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Intentionality and action

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Title:
Intentionality and action Mexico City schoolteachers' perceptions and expectations following the 1985 earthquake
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Physical Description:
19, 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Thier, Herbert D
Gratton, Vivian G
Johnson, Fred
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Earthquakes -- Psychological aspects -- Mexico -- Mexico City   ( lcsh )
Teachers -- Attitudes -- Mexico -- Mexico City   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 19).
Statement of Responsibility:
Herbert Thier, Vivian Gratton, Fred Johnson.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001984023
oclc - 297457020
usfldc doi - F57-00012
usfldc handle - f57.12
System ID:
SFS0001093:00001


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HAZARDHOUSECOpy\\ .IfMetciCDs,l.\\e.c."etllJ&,.Jr.J..,rJ.I'8.c-E;,,+J, I fAA/(e,'"::I:o:::I: oc: C/'irT1(""")-<

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NaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenterCampusBox482UniversityofColoradoBoulder,Colorado80309-0482HAZARDHOUSECOpyINTENTIONALITYANDACTION:MEXICOCITYSCHOOLTEACHERS'PERCEPTIONSANDEXPECTATIONSFOLLOWINGTHE1985EARTHQUAKEHerbert Thier Vivian GrattonFredJohnson1986QuickResponseResearch Report#20This publication is partofthe Hazards Research&Applications Information Center's ongoing Quick Response Research Report Series. htlp://ININ'W. colorado. edu/hazardsInstituteofBehavioralScience#6 (303)492-6818

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AIntentionality'andAction:SurveyofMexicoCitySchoolteachers'perceptionsExpectationsFollowingtheseptember1985EarthquakeIntroductionandTheMexicoCityearthquakeofSeptember19,1985causedextensivedevastation,lossoflife,andinjuryinamodernurbancenter.Eventhoughtheareahasasignificantseismichistory,littleornoearthquakeawarenessorpreparednessactivityhadtakenplaceintheschoolsorinthegeneralcommunitybeforetheearthquake.FivemonthsaftertheeventtheCaliforniaEarth-quakeEducationproject(CALEEP)visitedtheareatoinitiateastudyoftheknowledge,attitudesandexpectationsofteachersfollowingthedisaster.Theintentionofthestudywastoiden-tifyteachersperceptionsof:whattheythoughttheyknewbeforetheevent,whattheyhaddonesincetheevent,andtheirperceptionsofwhatneededtobedone,educationally,atthetimeofthesurvey.FundingforthisworkwasprovidedbyanN.S.F.QuickResponseGrantfromtheNaturalHazardsResearchCouncil,universityofColorado,Boulder.Theoriginalplanwastowaituntiltheimmediateemergencywasoverandthentosurveyacross-sectionofteachers.DiscussionswithMexicancolleaguesandtheirexplorationofthepossibilityofsuchastudywiththeMinistryofEducationledtothedecisiontocarryoutthestudyusingprimarilyprivateschoolteachersinMexicoCity.PrivateschoolsreceivesomesupportfromtheMinistryofEducation,andhavetofollowcertainregulations,includingpost-earthquakesafetyinspectionbyMinistryofficials.Theytendtobebetterequippedandusually2

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donotenrollchildrenfromfamiliesattheextremelowerendofthesocio-economicspectrum.TheteachersintheprivateschoolswecollecteddatafromhavesimilarorslightlygreaterprofessionalpreparationthanteachersinthepUblicschools.Participationofschoolswasobtainedbywordofmouthandotherinformalmeans,andsoitisverypossiblethatthegroupsurveyedisnottypicalofallprivateschoolteachersinMexicocity.sincetheschoolsandteachersvolunteeredtoparticipatetheymayasagroupbesomewhatmoreconcernedabouththeissuesandconcernsofthestudy.consideringthelimitedfundingavailable,thedifficultiesinherentinworkinginanothercountryandthevariousproblemscausedbythedisasteritself,theresearchersarepleasedtohavebeenabletocollect284completedsurveysfromteachersin20schools,fourofwhichwerepUblic.SurveyDevelopment:Thesurveywasdesignedtoobtainretrospectiveinformationabout:(1)whattheteachersthoughtbeforetheearthquake(questions1-5),(2)whattheywantedtoknowandwhattheydidaftertheearthquake(questions6-13),and(3)theircurrentthinkingabouttheneedforearthquakeeducationintheirownschools(questions14-17)andinMexicocitygenerally(questions18-19).(SeeappendicesA&BforEnglishandSpanishversionsofthesurvey.)Ineachcategorytherewerequestionsfocusingbothonknowledgeofearthquakecausesandquestionsonpreparationforearthquakes.Responsestothefirst19questionswereona5pointLikertscale,rangingfrom"stronglydisagree"to"stronglyagree."Questionsweredesignedsoastodifferentiatebetween3

