal Belt on slopes placed in wind s hadow areas but well exposed to winter isolation offers advantageous positions. 2. Orientation somewhat East of South secures balanced heat distribution W inter INTER O rientation RIENTATION : 1. At 40 latitude a southern exposure receives nearly three times as much total sun energy as the east or west sides. 2. Angle of the Winter Sun= 67 S ummer UMMER O rientation RIENTATION : 1. The radiation falling on south plus north sides is only half of that absorbed by the east plus west elevations. 2. Angle of the Summer Sun= 86 P referred REFERRED O rientation RIENTATION : 1. Orientations from south to 25 east of south are preferred. O ptimalPTIMAL O rientationRIENTATION : 1. When southeast and southwest orientations are combined in a single dwelling unit, they are preferred to a due south orientation 2. Optimum orientation for any given site would give maximum radiation in the underheated period while simultaneously decreasing insolation to a minimum in the overheated period. L iving IVING C onditions ONDITIONS : i. For optimum living conditions, (warmth in the winter sea son, and cool in the summer season) primary facades of buildings should face south. ii. Facades facing southeast and southwest offer the advantage of regularity of insolation, but are much colder during the winter season and are much warmer during summer seasons than those facades that face the southern side. iii. East and West exposure have warmer temperatures in the summer and colder temperatures in the winter than are the south, southeast, and southwest exposures. 72 windWIND capturingCAPTURING finsFINS + courtyardCOURTYARD

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H otOT H umidUMID R egionEGION : D esignESIGN C onsiderationsONSIDERATIONS H ousingOUSING D esignESIGN Housing Types Individual Elevated Loose Density Freely Elongated A rrangement RRANGEMENT Shading Encourage Air Movement P lan LAN Free/Open Plan No obstructions such as solid walls F orm ORM Elongated with minimum exposure on the East-West Side Optimum Shape is 1:1.7 up to 1:3 O rientation RIENTATION Sol-Air orientation is 5 East of South I nterior NTERIOR Shaded Well Ventilated Flexible Spaces C olor OLOR Light Pastel Colors to avoid glareB uildingUILDING E lementsLEMENTS O peningPENING andAND W indowsINDOWS Ventilation needed 85% of the year North South Ventilation is key Screens, Louvers, Jalousies, and Grills to both protect from sun and Structure must sheltered from sun and rain W alls ALLS U sed mostly for protection from weather and insect not as a thermal barrier R oof OOF Ventilated Double Roof is desirable Long Overhangs to protect from Sun and Rain M aterials ATERIALS Insulation Index is 35 to South Light heat capacity walls are best Prevention of deterioration of materials by moisture and animate sources S hading HADING D evices EVICES Sun breaks are important because of strong solar radiation on East West sides F oundation OUNDATION No Basement Buildings off the ground are best mold, and dampness M echanical ECHANICAL E quipment QUIPMENT No Heating Needed 73 hotHOT / humidHUMID regionREGIONpreparedPREPARED BY COLIN Mc CARVILLE designDESIGN considerationsCONSIDERATIONS

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H ousingOUSING L ayoutAYOUT S ite ITE S election ELECTION High elevations on windward Near the Crest Slightly offset from prevailing winds Northern or Southern slope directions are preferred T own OWN S tructure TRUCTURE Separated housing to allow for air movement Shaded environment Town should be loose and scattered P ublic UBLIC places PLACES Minimum walking distances Shaded areas L andscape ANDSCAPE Flat areas Integrated water is best Water drainage is essential from both houses and streets V egetation EGETATION Low vegetation needs to stay away from builds as to not block air movement D esign ESIGN D ifferences IFFERENCES for FOR H ot OT -H umid UMID and AND T emperate EMPERATE R egions EGIONS C onclusions ONCLUSIONS for FOR H ot OT -H umid UMID R egion EGION Plenty of Shade from Overhangs, Awnings, and Tall Vegetation Orient away from sun Allow for ventilation through the whole building with an open plan Buildings off the ground to protect from moisture and mold Large Roof overhangs Building elongated in the East-West Directions Minimal usage of windows on East-West Walls S un UN N atural ATURAL V entilation ENTILATION I nsulation NSULATION L ayout AYOUT F oundation OUNDATION L andscape ANDSCAPE H ot OT H umid UMID Oriented away Most of the year Not Required Pier/Stilt foundation is best, no basement Tall trees that shade but allow for ventilation T emperate EMPERATE Oriented Towards Summer Required Allow for Sun Penetration Basements are used heavily Vegetation that Blocks harsh winter winds is desirable but allow ventilation in the summer 74

