Psychosocial impact of disaster

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Psychosocial impact of disaster

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Title:
Psychosocial impact of disaster the Baldwin Hills fire
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Creator:
Gordon, Norma S., 1926-
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
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Boulder, Colo
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Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado
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English
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22 p. : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Disaster victims -- Mental health -- California -- Los Angeles ( lcsh )
Wildfires -- Psychological aspects -- California -- Los Angeles ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Includes bibliographical references (p. 20-22).
General Note:
Title from cover.
Statement of Responsibility:
Norma S. Gordon...[et al.].

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001982791 ( ALEPH )
281327899 ( OCLC )
F57-00008 ( USFLDC DOI )
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NaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenterCampusBox482UniversityofColoradoBoulder,Colorado 80309-0482 PSYCHOSOCIALIMPACTOFDISASTER:THEBALDWINHILLSFIRENormaS.GordonCarlA.MaidaAlanSteinberg GailGordon1987QuickResponseResearch Report#08 "'41,.,. This publication is partofthe Hazards Research&Applications Information Center's ongomg Quick Response Research Report Series. htlp:/Jwww.colorado.edu/hazardsInstituteofBehavioralScience#6 (303) 492-6818

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-2-ThisstudywassupportedbyagrantfromtheNationalScienceFoundationandtheNaturalHazardsResearchCenter.TheauthorsgratefullyacknowledgetheassistanceofThePublicHealthFoundationofLosAngelesCounty,Inc.andtheseCityofLosAngelesleaderswhosecooperationmadethisstudypossible:TomBradley,Mayor,CityofLosAngelesPatRussell,PresidentoftheCityCouncil,CityofLosAngeles

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-3-1.THEEVENTOnJuly18,1985,theCityofLosAngeles was declaredaFederalDisasterAreaasaresultofthefiresinBaldwinHillsin which approximately50homes were totallydestroyed.AtthetimetheFederalEmergencyDeclaration was made,thethreatofmorewidespreaddamage was stillverygreat.ThepopulationofBaldwinHillsispredominantlymiddletoupperincomeBlackfamilies.Thetargetedsamplepopulationforthisstudyincludedthose whose homes were totallydestroyedandthose whose homes were leftintact with perhapssomefireorsmokedamage.AccordingtoFederalEmergencyManagementAgencyreports,147familiesregisteredforassistanceattheDisasterAssistanceCenter.TheCenterclosedafter twoweeks offieldoperations. Follow upinterviews were conducted with theRedCrossand with otheremergencyagenciespriortotheinceptionofthestudy.RedCrossspokespersonsprovidedthese 50homes were destroyed;2shelters were opened;38people were providedovernightshelter;200receivedassistanceonthefirstdayalone;1960individualvictimsreceivedmasscareduringa 2-week period;108familiesreceivedhelpfromtheRedCross,101of whomwere homeowners;975inquiriesforinformation were received;4receivedrentalassistance;49children were reportedattheRedCrossshelters.2.METHODOLOGYA.Instruments:ThemajorinstrumentusedinthisstudyistheDisasterSupplementtotheNationalInstituteofMentalHealthDiagnosticInterviewSchedule(DIS/DS).It was modifiedforuseinthisprojectto

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-4-specificallydocumentreactionsbyourrespondentstotheBaldwinHillsfire.ThisinstrumentincludesseveraldiagnosticsectionsoftheDiagnosticInterviewSchedule(Robins,Helyer,etaI,1981),includingpost-traumaticstressdisorder,dysthymicdisorder,sexualdysfunction,obsessive-compulsivedisorder,somatizationdisorder,andmajordepressivedisorder,aswellasquestionsrelatingtopreviouslifeevents,health,mentalhealthandsocialserviceutilization,coping,socialnetworks,andsocialsupportresources.Therearealsoavarietyofotherquestionsrelatingtoopinionsaboutthemediacoverageoftheevent,responsibilityfortheevent,andpersonalandcommunityharmcausedbytheevent.Aftereachinterview,theDIS/OSformwascheckedbytheinterviewerforcompleteness.Adetaileddescriptionoftherespondent'slocationatthetimeofthefire,whatwaswitnessed,andthelossessustainedwasrecordedforeachcase.Interviewstookplaceinavarietyofsettings.Forthosewhosehomesweredestroyed,theinterviewwasconductedattheirtemporaryresidences,includingthehomesoffriendsorrelatives,hotelsandrentedapartments.Inaddition,theImpactofEventScale(HorowitzetaI,1979;ZilbergetaI,1982),a15itemselfreportscaleformeasuringsubjectivestressduetoacatastrophicevent,wasalsocompletedbyeachrespondent.Forthoseitemsexperienced,ratingsaremadeforfrequency(rarely,sometimes,often).Thescaleyieldsatotalsubjectivestressscoreandtwosubscoresrelatingtointrusionandavoidance.

