An interdisciplinary quick assessment strategy to support decision-making in disaster operations

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An interdisciplinary quick assessment strategy to support decision-making in disaster operations

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Title:
An interdisciplinary quick assessment strategy to support decision-making in disaster operations the Costa Rica Earthquake, April 22, 1991
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Creator:
Comfort, Louise K ( Louise Kloos ), 1935-
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Place of Publication:
Boulder, [Colo.]
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
42 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Earthquakes -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Disaster relief -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Emergency management -- Costa Rica ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 42).
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
Statement of Responsibility:
Louise K. Comfort.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
001985076 ( ALEPH )
32359555 ( OCLC )
F57-00026 ( USFLDC DOI )
f57.26 ( USFLDC Handle )

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AnInterdisciplinary Quick Assessment Strategy to Support Decision-Making in Disaster Operations: The Costa Rica Earthquake, April 22,1991ByLouise K. ComfortQUICK RESPONSE RESEARCH REPORT#711994 ()o-0 -
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AnInterdisciplinary Quick Assessment Strategy to Support Decision-Making in Disaster Operations: The Costa Rica Earthquake, April 22,1991ByLouise K. ComfortQUICK RESPONSE RESEARCH REPORT#711994 (.::)c=U1r-n()ov -
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AD InterdisciplinaryQuick Assessment StrategytoSupport Decision-MAkingin DisasterOperations:TheCosta Rica Barthquake,April22,1991LouiseK.ComfortGraduateSchoolofPublicandInternationalAffairsUniversityofPittsburghSubmittedtotheNaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenter,UniversityofColorado,Boulder,infulfillmentofrequirementsforaQuick ResearchGrant,November9,1994.

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ACJCNOWLEDGBMENTS Iacknowledge,withwarmthanksandappreciation,themany menandwomeninCostaRicawhomIinterviewedforthisstudy.Giventhenormsofprofessionalconfidentiality,Iwillnotnamethem,buttheyincludedstafffromthemajorpublicorganizationsinvolvedinemergencyresponse,academicresearchersandadministrators,andrepresentativesfromprivateandnonprofitvoluntaryorganizations.IalsoacknowledgethetheNaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsCenter,Boulder,COforaQuickResponseGranttosupportthisresearch,especiallyMaryFranMyersoftheCenterforherpatienceandgoodwillinregardtothepreparationofthisreport,andLeslieMohr,attheGraduateSchoolofPublicandInternationalAffairs,UniversityofPittsburgh,forherthoughtfulanddiligentassistancetothisresearch.

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An Interdisciplinary QuickAssessment StrategytoSupportDecision-MakinginDisasterOperationsl The CostaRicaBarthquake,April22,1991LouiseK. Comfort UniversityofPittsburghBfficiencyinDisasterResponseOperationsThisreportpresentsfindingsfromaquickresponsestudytoCostaRicafollowingtheApril22,1991earthquakeintheValledeEstrella,ontheCaribbeanslopeoftheCordilleradeTalaman-ca,closetothesoutheasternborderwithPanama. Theearthquakeregistered7.4ontheRichterscaleofsurfacewavemagnitude,'themostpowerfulearthquakerecordedinthiscenturyofCostaRica'ssignificantseismichistory.Theoverallcostofdamagecausedtoinfrastructure,lossesinexport,commercialwood,commercialsoils,housingandsocialinfrastructurewereesti-matedatUS$965million,closetoUS$1billion(Bermudez,1993:3-5).Thissumrepresentsapproximately 7% ofCostaRica'sGrossNationalProduct,asubstantiallossforanationof2.6millionpeople.Theresearchdesignproposedforthisquickresponsestudyaddressedtheproblemofefficiencyindisasterresponseoperations.Repeatedstudiesofdecision-makingindisasteroperationshaveidentifiedtheproblemofaccurate,timely,informationtosupportdecision-makingasoneoftheprimaryneedsof'Localmagnitude,MI,wasreportedas7.2.ThesecalculationswerereportedbytheSeismologicalDepartment,UniversityofCostaRica. EQE International,Inc.1991.TheApril22,1991ValleddelaEstrellaCostaRica Earthgyake: AQuickLookReport.(May):p.3.1

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disastermanagers.Theproblemiscompoundedincomplexenvironmentswheredecisionprocessesindisasteroperationsnecessarilycrossdisciplinary,organizationalandjurisdictionalboundaries.Theproblemisfurthercompoundedbythenecessitytoupdateandaggregateincominginformationregardingtheimpactofthedisastereventupontheaffectedcommunity,itspopulationandinfrastructurewithexistingknowledgeofthecommunity,inordertoprovidetimely,validinformationtosupportpolicymakingindisasteroperations.Theresearchdesignproposedforthisstudysoughttodevelopaninterdisciplinaryquickassessmentstrategythatwouldassessthecapacityofastrickencommunitytorespondtoadisastereventinfivecriticaldisciplines:publicpolicyandmanagement,medicine,publichealth,engineering,andinformationprocesses.Whileotherdisciplinesarerelevant,thesefivedisciplineswereselectedasessentialtoanydisasterresponse.Timelyassessmentofconditionsinthedisasterenvironmentfromthesefivedisciplinaryperspectivesisessentialtomobilizingefficientresponsetodisaster.Threecomponentswereenvisionedforthequickassessmentstrategy:1)identificationoftheinformationrequirementsforassessingthecapacityoftheaffectedcommunitytorespondtodisasterbothwithinandacrossthefivedisciplines;2)designofaninterdisciplinary,interorganizationalformattoprocesstheincominginformationfromaspecificdisasterandtransmitittoappropriatedisastermanagementpersonnelintheirrespectiveorganizationsandjurisdic2

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tions;and3)designofasetofproceduresforvalidationofincominginformation,aswellascontinuousreviewandintegrationofthisinformationwithexistingknowledgeabouttheaffectedcommunity.Thisresearchdesign,developedtoapplytoagenericproblemindisasterresponse,underwentsomemodificationsinitsimplementationtofittheactualcontextofdisasteroperationsfollowingtheApril22,1991earthquakeinCostaRica.Thisreportpresentsthefindingsfroma 14-day quick.response.tripto-CostaRica,April24,1991-May8,1991.Thereportisorganizedinthreeparts:1)thecontextofthedisasterandidentificationofthemajorfunctionsandorganizationsinvolvedindisasterresponse;2)theinformationprocessesusedindisasteroperationsastheywereobservedthroughorganizationalinteractionsandon-siteinterviews;and3)thevalidationofprofessionalobservationoftheseinformationprocessesthroughcontentanalysisofprofessionalreportsandnewspaperaccountsofdisasterresponseoperations.TheContextofCosta Rican DisasterOperations,April22,1991Byobservablecriteria,inApril,1991,CostaRicahadoneofthemostadvancedemergencyplanningorganizationswithhighpotentialforemergencyresponseinLatinAmerica.TheComisionNacionalEmergencia(CNE)wasoperatingfrommodern,well-designedofficesinSanJose,withaprofessional thatincludedexpertsingeology,engineering,medicine,andcomputerscienceaffiliatedwiththeUniversityofCostaRica,majornational3