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PART IV: MASTER PLANWEEK 3 OF 4: M onON -14juneJUNE -2010 F riRI -18juneJUNE -2010

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GATHERING SPACES AND FACULTY HOUSINGSKETCH BY SABA HAMIDI77

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Create a design that blends in with the existing environment through conservation and reforestation. Use native plants and trees that attract wildlife and build strong ecosystems. The design is meant to function in ways analogous to nature. Create an interconnected series of thematic gardens that attract birds, bats, and insects. Conserve all existing areas for outdoor recreation. Use existing open spaces near the high school for production of renewable energy. This design strives to achieve a circular rather than linear metabolism Provide a design and orientation for a new communal living building for teachers living on campus that can be used as a teaching tool for environmental education, sustainable development, and ecological design. Locate a site for the new Directors house that has easy access to the main campus but maintains some privacy during school hours. Provide an indoor assembly space for all members of the school to congregate. Incorporate a series of connected hubs that create places for people to meet, congregate, and socialize. Connect these hubs with easily accessible circulation corridors. Use bio-corridors to encourage animal migration throughout the campus as well as to to the proposed site of the faculty residence. Negotiate an agreement with the neighboring hotel to gain access to their existing road that would provide vehicular access to the proposed indoor assembly space. Reduce runoff and remediate polluted water before it is released back into the ground or before it runs downstream as polluted storm water. Attempt to provide a solution for long-term water harvesting for use during the dry season. MASTER PLANNING GOALSPREPARED BY SABA HAMIDI + CHRISTOPHER ROMANO78 GREEN OPEN ACTIVITIES CIRCULATION WATER

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79BIRD MIGRATION PATTERNS preparedPREPARED BY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY NORTH SOUTH MIGRATION (OCT-MARCH) S O U T H N O R T H M I G R A T I O N TAILED KITE(MARCH-OCT) FLY CATCHER PIRATIC WARBLERS ORIOLES SWALLOWS HERONSM O N T E V E R D E COSTA RICA N 0km3060 90120150 Costa Rica is a land bridge between North and South America, contributing to its rich biodiversity. Throughout the year many species of birds insects and animals migrate across its borders. Monteverde is home to over 400 species of birds, of that 21% are long distance migratory. Examining Monteverde on a Global Scale

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Monteverde on a National ScalePACIFIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN QUETZAL MIGRATION PATTERN COURTSHIP & NESTING JAN-JUN (1500-1800M) POST NESTING JULY-SEPT (1100-1300M) OCT-JAN (700-1100M) M O N T E V E R D E RESPLENDANT QUETZAL The Resplendant Quetzal and the endangered Three Wattled Bell Bird moves seasonally from high elevation nesting sites in the Monteverde Cloud Forest to lower elevations on the pacific slope. 80 monteverdeMONTEVERDE elevationELEVATION preparedPREPARED BY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHYmigrationMIGRATION patternsPATTERNS

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preparedPREPARED BY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY 81 guacimalGUACIMAL watershedWATERSHED

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monteverdeMONTEVERDE elevationELEVATION preparedPREPARED BY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY IM ages AGES by BY L uis UIS ramirez RAMIREZ T hematicHEMATIC gardensGARDENS 82

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83 conservationCONSERVATION + developmentDEVELOPMENT zonesZONESpreparedPREPARED BY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY

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84 thematicTHEMATIC gardensGARDENSpreparedPREPARED BY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY

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85 naturalNATURAL energyENERGY systemsSYSTEMSpreparedPREPARED BY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY

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86 informationalINFORMATIONAL signageSIGNAGEpreparedPREPARED BY johnJOHN mM c carthy CARTHY