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-5-B.InterviewersandInterviewerTraining:Twointerviewers,bothBlackresearchassociatesatUCLA, whohadbeenfullytrainedbytheLosAngelesEpidemiologicCatchmentAreaProject(HoughKarnoetal,1983)andexperiencedintheadministrationoftheDISconductedallfieldinterviews.SpecialtrainingwasprovidedforadministeringtheDisasterSupplementtotheDIS.Thetrainingincludedmockinterviewsandpracticesessionstomaketheinterviewersfamiliarwiththisinstrument.C.RecruitmentofSubjects:AlistofvictimsoftheBaldwinHillsfirewascompiledfrompublicagenciesandnewspaperreports.Theinitialcontactwasmadebymaildescribingtheproject.MailtoindividualswhohadlosttheirhomesinthefirewasforwardedbythePostOffice.Theletterexplainedthepurposesofthestudy.Itincludedaformtobereturned,orphonenumbertobecalled,ifanindividualwishedtovolunteertoparticipate.Thosewhorespondedwerecontactedbyphonetoarrangeforaninterview.Beforeeachinterview,theinformedconsentformwasdiscussed,andconsentwasobtained.Allinterviewswereconductedbetweentwoandfourmonthsafterthefire.3.RESULTS A.SociodemographicCharacteristicsThestudypopulationconsistedof25individuals,mostofwhomrespondedtothemailing.Otherswerecontactedbyreferralbythoseinterviewed.AlloftherespondentswereBlackhomeowners,

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-6-witha meanageof57years. We interviewed14womenand11men. Theeducationallevelofthisgroupaveraged15.6yearswith48%havingcompleted17yearsofeducation;householdsaveraged2.7members;theemploymentstatusofthesampleconsistedofemployedpersons(56%),retirees(12%), homemakers (8%),part-timeemployedpersons(20%),andothers(4%). Thesamplerepresentsaresiden-tiallystablepopulationwitha meanlengthofresidenceof15years.B.PostTraumaticStressSymptomsTableIpresentsarankorderingofthefrequencyofpost-traumaticstresssymptomsforthesampleasmeasuredbytheDIS/DS.Thesesymptomswerereportedasoccurringwithinthefourmonthsfollowingthefire.TABLEI RankOrderingofPost-TraumaticStressSymptomsFortheTotalSample(N-25)SymptomsTroubleSleepingJumpiness,EasilyStartledAvoidanceofRemindersTroubleConcentratingNightmares,Dreams,RememberingRe-ExperiencingEventInterpersonalDistanceAshamedofBeingAliveC.DepressiveSymptomsPercent32241612 1284oTableIIpresentsarankorderingofdepressivesymptoms,asmeasuredbytheDIS/DS.Thesesymptomswerereportedashavingoccurredwithinthe4monthssincethefire.

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-7-TABLEIIRankOrderingofDepressiveSymptomsFortheTotalSample(N-25)SymptomsTroubleSleepingTroubleConcentratingLossofAppetiteFeelingTiredAlltheTimeFeelingRestlessThoughtsComing MoreSlowlyMovingAlltheTimeGainingWeightTalkingofMoving MoreSlowlyFeelingDepressedLossofWeightSleepingToo MuchLossofInterestinSexFeelingWorthless,Sinful,GuiltyThoughtsAboutDeathWantingtoDieThoughtsofSuicideAttemptedSuicideD.TheImpactofEventScalePercent40202020161612 121288 4o oooooTableIIIpresentsarankorderingofmeanscoresfortheImpactofEventScaleforthesubjects.TheinstrumentisscoredonaLikertScalewith"rarely"weightedI,and"often"weighted4.TABLEIIIRankOrderingofMeanScoresforImpactofEventScaleItems(N 25).ItemOtherthingskeptmakingmethinkaboutit.Ithoughtaboutitwhenrdidn'tmeanto.rhadwavesofstrongfeelingsaboutit.Picturesaboutitpoppedintomymind.Anyreminderbroughtbackfeelingsaboutit.Iavoidedlettingmyselfgetupsetevenwhenrthoughtaboutitorwasremindedofit.rtriedtoremoveitfrommemory.rhadtroublefallingasleeporstayingasleep.2.722.522.48 2.482.38 2.362.322.32