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industries,suchastheRefineriaCostarricensedePetroleo(RECOPE),andmajorhospitalsinSanJose.TheNationalEmergencyPlanassignedtheprimaryresponsibilityformanagingandcoordi-natingallactivitiesrelatingtodisastertotheCNE,whichreporteddirectlytothePresidentoftheRepublic.2 TheCNEhadrecentlyinvestedina$2millioncomputerizedemergencyinformationsystem,andwasengagedindevelopingahazardsvulnerabilityanalysisfortheentirecountry.3TheCNEhadestablishedgoodworkingrelationshipswithinterna-tionalagencieslocatedinSanJosethatwerealsoworkingtoimprovedisasterpreparednessandresponse:theUSRegionalOfficeofForeignDisasterAssistance,theRegionalOfficeofthePanAmericanHealthOrganization,andtheRegionalOfficeoftheLeagueofRedCrossSocieties.Ithadorganizedplanningexercisesforitsstaffandaffiliatedinstitutionsatthenationallevel.Inshort,theCNEhadawell-trainedstaffwhowereworkinghardtocarryoutthemissionoftheiragencyastheyunderstoodit.Thestaffhaddevelopedanambitiousagendaforasmallnationthatwasvulnerabletoarangeofserioushazards.2NationalEmergencyPlan.NationalEmergencyCommittee.SanJose,CostaRica,1991:4.1.PortionsoftheplanweretranslatedandmadeavailablebyDr.TeofiloSarkisaspartofhisreporttotheUnitedNationsInterregionalSeminar,Jakarta,Indonesia,December13-18,1993.Dr.SarkisplayedanactiveroleinRedCrossmedicalresponseinLimonduringthedisasteroperations,April22-28,1991.3Thissystem,theEmergencyInformationSystem,waspurchasedwithfundsfromtheInternationalDevelopment AgencyofCanada.Interview,LuisDiegoMorales,DirectorofPlanning,CNE,April26,1991.4

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Ithadprudentlyallocatedscarceresourcesandearlyeffortsinpreparednessandtrainingtotheareaofhighestperceivedriskandheaviestconcentrationofpopulation,theMesetaCentralwhichincludedthecapitolcityofSanJose.WhentheearthquakeoccurredonApril22,1991,theCNEassumeditslegalobligationstocoordinateresponsetothedisaster.Nonetheless,byApril25,1991,thethirddayafterthesevereearthquake,itwasclearthattherehadbeeninadequateinformationgatheredtosupporteffective-responsetothecityofLimon,theisolatedtownsofLimonprovince,andthecantonofTurrialba,areasthatsufferedtheheaviestdamage. 4PresidentRafaelCalderonannouncedthathewasassumingdirectcontrolofdisasteroperationsandplacedtwoofhisCabinetministers,theMinisterofAgriculturayGanaderiaandtheMinisterofViviendayAsentatmientosHumanos,inchargeofdisasteroperationsintheprovinceofLimon. TheCNEwouldplayasupportroletothegovernmentministriesintheconductofdisasterresponseandrecoveryoperations.sThissetofevents,whicheffectivelyreversedtheroleofthe CNE accordingtotheNationalEmergencyPlanandtheexpecta-tionsofitspresidentandexecutivedirector,illustratedvividlythedynamicsinherentintheresearchquestionIhadcometostudy:thedesignofaninterdisciplinaryquickassessment4LaNacion,April25,1991:pp.4A, 6A,SA,11AsPressconferenceconductedbyHumbertoTrejos,M.D.,President,CNE,April25,1991,6:00p.m.,SanJose,CostaRica.5

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strategytosupporteffectiveactionindisasterresponse.OccurringinthefirstdaysofmyobservationofdisasteroperationsinCostaRica,theseeventsinfluencedthesubsequentcourseofmystudy.Clearly,existinginformationprocesseshadfailedtoprovidetheCNEwithtimely,accurateinformationtosupportresponseaction,butwhyandhowhadthisoccurred,andwhatconditionswerespecifictothisearthquakeincontrasttotheproceduresoutlinedintheformalNationalEmergencyPlan?MyownobservationsoftheCNEinoperationandinterviewswiththeexecutivedirector,directorofplanning,directorofoperations,andstaffonsiteledmetorejectthenegativejudgmentoftheCNEofferedbythemediaandothers6andtosearchforotherconditionswhichmayhavecontributedtothismarkedshiftinanevolvingemergencyresponsesystem.Inthisspecificsetofdisasteroperations,theprocessesforgatheringandanalyzinginformationtosupportdecisionmakingatthenationallevelinresponsetolocalneedswerenotfullyinplaceattheCNE.Itsmajorinvestmentinacomputerizedinformationsystemwasrelativelynew,andmostofthedatafortheareaaffectedbytheearthquake--thecityandtownsintheprovinceofLimonandtheValledeEstrella--werenotyetenteredintothecomputerizedknOWledgebaseforthesystem.61respectfullydisagreewithjudgmentsmadebyBenjaminE.Aguirreinhisreport,"SocialAspectsoftheCostaRicaEarthquakeofApril 22, 1991":13.ExaminationofothersourcesandconsiderationofdifferentaspectsoftheproblemofmanagementleadmetodifferentconclusionsregardingtheroleoftheCNEindisasterpreparednessandresponseinCostaRica.6

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TheCNEreliedlargelyonthenationaltelephonesystemforcommunicationwithoutlyingcitiesandtowns,whichwentdownimmediatelyinsomeareasandwasoverloadedinothers.ItsradiosystemdidnothavethecapacitytocommunicateacrossthemountainstotheAtlanticcoastalcityofLimonandthesmallertownsofBataan,Matina,Sixaolaandothersintheaffectedarea,nordidithavethetransportcapabilitytosendhelicoptersimmediatelyonreconnaissanceflightstoassessthedamage.NeitherdidthelocalunitsoftheGuardiaCivil,CostaRica'scivilianresponseorganization,haveadvancedcommunicationscapability.LocalandprovincialcommitteesoftheCNEwerenotyetdevelopedandcouldnotprovidethetwo-wayexchangeofinformationregardingassessmentofdamageandcommunicationofneedsessentialtomobilizenationalresponseactionatthelocallevel.Insum,theCNEhadinadequatemeansfordirectexchangeofinformationbetweenthestrickenareasanditscentralofficeinSanJoseandhadlittlecapacityfororganizinglocalactionintheseoutlyingareas.Ironically,thenewsmediahadbothbetterequipmentandbettermeansoftransportationforinformationsearchanddamageassessmentthanthe CNE, andearlyseizedtheleadinreportingtheconsequencesoftheearthquaketothewiderpopulation.7 However,thesereports,while timely, weremadefromajournal-ist'sperspectiveanddidnotprovidethekindofsystematic,7Interview,reporterforLaNacion,Limon,CostaRica,April27,1991.7

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professional assesgment ofdamagetotheinfrastructureandneedsoftheearthquake-affectedpopulationsessentialforeffectivedisasteroperations.Consequently,withoutadequatetransportationandcommunicationfacilitiestosupportaninitialdamageassessment,theCNE'sinformationsearchregardingtheimpactoftheearthquakeintheseoutlyingcitiesandtownsyieldeddelayed,vague,andincompletereportsthatprovidedlittlebasisforinformedaction.ThePresident'sactionsinassumingleadresponsibilityfordisasterresponseandoperationsreflectedhisabilitytobringwiderresourcestothetaskandtoobtaina moretimely,accurate,anddetailedassessmentofneedsintheprovincialregions.TheresponseandrecoverysystemthatevolvedintheCostaRicandisasteroperationswasclearlynonlinear,8markedbydiscontinuitiesincommunication,coordination,andorganizationincontrasttoitspredesigned,centralized,linearNationalEmergencyPlan.Thatis,theresponsesystemwas"sensitivetotheinitialconditions"(PrigogineandStengers,1984)ofthedisasteraffectedarea--thecityof Limon andthetowns,villages,ports,andbananaplantationsinthearea--and &rhere isasubstantialliteratureonnonlinear,adaptivesystemsthatpresentscogentlytheprimary ofthesesystems.See,forexample,S.A.Kauffman.1991.OriginsofOrder:Self-OrganizationandSelectioninEyolution.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress;L.Comfort.1994.SelfOrganizationinComplexSystems."Journal 21 PublicAdministrationResearch gng Theory,Vol.4,No.3(July):393-410.8

