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Self organization in disaster response and recovery

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Title:
Self organization in disaster response and recovery the Maharashtra, India earthquake of September 30, 1993
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Physical Description:
42 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Comfort, Louise K ( Louise Kloos ), 1935-
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado
Place of Publication:
Boulder
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Latur Earthquake, India, 1993   ( lcsh )
Earthquakes -- India -- Latur   ( lcsh )
Disaster relief -- India -- Latur   ( lcsh )
Emergency management -- India -- Latur   ( lcsh )
Earthquakes -- India -- Maharashtra   ( lcsh )
Disaster relief -- India -- Maharashtra   ( lcsh )
Emergency management -- India -- Maharashtra   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
This earthquake is known by various names. Marathawada is a region and Latur is a district in Maharashtra State. Killari is the nearest town to the epicenter.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 31-35).
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
Statement of Responsibility:
Louise K. Comfort.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Submitted to the Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado at Boulder in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Quick Response Grant, March 23, 1995."

Record Information

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University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001985073
oclc - 32867659
usfldc doi - F57-00041
usfldc handle - f57.41
System ID:
SFS0001122:00001


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This earthquake is known by various names. Marathawada is a region and Latur is a district in Maharashtra State. Killari is the nearest town to the epicenter.
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JJAZARQHOUSE SELFORGANIZATIONINDISASTER RESPONSE AND RECOVERY:TheMaharashtra,IndiaEarthquakeof September 30, 1993 ByLouiseK.ComfortQUICKRESPONSERESEARCHREPORT#741995 :x:>$;c::c:oc:u>rrt 8 -0 -
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SELF ORGANIZATIONINDISASTER RESPONSE AND RECOVERY: The Maharashtra, India EarthquakeofSeptember 30, 1993ByLouiseK.ComfortQUICK RESPONSE RESEARCH REPORT #741995... rt f the Natural Hazards This publicatIon 0Iformation Center's ongomg Research&Applications Report Series. Quick Response Researc http://wV.NI. colorado. edu/hazardsThe views expressed in this report are thoseofthe authors and not necessarily thoseofthe Natural Hazards Centerorthe UniversityofColorado.

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SELF ORGANIZATIOH IN DISASTER RESPONSEANDRECOVERY: The Maharashtra, India Earthquake ofSeptember30,1993LouiseK.ComfortGraduateSchoolofPublicandInternationalAffairsUniversityofPittsburghPittsburgh,PA15260SubmittedtotheNaturalHazardsCenter,UniversityofColoradoatBoulderinpartialfulfillmentoftherequirementsforaQuickResponseGrant,March23,1995.

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SELF ORGANIZATION IN DISASTERRESPONSE AND RECOVERY:The Maharashtra, IndiaEarthquakeof September 30,1993'LouiseK.ComfortUniversityofPittsburghIntroductionThisreportpresentsfindingsfromaQuickResponsestudyofselforganizingprocessesindisasterresponsegeneratedbytheMaharashtra,IndiaEarthquakeofSeptember30,1993.Selforganizingprocessesarespontaneouseffortstobringorderintoachaoticenvironment(Kauffman,1993).Suchprocesseshavebeenobservedrepeatedlyindisasterenvironments,butwehavenotunderstoodthedynamicsoftheseprocessessufficientlytosupportandguidetheminconstructiveways.ObservationoftheseprocessesintheIndiandisastercontextisespeciallyinterestingbecauseIndia,asadevelopingcountry,hasnotmadeanextensiveinvestmentinemergencyplanning,preparedness,ororganizationalstructuretosupportdisasterresponse.Sinceearthquakesoccurwithoutwarningandgenerateunexpectedconsequencesfortheaffectedcommunities,thesystemsoforganizationalresponsethatemergefollowingsuchasudden,destructiveeventarelargelynonlinear.Thatis,theydonotfollowpredictablemodelsandtheirevolvingformisdependentupontheinitialconditionsinwhichtheeventoccurred.Suchnonlinearsystemsarecomplex,dynamic,anddifficulttoassessusingstandardformsofsocialsciencemeasurement.Inordertounderstandthedynamicsofsuchsystemsmoreclearly,thisinquiryexploresa newmethodologyforidentifyingthemajorcharacteristicsofacomplex,disasterresponsesystem,usingtheMaharashtraEarthquakeasacasestudy.ResearchQuestions:Indesigningthisresearch,Iposedthreeprincipalquestions:1.TowhatextentdidselforganizingprocessesevolveinresponsetotheMarathwada,IndiaEarthquake,September30,1993?2.Whatconditionsfacilitatedorhinderedtheevolutionoftheseprocessesundertheurgentconditionsofdisasteroperations?,Iacknowledge,withthanksandappreciation,mycolleague,Dr.SharayuAnantaram,DepartmentofSociology,S.N.D.T.University,Bombay,India,forherassistanceintheconductofthisresearchandparticularlyforherskillsintheMarathiandHindilanguages.1