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-8-Itriednottothinkaboutit.Myfeelingsaboutitwerekindofnumb. I wasawarethatIstillhadalotoffeelingsaboutit,butdidn'tdealwiththem.Ifeltasifithadn'thappenedoritwasn'treal.Istayedawayfromremindersaboutit.Ihaddreamsaboutit.Itriednottotalkaboutit.2.242.201.961.871.76 1.72 1.68The meanscoreontheImpactofEventsScaleforthissamplewas33.04,witharangeof15-54.E.SelectedPsychosocialResponsesAdditionalfindingspertainingtoselecteditemsthatwereincludedfromtheDIS/DSwere:1)MediaCoverage:Inresponsetothequestion "What didyouthinkofthenewscoverageoftheevent?", 16% ofthesamplefeltthattherehadnotbeenenoughpublicityaboutthefireascomparedwith 76% whofelttherehadbeentherightamount.Fourpercentfelttherehadbeentoomuchcoverage.Inregardtohowthemediareportedtheevent, 52% feltthemediawassympathetictothevictimsand 48% hadnoopinionorweremixedintheirfeelings.2)Blame:Inregardtothequestionsaboutwhowastoblameforthefire, 76% ofthesampleattributedblametoalocaluniversitywhichownedtheadjacentlandwherethefirestarted.Inaddition, 56% feltthatthecitywasalsoresponsible.EightpercentfeltthattheFireDepartmentwas

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-9-toblameforthefire.Incontrast,only12%blamedthearsonistalone.3)EffectsoftheCommunity:Ninety-twopercentofthesamplefeltthattheircommunityhadsustainedagreatdealofharmand100%feltthatthecommunitywasnotbacktonormalupto4monthsafterthefirewhentheywereinterviewed.)FinancialHelp:Questionswereaskedabouthelpreceivedfrompublicandprivateagencies.Thirty-sixofthesamplefeltthatneedingfinancialhelporhelpwithclothingwasembarrassingtopeopleintheircommunity.Fifty-twopercenthadreceivedfinancialhelpfromprivateinsuranceand12%fromtheSmallBusinessAdministration.Sixty-fourhadreceivedsomefinancialcompensationfortheirlosses.Seventy-twopercentofthesamplingreportedreceivinghelpfromRedCross,16%receivedassistancefromotherpublicagencies.Intermsoffinancialcompensation,48%feltthatthevictimsofthefirewerenotreceivingasmuchfinancialcompensationastheydeserved,24%felttheywerereceivingtherightamount.Theremaining28%wereequivocal.Nooneexpressedtheviewthattoomuchfinancialassistancewasgiven.

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-10-5)Medication:Fortypercentofthesamplereportedtakingmedicationbecauseofbeingupsetbythefire.Noonereportedtheuseofalcoholforthispurpose.Forty-fourpercentsaidthattheysoughthelpfromadoctor,otherhealthprofessional,oracounselorbecauseofbeingupsetbythefire.Fifty-twopercentsoughthelpfromfamilyorfriends.6)PersonalandHouseholdHarmSixty-fourpercentratedtheirhouseholdashavingsustainedagreatdealofharmfromthefire.Sixtypercentfeltthattheirhouseholdhadnotrecoveredfromtheeffectsofthefire.Inregardtothequestionsofpersonalhealthproblemscausedbythefire,36%ofthesamplereportedexperiencingstressasaresultofthefire,12%sufferedafall,12%reportedfirerelatedphysicalinjuriesincludingburnsandsmokeinhalation,and8%reportedgainingweight.7)ComparisonofSubjectsbyExposuretotheEventTwogroupswereformedfromoursampleonthebasisofexposuretotheevent,i.e.,thosewhowereintheareawhenthefireoccurredandwhowitnessedthefire(40%),andthosewhowereoutofthearea(60%).Thesetwogroupsdonotdiffersignificantlyinsociodemographicmakeup. We comparedthesegroupsinrelationtothemeannumberofpost-traumaticsymptomsreported.TableIVpresentstheresultsofthiscomparison.