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therespondents'intenttoactandtheiractioninlearningmoreaboutearthquakes.Inaddition,theconstructionofthesurveypermitsanalysisofdifferencesinresponserelativetoquestionsfocusingonearthquakecausesascomparedtoearthquakepreparedness.ThesurveywasdesignedbytheprinicipalinvestigatorandtheCALEEPstaffatLawrenceHallofScience.otherstaffmembersatthisinstitutionwithexpertiseinlearningpsychology,surveyconstructionandotherfieldsofferedhelpfulcriticismandsuggestionsforearlydraftsoftheinstrument.When weweresatisfiedthattheinstrumentmetourdesiresandwasnotofaburdensomelength,theentireinstrumentwastranslatedintoSpanishbyabilingualemployeeoftheLawrenceHallofScience.Intheprocessoftranslationquestionsorconcernswerediscussedsothatthetranslationreflectedthesubstanceaswellasthesyntaxoftheoriginal.DuringthefirstvisitofDr.ThiertoMexicocity,inNovember1985,copiesofboththeEnglishandSpanishversionofthesurveyweredistributedtocooperatingschoolleaders.EightschoolstookpartinthisfirstmeetingcoordinatedandhostedbyMs.MarilynShaw,headmistressoftheInstitutoSanAngelInn.Alloftheschoolleadersattendingwerebilingual.Theyagreedto theSpanishandEnglishversionsofthesurveytomakesurethattheSpanishversionreflectedtheintentoftheEnglishversion.When Ms.VivianGrattonvisitedMexicoCityinregardtotheprojectinearlyJanuary1986,shepickedupthecommentsonthesurveyfromMs. ShawandothersatasecondmeetingatSanAngel4

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Inn.ThesuggestedchangesweremadeandthentranslatedbacktoEnglishtomakesurethatmeaningwasnotlost.CarewastakenthatEnglishandSpanishversionswereformattedalikesothatthedataentrypersonwouldnothavetobebilingual.Finally,copiesoftheSpanishversionofthesurveyweresenttoMs. Shawfordistribution,duplication,andthecollection'ofresponses.ProjectRelationshipswithRespondentsEventhoughonlyoneoftheschoolssufferedsignificantdamage(ColegioMadrid),eachteacherwasinvolvedinthedisaster,andwasundergreaterstressbecauseofavarietyoffactorsthatcameaboutbecauseoftheearthquake.Thesefactorsincluded:lossoffamilymembersandfriends,lossordamagetohomeandposessions,participationinrescueandreliefefforts,disruptionofnormalroutine,andexperienceoftheearthquakeitself.Wedidnotwanttoputadditionalpressureonteachersbyaskingthemtotaketimetorespondtooursurveywithoutprovidingsomeaidincopingwiththeadditionalstressgeneratedbytheearthquake.Thereforeasetofactivitiesonearthquakepreparedness,translatedandadaptedfromCALEEPmaterials,wasofferedtoallparticipatingteachers.EachparticipatingteacherandschoolreceivedaguideintroducingCALEEP,theresearchstudyandtheeducationalmaterialsprovided.Theguidealsoincludedreproduciblemastersofstudentworksheetsandinformationfortheteacheronhowtoeffectivelyuseeachofthefiveactivities.InthiswayCALEEPandtheQuickResponseProjectprovidedsomethingvaluabletothoseindividualsand5

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schoolsparticipatinginthesurvey.ParticipatingschoolsandteacherswerealsoinformedthataleadershiptrainingworkshopwouldbeheldonFebruary11attheInstitutoSanAngelInnduringwhichtimeinterestedindividualscouldaskquestions,clarifymisunderstandings,anddiscusstheresearchworkwithDr.Thier.Thiscooperativeapproachcreatedconsiderablegoodwillandcontributedtothesuccessfulrecoveryofthe284surveysfromteacherswhowereunderextrastressaftertheearthquake.outcomesoftheSurveyResultsofthesurveywerefirstanalyzedtodeterminefrequencydistributionbychoices,andmeanscoresforeachofthefirst19questions.Meansweredeterminedbyassigningavalueof(1)to"stronglydisagree"andavalueof(5)to"stronglyagree."Thereforeameanscoreof(3)indicatesaneutralresponsetothequestion.TableOneshowsthemeanscoresforallthequestionsrelatedtoindividualsandtheirintentionsandactionsbeforeandaftertheearthquake.Questionshavebeenseparatedintothreecategories:thoserelatingtocausesofearthquakes,thoserelatingtopreparednessforearthquakes,andthoserelatingtoperceptionofcapabilitytotakeleadershipinanemergency.Thelefthandcolumngivesanidentifyingphraseandtheresultingmeansaregiveninthethreerighthandcolumns.Thequestionnumberisgiveninparenthesisnexttoitsassociatedmean.6

