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Field report

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Material Information

Title:
Field report investigation of September 2, 1992 Nicaragua tsunami
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Portion of title:
Investigation of September 2, 1992 Nicaragua tsunami
Physical Description:
15 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Spanish
Creator:
Preuss, Jane
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Tsunamis -- Nicaragua   ( lcsh )
Earthquakes -- Nicaragua   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Jane Preuss.
General Note:
Includes appendix with U.S. Geological Survey tsunami questionnaire in English and Spanish.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001985438
oclc - 299096095
usfldc doi - F57-00020
usfldc handle - f57.20
System ID:
SFS0001101:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
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FieldReport:Investiqationofseptember2,1992NicaraguaTsunamiByJanePreuss QUICK RESPONSERESEARCHREPORT#661994This publication is partofthe Natural Hazards Research&Applications Information Center's ongomg Quick Response Research Report Senes. http://wWWcolorado.edu/hazards TheviewsexpressedinthisreportarethoseoftheauthorsandnotnecessarilythoseoftheNaturalHazardsCenterortheUniversityofColorado.

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FIELD REPORT: INVESTIGATION OF SEPTEMBER 2, 1992 NICARAGUA TSUNAMIA RESEARCH FOCUSOnSeptember2,1992,Atsunamiwasgeneratedbya 7.0magnitudeearthquake off the Pacific coast of Nicaragua (see Figure 1).Theresearch focuswasondetermination of societalimpactswith particularinterestonrelationshipsbetweenlanduseanddamagepatterningaswellasintegrativeandsecondary impacts. A related issue tobeinvestigated pertained to theimpactof access/transportation configurationonresponse.METHODOLOGYA coastal region.of approximately200miles along Nicaragua coast suffereddamagingeffects.Duringthe sixdaytrip,itwaspossible tovisit15of the24communitiesin theimpactarea.Ateachlocationdamagewassurveyedandphotographed. Unstructured interviewswereconducted with approximately30survivors. Informationwasrecordedona questionnaire prepared with theUSGS/NationalEarthquake Information Center (seeAppendixA for EnglishandSpanishtranslationof questionnaires). A regional plannerfromtheInstitutoNicaragunsedeEstudios Territoriales(INTETER)accompaniedus.Themulti disciplinaryteamwasajointteamsponsoredbyEERIandindependenttsunamiinvestigators (seeAppendixB for thenamesof theU.S.teammembersandalistof local contacts).

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FIGURE 1NICARAGUA TSUNAMI IMPACT AREAS "N13";12"N 11N ettWyW \. .. :COSTARICA\:.\..11N 10N 83WI4WMW870WMWDWIOOW.,W __ "T'""" __ :-,--...,...---,F eN !SOW EARTHQUAKEDATA:Date of Occurrence:912192Magnitude: 7.0MsLocation:11.6 N 87.4 W

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FINDINGSLANDUSEIMPACTSPrimaryland uses affectedwereresidentialandtourism withoneport (industrial use). Touristcommunitiesare oftwotypes plannedandunplanned.Inthe plannedcommunities,structureshavebeenbuiltin accordance with qualitybasedstandards.Thesestructuresfor themostpart suffereddamage butwerenot destroyed.Thetouristfacilities(restaurants) are beingrebuiltrapidly.Noreconstruction or repairwasobservedonsecondhomes.Themostsevere residentialdamagewasto unplannedcommunitieswherestructureswereprimarilybuiltbythe occupants through theinformalsector.Thesestructureswerefor themostparttotallydestroyed. Arelatedhardshipwasthatmanyhomeswereoccupiedbyfishermenwholosttheirboatsi.e.source of livelihood.ThePacificCoastisa rural area inhabited primarilybyfishermenandfarmers.Approximately1,300 primary housesweredestroyed.Approximately14,500peoplelivingin extended multi generational familiesweredisplaced.AccordingtoINETAR,almost100%of the displacees are in temporary refuge. On-site investigations indicatesomepeople arefilteringbacktotheirhousesifthe wellshavenotbeencontaminated.Becauseof thewarmclimate, theycan"makedo".Refugeeresources, therefore,mostheavilyneededarefoodandwater purification.Thehardest impactedcommunitiesare thosewherethe wellswerecontaminated(bylatrinesand/orsaltwater).Inthesecommunitiesa cholera outbreakhasoccurred.Deathswereoverwhelminglychildrenwhohadbeenput tobedandwerewashedawaywhile sleeping.Theother category offatalitieswasprimarily fishermenwhowerealso asleep (since they put out to seaaround4AM).Nowomenfatalitiesweredocumented.REBUILDINGANDREPAIRTourist/ResortsManyof the restaurantswere"openair".Bythe time of thevisit10daysafterthe event theyhadbeencleanedupandhadreplaced tablesandchairs.Smallbeachside hotelswhichhadbeenfairlywell-maintainedwerebeing repairedi.e.largedoorsandwindowsbeing replaced.Noactivity,orsiteclearanceactivitywasoccurringonthe