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-11-TABLEIV Mean NumberofPost-TraumaticStressSymptomsbyExposuretoEvent(N24)GroupInAreaNotinArea(N9) (N-15)2.60.22.40.7(t-3.55,df-22,p<.Ol)Thoseindividualswhowitnessedthefirereportedsignificantlymorepost-traumaticstresssymptomsthanthosewhodidnot.Asimilarcomparisonofthesegroupsregardingmeannumberofdepressivesymptomsdidnotrevealanystatisticallysignificantdifferences.Thus,exposurewasfoundtobestronglyrelatedtopost-traumaticstresssymptomsandnottodepressivesymptoms.TableV showsthepercentagesofthesamplereportingspecificposttraumaticstresssymptomsaccordingtotheirexposuretotheevent,i.e.,individualsintheareaandthosenotpresentintheareaduringthefire.TABLEVPostTraumaticStressSymptomsRelatedtoPresenceinArea(N 24)TroubleSleepingJumpiness,EasilyStartledAvoidanceofRemindersNightmares,Dreams,RememberingRe-ExperiencingEventTroubleConcentratingDistantAshamedofBeingAliveInArea(9)66.755.644.433.325.022.211.00.0NotInArea(15)6.7 6.70.00.00.06.70.00.0

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-128.ComparisonofSubjectsbyExtentofLossofResidence We alsodividedthesampleonthebasisofextentoflossofresidence.Thefirstgroupwascomprisedof12individualswhosehomesweretotallydestroyedbythefire,thesecondgroupdidnothavetotallossoftheirhome,butratherhadroofdamageorsmokedamage.TableVIindicatesthattherewas asignificantdifferencebetweenthesegroupsinrelationtomeannumberofdepressivesymptoms.TABLEVI Mean NumberofDepressiveSymptomsbyLossGroupTotalLossDamage(N-12)(N-13)2.90.83.11.8(t-2.09,df-23,p<.05)Thosewhosehomesweredestroyedreportedasignificantlygreaternumberofdepressivesymptomsthanthecomparisongroup.Therewerenosignificantdifferencesbetweenthesegroupsinrelationtopost-traumaticstresssymptoms.Thus,losswasstronglyrelatedtodepressivesymptoms,butnottopost-traumaticstresssymptoms.TableVIIIdisplaystheproportionsofdepressivesymptomsreportedbythosewhosehomesweredestroyedcomparedtothegroupwhosustainedonlypropertydamage.

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-13-TABLEVIIFrequencyofDepressiveSymptomsbyExtentofLossDepressiveSymptomsTroubleSleepingFeelingTiredalltheTimeLossofAppetite Weight GainTalkingorMoving MoreSlowlyMovingalltheTimeFeelingRestlessTroubleConcentratingThoughtComing MoreSlowlyFeelingDepressedLossof Weight SleepingToo MuchLossofInterestinSexFeeling Worthless, Sinful,GuiltyThoughtsAboutDeath Wanting toDieThoughtsAboutSuicideAttemptedSuicide4.DISCUSSION58.333.333.325.0 25.025.025.025.016.68.3 8.3 8.30.00.0 0.0 0.00.00.023.17.77.T0.0 0.0 0.07.715.415.47.7 7.70.10.0 0.00.00.0 0.00.0Thisstudypresentsself-reportedpsychologicalsymptomsandotherresponsestoafirethatcausedwidespreadpropertydamage.Consistentwithpriorstudiesofnaturaldisasters,oursamplereportedanarrayofemotional,psychosomaticandphysicalhealthproblems.Thiswastrueofthesampleasawhole,whichincludedindividualswholosttheirhomesandthosewhosehomeswerethreatened.Psychosomaticandphysicalhealthproblemsarereportedaftermanydisasters.Sleepdisturbancesareacommonpsychosomaticreaction(Price,1978;FlynnandChalmers,1980;Bolin,1982).Thedatafromthisstudysupportsthesefindings.Thepredominantsymptom,reported