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TABLE ONE:PERSONAL RESPONSE QuestionDescription Causeof EQsPreparednessLeadershipforEQSPotentialPerceptionofknowledge3.03(1)2.77(2)beforetheearthquakePreparedtotakecharge2.85(4)beforeDesire tq knowafter4.52(6)4.58(7)theearthquakeInformationavailable3.24(12)2.96(11)aftertheearthquakeEffort.to inform self3.91(9)3.08(10)"aftertheearthquakeEfforttoprepareself3.08 (10)as leaderaftereqAdequacy of current3.48(12)3.14(13)knowledgeabouteqsInmy school eqinfor-4.38(14)4.61(15)mationshouldbetaughtTableTwoshowsthemeanofindividuals'responsestothequestionsrelatedtothecapacitiesandneedsoftheirschool,andforMexicoCityschoolsgenerally,beforeandaftertheearthquake.TheorganizationisessentiallythesameasTableOnewiththeheadingsforthethreerighthandcolumnschangedtoreflectplanning,response,andneedforeducationbytheschools.7

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TABLE SCHOOL RESPONSE QuestionDascriptionAdequacyofschool'sabilitybeforeCurrentlyourschoolshouldpracticedrillsShouldinstituteprogramforparentsCurrentlyallMexicocityschoolsshouldhaveprogramsforPlanninq2.37(3) Response 2.50(5)4.59(16)4.62(19)Need torEducation 4.59(16)4.37(17)4.45(18)Thenexttolastquestionaskedteacherstoreportthenumberofquestionstheyreceivedfromstudentsandparentsregardingearthquakes.Ofthe250teachers.whorespondedtothequestionaboutstudents,over 63% reportedreceiving11ormorequestionsfromstudentsduringthefirstweekaftertheearth-quake. Adding teachersreporting6ormorequestionsfromstudentstothistotalincludescloseto80%ofthesamplere-porting.209teachers'reportedthenumberofquestionsreceivedfromparentsduringthefirstweek.Approximately 33% reportedreceivingonlyoneortwoquestionsfromparentswhilealikepercentagereportedreceiving11ormorequestionsfromparents.Closeto 25% reported3to5questionsandabout 10% reported6to10questions.Question21askedtherespondentstoindicatebyapproximategrade lever thenumberofhoursofearthquakeeducationtheywouldrecommendinthreedifferentcategories.forthequestionarepresentedinTableThree.8Themeanresults

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TABLETHREE:MEANDESIREDHOURSOFINSTRUCTIONBYGRADELEVELTopic Grade Level1-3 4-6 7-910-12The causes ofearthquakes5.6 5.64.S5.4 How toprepareforearth-6.56.24.75.2quakesEarthquakedrillsand8.96.95.46.3exercisessignificanceofDataThereareanumberofwaysthedatacollectedforthisstudycouldbeanalyzed.Becausewewishedtocomparetheaverage,ormean,responseoftheitems,thesimplestandmostappropriatestatisticalprocedure,isthettest.Thisprocedureallowsustoinferwhetherthedifferencebetweenthemeanresponseontwoitemsisduetosamplingvariationsorrepresentsarealdiffer-ence.Thettestprovidestwokindsofresults.Oneisa"tratio,"whichtellsusthestatisticalsignificanceofthedifferencebetweenthemeans,thatis,thelikelihoodthatthemeandifferenceisduetosamplingfluctuationorisreal.Theotherisameasureofassociation,"etasquared,"whichtellsustheproportionofthevariationintheresponsesthatisduetothedifferenceinthemeans.Onedrawbacktothettestisitssensitivitytosamplesize.Verysmalldifferencesbetweenmeanscanbestatisticallysignificantifthesamplesizeislarge.Theadvantageofetasquaredcriterionisthatitisnotinfluencedbysamplesizeand,becauseitcanbeexpressedasa9