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continuedtoevolveinunpredictableways.However,withinthisnonlinearsystemweresetsofsubsystemsoperatingseparatelywithreasonablestabilityandpurpose.Therewaslittlecoordinationofactionorsharedinformationamongthem,buttheydidrepresentsignificantactionstakenbyseparategroupsinaselforganizingapproachtodisasterresponse.Thenextsectionwillidentifytheemergenceofthemajorsub-systemsandtheircontributionstoaquickassessmentstrategythatinformedactionindisasterresponse.OrganizationalSub-systems and their Information ProcessesWhenPresidentCalderonassumeddirectcontrolofdisasteroperations,theformalorganizationofthe CNE becameaparticipatingmemberofthedisasterresponsesystem,ratherthantheactivecoordinatorandmanagerofthesystem.Workingunderurgentdemandsforaction,separategroupsoforganizationsformedaroundcommontasksandcarriedouttheirfunctions,oftencrossingjurisdictionalboundarieswithingroups,butwithrelativelylittleinteractionamongthegroups. Bach groupinsteadreporteddirectlytothePresident.Atleastsevendistinctsub-setsoforganizationswereidentifiedthatperformedtheirownassessmentofneedsinthedisaster-affectedareas,andorganizedtheiractionsaccordingly.ThesesubsetsincludedorganizationsrepresentingthefivedisciplinesIhadexpectedtostudy:publicpolicyandmanagement,medicalresponse,engineering,publichealth,informationprocesses,aswellastwoadditionalperspectivesthatprovedespeciallyimportantinthisdisaster:transportationandagriculture/commerce/industry.In9

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thisaccount,emergencyresponseistreatedasasub-subsetofpublicpolicyandmanagement,reflectingtheurgentneedforpUblicactionimmediatelyuponimpactoftheearthquake.Eachsetoffunctionswillbedescribedbrieflybelow.Someorganizationsperformedfunctionsinoverlappingsubsets,whichwillbenotedinthisanalysis.EmergencyResponse.Fortunately,inthisdisaster,thelossoflifewasremarkablylow,giventhemagnitudeoftheearthquake.Althoughdifferentfigureswerecitedforthenumberofdeadandthenumberofinjured,themostconsistentfiguresreportedwere47deadand198personsseriouslyinjuredinCostaRica(EQEInternational,Inc.,1991;B.E.Aguirre,1991;A.Laval,1993;T.Sarkis,1993).Theearthquakeoccurredona Monday,April22,1991at3:57p.m.,withthemajorimpactoutsideoftheheavilypopulatedareaoftheMesetaCentral.InLimon, acityofapproximately75,000residentsthatsufferedtheheaviestimpact,buildingswerelargelyoneandtwostorywood-frame,concreteblock,orconcreteframestructures.OnlyonestructureinLimon,thethree-storyInternationalHotel,completelycollapsed,killingonemanwhowastrappedinside.EightotherdeathswerereportedinLimon. MoredeathsoccurredinthesmalltownsofTalamanca(18)andMatina(20),wherethestructureswerenotaswellbuilt.SearchandrescueoperationsinLimonandthesurroundingtownswerelargelycarriedoutatthelocallevel,byfamily,friends,localpoliceandfiredepartmentsinthefirstfewhours10

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aftertheearthquake.TrainedurbansearchandrescueteamsarrivedfromSwitzerlandandGreatBritainwithsearchdogsandspecialequipment,butbythetimetheyarrivedonFriday,April26,1991,therewasnolongerneedfortheirservices.Firesdidbreakout,themostdamagingattheRECOPErefinerynearMoin,butlocal emergency responseorganizationseffectivelybroughtthemundercontrol.Medicalresponse.The moreurgenttaskinemergencyresponsewassetting-upemergencymedicalfacilitiestocarefortheinjured.Limon'sprimaryhospital,Dr.TonyFascioCastroHospital,was damagedintheearthquakeanddeclaredunsafefortreatingpatients.Emergencycarewasestablishedoutsidethehospital,butnosurgeryortreatmentofseriousinjurycouldbeperformed.PatientsrequiringadvancedmedicalcareweretransportedbyairtohospitalsinSanJose.Underthedirectionofa RedCrossphysician,localmedicalpersonnelformedahospitalstationattheairporttoreceiveinjuredpersonstransportedbyhelicopterfromoutlyingtownsandvillages.Patientswerestabilizedatthisairportstation,andthentransportedbyplaneorhelicoptertohospitalsinSanJoseforfurthertreatment.Apharmacywasalsoestablishedattheairporttoprovidereadyaccesstomedicineforinjuredpatientstransportedtotheairportfromoutlyingtowns,.and,inturn,tomakemedicinesavailabletopatientsinoutlyingtownswhichhadbeenisolatedbydamagetotheroadsandbridgesinthearea.11

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Medicalservicesofferedbyvolunteermedicalpersonnelwereorganizedandprovidedtooutlyingcommunitiesviaairtransport,asneedswerereportedfromreconnaissanceflights.Transportation.SinceCostaRicahasnomilitaryforcesofitsownthatcouldprovideheavyequipmentforlogisticalneeds,PresidentCalderonrequestedtransportation-assistancefromnearbynations.Nicaragua,Venezuela,andtheUnitedStatesSouthernCommand,basedinPanama,providedmilitaryhelicopterstoassistwithmedicaltransport,reconnaissanceofdamagedroadsandbridges,andtransportationofneededsupplies,water,andmedicinetoisolatedtownsandvillages.TheUnitedNationsofCentralAmerica(ONUCA)alsoprovidedthreehelicoptersforthetransportationofinjuredpatientsandreliefsupplies.Inadditiontohelicopters,theUSprovideda C-130transportplanetocarryreliefsuppliesandheavyequipmenttoareasofneed.Transportationprovedacrucialelementofbothemergencyresponseandmedicalresponse,andtheairportitselfbecameanimportantlocusofoperationsmanagementandinformationexchangeinthisdisaster.Localorganizationsestablishedanoperationsheadquartersattheairport,withradiocommunications,afaxmachine,andtelephones.ThiscommunicationscapabilityenableddirectcommunicationswithnationalministriesandorganizationslocatedinSanJose,aswellascommunicationsviaradiotothose12

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villagesthatcouldreceiveandsendmessages.Personnelatthisairportheadquartersofficerecordedincomingsuppliesandvoluntaryassistancefromdisasterrelieforganizationspublic,private,andnonprofit--aswellasreportsofneedsfromoutlyingareas.Inaspontaneousefforttomatchtheflowofincomingsuppliestoreportedneedsfromthedisaster-affectedtownsandvillagesinthecoastalregion,thishastilyestablishedoperationsofficeorganizedadefactocommunicationsexchangeandrecord-keepingsystem-thatprovidedanimportantbasisforinformeddecision.ProfessionalguidancefromtheUSOfficeofForeignDisasterAssistance,whichhadestablishedtrustedrelationshipsoflongstandingwiththeCNE,RedCross,PAHO,ONUCA,andtheCostaRicanministries,servedanimportantfunctioninsupportingtheorganizationandoperationofthisoffice.9Accordingly,disasterreliefsupplieswerereceived,stored,anddispensedtooutlyingcommunitiesfromtheairportinanincreasinglyorderedmanner,asdisasteroperationsprogres-sed.Asstatedabove,medicalservicestoisolatedtownsinthedisaster-affectedareawerecoordinatedfromtheairportthroughavailableairtransport.Engineering.Theengineeringsub-setoperatedlargelyindependentlyoftheemergencyresponse,medicalresponse,anddisasterrelieforganizations.Themajordamagefromthisearthquakeaffected9Professionalobservationandinterviewswithoperationsstaff,LimonAirport,April27,1991.13