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-14-bythesampleasawhole,wastroublesleeping.Relatedsleepdisorders,includingnightmaresanddreamsaboutthefire,werealsoreportedbythetotalsample.Inmakingthecomparisonbetweenthosewholosttheirhomeandthosewhosehomeswerenotdestroyed,thisremainedthepredominantsymptom.Thisheldtrueaswellwhenacomparisonwasmadebetweenthosewhowitnessedthefireandthosewhowerenotinthearea.Thesefindingsonthisolderpopulationareconsistentwithoneoftheauthor's(NG)studyofchildrenafterthe1971SylmarearthquakeinSouthernCalifornia(Howard&Gordon,1972)andwithareportbyPynoosetal(1985)ofchildrenafterasniperattackattheirschool.Awiderangeofemotionalreactionstodisasterhavebeendiscussedintheliterature(Richard,1974;Milne,1977;Bolin,1982).Inthissample,atleast20%ofthepopulationreportedsleepdisturbances,jumpiness,troubleconcentrating,lossofappetite,andgenerallethargy.TherewerealsospecificemotionalreactionsthatthesubjectsreportedinresponsetotheImpactofEventScale.Approximatelyone-thirdreportedhavingexperiencedintrusivethoughts,feelingsandimageryregardingtheevent.Severalotheritemswereendorsedbyapproximately25percentofthesample,includingthoseconcernedwithsuppressionofthoughtsandsleepdisturbances. We areparticularlyinterestedintheeffectoflossonsubjects'reportsofpsychologicalfunctioning.Ithasalsobeenindicatedintheliteraturethatlossofhomeissignificantlyassociatedwithincreasedanxietyanddepression.Alloftheliteraturedealingwithresidentiallossanditsmentalhealthconsequences,however,isfound

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-15-inthefieldofforcedrelocationandurbanrenewal(Fried,1963;GIeseretal,1981).Thisstudyisuniqueinthatitcomparesresidentsofthesamecommunity,socio-demographicallymatched,onlossandnon-lossofhome. We foundasignificantdifferencebetweenthesetwogroupsinrelationtothemeannumberofdepressivesymptomsreportedontheDIS/OS.Therewerenosignificantdifferences,however,betweenthesetwogroupsinrelationtopost-traumaticstressreactions.Additionally,therewasatendencyforthosewhosehomesweredestroyedbythefiretoreportagreaternumberofadversehealtheffects,tousemedications,andtoseekhelpfromdoctorsormentalhealthprofessionalstoagreater extent thanthosewhosehomessustainedonlylimiteddamage. We alsoanalyzedourdataaccordingtothepresenceofsubjectsintheareawhenthefireoccurred.TheThreeMileIslandStudyalsodocumenteddifferentlevelsofstressdependingondegreeofexposure.Ourstudyshowsasignificantdifferencebetweenthetwogroupsinrelationtothemeannumberofpost-traumaticstresssymptomsreportedontheDIS/OS.Theexposedgroupreportedtroublesleeping(67%),jumpiness(56%),avoidanceofreminders(44%),andnightmares,dreamsandremembering(33%).Therewerenosignificantdifferences,however,betweenthesetwogroupsregardingthemeannumberofreporteddepressivesymptoms.Additionally,sixty-sevenpercentofthoseintheareaduringthefiresoughthelpfromaphysicianormentalhealthprofessionalinthemonthsfollowingtheevent,ascomparedwiththirty-sixpercentofthosenotpresent.Fifty-sixpercentofthoseexposedusedmedicationaftertheevent,ascomparedwithtwenty-ninepercentofthosewhodidnotwitnessthefire.Sixty-sevenpercentof

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-16-thoseintheareasoughthelpfromfriendsandrelativesascomparedwithforty-threepercentofthosenotinthearea.CASEHISTORIES Onecouplewholosttheirhomealsosufferedinjurywiththewifebeingburnedover 60% ofherbody.Atthetimeoftheinterview,aboutfourmonthsafterthefire,theyhadnotreturnedtothesight,andeventuallydecidedtomoveintoanothercommunity.Ininterviewingthewifeofayoungcouple,itwasreportedthatthehusband,whohadbeenathomeduringthefire,experiencedamoreseverestressreactionthanhiswifewhohadbeenatworkthatday.Shenoticedthehelplessnessshefeltatbeingunabletodomoretopreventthedevastationcausedbythefire.Asimilarreactionwasdescribedbya women whoalsohadbeenpresentduringthefire.Shearrivedwhilethefirewasinprogresstoseethehomeononesideofhersexplode(afteragas main wasignited)sendingburningdebrisoverthehousetotheoneontheotherside,settingitonfire.Shewatchedherneighborhoodburndownaroundherwhileshecoulddonothing.Exposuretotheaftermathoftencompoundedthestressreactionsofthevictims.Thebodiesoftwodeceasedneighborsandsomepetswereinthestreetnearonewomen'shome.Onlycharredlotswithchimneysleftstandingwereallthatcouldbeseenwhenlookingupthehill.One woman wasselfconsciousabouttheniceclothesshewaswearingonthedayafterthefirewhileherneighborshadonlytheclothesontheirbacks.Thefeelingwasso