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3.Whatconsequencesdidself organ1z1ng processeshaveforthetransitionfromresponsetorecoveryamongthecommunitiesoftheaffectedregion?Toanswerthesequestions,Isoughttoaccomplishfourresearchobjectives.Theyare:1.Toidentifythenumberoforganizations,theirstatedgoalsindisasterreponse,thepatternofinteractionsamongthem,andthetypesoftransactionsperformedintheevolvingsystemofdisasterresponseandrecoveryoperationsintheMaharashtraEarthquake2.Toexplore,inparticular,theroleofnonprofitorganizationsinthisdisasterresponsesystem3.Todocumentcriticalstagesforcommunitiesintransitionfromresponsetorecoveryfollowingdisaster4.ToassessthevalidityoftheN-Ksysteminmeasuringtheevolutionofacomplex,dynamicsystemofdisasterresponseandrecoveryMethodologyThisstudyrepresentsthefirstfieldtestofKauffman's(1993:175-209)conceptofanN-Kcomplexsystemtoanactualdisasterenvironment.Itinvestigateswhethertheseconceptswillyieldmoreconsistent,validmeasuresoftheevolvingdisasterresponseandrecoverysystem.ThisstudyidentifiesthefollowingmeasuresfortheorganizationalresponseandrecoverysystemthatevolvedduringandaftertheMaharashtraEarthquake:1)N=numberoforganizationsparticipatingindisasterresponse2) S=sourceofsupportfororganization'sresponseandrecoveryactivities -public,private,nonprofit3) T=typesoftransactions/exchangeamongparticipatingorganizations4) K =estimatednumberofinteractionsamongparticipatingorganizations5) P=sharedgoaloforganizations,or'biasforchoice'inactions6) D=durationofinteractionsamongorganizationsBycarefullyidentifyingthesesixcharacteristicsfororganizationsparticipatingindisasterresponseoperations,itispossibletoconstructaprofileoftheevolvingsystem,notingpointsofentryandexitintodisasteroperationsbyparticipatingorganizationsandrelationshipsofinterdependencyandsupportamongtheset.Thisprofilewillrevealpatternsofcommunicationandcoordinationthatenableorganizationstospanjurisdictions2

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andfunctionatseverallevelsofabstractionandgeographiclocationsimultaneously.Threetypesofdatawerecollectedforthisstudy.First,incollaborationwithDr.Anantaram,Icollecteddocumentarysourcesprovidingbackgroundanalysisandin-depthinquiryregardingmultidisciplinaryaspectsofthedisasterfrombothpublicandindependentprofessionalorganizations.ThesereportsincludeextensiveanalysessuchassurveydonebytheTATAInstituteofSocialSciences,Bombay,thereconnaissancereportsoftheEarthquakeEngineeringResearchInstituteandtheWorldBank,aswellasofficialreportsfromtheofficesoftheDistrictCollectorsinLaturandOsmanabadandthePreliminaryReportoftheStateofMaharashtraondisasteroperations.Second,weconductedasurveyofmanagersand/orpolicymakersoforganizationsthatwereengagedindisasterresponseandrecoveryactivities.Thesurveywasdesignedtoincludearepresentativesampleof48policymakersofpublic,private,andnonprofitorganizations.Sincedisasterresponseoperationswereconductedthroughtheadministrativestructureofgovernmentalorganizations,thesampleincludedpolicymakersatpositionsintheinterdependentlevelsofadministrativeservice:village,taluka,municipal,district,andstate.Atthevillagelevel,villageswereselectedbydegreeofdamage.TheStateGovernmentofMaharashtraestablishedthreecategoriesofdamageforthedistributionofreliefandprioritiesfordisasterassistance.CategoryAincludedvillagesthatsustainedfiveormoredeathsandextensivedamagetomostofthehouses,renderingthemuninhabitable.CategoryBincludedvillagesthatsustained1to5deathsanddamagetoapproximately 50% ofthehouses.CategoryCincludedvillagesthatsufferednodeaths,butheavydamagetolessthan 50% ofthehousing.Eachjurisdictionallevelwascharacterizedbydifferentpatternsofinteractionwithitsconstituents.Theunitofanalysisinthisstudyistheorganization;theunitofobservationistheindividualrespondentwhoplayedarepresentativepolicy-makingrolewithintheorganization.Third, we carriedoutacontentanalysisof14newspapers,6inEnglishand8inMarathi,tocheckandcorroboratefindingsfromthesurvey,aswellastoprovideamoredetailedaccountofthecontextofdisasteroperationsandtheconditionsunderwhichtheparticipatingorganizationsfunctioned.ThesethreetypesofdataprovideadetailedprofileofthedisasterresponsesystemthatevolvedfollowingtheMaharashtraEarthquake.Inimportantrespects,thissystemevolvednotaccordingtoapredesignatedplan,butonthebasisofquickassessmentofneeds,interactivecommunicationwithmultipleparticipants,andwithintheframeworkofanestablishedadministrativestructureandsharedhumanitarianvalues.3