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thetransportationinfrastructureoftheAtlanticRegion,whichseverelydisabledthedominantagriculturaleconomyandcommerceoftheRegionbypreventingthetransportofagriculturalproductstothePortofLimontobeshippedtointernationalmarkets.Inturn,damagetothelucrativeagriculturalsectorcreatedseveredamagetotheeconomyofthissmallnation.Thisearth-quakeillustratedthedestructivetriggeringeffectofnaturaldisasterupontheinterdependenteconomicandsocialrelation-shipsofthisstilldevelopingnation.Eightbridgesweredestroyedorseverelydamaged,andapproximately225kilometersofroadsweredeeplyfissuredbytheearthquake.10TheserouteswereessentialtotransporttheimportantbananacropacrossthesixriversflowingfromtheCordil-leradeTalarnancatothecoastforshippingtoexternalmarkets.Equallydamaging,thePortofLimon,whichhandlesapproximately80%oftheshippingtoandfromCostaRica,wasdisabledbyanunusualupliftofonemeterinthecoastalfloor.Thistectonicphenomenoncreatedtheappearanceofa"recedingsea,"inwhichthewaterleveldroppedsignificantly,leavingpreviousloadingdocksdryandinaccessibletoincomingships,anddockedships,previouslyfloatinginwater,beachedondryland.Damage wasalsoreportedatthePortofMoin,ontheAtlanticCoast,theprincipalentrypointforpetroleumintothecountry.Giventheprimaryrolesofbananaproductionandexport energyproduc-10Interview,Lt.ColRichardPrice,USACE,SanJose,CostaRica,April28,1991;LaNacion,April27,1991.14

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tionintheeconomyofthecountry,reconstructionandrepairofthedamagedbridgesandthePortsofLimonandMoinassumedaveryhighpriorityinthenationalrecoveryfromdisaster.Thesub-setoforganizationsthatformedtheengineeringgrouptaskedtoaddressthisproblemincludedinternational,national,andlocalorganizations,bothpublicandprivate.Anticipatingheavyexpendituresininfrastructurereconstruction,PresidentCalderonrequested,andreceived,onApril23,1991,a $60millionloanfromtheWorldBankforemergencyroadandbridgerepair.11Hethenrequesteda damageassessmentofthefailedbridgesandanestimateofthecostofreconstruc-tion.TheUSrespondedbysendingateamofprofessionalengi-neersfromtheUSArmyCorpsofEngineers,SouthernCommand,basedinPanamatoconductatechnicalassessmentofthedamagetothebridges.Theassessmentteam,ledbyLt.Col.RichardPrice,USACE,includedotherprofessionalengineersfromtheUSACE,theMinistryofObrasPublicasyTransporte,andaprivateCostaRicanengineeringfirm.ThegroupoverflewalleightbridgesinaUSArmyBlackhawkhelicopteronSaturday,April27,1991.12Inthisdamageassessment,theengineeringteamcheckedthe11SituationReportNo.1,USOfficeofForeignDisasterAssistance,April24,1991:p.2.12Withpermissionfromthecommandingoff'icer,Ihadtheunusualopportunitytojointhisreconnaissanceteamintheiroverflightofthedamagedareasandtoobservethetechnicalteamastheycarriedoutthisassessment.SanJose,CostaRica,April27,1991.15

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designoftheoriginalbridgesagainstthesoilsstructure,theexpectedtrafficload,thetensilestrengthofthesteelusedinthebridges,thesizeanddepthofthepilings,andotherconstructionrequirementsneededforseismicresistance.Thekindsofinformationtheysoughtwerelargelywell-structured,technicalquestionswhichwereneededtodevelopasetofprofessionalrecommendationsforrebuildingthebridges.ThegroupcompletedtheiranalysisofthefailedbridgesandtheirdesignsforreconstructionandpresentedtheirreporttoPresidentCalderoninthefollowingweek.Thepresidentacceptedtheirrecommendations,allocatedresourcesfromtheWorld Bankloan,andtheprogramofbridgereconstructionbeganveryquickly.Inthisinstance,thetypesofinformationneededforactionwerewell-defined,themeansofobtainingitwereavailable,theinformationgatheredwascredibleandacceptedbytherelevantgroups,andactionfollowedwithoutdelay.WhenaskedtosummarizethecriteriausedbytheUSACEinpreparingitsmissionandingatheringdataforitsreport,Lt.Col.PricelistedsixstandardcriteriausedinanyUSmilitarymission:1.Clearstatementofmission2.Specificassignmentofpersonnelwhohavetheskills,knowledge,andcapabilitytodothework3.Detailedplanforlogistics4.Sufficientallocationofresources5.Cleardesignationofadministrativeresponsibilities6.Designated time scheduleforactionTheactualcontentoftheengineeringcriteriaforthetaskissubsumedunderthesecondcriterion:personnelwhohavethe16

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skills,knowledge,andcapabilitytodothework.Theotherfivecriteriaallrelatetomeansneededtocarryoutthetask.Theeffectivenessoftheengineeringmissionandthereadyacceptanceofitsrecommendationsforactionbytheinterestedpartiesindicatesthevalueofthisapproach.Whenanyoneofthesesixcriteriaisnotcarefullymet,Col.Priceobserved,themissionislikelytofalter.Thecriteria,ineffect,assistedtheengineersinorderingandfocusingtheinformationneededforeffectiveactionamongtheparticipatinginternational,national,andprivateorganizationsinvolvedinthebridgereconstructionprocess.Incontrasttotheclearandrapididentification,collec-tion,andanalysisofinformationforbridgereconstruction,quickassessmentofdamageandthedevelopmentofanactionstrategytookadifferentforminreferencetohousing,asecondengineeringfunction.Approximately850-1,000homesweredestroyed,leavinganestimated3,500peoplehomeless.Shelterswereestablishedinparksandotherpublicplaces,butthedominantresponsewastoconsiderhousingamatterforprivateornon-profitaction.Thereappearedtobelittlecoordinationofhousingservices,exceptforthedistributionofsuppliesofplasticandothermaterialsextendedthroughtheRedCrossandothernon-governmentalorganizations.'3Mostpersonswhosuffereddamagedordestroyedhousingdidnothaveinsurance,andstrug-'3SituationReportNo.4,USOfficeofForeignDisasterAssistance,Washington,DC,April30,1991:p.4.17