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-17-strongthatshechangedintosomethingmorelike what theothers were wearing.Becauseofthedegreeofdestructiononherblock,ten weeks passedbeforestreetlighting was restored.This womanwas confronteddaily with thisandotherreminders,andbecauseofthis,decidedtomoveoutoftheneighborhood.Herhomehadbeenherdreamhouse,thehomeshehad worked towardsearningformanyyears.Afteronlyoneyearthere,theexperience was toomuchforherandshe was leaving.Theblock where this woman lived was oneofthe worst struck.Oneoftheinterviewers(GG)reportedastartledreactionuponseeingitforthefirsttime.Shedescribeddrivingthrougharesidentialarea,thenarrivingatapoint where allthatcouldbeseen were blackenedbrickchimneysagainstthenightsky.It was likeenteringa war zone.Thatsightleadtoasleeplessnight.Incontrasttothesituation where helplessnessgeneratedstressanddepression, whosewhowere athomewateringdowntheirroof,workingtoextinguishsmallfiresontheirpropertiesandthoseofimmediateneighbors,reportedfeelinggoodabout what theyhaddone.Exercisingsomemeansofcontrolandcontributinginahelpfulmannerproducessomepositivefeelings.Asnotedinthebodyofthisreport,depressionsymptoms werewide-spread andcorrelated with theextentofloss.Otherimportantfactorsmediatingtheresponseincluded:supportsystemsanddegreeofabilitytoreplacelosses.Threesingle womenwere affectedindifferent ways fordifferent

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-18-reasons,butwithsimilareffects.Onedidnotloseherhome;however,herswasthelonehouseonthestreetatthetimeofthefirethatwasnotdestroyedbutsheexperiencedseverestressaboutnotknowingduetonotbeingabletogettoherhouseforseveralhours.Thestreetswereclosedtoincomingtraffic,forcingresidentstowaitforhoursbeforeknowingthestatusoftheirhomesand/orlovedones.Onewomanreportedthatthestresswassogreatthatshefeltshemighthaveaheartattackunlessshegotsomeinformation.Afterthefirewasout,afiremancheckedforherandreportedthatherhomewas,infact,destroyed.Shewasnotsatisfiedanddemandedtoseeforherself.Becauseherhusbandhadbeenanofficialinthefiredepartment,shewasflownbyhelicopteroverthesite.Althoughthehousewasrazed,shereportedfeelingbetterknowingforsure.Anotherwoman whose homewasdestroyedhadlostherhusbandearlierthatyear.Shewasextremelydistraughtoverthelossofsentimentalremindersofhimandthelifetheyhadsharedtogether.Thewomanalsofelttheburdenofhavingtoreplaceimportantdocumentsrelatedtothefamilybusinessandotherassetswhichshewasonlyjustassumingresponsibilityforandbecomingfamiliarwith.Anothermanwhowasadamantaboutgettingtohishomewasturnedawaybythepoliceatgunpoint.Stilldeterminedtoseehishouse,hesnuckbackintotheareathroughbackalleys.Havingagoodsocialsupportsystemandfinancialassetsmadethelossmuchmoremanageableasdemonstratedbyacouplewhohadmaximumfireinsurancecoverageandeachother.Althoughdisturbedbytheloss,theyseemedtobeokay,andsawthisasanopportunitytobuildtheirdreamhouse.Theanalysisofourdatasuggeststhatexposuretotheevent,inthisinstance,operationalizedaspresenceintheareaatthetimeofthefire,

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-19-hasadistinctpsychologicaleffect,namelypost-traumaticstresssymptoms.Witnessingatraumaticeventresultsinpersistent,invasivethoughts.Thelonger-termeffectsofthistrendwouldrequirefurtherfollow-upofthesubjects.Thelossofresidenceandpossessions,ontheotherhand,appearstoresultindepressivereactionsandsymptomology.Atthetimeoftheinvestigation,allofthesubjectswhohadlosttheirhomeswereresidingintemporaryhousingandwereverymuchinvolvedinpreparingforthereconstructionphase.Theageofthesamplepopulationisclearlyafactorinrelationtoourfindingswithregardtoresidentialloss.Havingresidedinthesamecommunityfora meanlengthof15years,theprospectofrebuildingpresentsmanyproblemstothisgroupdueto,amongotherconsequences,theeffectsofinflationonreplacementcosts.

