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The emotional impact of post-disaster relocation

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Material Information

Title:
The emotional impact of post-disaster relocation
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Physical Description:
9 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Durkin, Michael E
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Earthquakes -- Psychological aspects -- Chile   ( lcsh )
Relocation (Housing) -- Psychological aspects -- Chile   ( lcsh )
Disaster victims -- Mental health -- Chile   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Michael Durkin.
General Note:
"The report is partial and preliminary..."--P. 1.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001983047
oclc - 287162770
usfldc doi - F57-00010
usfldc handle - f57.10
System ID:
SFS0001091:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
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1987.
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HAZARD HOUSECOpy "&";J:""rH. + of1--j);sc,r,,e--I,.....

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NaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenterCampusBox482UniversityofColoradoBoulder,Colorado80309THEEMOTIONALIMPACTOFPOST-DISASTERRELOCATION Durkin1987QuickResponse Research Report#05This publication. is partofthe Natural Hazards &Applications Information Center's ongoing QUick Response Research Report Serieshttp://www.colorado.edu/hazards .InstituteofBehavioralScience#6 (303)492

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Sl.JI4ARYAtf)MAJORFIN) INGSWesurveyed116famIIIesoftheSanta Caro I Ina hous IngprojectInSantiago,ChiIe,approximately8 monthsaftertheMarch3rd,1985ChiIeearthquake.OurgoalsweretoassessthegeneralmentalhealthImpactoftheearthquake;todocumentpost-earthquakerelocationpatterns;andtoexplorethepotentialrelationshipbetweenrelocationandmentalhealth.Thereport,partialandpreliminarybecauseItIs dependentoncollectionofadditionaldata,dealsonlywiththefirstofthesegoals-assessingmentalhealthImpact.Specifically,wewilldiscussthe.preliminaryfindingsforprevalenceofmajordepressionandpost-tramatlcstressdisorderamongresidentsofthishousingproject.Keyfindingsaresummarized below: 1.WefoundthatcrudeprevalenceratesofmajordepressionamongthosesurveyedInChilewere aboutthesameasdepressionratesforresidentsofCoalinga,CaliforniafollowingtheMay1983,earthquake.Bothrateswere 2to4timeshigherthanthoseofthefourEpidemiological Catchment Area(ECA)studysitesIntheUnitedStates.2. Crudepost-earthquakeprevalenceratesofPost-TraumaticStressDisorder(PTSD)wereseventimesashigh asthosefoundInCoalingaandaboutninetimesashighasthelifetimePTSDrateIntheLosAngelesECAstudy.3.AsIntheU.S.,both majordepressIonandPTSDratesexh IbItedsexdifferenceswithdepressionratesalsoshowing agedifferences.However,theydifferedIntherelativeratesfordifferentcategories.WhatIstheEpIdemlologleal CatchmentArea(ECA) StUdy?Since1980,researchersInfourpartsoftheU.S.have conductedlarge-scaleepidemiologicalcommunitystudiesoftheprevalenceofmajor

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depressiveepisodewithoutbereavement usingtheDiagnosticInterviewSchedule(DIS)developed withthesupportoftheNationalInstituteofMentalHealth.TheEpidemiological Catchment Area Study(ECA)has sofarIncludedover15,000Interviews.ItprovidesbackgroundratesagainstwhichtocompareprevalenceratesfoundInCoalinga,andChiIe.SPECIFIC FIN>IN;S OverallPrevalenceRates.Major Depress Ion.ThecrudeperiodprevalenceofmajordepressionInourChiIesample fol lowingtheearthquakewas18.4casesper100population.ThisrateIsslightlyhigherthan boththeratesfoundInourCoalingasample (15.4casesper 100)andthecommunity-widerate(adjustedfordamagelevel)of17.4per100(seeTab Ie1>. TABLE 1RATESOF MAJOR DEPRESSION AID PTSDFORSELECTED STlOYAREAS (RATEPER100)SiteChileCoalinga (sample) Coalinga(adjusted)NewHavenECALosAngelesECASt.LouisECABaltimoreECARateofMajor Depress Ion 18.4 15.417.46.76.4 5.5 3.72RateofPTSD19.32.72.2