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gledtocopewiththeirlosseswithhelpfromfamilyandfriends.Thehousingdamage was morediffusethantheinfrastructurelosses,affectingindividualfamilieswhohadnorealmeansofarticulatingtheirneedscollectively,andnostrongleadershipemergedatthelocalleveltopressforassistanceinmeetingtheseneeds.Informationremainedscattered,andpolicymakersmovedtomoreurgent,thatis,moresharplyarticulated,demands.PublicHealth.Thefunctionsofpublichealthinthisdisasterwerecloselyrelatedtothedestructionofhousinganddamagetothelifelinesinfrastructure.Consequently,itwasdifficulttomeettheurgentneedsforcleanwater,protectionfrominfectiousdiseases,andposttraumaticstresscounselingfortheaffectedpopulationwithoutaddressingtheproblemsofsafehousing,reconstructionofdamagedwaterandsewermains,andrestorationofelectricalpower.Inexamininganddevisingworkablecoursesofactionforthisinterdependentsetofproblems,thelocalandprovincialofficesoftheMinistryofPublicHealthplayedamajorrole.TheMinistryofPublicHealthhadthemostextensiveandwell-developedorganizationalstructureofanyofthenationalministriesintheprovinceofLimonandthemunicipalitiesaffectedbytheearthquake.LocalandprovincialPublicHealthofficialshaddevelopedstrongassociationswiththecitizenclienteletheyserved,andrepresentedfamiliar-andrespectedsourcesofassistance,counsel,andorganizationalguidanceinthelocalneighborhoods.LocalPublicHealthofficialsworked18

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withmunicipalpersonneltoorganizethedeliveryofcleanwatertoneighborhoodswithbrokenmains,advisedcitizenstoboilwaterbeforedrinking,identifiedfamilieswithold,sick,orveryyoungpatientswhoneededspecialfood,clothing,ormedicalassistance,andservedasavitallocalreferencecenterforinformation,requestsforassistance,andguidanceinthedistributionofreliefmaterialsandthereconstructionofdamaged homesandtowns.Intheirorganizationalefforts,thelocalandprovincialPublicHealthofficialsweresupportedwithresourcesandreliefpersonnelfromthenationalMinistryandthePanAmericanHealthOrganization.Thelong-standingdevelopmentoflocalandprovincialservicesinpublichealthcareenabledthisministrytoplayasubstantiveroleofguidanceandsupportatthelocallevel.PublicHealthstaff,further,servedanimportantliaisonroleinworkingwithvoluntarynonprofitagenciesthatcontributedgoods,services,andprofessionalskillstotherecoveryprocess.Agriculture/Commerce/Industry.Althoughrelativelysparselypopulated,theAtlanticRegionplaysamajorroleinthenation'seconomy. ThemajorbananaplantationsarelocatedintheareaandshiptheirproducethroughthePortofLimon.Thenation'sonlyoilrefinery,RECOPE,islocatednearthePortofMoin. ThebananaplantationsarelargelyownedbyinternationalcompaniesthatsoughtassistancedirectlyfromtheCostaRicanGovernment.TheyalsoincreasedtheGovernment'snegotiatingpowerwithinternational19

PAGE 24

monetaryorganizationssuchastheWorldBankandInternationalMonetaryFund.Althoughthisgroupofprivatecompaniesrepresentsasmallsub-setoforganizations,theyexercisedagreatdealofinfluencetoobtainpromptactionfromtheCostaRicanGovernmentaswellassubstantialinternationalmonetaryassistanceandvoluntaryaidfortheoftenoverlookedregion.TheseorganizationsincludedtheUnitedFruitCompany,DelMonte Company,ChiquitaBrand,theChiriquiLandCompany,StandardFruitCompany,theBananaDevelopmentCorporationandothers.TheseorganizationsreportedtheirneedsdirectlytotheMinistryofAgricultureandLivestockandthe,MinstryofPublicWorksandTransport.Theseorganizationsillustratetheinterdependenceofeconomicandengineeringfunctionsindisasterresponse.Engagedinagriculture,commerce,andindustry,theseorganizationsweredirectlyaffectedeconomicallybythedamagetotheinfrastructure,andthey,inturn,exertedanactiveinfluencetomobilizetheengineeringresourcesneededtorestoreoperations.InformationProcesses.Asalreadyindicated,existingcommunicationandinformationprocessesdidnotfunctionwelltoservetheCNE'sformalroleofcoordinationofdisasteroperationsfollowingthisdisaster(seeabove,pp.3-S).AlthoughtheCNEremainedactivelyinvolvedindisasterresponseandrecoveryactivities,theinformationprocessesinthisdisasterappearedfragmented and operatedlargelywithinfunctionalgroupsthatreporteddirectlytothePresident.Withineachgroup,substantialexperienceandexper-20

PAGE 25

tisewasmartialedtoaddressspecifictypesofproblemsandtodevisepracticalcoursesofaction.Yet,amongtheseparategroupsthereappearedtobelittleexchangeofinformationorcoordinationofaction.Thislackofoverallcoordinationappearedtoconstraintheeffectiveperformanceofparticipatingorganizationsandtogenerateanunusualdegreeofdistrustandanimosity,especiallyamongorganizationswithinterdependentresponsibilities.Thispervasivedistrustandbarelyconcealedhostilityamongdifferentgroupsparticipatinginthecommontaskofdisasteroperationsinhibitedfrank,candidcommunicationamongthemanddiminishedthewillingnessandcapacityoftheparticipatingorganizationstoexploreandexecutethemostappropriate,feasible,andefficientalternativesforactioninresponseandrecoveryoperations.ContentAnalysisofOrganizationalActioninDisasterResponseOne meansofdocumentingthedifferenceinactualorganizationalresponseindisasteroperationsincomparisontotheformalresponseoutlinedintheNationalEmergencyPlanisthroughacontentanalysisofthenewspaperreportsonthisdisaster.InCostaRica,IobtainedthedailyeditionsfromtwonationalnewspaperspublishedinSanJose,LaNacionand La Republica,fortheperiod,April23,1991 May8,1991.Fromthenewsstoriesreportedforthisperiod,weidentifiedtheorganizationsengagedindisasterresponsebyjurisdiction,sourceof21

PAGE 26

support,andtypeoftransaction.14Wethencountedthenumberofmentionsforeachorganizationforthetotalperiod.Theresultsprovidearoughapproximationofintensityofengagementofpublic,private,andnonprofitorganizationsinthedisasteroperationsprocess,asreportedinthenewspapers.1STable1presentsthepublicorganizationsnamedindisasterresponseoperationsbyjurisdictionandfrequencyofmention.Table 2 presentsthenonprofitorganizationsbythesamemeasures,andTable3presentstheprivateorganizationsbythesemeasures.Theresultsshow aremarkablediscrepancybetweentheformalinterjurisdictionalstructureofnational,provincial,andlocalCommitteesofEmergencyPreparednessdescribedintheNationalEmergencyPlanandactualorganizationalparticipationreportedinthenewsstories.Table1showsthatorganizationalresponsetothedisasterwasoverwhelminglynational,with52nationalorganizationsand 59.1% ofthementions.Internationalresponsewassecond,with26organizationsand 31.8% ofthementions.Further,attentionappearedtofocusonasmallnumberoforgani-zationswithinthesetwocategories.Forexample,fivenationalorganizationsreceivedoverhalf(51.4%)ofthementionsandfourinternationalactorsreceivedoverhalf(50.1%)ofthementions141acknowledge,withthanksandappreciation,theworkofLeslieMohr, whoassistedmewiththiscontentanalysis.1sIncalculatingthenumberofmentions,wefoundthattherewasconsiderableduplicationinthestoriesreportedbyLaNacionandLaRepublica.Toavoiddoublecountinganorganization'sparticipation,wedroppedthestoriesfromLaRepublicainouranalysis.Consequently,thefrequenciesreportedallderivefromnewsstoriesreportedinLaNacion. 22