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percentage,itprovidesausablestandard of "practicalimpor-.tance"thatisreadilyunderstood.Indiscussingtheseresults,theemphasiswillbeonetasquared,theindexofpracticalimportance.Themeaningofetasquaredisillustratedintheresultsforthe11comparisons intentionsandactionsinTableFour.Forexamplethefirstcomparison(items1and12)isstatisticallysignificant(thetratioof4.474exceedstheDunncriticalvalueof3.33for11comparisonsatalpha.01),butthecorrespondingetaof0.03isnegligablysmall.Thisisincontrastwiththeverylargeetaof0.45forthecomparisonofitems2and7whichalsohasacorrespondinglylargertratio.Inadditiontotheetacriterion,aconfidenceintervalforthedifferencebetweenthemeansmayalsobecomputed.theconfidenceintervalisafunctionofthecriticalvalueandthestandarderrorusedincalculatingthetratio.Forthesetof11comparisonsofintentionsandactions,acriticalvalueof0.01wasused.TheDunnprocedureofdistributingtheerrorrateamongthesetofcomparisonswasusedtomaintainthetype1errorrateat.01forall11comparisons.Thisaccorded.Ol/ll=0.0009alphatoeachcomparison,controllingtheoverallerrorrateat.01.AconfidenceintervaliscomputedbyaddingandsUbtractingtheproductofthecriticalvalue(CV)andthestandarderror(SE)fromthedifferencebetweenthemeans,orM2-M1+/(CV)(SE).Forthefirstcomparison,thisformulayieldsaconfidenceintervalofM2Ml+/-(CV) (SE)=0.45+(3.31)(.1000573)10

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=.45+/-.3329=.12to.78.ThisvaluealsoappearsinTableFour.Notethatthelargerthetratioandvalueofeta,thefarthertheconfidenceintervalisfromzero.Confidenceinter-valsthatincludezerorepresentnon-significantcomparisonsandarenotshowninthetable.A 99% confidenceintervalmeansthatof100suchintervals,99ofthemwillincludetheactualmeandifference.Thebestpointestimateforthemeandifferenceis,ofcourse,thesamplemeandifference,e.g.,0.45forthefirstcomparison.Onepossibledrawbacktothesedataistheuneven,nonrandomsamplingofquestionnairesfromthe20schools.Eightoftheschoolsprovidedlargenumbersofquestionnairestothesample(10ormore)while12oftheschoolsprovidedsmallnumbersofquestionnaires(9orfewer).Itisimportanttoknow whether thisunevensamplingbiasedtheresults.Potentialsamplingbiaswastestedforbycomparingthemeanresponsestotheitemsbytwogroupsofschools,thoseprovidinggreaterthan10oftheresponses(exceptColegioMadrid),andthoseprovidinglessthan10responses.Usingtheetacriterionandcontrollingfortheincreasederrorrateresultingfromthelargenumberofcomparisons,noimportantdifferenceswerefound.Eachofthefourschools,withtheexceptionof ColegiQ Madrid,whichcontributedmorethan 10% ofthesamplewasalsocomparedwitheachother,andtothesamplewithoutthem;theonlysignificancewasfoundwithSanAngelInn.SanAngelInn,with29responses(10.2%oftotal)gavesignificantlyhigherchoicesfor(16)"earthquakedrillsshouldbepracticedinourschool"(meansof4.97to4.54),and11

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(18&19)"MexicoCityschoolsshould have anextensiveearthquakeeducationprogram"(4.97to4.39)andan"extensiveearthquakeemergencyresponse.plan"(5.0to4.58).Thesestrongerresponsesmaybeduetothecoincidenceofthesurveywithmeasurestoincreaseschoolsafety,suchastheencasementofelectricalwiring,resultinginincreasedawarenessofexistinghazardsattheschool.AnomolouslylowresponseswerereceivedbySanAngelInnonthenumberofhourstobespentonearthquakecauses,preparednessanddrillsforgrades7-9and10-12(appro 1/4ofthemean)ThiscanbeexplainedbythefactthatSanAngel,Inndoesnothavejuniorhighorhighschoolstudents.Theseresponseshadtheeffectofslightlyloweringthemeanhourssuggestedforuppergradeseducationandpreparation.Onlyoneoftheschoolscontributingdatatothesurveysufferedsignificantdamageduringtheearthquake.Thisschool,ColegioMadrid,contributed43ofthe284responses,orabout15%ofthosereceived,andacomparisonoftheseresponsestotheother241indicatessignificantdifferencesinregardtofourquestionsonthesurvey.ColegioMadridresponsesaresignificantlyhigherforbothquestionsonavailabilityofinformation--(8)causesofearthquakes(4.02to3.09),and(11)howtoprepareforearthquakes(3.93to2.78).ColegioMadridrespondentsalso were moreconfidentthattheirknowledgeofhowtoprepareforearthquakes(13)wasadequate(4.02to2.98),andtheythoughtmorestronglythat(18)allschoolsinMexicoCityshouldhaveanextensiveearthquakeeducationprogram(4.86to4.37).Thisisnotsurprisingconsideringtheextensiveeduca-12