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Post-TraumaticStressDisorder.ThecrudeprevalencerateforpostearthquakePTSDIntheChIIesample Is 193 per100. ThisrateIs7.1tImesashIgh asthepost-earthquakePTSDrate(2.7per100)ofourCoallngasample,and8.7tImesthelifetImePTSDprevaI encerateforPTSDInLosAngeIes(2.2per100). Sex SpecIfIcRates:Depress Ion andPTSO.PreviousECAstudIesofmajordepressionhave observedthatmajordepressIonIsmorecommonInwomenthanmenwIththesexratiorangingfrom2.0to3.2(seeTable2).OurCoalIngastudyfound' aratioof2.5(Pvalue=.005).TheChiIestudyfound aratioof4.0. However, boththeChiIeandCoalingarates,InbothcategorIes,arehigherthanthoseofthethreeECAsites. TABLE 2SEX PREDCNAtCE OFDEPRESSION WoPARISON OfCHILE WITHCOALItG\AIDECA SITES (RATESPER100)LocationMale Female SexRatIoChile5.923.84.0Coa I Inga 8.0 21.9 2.7NewHaven4.48.72.0St.Louis2.58.13.2BaltImore2.34.92.1Thesex-specifIcPTSDrateratioforChIIeIsalsosimilartothatoftheLosAngelesECAstudy(seeTable3),buttheChiIeratesaresIxandeighttImeshigherthantheIrLosAngelescounterparts.3

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TABLE3SEX PREDOM I tWCE OFPTSO e
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agecategory. RESEARCH DESIGNDevelopmentofSurvey Instruments.Weused a SpanishversionofthesurveyInstruments developedforourrecentstudyoftheemotional Impactofrelocationfol lowingtheCoalingaearthquakeof1983. These Instruments were designedtoassessspecificcharacteristicsofthephysicalsettingandtodocumenttheprevalenceofmentalhealthsymptoms.DiagnosticlevelsofdestresswereassessedwithpartsoftheNationalInstituteofMentalHealth'sDiagnosticInterviewSchedule (DIS), astructuredInterviewwhich can beadministeredbytrainedlayInterviewersandwhichgeneratesInformationtomakediagnoses accordingtothemostrecentcriteriaoftheAmericanPsychiatricAssociation.Inaddition,weusedanInstrumentforIndicatingposttraumaticstressdisorder(PTSD),recentlydevelopedforNIMHbyDr.LeeRobinsatWashingtonUniversityInSt. LouisandbyDr.RichardHough,formerlyatU.C.L.A.,andpresentlyatSanDiegoStateUniversity.TheuseoftheseInstrumentsenabledustocompareresultsfromChiIe withresultsfromour1983CoalingaInvestigation.SincesomeoftheseInstrumentsarecurrentlybeing usedIntheU.S.aspartofamuftluniversity,nationwide mentalhealthstudy(theEpidemiological Catchment Area Study)of15,000 persons, wecouldcompare ourresultswiththisbaselinedata.TheseInstruments,translatedIntoSpanishforuseInthisstudy,coveredthefol lowingareas:5

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A)Demographicdata.B)PhysicalsettingdataIncluding:I)characteristicsofthedwellingunitatthetimeoftheearthquake,andII)relocationchronology, Includingtypeofrelocationoption,tenure,numberofpeopleInhabitingeachoption,reasonforselection,andmodificationofthephysicalsetting.C)Comparativeevaluationofphysicalaspectsoftheresidenceatthetimeoftheearthquake withthoseofthemajorrelocationoption.D)Post-traumaticstressdisorder(PTSD).AdaptedfromInstruments developedforNIMHbyWashingtonUniversityInStLouisandU.C.L.A.E)Majordepression.AdaptationofsectionsoftheNIMHDiagnosticInterview Schedule (DIS).F)Acute Anxiety.G)Economic,educationalandemploymentdata.H)Actions duringearthquake.SupervisionofInterviewsTheseInterviewswere conductedbystaffandstudentsoftheUniversityofChiIe'sInstituteofHousing,locatedInSantiago.ProfessorEdwinHaramoto,DirectoroftheInstituteofHousing,andProfessorReginaldBuddsuperviseddatacollection. Samp IeSelection.Here,wehadtwoObJectives. wewantedtoselecta sample whichwas oftheentireSanta Carol Ina communityInordertocalculateperiodprevalenceratesofmajordepressionandtoInferrelocatIonpatternsona community-widebasis.Second,wewantedto6