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PresentationofFindingsAt3:56a.m.onSeptember30,1993,amagnitude6.42earthquakestrucktheMarathwadaregionofMaharashtraStateinCentralIndia.TheepicenteroftheearthquakewasnearthevillageofKillariinLaturDistrict,withapopulationof12,264and2,847homes.Fortunately,manypeoplewerestillawakeatthathour,celebratingareligiousholidayfortheHindugod,Shiva.Yet,theearthquakecausedextensivedamageandlossoflife.InKillari,forexample,1,220personswerekilled,1,282injured,andall2,847homesweredestroyed.3OUtof936villagesinLaturDistrict,817weredamaged,aswellas374villagesinadjoiningOsmanabadDistrict.Officialreportslistedatotalof7,582dead,21,849injured,and30,000familiesor175,000peoplerenderedhomelessbytheearthquake.4Table1presentsacomparativeassessmentofdamagefortheLaturandOsmanabadDistricts.Figure1presentsthatdatagraphically.Theinitialsocial,economic,andtechnicalconditionsintheLaturandOsmanabadDistrictspriortotheearthquakeshapedthedynamicsoftheevolvingdisasterresponsesystem.Thetwodistrictsarelocatedinanagriculturalareathatismovinggraduallytowardmoreproductive,marketablecropsandahigherstandardoflivingforitsinhabitants.Yet,mostofthepopulationliveinconditionsofextremepoverty.Approximately 80% ofthepeopleintheareaearntheirlivingthroughagriculture,withmorethan 50% ofthepopulationearninglessthan$250peryear.Theliteracyrateislow,approximately 55% formen; 35% forwomen; 10\ unreported.ThepopulationisprimarilyHindu,withasmallproportionofMuslimsinOsmanabad.Housesareprimarilybuiltofstone,heldtogetherwithmud.Wealthierhomeshavewooden beamsthatcreateastrongerstructureforconnectingtheceilingstothewalls.Roadsareprimitive,withsomeofthevillagesconnectedonlybydirtroadsthatturntoimpassablemudduringtherainyseason.Commerceisbeginningtodevelopinthelargestcity,Latur,andsignsofincreasingliteracyandeconomicdevelopmentarealsoevident,buttheeconomicandsocialneedsoftheareaundernormaltimesaregreat.Tables2and32ThemagnitudeoftheearthquakewasestimatedatMb=6.3andMs=6.4RichterscalebytheUSGeologicalSurvey.TheearthquakewasreportedasM6.5inthepress.IndiaToday,October11,1993:54.3SurveyofPeopleAffectedbytheEarthquakeintheLaturandOsmanabadDistricts(1993):JointActionGroupofInstitutionsforSocialWorkEducation.FinalReport,February1994.TataInstituteofSocialSciences,Bombay,India:142.4APreliminaryReportbytheGovernmentofMaharashtra.Bombay,1993.4

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Table 1A CCKPARATIVE ASSBSSMENTOFDAMAGB BYDISTRICT, MARATHWADAEARTBQUAD, September30,1993LaturOsmanabadTotal Type ofDamageN %' N %'N\' Totalnumberofvillages93657.170442.91640100Numberofvillagesseverelydamaged81768.637431.41191100Numberofhomesseverelydamaged85,00058.660,00041.4145,000100Numberofdead3,72649.13,85650.97,582100Numberofinjured6,28340.49,28359.615,566100Numberofcattledead1,08351.61,01748.42,100100Numberofcattleinjured8,34564.04,69936.013,044100Source:APreliminaryReportoftheSeptember30.1993Earthquake.GovernmentofMaharashtra,Bombay,India,1993.5

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Figure 1Comparative AssessmentofDamageByDistrict: Maharashtra Earthquake, september 30,1993100009000800070006000500040003000200010000 I}:;t:EJg{!.l 0 LaturOsmanabad

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Table2INITIALCONDITIONS: CHARACTERISTICS OPLATURDISTRICTPhysicalandAdministrative:LaturDistrictwasseparatedfromOsmanabadDistrictinAugust,1981.1.TotalareaofDistrict:7,157squarekilometers2.Totalnumberoftalukas(subdistricts):7Latur,Ahmedpur,Chakur,Renapur,Udgir,Nilanga,Ausa3.Totalnumberofvillages:936Social:18.02.558.065.035.0100.020.080.0228,60031,750968,690629,590339,1009441,677,000342,0001,335,000percent1.Totalpopulation:2.Urbanpopulation:3.Ruralpopulation:4.Scheduledcastes*,numberandoftotalpopulation:5.Scheduledtribes*,numberandpercentoftotalpopulation:6.Literacyrate,totalpopulation:7.proportionmaleliterates8.Proportionfemaleliterates9.Sexratio(numberoffemalesper1,000males):Occupational: .11. Agricultural:a.Landholdersb.Landlesslaborersc.Livestock,forestry258,428 256,6725,05739.439.10.82.Non-agriculturala.Trade&commerceb.Othermanufacturingc.Othertrades&services36,20723,14576,7345.53.5 11. 7Totalnumberofworkers:656,243100.0SOURCE:GovernmentofIndia,CensusofIndia,1991.CentreforMonitoringIndianEconomy,1985.*Scheduledcastepeoplearemembersoftheformerly'untouchable'caste,whoarenowregardedasequalmembersoftheIndiansociety,butwhoarestillseriouslydisadvantagedbytheirlowsocioeconomicstatus.Scheduledtribesareindigenouspeopleswhoarealsodisadvantagedbylowsocioeconomicstatus.7

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Table3INITIALCONDITIONS:CHARACTERISTICS OFOSMANABAD DISTRICTPhysicalandAdministrative:1.Totalarea:7,567squarekilometers2.Totalnumberoftalukas(subdistricts):Tuljapur,Kalarnb,Omerga,Bhum,ParandaOsmanabad63.TotalnumberofvillagesSocial:1.Totalpopulation2.Urbanpopulation:3.Ruralpopulation4.Scheduledcaste*population(Numberandpercentoftotal):5.Scheduledtribe*population(Numberandpercentoftotal)6.Literacyrateindistrict7.Percentmaleliteracy8.Percentfemaleliteracy9. Sex ratio(numberoffemalesper1,000males)Occupational:1.Agricultural:a.Landholders/cultivatorsb.Landlesslaborersc.Livestock,forestry2.Non-agricultural:a.Trade&commerceb.Othermanufacturingc.Othertrades&servicesTotalnumberofworkers:7041,275,000193,0001,082,000190,50012,700561,000364,650196,350943214,496217,5276,06918,029 14,02259.282529,425 100.015.085.015.01.044.065.035.0 40.541.11.13.42.611.3100.0SOURCE:GovernmentofIndia,CensusofIndia,1991.CentreforMonitoringIndianEconomy,1985.*Scheduledcastepeoplearemembersoftheformerly'untouchable'caste,whoarenowregardedasequalmembersoftheIndiansociety,butwhoarestillseriouslydisadvantagedbytheirlowsocioeconomicstatus.Scheduledtribesareindigenouspeopleswhoarealsodisadvantagedbylowsocioeconomicstatus.8