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moreseverelydamagedstructures.Norebuilding orrepairwasobservedonsecond/vacationhomes.Residential Several different techniqueswereobserved.Inthemostseverelyimpacted(andpoorest)communitiest the Nicaraguangovernmentwasactively involved.Thefollowingwerenoted: SalinasGrandea gatheringwasheldonTuesdaySeptember 1St1992t todistributelots. TransitonewhomesiteswerebeingidentifiedonSaturdaYtSeptember 19t 1992. Familieswhosehomesweredestroyed inPapoyowerebeing relocated to11concrete prefabricatedhomesinElAstillero.SixwereunderconstructiononFridaySeptember 18t 1992.Inaddition t anewlyplotted subdivision for25homestobebuiltin Salinas (withlumberdonatedbyCostaRica)hadbeenlaidout. InCasaresnodecisionshadbeenmadebecause thegovernmentwantednewhousestobebuiltapproximately1kilometer inland.Thefishermenwhowantedtoremainonthe waterinorder tobeneartheirboatswerevery angry.Theywouldalsohavepreferred assistance in replacingtheirboats instead of housing.RESPONSEThereisnocontinuous accessalongthe coast. Rather thereisonemajorhighwaywithroadwaysradiatingfromthe capitalcityineachdistrict. Thust communitieswith similar effectsandgeographic proximity are often several hours separatedintermsof travel time.Inaddition to discontinuous routing t the majority of roads leading to the coastal villagesi.e.the non-tourist centers, areunpaved.Thesix categories of roads in Nicaragua arelistedbelow.SeeFigure 2 for locations.

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FIGURE 2NICARAGUA ROADWAY NETWORK___ALL WEATIlER HARDSURFACEROADS __ ALLWEA TIlER LOSEORLIGlITSURFACEROADS___FAIRORDRYWEA TIlER LOOSESURFACEROADSNICARAGUALAKENICARAGl r!Qil: Communities Indicated Experienced DaID2

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NUMBEROFLANESCLASS.CODEABCDEFTABLE 1ROADTYPEAllweatherhardsurfaceAllweatherhardsurfaceAllweather loose orlightsurface Fair ordryweather loose surface Cart track FootpathTABLE 22 or 31or 211 1N/AROADCLASS.OFACCESSCOMMUNITYLEVELOFDAMAGEAPoneloyaBadDIELasPenitasVeryBadElFSalinasGrandeVeryBadA PuertoSandinoLight BMiramarLight BElVeleroNoneElFElTransitoVeryBadAMontelimarVeryLight AMasachapaBadDPochomi1 Light EPochomilViejoVeryBadCaseraVeryBadFPopayoVeryBadBSanJuandelSurBadTheimpactof the access routeonresponsewasdramatic.Thefirstinvestigators arrivedfromManaguainMaschapa(ClassA)apprOXimately12hoursafterthe event.Thefirstassistance to Transito (ClassE)was36to48hours originatingfromtheHonduranfiredepartmentandtheRedCross.Thehardestimpactedcommunitiesweregenerally locatedonunpavedroadwaysonly accessible during dry weather.Thetsunamioccurred during the rainy season,whichmeantthatclass Dandbelowroadswereimpassible.

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COMITENACIONALDEEMERGENCIAAFECTACIONES"TSUNAMIPACIFICONICARAGUA01SEP9209-Sep...................................... :.:-::.: -:-:-:<-:-:.:-:-:.:.:-:-: -:-:-: -:-:.:-:-:-:-:MUER:blERk:VESA
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APPENDIX A

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...--.' .. U.s. GcolOlicilSllrveyNiLiouJEinhqllakclDformaLioll CenLer TSUNAMIQUESTIONNAmE TheUSGSandNOAAare interestedinunderstandingwaverelated effects of the recent earthquake;whathappened,andwheretheyhappen.Please helpusbyanswering afewquestions:1)Didyouorsomeonewithwhomyouspokenoticeanyunusualwaveactivitynear the dateandtimeof the earthquake? .".....,.... YesNoIfNogoto question13IfYesgoto question 22)IfYes,'aboutwhenwasitnoticed?3)Pleasetelluswhereyouwerewhenthewaveactivitywas 4)Tellusaboutwhatyousaworheardthathappened.5)Inwhatcapacity didyouobserve thewave?__________MyjobWhereIlive Activity: surfing, jogging, walking, fishing, other (Explain)6)Whatdidyousee? ________ Turbulence_______Waterwentout_______Allboatswentdown_______Choppywater_______Watercamefar inland_______Other (Explain)7)Wasthere a direction to thewave/unusualwater behavior?8)Wasthereanydamage?Yes9)IfYes,what kind? ____________No