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B uildableUILDABLE A reaREA F orest OREST O utdoor UTDOOR O pen PEN S pace PACE E nvironmental NVIRONMENTAL E ducation DUCATION T hematic HEMATIC G ardens ARDENS P rimary RIMARY C irculation IRCULATION N o O B uildzone UILDZONE N 87 masterMASTER planPLANpreparedPREPARED BY alanaALANA sandersSANDERSdesignatedDESIGNATED programsPROGRAMS 0m12345 0m1020304050 0m100200 300400500 0m10002000300040005000

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Hubs Environmental Education Thematic Gardens Water Catchment Area N 88M asterASTER planPLANpreparedPREPARED BY sabaSABA hamidiHAMIDI 0m12345 0m1020304050 0m100200 300400500 0m10002000300040005000 environmentalENVIRONMENTAL educationEDUCATION hubs HUBS thematic THEMATIC gardens GARDENS water WATER catchment CATCHMENT areas AREAS

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HUBS: The master plan seeks to create a series of interconnected hubs, or places of frequent social gatherings, that will guide circulation throughout building, sets the starting point for this circulation. The path then leads to both of which are proposed to be covered by a retractable roof. And lastly, the proposed assembly space at the northeast end of the site provides an ending point to this circulation path that may be used by the students & faculty, as well as the public, using the proposed hotel access road coming into the site from the north side of the property line. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: The master plan proposes the addition of a second major environmental education node at the teachers housing site, as well as a third node at the entrance of the campus, in order to connect with the existing solar house node and create an integrated representation of the schools mission of teaching environmental education, starting with a visual representation at the entrance gate (see Tree of Eco-Knowledge page). 89M asterASTER planPLAN specificsSPECIFICSpreparedPREPARED BY sabaSABA hamidiHAMIDI

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THEMATIC GARDENS: The addition of several thematic gardens throughout the site seeks to connect with the existing gardens on site in order to create another series of interconnected points that are harmonious with the sites existing conditions. Gardens are particularly proposed to be placed toward the front of the campus, for aesthetic purposes, within the new teachers housing site, to serve as environmental tools, as well as behind the proposed directors housing, for both aesthetic and educational purposes. WATER CATCHMENT AREAS: The master plan points out several areas for potential water catchment basins, each strategically located at a low point to collect runoff from both built and natural surfaces. These basins can range anywhere from small rain gardens to larger, more extensive storm water ponds that will allow sediment and pollutants from runoff to settle. 90

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PART V: PROPOSED DESIGNWEEK 4 OF 4: M onON -21juneJUNE -2010 F riRI -25juneJUNE -2010

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TEACHERS HOUSING PROGRAM CO photoPHOTO by BY colin COLIN m M cCARVILLE SITE VISIT CABIN ON ANIBALS PROPERTY 93 ALANABRANDONANIBAL

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PROGRAM OUTLINE BY BRANDON GORDON HOUSING INTENTION DESIGN CONSTRUCTION T eacherEACHER C onvenienceONVENIENCE Housing seeks to house foreign and domestic teachers for stays between 2 3 years on school ground. This way short term teachers can easily more into the position with little hassle. E ducational DUCATIONAL F eature EATURE Houseing will become a learning playground which students and the public alike can gain knowledge about sustainable energy and eco-friendly ways of living. T hree HREE P hase HASE C onstruction ONSTRUCTION Phase 1 Duplex 1 Phase 2 Duplex 2 Phase 3 Duplex 3 Total: 6 UnitsD uplexUPLEX The new housing will be three Non-tradition duplex style homes designed as a combination of a one bedroom unit and a two bedroom unit. I ncreased NCREASED A ccessibility CCESSIBILITY The housing will be accessible from the new road and parking lot as well as have access to current facilities and academic buildings. S tandard TANDARD A menities MENITIES Each Duplex will be one story containing a kitchen, indoor/outdoor, bathroom, and living areas. 1 B edroom EDROOM U nit NIT 500 sqft SQFT Bedroom 12'x12' 144 sqft Living and Dining 13'x14' 182 sqft Kitchen 11'x8' 88 sqft Bathroom and Utility 9'x9' 81 sqft 2 B edroom EDROOM U nit NIT 700 sqft SQFT Bedroom 12'x12' 144 sqft Bedroom 12'x12' 144 sqft Living and Dining 13'x14' 182 sqft Kitchen 14'x9' 126 sqft Bathroom and Utility 10'x10' 100 sqft94