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'a11c o 'aC .. :I .. 0).0)i:!! E u.G) .. Q. o 'iU o U)J!! Eoo o 8 o.... o 88.... o 8 o 2o 8 ooS9leJ9l!1S9leJ9111

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Figure3 Comparative Occupational Characteristics, Latur and Osmanabad,5eptember,1993 I250000 200000 150000 10000050000 o+- Latur COsmanabadLandHoldersLandlessLivestock Non-Agricultural

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presentdataonprimarycharacteristicsoftheLaturandOsmanabadDistricts.Figure2 showsthecomparativesocialcharacteristicsofLaturandOsmanabad,andFigure3 showsthecomparativeoccupationalcharacteristics,thatis,themeansbywhichthepopulationearneditsliving,ofthetwodistrictsatthetimeoftheearthquake.Inthiscontextofruralpovertyandneed,asurprisinglyeffectivedisasterresponsesystemevolvedtomeettheneedsofthepopulationoftheareafollowingtheearthquake.UsingthemethodologyoftheN-Ksystem,wesoughttodefinethemajorcharacteristicsofthisdynamicsystem.First,weidentifiedtheorganizationsthatparticipatedindisasterresponseorganizationsthroughareviewofarticlesreportedinEnglish,Hindi,andMarathinewspapers.Whilethislistmaynotbecomprehensive,itrepresentsthemajororganizations,andtypesoforganizations,thatparticipatedindisasteroperations.Table4presentstheidentifieddisasterresponsesystem,N=119organizations,asderivedfromthemediaanalysis.Inthetotalresponsesystem,thecriticalroleofnonprofitorganizationsisshown,representing81,or 68.1% ofallorganizationsidentifiedinnewsreportsasparticipantsinthedisasterresponsesystem.Publicorganizationsrepresented32,or 26.9% oftheorganizationsidentifiedinthecomprehensivedisasterresponsesystem,andprivateorganizationsrepresentedthesmallestgroup,6,or 5% oftheparticipantsinthedisasterresponsesystem.Internationalorganizations{23},bothpublicandnonprofit,make up 19.3% ofthetotalresponsesystem,showinglinksbetweenIndiaandwidersourcesoffundingandsupport.Table5showstheIndiannationalorganizationsbyfundingsource,andTable6presentsthedataforinternationalorganizations.Figure4showsthetotaldisasterresponsesystemgraphicallybytypeoffunding,andFigure5 showsthegraphiccomparisonofnationalandinternationalorganizationsinthedisasterresponsesystembytypeoffunding:public,private,ornonprofit.Table7presentsthecharacteristicsofthesampledrawnforthesurveyofpracticingmanagersand/orpolicymakersengagedindisasterresponseoperations.Thesamplerepresentsthreeimportantcharacteristicsofthedisasterresponsesystem:1)theinterdependentadministrativestructurewhichservedasaframeworkfordisasteroperations;2)policy-makersfromvillagesthatsufferedvaryingdegreesofdamage;and3)thetypesoforganizationsthatengagedindisasterresponseandrecoveryactivities.Forty-eightrespondentsrepresentingforty-threeorganizationsparticipatingindisasterresponseandrecoveryoperationswereinterviewedoveraperiodofsixmonths,December,1993toMay,1994.ThesurveywasprecededandinformedbyobservationsmadebyDr.AnantaraminaninitialexploratorytriptoLaturinNovember,1993.Table8presentsthesamplingdistributionbyorganizationandfundingsource/jurisdiction.11

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Table4TotalDisasterResponseSystemIdentified from Print Media Sources, MarathwadaEarthquake, September30,1993PublicNonprofitPrivatel.Generall.Medecinssans1.CNNHospitalFrontieres2.BBC2.Railway2.UNICEF3.ArtificialHospital3.InternationalLimbs3.AmbajogaiRedCrossManufacturingMedical4.JapaneseRedAssociation,CollegeCrossKanpur4.Britain/UK5.Rotary4.Instituteof5.NetherlandsInternat'lthe6.Pakistan6.FrenchSearchPhysically7.KuwaitandRescueHandicapped,8.AlgeriateamNewDelhi9.Singapore7.OXFAM5.Worth10.China8.InternationalIndustries,1l.U.S.CommitteeofVellore12.GovernmentofRedCross6.traderIndia9.WorldVisionorganizations13.State10.TerredesGovernmentofHommesWestBengal1l.Lutheran14.StateWorldServiceGovernmentof12.CaritasGujarat13.EERI15.State14.NationalGovernmentofGeophysicalRajasthanResearch16.StateInstitute,GovernmentofHyderabadAndraPradesh15.Indian17.BankofIndiaMaterials18.Indian Army, Elliptical60companiesDepartment19.Prime16.AsdaramTrustMinister's17.AWAREReliefFund18.BalajiMandir20.ChiefTrust,Minister's19.BhagwanReliefFund,MahavirMaharashtraViklany2l.Maharashtra20.HandicappedCivilDefenseTrustUnit,Bombay2l.HelpIndia22.Police22.IndianRedDepartment,Cross,KillariNationalHeadquarters12