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-20-REFERENCESBolin,R.,"Long TermFamilyRecoveryFromDisaster,"BoulderInstituteofBehavioralScience,UniversityofColorado,1982Bromet,E.;Dunn,L.,"MentalHealthofMothersNineMonthsAfterThreeMileIslandAccident,"UrbanandSocialChangesReview,1981;14:(2),12-15Flynn,C.andChalmers,J.A.,"TheSocialandEconomicEffectsoftheAccidentatThreeMileIsland:FindingstoDate,"Washington,D.C.,OfficeofNuclearRegulatoryResearch,U.S.NuclearRegulatoryCommission,1980Fried,M.,"GrievingforaLostHome,"In:Duhl,L.J.,ed."TheUrbanCondition:PeopleandPolicyintheMetropolis,"NewYork:BasicBooks,1963,151-171Glesser,G.C.;Green,B.L.&Winget,C.,"ProlongedPsychologicalEffectsofDisaster:AStudyofBuffaloCreek,"NewYork,AcademicPress,1981Horowitz,M.;Wilner,D.&Alverly, W., "ImpactofEventScale:AMeasureofSubjectiveStress,"PsychosomaticMedicine,41:3,209-218,1979 Hough,R.;Karno,M.; Burnham,A.;Escobar,J.&Timbers,D.M.,"TheLosAngelesEpidemiologicCatchmentAreaResearchProgramandtheEpidemiologyofPsychiatricDisordersAmongMexican-Americans,"JournalofOperationalPsychology,1983;14:42-51

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-21-Howard,S.J.&Gordon,N.S.,"FinalProgressReport:mentalHealthInterventioninaMajorDisaster,"Van Nuys,CA,SmallResearchGrantMH21649-01,SanFernandoValleyChildGuidanceClinic,1972Kilijanek,T.S.&Drabek,T.E.,"AssessingLong-TermImpactsofaNaturalDisaster:AFocusontheElderly",TheGerontologist10:6,555-556,1979Milne,G.,"CycloneTracy:SomeConsequencesoftheEvacuationofAdultVictims,"AustralianPsychologist12:1,39-54,1977Pynoos,R.S.;Frederick,C.;Nadar;Arroyo,K.;Eth,S.;Steinberg,A.M.;Fairbanks,L.,"LifeThreatandPostTraumaticStressinSchoolAgeChildren,"PresentedattheAmericanPsychiatricAssociationAnnualMeeting,Dallas,1985Price,J.,"SomeAge-RelatedEffectsofthe1974BrisbaneFloods,"AustralianandNewZealandJournalofPsychiatry12:1,55-58,1978Richard, W,C" "CrisisInterventionServicesFollowingNaturalDisaster:ThePennsylvaniaRecoveryProject,"JournalofCommunityPsychology2:3,211-218,1974Robins,L.N.;Helger,J.E.;Croughan,J.;Ratcliff,K.S.,"NationalInstituteofMentalHealthDiagnosticValidityandGeneralPsychiatry,"1981,38:381-389.

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-22Zilberg,N.J.;Weiss,D.S.&Horowitz,M.J.,"ImpactofEventScale:ACross-ValidationStudyandSomeEmpiricalEvidenceSupportingaConceptualModelofStressResponseSyndromes,"JournalofConsultingandClinicalPsychology,50:3,407-414,1982


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Phasellus ornare in augue eu imperdiet. Donec malesuada sapien ante, at vehicula orci tempor molestie. Proin vitae urna elit. Pellentesque vitae nisi et diam euismod malesuada aliquet non erat.

WIKIPEDIA

Nunc fringilla dolor ut dictum placerat. Proin ac neque rutrum, consectetur ligula id, laoreet ligula. Nulla lorem massa, consectetur vitae consequat in, lobortis at dolor. Nunc sed leo odio.