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TABLE 1PublicOrganizations Engaged In Disaster Response OperationsbyJurisdiction and FrequencyofMentions In Newspaper Reports International N% National N% provincial N% Municipal .lL% UnitedStates2719.3%ComisionNacionalComisionRegionalTonyFacio(Hosp.)6 21.4%Nicaragua19 13.6%deEmergencia5120.6%deEmergencia3 25.0%ComisiondeVenezuela13 9.3%MinisteriodeSalud22 8.9%GuardiadeEmergenciaLocal5 17.9%Mexico117.9%MinisteriodeObrasAsistenciaRural2 16.7%Mixico(Hosp.)2 7.1%Japan8 5.7%PublicasyDireccionRegionalcalderon Guardia Colombia7 5.0%Transportes218.5%deTransito2 16.7%(Hasp.)2 7.1%EIsalvador7 5.0%PoderEjecutivo17 6.9%JuntadeAdm.san Jose(Hasp.)2 7.1%Honduras7 5.0%InstiMoC.R.dePortuariayHeredia(Hosp.)2 7.1%Argentina4 2.9%Acueductosy DesarrolloEcon.NacionaldeNinosEuropeanAlcantarrillados16 6.5%delaVertiente(Hasp.)2 7.1%Community4 2.9%cajaC.R.deSeguroAtlantica2 16.7%EscuelaSocialSanPanama4 2.9%Social114.5%SextoProyeetoJuanXIII1 3.6% N Germany4 2.9%MinisteriodeSectorialdeInstituto deFomento w Spain3 2.1%SeguridadPublica7 2.8%Transportes1 8.3%yAsesoriaGreatBritain3 2.1%ConsejoNacionalMinicipalidaddeMunicipal1 3.6%Canada3 2.1%deProduccion7 2.8%Turrialba1 8.3%centro de SaludChina3 2.1%MinisteriodeComisionIndigenadeSiquirres1 3.6%USSR2 1.4%ComercioExterior6 2.4%deEmergencia1 8.3%Alajuela (Hosp.)1 3.6%DominicanMinisteriodecartago(Hosp.)1 3.6%Republic2 1.4%Agricultura yComisionCantonal Guatemala2 1.4%Ganaderia6 2.4%de EmergenciadeSwitzerland2 1.4%MinisteriodeTurrlalba1 3.50k Holland1 0.7%Educacion6 2.4%ComisiondeBrazil1 0.7%InstlMoC.R.deEmergencia deItaly1 0.7%Eleetricldad5 2.0%Limon1 3.EWo Finland1 0.7%LaAsemblea Denmark1 0.7%Legislativa5 2.0%MinisteriodeCuerpode 4 1.6%SaluddePanama1 0.7%NumberofMentions140 100.0%NumberofMentionscont.NumberofMentions12 100.0%Numberof Mentions28 100.0%NumberofCases26NumberofCasescont.NumberofCases7Number ofCases14

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Table 1Cont.InternationaL N% National N% Provincial N% Municipal N% SistemaNacionaJdeProteccionCivil4 1.6%ComisiondeAsuntosHacendarios4 1.6%GuardiaCivil4 1.6%OrganismodeInvestigacion Judici. 4 1.6%MinisteriodeAgricultura yAgroindustria4 1.6%MinisteriodeEconomica3 1.2010 MinisteriodeViviendayAsentamientosHumanos31.2%Min/steriode '" Hacienda31.2% InstitutoNacionaldeViviendayUrbanismo3 1.20/0 InstiMoC.R.deFerrocarriles2 0.8%MinisteriodeTransportes2 0.8%RadioRPC2 0.8%MinlsterlodeIndustriayComercio1 0.4%Min/steriodeRe/acionesExteriores1 0.4%ComisionNacionaldeVivienda1 0.4%MinisteriodeTourism1 0.4%ComisiondeAsuntosIndigenas1 0.4%

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International N% National N.% provincial N% Municipal N.% InstitutoMixtodeAyudaSocial1 0.4%ServicioNacionaldeErradicaciondelaMalaria10.4%LosServiciosSismologicosde C.f 1 0.4%MinisteriodeRecursosNaturales,Energia.yMinas1 0.4%CamaraNacionaldeAgrlcultura1 0.4%InstitutodecafedeCostaRica10.4%SindicatodeEmpleadosdel N Ministeriode (J'1 Hacienda1 0.4%Ministeriode Energi 1 0.4%SeguridadIndustrial1 0.4%MinisteriodeTrabajo1 0.4%ConsejoNacionaldepequenosyMedianosProducton1 0.4%PresupuestoNacionaldelaRepublica1 0.4%AdministracionPortuaria1 0.4%OficinadelaPrimeraDama1 0.4%CamaraNaclonaldeRadio1 0.4%FederacionC.R.deFutbol1 0.4%CentroNacionaldeControldeEnergla10.4%

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Table 1Cont.DirecciondeAviacionCivil1 0.4%SistemaNacionaldeRadioyTelevision1 0.4%MinisteriodeSeguridadSocial1 0.4%NumberofMentions247 100.0%Number ofCases52SummaryIPublicOrganizationsEngagedinDisasterResponseOperationsN O"l Totalmentions International NationalProvincialMunicipal % TotalCases % 140 31.8%2626.3% 260 59.1% 52 52.5% 12 2.7% 7 7.1% 28 6.4% 14 14.1%TotalMentions.AllJurisdictions440 100.0% 99 100.0%Source:LaNacioo.Aprjl23-May8.1991

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TABLE2Nonprofit Institutions Engaged in Disaster Response OperationsbyJurisdiction and FrequencyofMentions in Newspaper Reports.(ernatjonal N% National M% provincial H% Municipal M%dd Nations1530.0%CostaRicaRed3254.2%LimonFederation3 42.9%St.VincentdePaulganizationofCrossofWorkersClinnie1 16.70/0 AmericanStates6 12.0%NationalYouthComitedeApoyolosGuiasyScouts1 16.7010 DoctorsWithoutMovement4 6.8%allstmo1 14.3% RedCrossofBorders4 8.0%StudentsFederationLigaAgricolaGuapiles1 16.7'%RedCross oftheUniv.ofC.R.3 5.1%IndustrialdelaRedCrossof International2 4.0%CatholicChurch3 5.1%CanadeAlucar1 14.3% Siquirres1 16.70/0 InternationalRescueLionsClubs2 3.4%Cooperguaria1 14.3%RedCross ofCorps2 4.0%Rotary2 3.4%Assoc.deAlajuela1 16.7010 WorldFoodProgram2 4.0%KiwanisClubs1 1,7% DesarrollodeRedCross ofLimon1 16.7%AssociationofMedialunaRoja1 1.70/0 Tayutic1 14.30/0 IsralelWomen2 4.0%Clpeb1 1.7% 1",) PanamericanNationalUnionof ....... DevelopmentFoun-BaptistChurches1 1.70/0 dation1 2.0%TheWorkers'PanamericanHealthAssociation1 1.7%Organization1 2.0%C.R.CooperativeSwissReliefTeam1 2.0%Movement1 1.70/0 InteramericanInst-TheEpiscopalitutefor AgriculturalConference1 1.70/0 Cooperation12.0%OmarDengoAriasFoundation12.0%Foundation1 1.7%AssociacionCasaConsejoPermanenteArgentino-C.R.1 2.0%deExportadores1 1.7%Americares1 2.0%AsociadosdelaSociedadInter-CamaradeamericanadeExportadores1 1.70/0 Radioafieionados1 2.0%AsociaciondeProf-SolidarityAssoc.1 2.0%e88ore5deAsociacionofSegundaEnsenanzE1 1.70/0 ArgentinianWomen1 2.0%