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tioneffortsmadeatcolegio sincetheearthquakebytheschoolsafetycommissionandothers.SeetherelatedreportonCALEEP'sstudyofColegioMadrid'srecoveryformoreinformationonthistopic.(Gratton,etaI,1986)IntentionalityandActionThefirsttwocomparisonsinTableFourlookatindividuals'perceptionoftheadequacyoftheirknowledge,beforeandaftertheearthquake,ofwhatcausesearthquakesandhowtoprepareforthem.Thisisessentiallyameasureofwhatrespondentsthinktheyhavelearnedsincetheearthquake.Thoughthetratioissignificant,thevalueofetaisquitesmall,themeandifferenceisalsoquitesmall,andthelowerboundoftheconfidenceintervalisclosetozero.Thiscontrastswithcomparisons4and5,whichcompareindividuals'perceptionsofthesameissuesbeforetheeventwiththeirdesireforknowledgeaboutearthquakecausationandpreparationaftertheevent.Thisisessentiallyameasureoftheirdesiretolearnsincetheearthquake.Notethattheetasquaredvaluesarequitelarge,.andthelowerboundoftheconfidenceintervalisdistantfromzero.Sinceonehastodosomethingtolearnsomething(items1& 2), thesefourcomparisonsclearlyindicatethedifferencebetweenintentionality(comparison4&5)andaction(comparisons(1& 2) regardingknowledgeofpreparationforearthquakes.Comparisons3and9whichinvestigateindividuals'perceptionoftheircapacitytobea-leaderafterwardscomparedwiththeirperceptionoftheirknowledgeofpreparationorabilitytoactasaleaderbeforehand,aretheonlytwocomparisonswithnon-significanttIS.13

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Furtheranalysisofthedatawascarriedoutusingthesameapproachdescribedearlieroftestingforsignificanceandcomputingeta,the index ofpracticalimportance,todeterminetheproportionofthevarianceassociatedwiththedifferencesbetweenpairsofmeans.ThisprovidedmoreinformationregardingthedifferencesbetweenintentionalityandactiononthepartofthoseleaderswhoexperiencedtheMexicoCityearthquakeofseptember19,1985.Four.ThisinformationissummarizedinTableTABLEFOUR:COMPARISONOFSELECTEDMEANSComparisonH1 H2tat.a. H2-H1 99% C. I1.Adequacy ot knowledge ot 3.033.484.47* 3% 0.450.12-0.7cause ot eq betore/atter (1)(12)2.Adequacy ot preparation2.773.143.70* 2% 0.370.04-0.7 forbetore/atter (2)(13)3.Adequacy toactasa 3.082.16 1% 0.23_leader betore/atter (4)(10)4.Adequacy ot knowledge ot 3.034.5216.5* 33% 1.491.19-1.7cause to(1)(6) atter 5.Adequacy ot knowledge ot 2.774.5821.1* 45% 1.811.52-2.0preparation betore/desire (2)(7)toprepare atter6. Desire atter toknowmore4.523.2414.8* 28% -1.28-1.57-(-./perception otintormation(6) (8)availability7.Desire after toknow how4.58 2.96 18.2* 38% -1.62-1.91-(-1toprepare/perception ot (7)(11) intormation availability8.KnOWledge before/action 3.033.919.25* 13% 0.880.56-1.2 atter (1)(9)9.Knowledge ot preparation2.773.082.98 1.6% 0.31-_ betore/actionatter (2)(10)10.Desiretoknow mGreafter 4.523.918.75* 12% -0.61-0.84-(-0factionsto inform (6)(9)11.Desiretoknow howto4.583.0817.19 34% -1.50-1.79-(-1prepareafter/actionsto(7)(4)*Siqnificantat.01, 14