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Public23.StateTransport,MaharashtraDepartmentofTourism24.MaharashtraHealthDep't25.ForestDepartment26.IrrigationDepartment27.TelephoneDepartment28.ElectricityBoard29.Buildings&CommunicationsDepartment30.NationalCadetCorps,Cadets,38thMaharashtraBattalion31.NationalCadetCorps,Cadets,SangarneshwarCollege32.BankofMaharashtraNonprofit23.IndiraBetiTrust24.InstitutetoHelpPhysicallyHandicapped25.JainSocialGroup26.JanKalyanSarniti(Peoples'WelfareConunittee)27.LaturDistrictTradersAssociation28.LionsClub29.MadhavSatheTrust30.MHADA,MaharashtraHousingandDevelopmentAssociation,ResettlementPlan31.MaheshwariBhuvan32.MANAVLOK(MarathwadaNavninnanLokayat33.MangalKaryalaya34.Manaswiniwomen'swingof MANAVLOK 35.MorariBapuTrust36.NationalServiceScheme(NSS)37.RamakrishnaMission38.RashtraSevikaMandaI39.RSDRashtriyaSevaDal,Pune40.RashtriyaSwayamsevakSangh41.RedCross,Kerala42.RedCross,Rajasthan12a

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Nonprofit43.RedCross,AndraPradesh44.RotaryClubofBombay45.RotaryClubofSolapur46.Sadbhavana,Solapur(GoodWill)47.Savali48.SecturamTrust49.SeetaramSevaTrust50.Sevashrana51.StreeAdharKendrafromPune52.SolapurSanjeevaniTrust,Bombay53.SubayataSamiti54.SudhuVasvani55.SwapnaBhuri56. YUVA fromBombay57.BalajiMandir58.KumarMahavidyalaya59.N.S.B.X.60.VishwaHinduParishadBajrangDal61.BaldanTarunMandaI62.Sub-OrdinateEngineersM.S.E.B.63.HomeGuards-64.Girls'BackwardcasteHostel65.CongressParty66.YouthCongress67.BJPBhartiyaJantaParty68.RSSRashtriyaSwayamsevakSangh12b

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Nonprofit69.ShivSenaParty70.SolapurSahakariHospital7l.WadiaHospital72.ESISHospital73.DhanarajgiriHospital74.AshwiniHospital75.ShirgopikarHospital76.ValasankarHospital77.BhavaniHospital78.BhalachandraBloodBank79.VivekanandHospital80.Dr.VaishmpayanMemorialMedicalCollege8l.KarnatakaHealthInstitute12c

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Table 5NationalOrganizations'InvolvedinDisasterR.esponseIdentifiedfrom Print Media, Marathwada Earthquake, September 30,1993Public1.General Hospital 2. Railway Hospital3.Ambajogai Medical College4.GovernmentofIndia5.State GovernmentofWest Bengal6.State GovernmentofGujarat7.State GovernmentofRajasthan 8. State GovernmentofAndraPradesh9.BankofIndia10. IndianArmy,60 companies11.Prime Minister's Relief Fund 12.ChiefMinister's Relief Fund, Maharashtra 13. Maharashtra Civil DefenseUnit,Bombay 14. Police Department, Killari15.State Transport, Maharashtra DepartmentofTourism 16. Maharashtra HealthDep't17. Forest Department 18. IrrigationDepartment19. TelephoneDepartmentNonprofit1.National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad2.Indian Materials EllipticalDepartment 3. Asdaram Trust 4.AWARE5.Balaji Mandir Trust,6.Bhagwan Mahavir Viklany7.Handicapped Trust8.HelpIndia9.IndianRedCross, National Headquarters, New Delhi 10. Indira Beti Trust11.Institute to Help Physically Handicapped 12. Jain Social Group 13. Jan Kalyan Samiti (peoples' Welfare Committee) 14. Latur District Traders Association15.Lions Club 16. Madhav Sathe Trust 17.MHADA,Maharashtra Housing and Development Association, Resettlement Plan 18. Maheshwari Bhuvan13Private1.Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Association, Kanpur2.Instituteofthe Physically Handicapped, New Delhi 3. Worth Industries, Vellore 4. trader organizations

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Public 20. ElectricityBoard21. Buildings&Communications Department 22. National Cadet Coxps, Cadets, 38th Maharashtra Battalion 23. National Cadet Coxps, Cadets, Sangameshwar College 24. BankofMaharashtra Nonprofit 19. MANA VLOK (Marathwada Navninnan Lokayat 20. Mangal Karyalaya 21. Ramakrishna Mission 22. Rashtra Sevika MandaI 23. Manaswini women's wingofMANAVLOK 24. Morari Bapu Trust 25. National Service Scheme (NSS)39. RSD Rashtriya Seva Dal, Pune 26. Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh 27. Red Cross, Kerala 28. Red Cross, Rajasthan 29. Red Cross, Andra Pradesh 30. Rotary ClubofBombay 31. Rotary ClubofSolapur 32. Sadbhavana, Solapur(Good Will)33. Savali 34. Secturam Trust 35. Seetaram Seva Trust 36. Sevashrana 37. Stree Adhar Kendra from Pune 38. Trust, Bombay 39. Subayata Samiti 40. Sudhu 41. Swapna Bhuri 42. YUV A from Bombay 43. Balaji Mandir 44. Kumar Mahavidyalaya 45. N.S.B.X.13a

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Nonprofit46.Vishwa Hindu Parisbad BajrangDal47.BaldanTaruoMandaI48. Sub-Ordinate Engineers M.S.E.B. 49. Home Guards 50. Girls' Backward Caste Hostel 51. Congress Party 52. Youth Congress 53.BJP -Bhartiya Ianta Party 54.RSSRashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh 55. ShivSenaParty 56. Solapur Sahakari Hospital 57. Wadia Hospital 58.ESISHospital 59. Dhanarajgiri Hospital60.Ashwini Hospital 61. Shirgopikar Hospital 62. VaJasankar Hospital 63. Bhavani Hospital64.BhaIachandra Blood Bank 65. Vivekanand Hospital 67.Dr.Vaishmpayan Memorial Medical College 68.KarnatakaHealth Institute13b