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Table 2Cont.International N% National N% Provincial N%. Municipal N% Conservacion Sindicato de International 1 2.0% Empleados de Agencia Espanola de Mlnisterlo de Cooperacion Hacienda 1 1.7% International 1 2.0% Confederacion Operation USA 1 2.0% Nacional de Red Cross of Trabajadores 1 1.7% Panama 1 2.0% Red Cross of Becas del Toro 1 2.0% Costa Rica-eanada Rural Housing Foundation 1 2.0% Reserva de la BiosferaLaAmistad 1 2.0% Nco Number of Mentions 50 100.0% Number of Mentions 59 100.0% Number of Mentions7100.0% Number of Mentions 6 100.0% Number of Cases 24 Number of Cases 20 Number of Cases 5 NumberofCases 6 Summary, Nonprofit Organizations Total Mentions % Total Cases % International 50 41.0% International 24 43.6% National 59 .4% National 20 36.4% Provincial75.7% Provincial 5 9.1% Municipal 6 4.9% Municipal610.9% Total Mentions, Total Gases, All Jurisdictions 122 100.0% All Jurisdictions 55 100.0% Source: La Naclon. San Jose. April 23 May 8.1991

PAGE 33

TABLE3Municipal N% sanJuan de Dios 2 16.7% (hosp.)sanVicente 1 8.3% Cafe Dorado 1 8.3% Garice y Prica 1 8.30/0 Mercado Burban 1 8.3% Panaderia Musmannl 1 8.3% Funeraria Polini 1 8.3% Almacen Dragon de Oro 1 8.3% Punto Rajo 1 8.3%MasyMenos1 8.3% Pali 1 8.3% Number of Mentions 12 100.0% Number of Cases1162.5% 12.5% 12.5% 12.5%51118 100.0%4Number of Mentions Number of Cases 7.7% 7.7% 7.7%111Number of Mentions 13 100.0% Number of Cases 12 Total Cases % International 18 40.0% National 12 26.7% Provincial 4 8.9% Municipal1124.4% Total Cases, All Jurisdictions 45 100.0% PrivateInsthutlonsEngagedinDisaster Response OperationsbyJurisdictionand FrequencyofMentionsinNewspaper Reports National N% Provincial N% RepUblic Tobacco 2 15.4% Cooperativa Dos DEMASA 1 7.7% Pinos La Nacion 1 7.7% Jugos del Campo Chiriqui LandCo.1 7.7% music groups Arrocera Costa Rica 1 7.7% artists Pastas Roma 1 7.7%3Mof Costa Rica 1 7.7% CoonaprosalR.L.1 7.7% Canal 15 1 7.7% Compania Taca International Airlines Corporacion Superior Tico Times International N% Citibank 5 18.5% Phillip Morris 3 11.1% Scott Paper 2 7.4% American Sanitary Corporation 2 7.4% Banana Development Coporation 2 7.4%Irex1 3.7% Polymer 1 3.7% Sea Land 1 3.7% United Fruit 1 3.7% Borden 1 3.7% Wrangler 1 3.7%DelMonte 1 3.7% N Nestle 3.7% \0 1 Procter&Gamble 1 3.7% Kimberly Clark 1 3.7% CNN 1 3.7% Chiquita Brand 1 3.7% Standard FruitCo.1 3.7% Number of Mentions 27 100.0% Number of Cases 18 Summary, Private Institutions Total Mentions % International 27 45.0% National 13 21.7% Provincial 8 13.3% Municipal 12 20.0% Total Mentions,AllJurisdictions60100.0% Source' La Nacion. San Jose, April 23 May 8.1991

PAGE 34

Rgure 1PublicOrganizations,NumberofMentions300 ...... -----------------------------200 150 100 50 foInternational National "La Nacion," San Jose, April 23 -May8, 199130ProvincialMunicipal

PAGE 35

Figure2NonprofitOrganizations,NumberofMentionsInternational NationalINacion,"SanJose,April23-May8,199131Provincial Municipal

PAGE 36

Rgure3PrivateOrganizations,NumberofMentions30...-------------------------------20 f15 r10-5-oInternational National"LaNadon,"SanJose, April23-May8,199132ProvincialMunicipal

PAGE 37

intheirrespectivegroups.Municipalresponserankedadistantthirdwith28organizationsand 6.4\ ofthementions,andprovincialresponsereceivedtheleastcoveragewith12organizationsnamedand 2.7\ ofthetotalmentions.Thelocalstructuresforemergencyresponsewereclearlyunderdevelopedinthisregion.Table 2 presentssimilardatafornonprofitorganizations.Interestingly,thelargestnumberofnonprofitorganizationsareinternational,at24,receiving 41\ ofthetotalmentions.Nationalnonprofitorganizationswerethesecondlargestgroup,at20,receiving 48.4\ ofthementions.Fiveprovincialnonprofitorganizationswereidentified,with 5.7\ ofthementions,andsixmunicipalnonprofitorganizationswerenamed,receiving 4.9\ ofthetotalmentions.Table3presentsthedataforprivateorganizations.Again,thelargestnumberreportedareinternationalorganizations(18cases; 45\ ofmentions),withnationalorganizationssecond(12cases,with 21.7\ ofmentions.Municipalorganizationswerethird(11cases; 20\ ofthementions)andprovincialorganizationswerelastwith4casesand 13.3\ ofthementions.ThesesamedataarerepresentedvisuallyinFigures1-3,whichshowdramaticallythedifferentratesofparticipationamongthefourjurisdictionallevelsandtheoverwhelmingnumberofactivitiesbynationalandinternationalorganizationsreportedincomparisontoactivitiesbymunicipalandprovincialorganizations.Twootherbreakdownsprovidedinterestingperspectivesontheshapeoftheemergencyresponsesystemasitevolved.Table4 33

PAGE 38

TABLE 4Public Industriesand Financial InstitutionsEngagedInDisasterResponseOperationsbyJurisdictionandFrequencyofMentionsInNewspaperReportsInternational N% National N% Provincial N% Municipal N.% WorldBank15 29.4%BancoNacionaldeInteramericanCostaRica9 29.0%DevelopmentBank13 25.5%BancodeCostaFondodeRica7 22.6%InversionesdeBancoCentrayyVenezuela6 11.8%Hacienda3 9.7%InternationalRefinadoraC.R.deDevelopmentPetroleo2 6.5%Agency6 11.5010 BancoPopular2 6.5%InternationalCorporacionMonetaryFund5 9.8%BananeraNacional26.5%InternationalBankBancoAngloC.R.2 6.5% w ofReconstructionDept.deControl andDevelopment35.90/0FiscaldelUSAID2 3.9%MinisteriodeCentralAmericanGobernacion1 3.2%EconomicIntegra-IndustriaCerveceriationBank1 2.0%Nacional1 3.2%GuardiadeAsistenciaRural1 3.2%SistemaBancarrioNacional1 3.2%NumberofMentions51100.0%31100.0%NumberofCases8

PAGE 39

.........\Alm. Summary,PublicIndustriesandFinancialInstitutionsTotalMentionsInternational NationalProvincialMunicipalTotalMentions,AllJurisdictions %. 5162.2%3137.8%o o82100.0%TotalCasesInternational NationalProvincialMunicipalTotalcases,Alljurisdictions %. 8 40.0%1260.0%oo20 100.0%wc.:n Source:LaNacion,SaoJose,April23 -May 8,1991