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10)Abouthowfarfromthe usualhightidewerethe buildings or struc turesthatweredamaged?Atthe shorelineLessthan50ft-----_____Between50and100ftBetween100and200ft___Morethan200ft11)Whatelse didyounotice?__________Sandmovedaround____________Effectsonmarinelife____________Other (Explain)12)Doyouknowofanyinjuries orfatalitiesassociated with the-wave? "=""='____ .yesNoIfyes;howmanyinjuries? Fatalities___Circumstances? _13)Didyoureceive atsunamialert,informationbulletin,watch, or warning?YesNoIfyes, indicate typeandatwhattime(s): Alert-----------Bulletin____________Watch WarningIfyes,howdidyoulearn of thealert,warning,bulletin,orwatch?Ifmorethanone,please indicate order:_______SirenRadioT.V.CivilDefense_____FireDept.Police Other (Explain)Whatwasyour response to thealert,warning,bulletin,orwatch?Ifmorethan one, please indicate order:_______DidnothingEvacuated_______Waitedfor further instructions Other (Explain)Ifweneedto contactyouagain, please giveusyournameandtelephonenumber:Name:Telephone: _

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@.'/. ..--.' .. Ce%lliea/ SurveyNaLionaJEarLhquake IliformaLion CenterTSUNAMI QUESTIONNAillE___________NoEl-ServicioGeologicodelosEstadosUnidos,juntoconotros cient1ficos, estAn interesadosenconocerelefectodeondasdelmar,relacionadoconelreciente terremoto. Que paso, yd6ndepas6?Parfavorayudenosrespondiendo algunas preguntas:1) ,Not6 usted,0alguienconquienustedhab16,algoanormalenlamareacercadelafecha y lahoradelterremoto?SfNo------Sino,pasealapregunta135i sf, pasealapregunta22) lSi surespuestaessi,aproximadamentecuando10noto?4) ,Que es10quevi6 010queoyoquepas6?5) ,En quecapacidadobserv6ustedlamarea?_________MitrabajoDondevivo Actividad: surfing, trotando,caminando,pescando, otracosa{Explique) _6} lQue vi6?______Turbulenc1aAguapicada______Elaguasesali6 __ Elaguaentromuytierraadentro______Todaslas embarcaciones bajaron______Otra cosa(Exp11que)7} ,Cualfue ladirecci6ndela marea/ola inusualenelmar?8} ,Hubodanos?S1 9)Sis 1,lQue tipodedano?_

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10) lComo a que distancia sobreelniveldelamareaaltaestaban losedificios0estructurasquesufrierondanos?____________Alniveldelacosta Menosde15metros____________ Entre15y30metros___________Entre30y60metros___________ Mas de60metros11) lQuemas not6?____________Arenaremovida0depositada Efectosenlavidamarina_______________Otra cosa (Explique)12) l5upo deheridos,0muertes asociadascanlaola?SfNo---------------5i sf,lCuantos heridos?Muertes__Ci rcuns tanc ias_13)Recibi6 ustedunainformativo?Sisf,indiqueelalertadeTsunami(ala grande), par algun mediaSfNo--------tipoyaquehora(s):_________________A1erta_________________Bo1etin_________--Observaci6n_______________Advertencia 5i sf,,Como seenter6delaalerta?5i mas deuna,par favor indiqueelorden. OtroDefensa ---::-:--_____SirenaRadio__ 1.V.CivilBomberosPo1ic fa (Explique) _Porfavor escribasunombreydirecci6n,porsi necesitamos contactarnosnuevamentecanusted.Muchasgracias.Nombre :-:-__Direcci6n: Telefono: _

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APPENDIX B

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THEu.s.TEAMMEMBERSMehmetCelebi(USGS)DavidHarlow(USGS)FrankGonzalez(NOAA) Arturo Alberto (University ofNevada) Jane Preuss(UrbanRegionalResearch) JodyBourgeois(NSF)HarryYeh(University ofWashington)KenjiSatake (University ofMichigan) Costas Synolokis(USC)LOCAL(NICARAGUAN)CONTACTSIng. Claudio Gutierrez Huete, DirectorGeneralInstitutoNicaraguensedeEstudiosTerritoriales(INETER)MinisteriodeConstruccion y Transporte Ing. EmilioSotoCoval,Sub-DirectorGeneralINETERIng.GullermoGuevara(Capitan) Presidente Junta Directiva CentrodeCoordidnacion paralaPrevenciondeDesastres NaturalesenAmericaCentral(CEPREDENAC)andMinistry ofDefenceDepart of CivilDefenceresponsible for preparednessandresponse planning for all hazardsArq.JorgeA.Martinez, Director Division of Physical Planning,INETERResponsible for reconstructionArq.AnaIsaabel Izaguirre Physical plannerworkingonreconstructionandrelocation