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EDUCATION The building is designed as an educational tool revealing its systems and forms rather than concealing them. We have tried to tie the building to the landscape to illustrate the balance between building and nature that we believe is the foundation of sustainable design. Sustainable design encourages the architect to explore forms that respond not only to the temperature, but the wind, sun, vegetation, and topography. Like much of the indigenous architecture of Costa Rica, the result will be forms that are less homogenous and more responsive to the region and the environment. We believe buildings must look different because they are responding to a different audience and that these new forms will help people understand the new paradigm that our discipline is in. PASSIVE/ACTIVE DESIGN Our project sees architecture primarily as a manager or energy resources (water, wind, sun). We believe that the study of invisible materials (such as the study of air and water movement) might be just as important as a We are interested in the transformation of wind and solar energy into electrical energy to generate the power for the entire building, perhaps even the entire campus. Over half of the energy used in the world is related to buildings. We recognize that architects have a larger share of the responsibility for the worlds consumption of fossil fuel and global warming gas production than any other group. 95 buildingBUILDING goalsGOALSpreparedPREPARED BY christopherCHRISTOPHER romanoROMANO + sabaSABA hamidiHAMIDI DIRECTORS HOUSE

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PULL VEGETATION TOWARDS BUILDING ALLOW BUILDING TO CAPTURE WIND OPTIMIZE BUILDING FOR SOLAR COLLECTION STORE THE WATER FOR RE-USE PULL VEGETATION TOWARDS BUILDING STORE THE WATER FOR RE-USE ALLOW BUILDING TO CAPTURE WIND OPTIMIZE BUILDING FOR SOLAR COLLECTION96 tranquilTRANQUIL integrationINTEGRATIONpreparedPREPARED BY LUIS RAMIREZ 102.955.9

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97 housingHOUSING orientationORIENTATION STUDY preparedPREPARED BY sabaSABA hamidiHAMIDI + CHARLES schmidtSCHMIDT N

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N 98 housingHOUSING orientationORIENTATION preparedPREPARED BY sabaSABA hamidiHAMIDI + COLIN mM c CARVILLE + 1550 m+ 1730 m+ 1790 m 0m12 345 0m1020304050 0m100200300400500 0m10002000300040005000 0m 5 10 15 20 25 retention RETENTION pond POND has HAS been BEEN moved MOVED towardsTOWARDS frontFRONT ofOF housingHOUSING SEE APPENDIX

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99 planPLAN + circulationCIRCULATIONpreparedPREPARED BY colinCOLIN mM c carville CARVILLE + charles CHARLES schmidt SCHMIDT COMMUNITY SPACE BEDROOM WC N

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100 constructionCONSTRUCTION phasesPHASESpreparedPREPARED BY charlesCHARLES schmidtSCHMIDT

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278' SLOPE ANALYSISIMAGE BY LUIS RAMIREZ TUE01-JUNE-2010 P articipants ARTICIPANTS : Brendon Gordon Saba Hamidi John McCarthy Colin McCarville Luis Ramirez Chris Romano Alana Sanders 278 101 BUILDING LOCATION

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278' P rocessROCESS : A person would walk in a straight line until his or her feet where at eye level of the person viewing from behind. This would continue until the top of the slope was reached. Calculations for the slopes height were derived from the average height of the participants and the amount of stops they made.68 103 HIGH SCHOOL

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D esignESIGN 1: Extension of Hill Captures Wind Angle of the roof mimics the natural slope Designed to Blend in with Hill Large Amount of Indirect Light from North Side Turns its back on Sun Optimal Roof Angle for Solar Array D esign ESIGN 2: Wedge Angle is Opposite of the Natural Slope Offered the Best View with a large South Facing Window Large Amount of Indirect Light from the Southern Side Designed to Optimize Natural Ventilation103 houseHOUSE proposalsPROPOSALSpreparedPREPARED BY colinCOLIN mM c carville CARVILLE

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D esignESIGN 4: Hybrid Allows for Indirect Light from above through a clerestory Ventilates the interior with roof clerestory Maintains Bump on Hill Concept D esign ESIGN 3: Bump Bump on the Hill concept through ventilation raising building104