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Table 6 International Organizations InvolvedinDisaster ResponseIdentifiedfromPrintMedia,MarathwadaEarthquake,September30, 19931. BritainIUK 2. 3.Pakistan 4. Kuwait5. Algeria6. Singapore 7. China8.U.S. 1.Medecins sans Frontieres2. UNICEF3. Japanese Red Cross 4. International Red Cross 5. Rotary Intemat' I 6. French Search and Rescue team7.OXFAM8. International CommiteeoftheRedCross 9. World Vision10. TerredesHommes11. Lutheran World Service12. Caritas 13. EERIPrivate1.CNN 2.BBC14

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Figure 4Total Disaster Response System Marathwada Earthquake, September 30, 199390I 8070 605040302010oPublic*NationalandInternational Organlzati::ms Nonprofit15Private

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Figure 5InternationalandNationalOrganizations InvolvedinDisasterResponseMarathwad8 Earthquake. september 30. 1 gg3 70i I605040302010o +1-----" Public Nonprofit16Private International National

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Table7 SAMPLECHARACTERISTICS,SURVEY OPORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE, KARATHWADA, INDIA EARTHQUAKE,September 30,1993TypeofOrganization:Respondents JL! Organizations N1: Publicorganizations:Village:Municipal:Taluka(Sub-district):Districtlevel:StateLevel:Nonprofitorganizations:Privateorganizations:Other/Individual:Total:1225.0 2 4.212.148.3510.41939.536.3 48100.012 2 13517 2-l. 4327.94.72.37.011.639.54.7 -.....l 100.0TotalvoluntaryorganizationsidentifiedworkinginLaturandOsmanabadDistricts:76-sample:17,approximately 22%Sex: Men:WomenTotalrespondents: N 38 --.l.Q. 48 78 -n 100LocationofInterview: tL_%_ LaturDistrictOsmanabadDistrictSolapurBombayOtherTotalReligion:1939.61122.9816.7816.7 2 4.248100.0PredominantlyHindu,althoughpopulationintheearthquakeaffectedvillageswas 10.2% MusliminLaturand 8% MusliminOsmanabad.Forty-fiveoutofforty-eight,or 93.7%, personsinterviewedwereHindu.Thelevelsofadministrativejurisdictionrevealtheinterdependentboundariesofthesystem;nonprofitorganizationscrossjurisdic-tionalboundariesandfocusonspecificneedsortasks.17

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Table8SamplingDistributionbyOrganizationandFundingSourceOrganization1.RashtraSevaDal2.Former 3.Savali4.Manavlok5.Individual6.JanKalyan Samm 7.SolapurGeneral 8. N.M. Wadia Charta.ble Hospital9.IndianRedCross10.TarunBharat11.lAS.District Collector (Solapur)12.lAS.District CoIector (Latur)13.VoluntaryOrg. Coordination Comm.14.lAS.District Collector (Osmanabad)15.Person(interview'17)16.DeputySarpanch,Sastur17.VillageCouncil, Kinan 18.School,Koral (il1erview #20)19.VillageLevel W()f1(er 20.Sarpanch,Koral21. Heanh Department,Omerga22.lAS.Municipal Commissioner23.Indian Administrative Service24.TataRelief Corrmittee 25.SubdistrictManager,Tahsildar26.Pardhewadi Vi
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Inconstructingthesample,weoverrepresentedpublicorganizationstoincludethefiveinterdependentlevelsofadministrativeresponsibilityaswellasthethreecategoriesofdamagefromeachoftheheavilyaffecteddistricts,LaturandOsmanabad.Byspecificallyincludingtheseelementsinthedesignofasmallsample,weassureda morerepresentative,andthusmoreindependent,distributionofresponsesthanbyrandomselection.Atthevillagelevel,respondentswereselectedbyfunctionwithinthevillagestructure,representingdifferentunitsofperformanceinvillagegovernance.Sincethestudyfocusedparticularlyontheroleofvoluntaryorganizationsindisasterresponse,weincludedinoursamplerespondentsfromthevarioustypesofvoluntaryorganizations.TheVoluntaryOrganizationsCoordinationCommittee,formedattherequestoftheLaturDistrictCollector,identified76voluntaryorganizationsengagedindisasterresponse,relief,andrecovery-activitiesintheLaturandOsmanabadDistricts.sThesampleincluded17voluntaryorganizations, 22.4% ofthistotal.Nonprofitorganizationscreateanimportantdynamicindisasteroperations,astheycrossjurisdictionalboundariesandfocusonspecificneedsortasks.Theiractions,inturn,generateconstructiveresponsefromthewiderpopulationandindeedfromthedisaster-affectedpeopletheyseektoserve.Thehighproportionofvoluntaryorganizationsengagedinresponsetothisdisasterhadanimportanteffectinstimulatinginnovativemeansofcopinginlocalconditions.Table9presentsthedistributionofgoalsreportedbyrespondentsfortheworkoftheirrespectiveorganizationsindisasterresponseandrecovery.Thelargestproportionofrespondents, 45.8% statedhumanitariangoalsofprotectionoflifeandpropertyastheirprimarybasisforaction.Thesecondhighestproportion, 22.5%, reportedpolitical/administrativegoalsofreturningordertothedamagedcommunities.Health-relatedgoalsrepresentedasmall,butsignificantproportion, 12.5%. Figure6presentsagraphicdistributionofgoalsreportedfordisasterresponse.Thedisasterresponsesystemperformedarangeoftransactionsreportedbyrespondentsfromparticipatingorganizations.Table10presentsthedistributionoftypesoftransactions,ordisasterresponseactivities,performedbyorganizationsreportedbyjurisdictionallevelsandfundingsources.Interestingly,respondentsfrompublicorganizationsatstate,district,municipal,andlocallevelsofjurisdictionreportedthat20 30% ofSComputerizedprint-outofvoluntaryorganizationsengagedindisasterresponseandreliefoperations,providedbyNalinSheth,Chair,VoluntaryOrganizationsCoordinationCommittee.Interview,Latur,India,December23,1993.19