PAGE 40

Figure4FinancialInstitutions,NumberofMentions60------------------------------40 f20 r10 -oInternational National "La Nacion," San Jose,April23-May8,199136Provincial Municipal

PAGE 41

TABLES Public Research and Educational Institutions Engaged In Disaster Response OperationsbyJurisdiction and FrequencyofMentions In Newspaper ReportsInternational N% National N% Provincial N% Municipal N% NASA327.3%ObservatorioGimnasioNacional1100.0%UniversldadVulcanologicoyAdventistadeSismologicodeC.R1838.3%centroAmerica218.2%RedSismologicaUniversityofNaclonal1123.4%california 19.1%UniversidaddeC.R.714.9%NationalEarthquakeCentroNacionaldeInformation center Infraestructura(Golden,CO)19.1%Educativa48.5%UniversityofPanama19.1%NacionalUniversity12.1%UniversidadNationalGeographicAutonomadeInstitute12.1% w Mexico19.1%ColegloAgropecuarlc12.1% ......, InstltutodeGeosclNaelonalenciasdelaUniv.Meteorologic dePanama19.1%Institute12.1%USGeologicalUniv.EstatalaService19.1%Distaneia12.1%InstitutoTechnolog-IcaldeC.R.12.1%ServieioMaregraficodeC.R.12.1%Numberof Mentions11100.0%Numberof Mentions47100.0%Numberof Mentions 1 100.0% Number ofCases8NumberofCases11NumberofCases1

PAGE 42

Table 5Cont.Summary, PublicResearchandEducational Institutions Total Mentions % Total Cases International11 18.6% International National4779.7% National Provincial 11.7%Provincial Municipal 00.0%Municipal % 8 40.0% 11 55.0% 15.0%o0.0%Total Mentions,AllJurisdictions59100.0%Total cases,AllJurisdictions20100.0% wco Source:LaNation.SanJose.April23May 8.1991

PAGE 43

Rgure5PublicEducationalOrganizations,NumberofMentionsInternational National Nacion," San Jose,Apri123-May8,199139ProvincialMunicipal

PAGE 44

showsthenumberofpublicindustriesandfinancialinstitutionsinvolvedindisasterresponseandreconstruction,andFigure4 showsthecorrespondingbargraphforthesedata.Thedatashow adominantinternationalresponse,accompaniedbyastrongnationalresponse,withnoorganizationsnarnedattheprovincialandmunicipallevels.Table5showsthepublicresearchandeducationalinstitutionsinvolvedinthisresponse,andFigure5presentstheaccompanyingbargraph.Thedatashowthatthelargestnumberofresearchandeducationalorganizationsinvolvedinstudyingthisdisasterwerenational(11cases, 79.7% ofmentions)withthesecondlargestgroupinternationalorganizations(8cases; 18.6% ofmentions).Onlyoneprovincialeducationalorganizationwas narned,withnomunicipalorganizationsreported.ThesefindingsmustbeinterpretedinthecontextofcontinuingeconomicandsocialdevelopmentforCostaRica(Lavell,1991;MaskreyandLavell,1993).AlthoughthedesignforemergencypreparednessandresponsecoordinatingcommitteesatthemunicipalandprovinciallevelsofjurisdictionexistsformallyintheNationalEmergencyPlan,thesecommitteeswerenotsufficientlydevelopedinpracticetoplayanactiveroleinemergencyresponse.Significantdifferencesinorganizationaldevelopment,training,equipment,andinvestmentofresourcesbetweenthecentralgovernmentinSanJoseandtheprovincialandmunicipalgovernmentsresultedinanunderdevelopedorganizationalstructureintheAtlanticRegionwithlittlecapacitytomitigateorrespondtodisaster(MaskreyandLavell,1993).Localneeds,40

PAGE 45

undertheseconditions,couldonlybemetbynationalandinternationalaction.ConclusionsandRecommendations.ThesefindingsdocumenttheseriouslackoforganizationaldevelopmentandresponsecapacityattheprovincialandmunicipallevelsinLimonProvince. While thesefindingsillustrateadirectrelationshipbetweeninitialconditionsatthelocallevelandvulnerabilitytodisaster,theyalsoindicateproductivedirectionsforemergencymanagement.Thesefindingssuggesttheimportanceoffacilitatinginteractionamongtheorganizationalgroupsthataddressedseparatefunctionsincommonresponsetodisaster.ThereappearstobenolackofprofessionalcapacityinCostaRica,butratheraseriouslackoftrustamongthediversegroupswithresponsibilitiesfordisasterresponseandaperceivedunwillingessonthepartofmanyparticipatingorganizationstoengageinaninterorganizationalapproachtodisasterresponseandrecovery.Stepsthatfacilitateinformationsharingandthatsupportprofessionalstandardsofinterorganizationalcommunicationandcoordinationofactionsarevitaltoincreasetheemergencyresponsecapacityfortheentirecountry.Aninterdisciplinaryquickassessmentstrategy,incorporatedintoemergencyplanningandtrainingprogramsimplementedatlocaljurisdictionallevels,wouldstrengthenthecapacityforcommunityaction continuingeconomicandsocialdevelopment,aswellasincreaseefficiencyinresponsetodisaster.41

PAGE 46

REPBRENCBS Aguirre,B. E.1991."SocialAspectsoftheCostaRicaEarthquakeofApril22,1991."CollegeStation,TX:DepartmentofSociology,Texas A&M University,TechnicalReport.Bermudez,M.Ch.1993."The1991Telire-Limon,CostaRicaEarthquake:ManagementanditsImplications."DepartmentofSociology,UniversidaddeCostaRica,SanJose,CostaRica.EarthquakeEngineeringResearchInstitute.1991."CostaRicaEarthquakeReconnaissanceReport." Earthgyake Spectra.SupplementBtoVolume7,October,1991.EQEInternational.1991.TheApril22.1991ValledelaEstrellaCostaRica Earthgyake: AOuickLookReport.(May).SanFrancisco,California:EQEInternational.LaNacion,SanJose,CostaRica.April23-May8,1991.LaRepublica,SanJose,CostaRica.April23-May8,1991.Lavell,A.1991."PreventionandMitigationofDisastersinCentralAmerica:SocialandPoliticalVUlnerabilitytoDisastersattheLocalLevel."PaperpresentedtotheDevelopingAreasResearchGroup,BritishGeographersandtheRoyalGeographicalSocietyonDisastersVulnerabilityandResponse,London,3-4May1991.Lavell,A.1993."EstudiodeCasodelos deLimon,CostaRicade1991."inA.MaskreyandA.Lavell.1993.ManejodeDesastresy MecanismosdeRespuesta:UnAnalisisComparativodelAltoMayo.Peruy Limon,CostaRica.Manuscriptinpress,Lima,Peru:La Red.Maskrey,A.andA.Lavell.1993.ManejodeDesastresyMecanismosdeRespuesta:UnAnalisisComparativodelAltoMayo.Peruy Limon,CostaRica.Manuscriptinpress,Lima,Peru:LaRed.NationalEmergencyCommittee.1993.NationalEmergencyPlan.TranslationpreparedbytheNationalEmergencyCommitteeattherequestofT.Sarkis.Pretto,E.andD.Angus.1991."CostaRicaEarthquakeStudy:ScoutSurveyReport."Pittsburgh,PA:InternationalResuscitationResearchCenterandDisasterReanimatologyStudyGroup,TechnicalReport.Sarkis,T.1993."LimonEarthquake:April22,1991."PaperpreparedfortheUnitedNationsInterregionalSeminaronDisasterManagement,Jakarta,Indonesia,December13-18,1993.42


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