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InvestigatethementalhealthImpactofspecificrelocationoptions.Awarethatearthquakedamagewasapotentialmajor confounder,weInitiallyselected,fromthe342 Santa Carol Inahouseholds,a random sampleof116housingunitsbylevelofdamage(0=nodamage, 1=minor damage, 2=moderate damage, 3=major damage).Webasedthisselectiononbuildingdamage InformationprovidedbytheChiIeMinistryofHousingandUrban Development and confirmedbyarchitectsfromtheInstituteofHousing.Thesamplesizewasstratifiedbydamagelevel,withthesamplesizeproportionaltotherespectivenumberofdamagedhousingunits.Interviewswererestrictedtothoseover18yearsold.Torandomizetheselectionofhousehold members, each householdcontactbegan with asetofscreeningquestionsIncludingaprocedureforselectingonerespondentbasedon"Klsh DataCollection.WebeganInterviewsInChiIeInOctoberof1985. TheInterviewswerecompletedInJanuaryof1986.Inthecourseofdatacolleetlon,Individualsrepresenting116SantaCarol InahouseholdswereInterviewed.Students,speciallytrainedbytheprojectstaff,conductedtheInterviews.AnInterviewersupervisorcoordinatedtheseInterviewers.EachInterviewtookabout45minutestocomplete.Tocontrolquality,Interviewersmetperiodicallywiththesupervisortoreviewprogress,turnIntheircompleted work, andobtainnewassignments.EachofthecompletedInterviewswasthoroughlyeditedbythesupervisor,Includingcheckson7

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completenessofresponses,observanceofcorrectskippatterns,andcorrectchoiceofdesignatedrespondent.ItwastheInterviewer'sresponslblIItytoresolveany problem foundatthisstage.BecauseofourdecisiontousediagnosticInstrumentsandthereforecomplex probingpatterns,a longtrainingperiodwasrequiredforInterviewers. Tomaintainrepresentativeness,wespentaconsiderableamountoftime.locatingthemanyfamllieswhorelocatedaftertheearthquakebothwithinandoutsideofSantiago.Data ReductIon.AfterthecompletedInterviewspassededitingandvalidationprocedures,weremovedIdentifyingInformation(I.e.,thehouseholdscreenerInformation) were removedtomaintainconfidentiality.Interviewerswerepre-coded,and were keypunchedoncardswith 100% verification.Datarunswere conducted with checksforInvalidcodes and checksforlogicalconsistencybetween Items. ProblemsIdentifiedwereresolvedbycheckingtheoriginalsurveyInstrumentbooklets.Data AnalysIs.DataanalysisIsnowbeing conducted employingsimplenon-parametrictechniquesandstandardgenerallinearmodels,Includingmultipleregressionandanalysisofvariance.D.atawaskeypunched fromthepre-codedsurveyprotocoltocards,withdoublepunchingforverification.ArawdataflIewasgenerated,andanalysisofdataIsproceedingusingstandardstatisticalpackages,prlmarlfySASandSPSS.8

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Thefirststageoftheanalysiswastodetermineratesofmajordepressionandposttraumaticstressdisorderandtocompare themonthebasisofdemographicandotherbackgroundcharacteristicsofsampledpersons.UponreceiptofspecificdamagelevelInformation fromChiIe,a secondstageanalysiswiII compareratesofmajordepressionandposttraumaticstressdisorderonthebasisofdamagelevelandmajorrelocationalternatives.9