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Table9 Distri:>ution ofGoalsReportedbyOrganizationsParticipatinginDisasterOperations:MarathwadaEarthquake, SepterTber 30,1993 H!A Religious2 4.17PoliticaVAdministrative1122.92Economic2 4.17Humanitarian2245.83Health-Related612.50Social:a)Women'sGroups2 4.17b)CasteGroups1 2.08c)Individuals 2 4.17TotalGoals:48100.0020

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Figure 6Distribution of Goals Reported by Organizations Participating in Disaster Operations: Marathwada Earthquake, september30,199325I I0 CD.2JI8-8-jI8S.2'-m II:II: .s; W i;.11)s"2 E l5ilQ :l: 0 :ei5 a..520151021

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Table10Frequency Distribution of Types of Transactions PerformedinDisaster Response ReportedbyPrimary Funding SourcepybllcNonprofit MIxedOther Total SIat9 DistrictMunlc:lpal SubdistrictLocal Type of TransadionHHHHHH!IIHHHHSearch and Ae6cue 1 4.17 0 0.00 1 5.26 1 16.67 7 12.7322.13 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 4.41 MedIoallHMltlc.. 3 12.eo 2 7.14 2 10.53 0 0.003 5.48 1212.n0 0.00 ;3.68 1 16.67 15210.12 to InjuredExtractionICrernation 0 0.00 2 7.14 2 10.53 1 16.67 2 3.64 6 6.38 0 0.00 1 3.23 0 0.00 14 5.15 of DeedCommunk:atlool 7 29.17 6 21.43 5 26.32 0 0.00 13 23.641111.70 6 66.67 1 3.23 3 50.00 52 19.12 coordinationDamageINeed6 1 4.17 2 7.14 1 5.26 2 33.33 7 12.73 5 5.32 1 11.11 0 0.00 2 33.33217.72 AaseurnentDINs1BrRellet Food,2 8.33 7 25.00 8 42.11 1 16.67 8 14.55 24 25.53 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.005018.38 Wa18r,Shell8r, Clothing, HouseholdGoodsLogIatlcalTninaportatloo 4 16.67517.86 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 5.45 2 2.13 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 14 5.15 8 20.83 4 0 0.00 1 16.67 7 12.732021.28 222.220 0.00 0 0.00 30 14.34 Hot.UlQ,5anItatloo,AgrIcultureEdllca!lonaJ:Ae6t1orilg 1 4.17 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 9.0977.45 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 13 4.78 Sd100IsSocIal:Women, Children,0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 5.32 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 1.84 WidowaTotalTranaactlooa 24 100.00 2S 100.00 19 100.00 6 100.00 56 100.00 94 100.00 9 100.0031100.00 6 100.00 272 100.00 Pero8ntagesarecaJculal8dbycokJmnttaI. 22

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Table11FrequencyDistributionofTypesofTransactionsPerformedinDisasterResponseReportedbyPrimaryFundingSource-PublicNonprgflt PrtvatiMixedOther Total StaIB DistrictMunicipal SubdistrictLocal Type of TransaclIoo1i1iHH}iaH}ia1i}iaH:ta1i:taH:taHsearch and Rescue 1 0.37 0 0.00 1 0.37 1 0.37 72./572 0.74 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00124.41 3 1.10 2 0.74 2 0.74 0 0.00 3 1.10124.410 0.002910.66 1 0.37 52 19.12 lDInjuredExtractionICr9ma1Ion 0 0.00 2 0.74 2 0.74 1 0.37 2 0.7462.210 0.00 1 0.37 0 0.00 14I5.H5 of Dead Communlcallonl7 2.57 62.215 1.84 0 0.00134.78114.04 62.211 0.37 3 1.10 52 19.12 Coordi'lation 1 0.37 2 0.74 1 0.37 2 0.74 72./57 t5 1.84 1 0.37 0 0.00 2 0.74 217.72 AueUmentDlsaslBrRelief: Food,2 0.74 7 2.57 8 2.94 1 0.37 8 2.94248.82 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 150 18.38 WalBr,SheI18r,CIothlng,HousehoIdGoodsLogliticllTranapor1aUon4 1.47 5 1.84 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 1.10 2 0.74 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00145.15 ReoowryJRec:onstnJdlon: 5 1.84 4 1.47 0 0.00 1 0.37 7 2.57 7.35 2 0.74 0 0.00 0 0.00 39 14.34 Houslng,sanltatlon.AgricultureEducational:Restlomg 1 0.37 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 1.84 7 2.57 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 13 4.78 SChooIaSocial:Women, Children,0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 51.840 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 51.84 WidowsTotalTransactions2A 8.822B10.29 19 6.99 62.215520.22 9434.56 9 3.313111.4062.21 272100.00 Percerdllg86.8calculalBdbybtaItransaetIoos.