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AnalysisoftheoutcomesAllthreequestionsregardingtheindividual'sknowledgeaboutorabilitytoactasaleaderatthetimeofanearthquakeprovidedmeanscoresatorsomewhatbelowtheneutrallevel.Themeanperceptionsoftheadequacyofschoolplanninganditscapabilitytorespondbeforetheearthquakewasquitelow(2.32and2.50),indicatingastrong oftheneedforimprovement.Alloftheseretrospectiveopinionsaboutthemselvesandtheirschoolindicatethattheserespondentsthoughtthesituationregardingearthquakeplanning,preparedness,andeducationingeneralwaslessthanideal.Thisretrospectiveevaluationofthepre-eventsituationisreinforcedbythehighdesireofrespondentsafterwards(4.5orgreater)toknowmoreaboutearthquakes.Theyalsoagreestrongly(4.3orgreater)thattheirschoolandotherschoolsinMexicoCityshouldhavemoreextensiveearthquakeeducationprogramsandshouldpracticeearthquakeresponsebehavior.TheresultsclearlyshowtheintentionalityofthisgroupofMexicanteacherstoimprovetheirknowledge,skills,andabilitytorespondduringandafterearthquakes.Goodintentions,however,arenotenough;actionisrequiredtobringaboutrealchange.Unfortunatelythisgroup,despiteitsexperienceoftheearthquake,hasnottakentheactiontocompletelyaccomplishtheirintentions.Thisisveryevidentwhenonecomparestherespondents'ownperceptionsoftheireffortstopreparethemselves(Question9&10)andtheirperceptionsoftheadequacyoftheircurrentknowledge(Questions15

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12 & 13).withtheexceptionofQuestion9oneffortstoinformthemselvesaboutthecausesofearthquakes(3.91)theresponsestoallofthese"action"questionswereunder3.5,approximatelyonefullpointbelowthe"intentionality"means.Apartialexplanationoftheresultsmaybethattheserespondentsperceivedalackofsatisfactionwiththeamountofinformationavailabletothemaftertheearthquake.Themeanswereclosetoneutral(3.24forcausesand2.96forpreparedness)indicatingalackofstrongagreementthatsufficientinformationwasprovided.However,availabilityofinformationiscloselyrelatedtotheeffortonemakestoobtainit,particularlyinmajorurbanareas.Hence,wecanassumethattheintentionality of theserespondentsexceededtheirefforts.Notethatanybiasresultingfromsamplingtechniquewouldbeinoppositiontothisresult.Teacherswhocametomeetingsandparticipatedinthesurveywouldbeexpectedtohavemoreiniativethanthosewhodidnot.ThesefindingsregardingthediscrepancybetweenintentandactionreinforcetheinformationonthesesameissuesobtainedduringtheearlysurveyresearcheffortsrelatedtoCALEEP.Inthisresearch,75%ofover600representativeBayArearesidentsindicatedthattheyexpectedalargeearthquakewouldstrikeintheirlifetime,thattheywouldbeaffectedbyit,andthattheydidnotanticipatereceivingemergencyservicesquickly.Nevertheless,lessthanaquarterofrespondentshaddoneanythingtopreparefortheeventofanearthquake.(ThierandSchnur,1983)Averylargepercentageoftherespondentsindicatedagreementtostrongagreement(meanscoresof4.5orhigher)thatthey16

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wantedtheirschool,and other schoolsinMexicoCity,toteachmoreaboutearthquakes.Thisindicatesastrongdesireforearthquakeeducationintheschoolsonthepartoftheseteachers.Neededisacarefullyplannedandexecutedprogramtoprovidetheseteacherswiththeinformationandmaterialstheyneedtodoaneffectivejobofearthquakeeducation.ColegioMadrid,theoneschoolthatsustainedmajordamage,hassatisfiedthisneedtoagreatextent,asreflectedinthesignificantlyhighermeansinresponsestoquestion8and11.Thishigherlevelofsatisfactionwithavailableinformationisundoubtedlylargelyduetotheworkoftheparent-organizedsafetycommission,whichhasworkedcloselywithschooladminstration'toimproveawarenessandunderstanding.ItisimportanttonotethattheteachersatColegioMadridevaluatedthestepsthattheyhadtakentopreparethemselvestobeleadersatonlyalittleaboveneutral(meanof3.44).Thisissomewhathigherthantheoverallmeanof3.08,butstillconsiderablylowerthantheintentionalitymeasures.Eventhedirectexperienceoftheearthquakeandthedailyreminderthatitprovidesatthisschoolhasnotyetmotivatedleadershiptothedesiredlevel.Perhapstheneutralresponsesontheleadershipquestioncanbeattributedtorespondents'lackofrecognitionoftheirleadershipcapability.Forexample,ateacheratColegioMadridexpressedgreatfearofresponsibilityinherassignedroleofhelpingwithevacuation.However,whenanaftershockstruck,shewasquicktorespondbythoroughlysearchingthebuildingforremainingstudentsandforpossiblesafetyhazards.Nevertheless,one'sperceptionofleadershipcapabilitylargelydeter-17