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105 teacherTEACHER housingHOUSING sectionSECTIONpreparedPREPARED BY colinCOLIN mM c carville CARVILLE + charles CHARLES schmidt SCHMIDT

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106 teacherTEACHER housingHOUSING sectionSECTIONpreparedPREPARED BY colinCOLIN mM c carville CARVILLE + charles CHARLES schmidt SCHMIDT

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1. F oundationsOUNDATIONSc C oncrete Footers Concrete Piers 2. S tructures TRUCTURES Steel 3. F looring LOORING Concrete Slab at entrance with Ceramic Tiling Ceramic Tiling Interior Wood Porch 4. W alls ALLS Exterior Patterned Concrete Board Interior Flat Concrete Board Wood Stud Interior Walls Steel Columns 5. W indows INDOWS Clear Story and Upper Windows Awning Windows Large Windows Sliding Windows 6. ROOF Steel Rafters Metal Corrugated SheetsM aterialsATERIALSpreparedPREPARED BY colinCOLIN mM c carville CARVILLE 107

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108

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109 wingedWINGED roofROOF considerationCONSIDERATIONpreparedPREPARED BY charlesCHARLES schmidtSCHMIDT

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110 passivePASSIVE systemsSYSTEMS preparedPREPARED BY luisLUIS ramirezRAMIREZ NATURAL VENTILATION RAIN WATER COLLECTION* retentionRETENTION pondPOND has HAS been BEEN modified MODIFIED

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111 undisturbedUNDISTURBED cycleCYCLEpreparedPREPARED BY luisLUIS ramirezRAMIREZ REED BED AT MVI BIO-SWALE AT MVI FISH POND IN SAN LUIS

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112 activeACTIVE systemsSYSTEMSpreparedPREPARED BY luisLUIS ramirezRAMIREZ SOLAR HEATING OF RAIN WATER SOLAR PANELS TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY theTHE building BUILDING as AS a A learning LEARNING playgroundPLAYGROUNDrain RAIN water WATER for FOR irrigation IRRIGATION and AND plumbingPLUMBING fixtures FIXTURES

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PART VI: PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

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SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY windmillWINDMILL nearNEAR cecCEC highHIGH schoolSCHOOL imageIMAGE fromFROM rainbowRAINBOW newsletterNEWSLETTER cloudCLOUD forestFOREST schoolSCHOOL 115

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R esidentialESIDENTIAL T urbineURBINE 10KW R eE D rivenRIVEN W indIND T urbineURBINE C ost OST 25,000-35,000 per unit Hydraulic construction saves money on installation and maintenance Additional cost includes shipping and small parts replacement Payback can be in as few as 5 to 7 years. E nergy NERGY A vailability VAILABILITY Requires 2 m/s (4.4mph) to began producing energy 10KW (1000 Average home uses 10-15 KW a day One unit can provide for 1-20 small homes. P assive ASSIVE P rogressive ROGRESSIVE T ube UBE S olar OLAR W ater ATER H eater EATER C ost OST $2,000$2,500 Reduce hot water cost up to 100% A Passive Progressive Tube system will save you about $500 per year. Your investment will be completely paid back by operating savings in approximately 4 years. E nergy NERGY A vailability VAILABILITY In warmer climates, the Progressive Tube will operate all year round and will meet nearly 100% of a households hot water needs. Can be installed on the roof or the ground. R ain AIN water WATER collection COLLECTION C ost OST A system where the rainwater is used only outside the home can be implemented for less than $100. A more complex system that uses rain water inside the home can cost anywhere from $1,000-$20,000. For a residential system the current payback period is about 15. High demand applications and large roof areas (such as in this area) provide the shortest payback, and could be as short at 3 years. E nergy NERGY A vailability VAILABILITY 95 in/yr (2.4 m/yr) Typical roof (3,000 sq ft or 278.7 sq m)will yield 177,555 gal/yr (672.1 m3/yr) or 14,497 gal/month (54.8 m3/yr) proposedPROPOSED SUSTAINABLE technologyTECHNOLOGY preparedPREPARED BY brandonBRANDON gordonGORDON 116