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minesthepreparationonetakestoassumethatrole,andtheactiononetakestoprepareothers.Thereforeitisessentialthatpreparationintheschoolsdoesnotstopattheprovisionofmaterialsandinformation,butgoesfurtherinprovidingeffectivemethodstoencourageteacherstorecognizetheirresponsibilityandcapabilityinfacilitatingthispreparation.Itisonlyinthiswaythatteachers,andinturntheirstudents,may movefromintentionalitytoaction.Implications tor theunitedstatesManyhavearguedthatthereasonforlackofpreparednessistheinfrequencyofmajorearthquakesinurbanareas.Theresultsobtainedfromthisstudyinamodernurbanareaafteramajorearthquakeclearlyindicatethateventheexperienceoftheearthquakeisnotenoughtogetindividualsandgroupstoact.Thereforeintheearthquake-proneregionsoftheunitedStatesweneedeffectiveearthquakeeducationprogramsandmaterials.Moreimportant,weneedtofocusonthedevelopmentandimplementationofhighlyeffectivemeansofmotivatingteachersandotherschoolleaderstotakeactionregardingearthquakeeducation.Thisisnotasmallchallengesincefurtherresearchisneededonhowyoumotivateindividualsfromintentionalitytoaction.Theonlypossibilityforcarryingoutsuchresearchisthesponsorshipof"actionoriented"earthquakeeducationprogramsintheearthquakeproneregionsoftheunitedstates.18

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BibliographyGratton,VivianG.,HerbertD.Thier,EliaArjonillaandRosaMelgar,"TheRecoveryofSchoolsfromEarthquakeEffects:LessonsfromMexicoCity,"CaliforniaEarthquakeEducationProject,LawrenceHallofScience,UniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley,CA,1983.Thier,HerbertD.,andAlanE.Schnur,"People--CALEEPandEarthquakes,AProjectandStudyinProgress,"CaliforniaEarthquakeEducationproject,LawrenceHallofScience,UniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley,CA,1983.19

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APPENDIX A NAME SCHOOL NAME, _(optional)POSITIONGRADESSERVEONO. OFSTUOENTS ____ YOUR SEX YOUR AGE, ....,...-_ (Optional: resPQnd tothe followinq statementsas follows: SO;Oisaqre.0: NeutralN: AqreeA: Oisaqree-SO(circleone) B.fore the s.ptamb.rth rthquak StronglyStrongly3.2.1.Ithouqhtmyknowledqe of whatcausedearthquake.wasadequate.Ithouqhtmyknowledqe of howtoprepare for earthquake.wasadequatIthouqhtourschoolhadplannedadequately for earthquakes. If the .arthquak.h.ddurinq school hours So0NASASo0NASASo0NASA4.5. I wouldhave been preparedto b. incharg. of thegroup.Ourschool's ability torespondwouldhave been adequate.So0NASASo0NASASO0NA SAAfter the.arthquak 6. Mydesiretoknow moreabout whatcausesearth-SO0NASAquakesisgreater.7.MydesiretoknowmoreabouthowtoprepareforSO0NASAanearthquakeisgreater.8.Ihave been satisfiedwiththeamountofinfor-SO0NA SA mationthathas beenavailable tome about thecausesofearthquakes.9.SincetheearthquakeIhavetakenstepstoSO0NASAinform myselfabout thecausesofearthquakes.10.Sincetheearthquake,Ihavetakenstepstoprepare myself to be aleaderintheeventofanotherearthquake.11.Ihave been satisfiedwiththeamountofinfor-SO0N A'SA mationthathas been tomeabouthowtoprepareforearthquakes. CALEEP _the Eanhq,,"aice Educatlon Prajeet.headquaneredat the Lawrence Hall01Science. Unlvers.:y.;: Calilornia-aerlceley. is lundedthrough a contract with the Calliornla SeIsmICSaletyCommission. Copyright,)1983 byThe Regen:s 01the Umvers,ty01Call1ornia

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currently, I think that12.My knowledgeot whatcause.earthquakesisadequate.13.Myknowledge of howtoprepare for earthquakesisadequate.considering recentevent.and whereIlive,I thinkthatin our.chool14.Information about the causesof earthquakesshould be taught.15.Informationabouthowtoprepare for earthquakesshould be taught. 16. Earthquakedrillsandemergencyevacuationexercisesshould be practiced.17.'Shouldinstituteanearthquakeeducation programfor theparents of ourstudents. Consideringrecenteventsand whereIlive,I thinkthat all schoolsinKazicoCity lS.Shouldhaveanextensiveearthquakeeducation program. 19.Shouldhaveanextensiveearthquakeemergencyresponseprogram.SO0NAS,SO0NAs;SO0NA 54 SO0NA 51 SO0NA51SO0NA51SO0NA 5J SO0NA5120.Duringthe first week after theearthquake,how manyquestionsaboutearthquakesdidyouget(circleone)FromstUdents?Fromparents?1or21or23-53-56-10 6-10liormore11ormore21.Duringtheschoolyear,how manyhoursofinstructionshouldbespentonthe following earthquakerelatedtopics?TopicsApproximateGradeLevelThecausesofearthquakesHowtoprepareforearthquakesEarthquakedrillsandresponseexeereises91-34-67-910-12I

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Actualm.nt.,yo pi.nso qu 12 Hi conocimientosobr.lascausasquaproducenCAATN0.10s terremotos e.adecuado.13.MiconocimientodecomoprepararmeparaunCAAT N0terremotoesadecuado. considerando even to. r.ci.nt.s y el luqar en dond.ViTO,yo piensoque nue.tra e.cuela,14.Debedarintormacionsobrelascausas que CAAT N0producenlosterremotos. 15.Deb.dar intormacion sobrecomopreparseenCAAT N0casode terremoto., 16. Debe llevar a cabodeevacuacionencaso.deCAATN0terremoto.deberiandeser enser.Lado 17. Debe estableceruncursod.educacionsobreCAATN0terremotoaparalospadresdenuestro. tamilia **con8iderando evento. reciente.y el luqar en donde vivo,yopien80que todoa 10.coleqi08enla ciudaddeXesico 18.Oeber!antenerunproqramaextensivedeeducacionsobreterremotos.CAATN019.20.Oeber!antenerunproqramaextensiveCA ATN0da accion deemerqenciaencasodeterremotos. ,cuantaaprequntaalIo]:)reterremoto.reci]:)ioaated durante1a primeralIemana despue. del terremotoOaestudiantes?1 0 23-56-1011o masDepadres?1023-56-1011 o mas21.cuantashoras de deber{an darse sobre re1acionadosCOD terr.-atasdurante e1 ano .scalar?TopicosNivelAproximado Ano Esco1arLasCausasdelosTerremotosComoprepararseparaunterremotoEjerciciosparaprepararseyatrontarterremotos1-34-6Sec.Prep.

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.APPENDIXB Nombre,Nombre delColeqio__(Opcional)TituloNumerodeEstudiantes_Sexo_ Edad(Opcional)___Por favor responda a 10siquienteusando abreviaturas, porejemplo:completamentedeAcuerdo(CA);DeAcuerdo(A); Neutral (T);NodeAcuerdo(N);Totaldesacuerdo(0) Antesdelterramotodeaeptiembre 1'1. Pensaba que estaba bien intormadosobre lacausadelterremoto.CAATN02. Pen.aba quemiconocimientodecomoprepararmeparaunterremotoeraadecuado.CAATN0 CA ATN03.Pensabaquenuestrocoleqio habia hechoplane. adecuados encasodeterremoto.aiel terramotohUbieraocurridodurante 'hora. de coleqio4.Yohubiera estadopreparado para estar acarqo del qrupo.5.Nuestrocoleqio estaba bienpreparadopara afrontar elterremoto. CA ATN0 CA ATN0De.pue. del terremoto6. Hi deseo de conocermasacercadelascausasdelosterremotos ha aumentado.CA ATN07. Hi deseodesabermas comoprepararmeparaunterremotohaaumentado.CAATN08.9.10.CAAT N. 0o ooN N N TTTA ACA CACAAHe conforme con la cantidad deinfor macionsobreterremotosquesemehaproporcionado.,Oesdequeocurrioelterremotohetomadomedidaspara iLformarme sobrelascausasqueproducenlosterremotos.I .Oesdequeocurrioe1terremotohetomadomedidas,paraprepararmeparaser qu!a ene1eventoqueocurraotroterremoto.11. Yo heestadosatisfechoconlacantidaddeinformacionquesemehadadop"araprepararmeencasoqueocurraotroterremoto. CAlLEP -theCalifornia Eal'lhq\lalceEducauonProJect. atthe Lawrence HallofScience.UniverSIty California.Berleeley.il fundedthrol.Ogh.:l contract withthe California Selsnuc: SatelyCommission. Copyright@ 1983by The RegentsoJlthe iJntVecslty 01 Cahlomla


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