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A verageVERAGE largeLARGE scaleSCALE unityUNITY C ost OST 1 million (US Dollars) per unit Units require regular maintenance to remain functioning for the life time of the system. Small parts replacement Over heating alternators Payback can be in as few as 4 month E nergy NERGY A vailability VAILABILITY Produces energy with wind speeds varying from 5 m/s30 m/s 660KW per hour 15840KW a day Enough to power 11,000 light bulbs 1500 homes a day P hotovoltaics HOTOVOLTAICS (PV s S ) C ost OST do matter. Mono-Crystalline Photovoltaic Module 240W Retails at about $2.14$4.21 per watt $513-$1010 per panel Economic costs would only be recouped if the panels remained fully functional for more than twenty years. Most panels have a life span of at least 25 years with simple maintenance and regular care. E nergy NERGY A vailability VAILABILITY Mono-Crystalline Photovoltaic Module produces 240W per hour. However because sun is only available through a portion of the day, a secondary system is needed to store unused energy or provide secondary energy. H ydropower YDROPOWER C ost OST Cost of hydropower systems vary depending on size, location, and type. The system used at Lake Arenal is a 360,000KW system. Economic cost of the systems was paid back in 20 years. Currently continues to generate energy at $0.18 a KW E nergy NERGY A vailability VAILABILITY Most hydropower plants are depended upon one or more damns to retain a large amount of water. 85-square-kilometre Lake Arenal is retained by the Arenal Damn. The Damn is expected to hold for at least 100 years, and the system will produce until then. The system produces 8,640,000kw a day Provides at least 1/3 of its users energy during the day Provides 100% of its users energy at night.117 proposedPROPOSED SUSTAINABLE technologyTECHNOLOGY preparedPREPARED BY brandonBRANDON gordonGORDON

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118 preparedPREPARED BY brandonBRANDON gordonGORDON

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PART VII: CONCLUSION + APPENDIX

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The Sustainable Futures 2010 design team has focused to provide a set of documents to the Centro de Educacin Creativa 1. Create a long-term vision for the campus as it plans to grow. 2. Provide solutions that can be used for environmental educational purposes in addition to their primary purpose. 3. Provide base maps to be used for future expansion and planning projects 5. Create a resource for future research into sustainable development Centro de Educacin Creativa states on their website that their Vision is a sustainable future for the Earth and their mission is to nurture generations of ecologically aware, academically well-rounded bilingual individuals. The Sustainable Futures design team has strived to stay in tune with these wishes. We have focused on providing documents that encompass a wide range of sustainable designs, sustainable practices, and sustainable technologies. We have proposed homes that utilize the cooling effects of wind, encouraged the collection of rainwater, and suggested the use of green technologies such as wind turbines and solar Finally, in the interest of education, sustainability, and future longevity we have produced this document as a comprehensive research tool not only for the credibility of the ideas proposed, but for the educational and professional work of future generations at the Centro de Educacin Creativa as well as the Monteverde Institute. Research has driven this project from the start and educational and professional use. In conclusion, we the design team of the Sustainable Futures program would like to thank all the staff and faculty of the Centro de Educacin Creativa who provided us with limitless amounts of aid and support throughout the duration of this project. In addition, thank you to those Staff members of the Monteverde Institute who focused incredible amounts of time and energy into providing us with the resources we needed to complete this project. Finally, we thank the students of the CEC who allowed us to enter their educational space and witness their environment. To all of you, we thank you and recognize that this process wouldnt have been successful without you. This is the end to our work but it is the beginning to a new way of thinking. The book functions as a springboard for other designs and a origin of knowledge on sustainability. Following this report is an appendix which focuses on certain deliverables. 121 preparedPREPARED BY BRANDON GORDON

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Only after the last tree has been cut down... Only after the last river has been money cannot be eaten. CNN IReporter Jesus Beita122Slo despus de que el ltimo rbol haya sido cortado, ... Slo despus de que el ltimo ro haya sido envenenado ... Slo despus de que el ltimo pez haya sido pescado, slo entonces te encuentras con que el dinero no se puede comer.

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123

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C ontactONTACT I nformationNFORMATION : Christopher Romano Clinical Assistant Professor State University of New York at Buffalo ctromano@buffalo.edu124


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