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140 120 10080604020oIIFigure 7Frequency DistributionofTypes of Transactions in Disaster Response by All Organizations. Marathwada Earthquake. September 30. 1893 PublicNonprofitPrivate24MixedOther

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605040302010o +1-----' Figure 8Frequency DistributionofTypesofTransactions In Disaster ResponsebyPublic Organizations, Marathwada Earthquake, september 30, 1993State District Municipal Subdistrict Local

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theirtransactionsinvolvedcommunicationandcoordinationofresponseoperations.Thisfindingdocumentstheprimaryroleofgovernmentalagenciesincoordinatingtheresponseeffortthroughinterjurisdictionalcommunicationandsupport.Nonprofitorganizationsreportedthehighestnumberoftransactionsinprovidingdirectdisasterrelief,25.5%,andsecondly,inreconstruction, 21.3%. Privateorganizations,onlysixofthe119organizationsinthetotalresponsesystem,wereinvolvedprimarilyincommunication(mediaorganizations)andreconstruction.Table11presentsthesamedistributionoftransactionswithpercentagescalculatedbytotaltransactions.Thistableshowsthatpublicorganizationsperformednearlyhalf,or 48.4% ofthetotaltransactionsreportedindisasterresponse,whilenonprofitorganizationsperformedmorethanathird,or34.6%,ofthetotalnumberofreportedtransactions.Figure7showsthedistributionoftransactionsbytypeoforganization,andFigure8 showsthebreakdownoftransactionsperformedbypublicorganizationsbyjurisdictionallevel.Theinteractionsamongorganizationsparticipatinginthedisasterresponsesystemrevealclustersofdenseinteractionsandalsogapsinperformance.Table12presentsthedistributionofinteractionsamongorganizationsengagedindisasterresponse,withpercentagescalculatedbycolumn,andTable13presentsthissamedistributionwithpercentagescalculatedbytotalinteractions.Governmentalorganizationseachjurisdictionallevelinteractedmostfrequentlywithorganizationsofothertypes,andaccountedfor 52.6% ofthetotalinteractions.Medical/healthorganizations,althoughinteractinghighlywithothermedical/healthorganizations,accountedfornearly 22% ofthetotalinteractions.Nonprofitorcharitableorganizationstendedtoworkmoreindependently,nonethelessaccountedfor 19.7% ofthetotalinteractionsamongorganizationsinthedisasterresponsesystem.Combined,thesethreetypesoforganizationsclearlyshapedtheresponseprocess,accountingfor 94.2% ofthetotalinteractionsreportedbytherespondentstothesurvey.DiscussionThreeconditionshadapowerfuleffectuponthecapacityontheemergenceofadisaster-responsesysteminthisrural,poorregionofIndia.First,in1988,theGovernmentofIndiainvestedinanationalsatellitecommunicationssystem,andlocateddownlinkstotheNationalSatelliteintheofficesoftheDistrictCollectors.Thiscommunicationssystemallowedmulti-waycommunicationsbetweentheStateofMaharashtraofficesinBombayandotherdistrictandstateofficesinIndia.6Usingthesatellitesystemasthebasecommunicationsnetwork,computerlinks6PraveenPardeshi,DistrictCollector,Latur.Interview,December22,1993.26

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Table 12 Frequency DistributionofInteractions Between Organizations in Disaster Response Medlc:allGovernmental PolillcaJCharitablel EducationalHumanitarian! ProfesslonalCommercial OtherTotal t:IltiIIItl... NPO Religloys HHHHHHHHIiIiMedlcallHealth 16 72.73 7 12.73327.27 47.41120.00120.00 2 50.00 4 3lJ.77 0 0.003821.97 Governmental 418.183461.82 6 54.55 36 66.67360.00 2 40.0000.004 3lJ.77 2 50.00 9152.60 CharltablelNPO 2 9.091120.00 2 18.18 1222.221 20.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 3lJ.77 2 50.00 34 19.85Educallonal 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 50.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1.16 Humanltarianl Religious 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 1.85 0 0.00 1 20.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1.16 Prol8ss1onal 0 0.00 0 0.0000.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.0000.00 0 0.00 Commercial 0 0.00 1 1.82 0 0.00 1 1.85 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0 0.00 3 1.73 Other 0 0.00 23.640 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 20.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 1.73 TOl:II 22100.0055100.0011100.0054100.005100.005100.00 4100.0013100.004100.00 173 100.00 Percentagescalculaled bycolumn totals27

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Table13FrequencyDistributionofInteractionsBetweenOrganizationsinDisasterResponse Medlcall Governmental Poll1lcalCharitablel Educalional Humanitarianl ProfessionalCommercialOther Total .t:IIIlL NPQ BttIIgIOlJOtttttttttttt.ratt.rattttttM8dk:aIIHeaI1h 16 9.25 7 3 1.73 42.311 0.58 1 0.5821.16 4 2.31a0.003821.97 Governmental 4 2.31 34 63.47 36 20.81 3 1.73 21.16 0 0.00 4 2.31 2 1.16 lilt52.80CharitaI:lIeJNPO 2 1.1611 6.36 2 1.1612 6.94 1 0.58 0 0.0000.0042.312 1.16 34 19.65 Ed!JcldIonaI 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1.16 0 0.00 0 0.00 21.16 HumanltarianlReligious a0.00a0.00 0 0.00 1 0.58a0.00 1 0.58a0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1.16PIO ....1onaI 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Commercial a0.00 1 0.58 0 0.00 1 0.5800.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.58 0 0.0031.73 Other 0 0.00 2 1.1600.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.58 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 1.73 ToIIII 2212.72 :5631.79 11 6.3654 31.2152.8952.8942.3113 7.514 2.31 173 100.00 Perc...1ageaealcula18dbylOla!numberofIntBractlona. 28

PAGE 37

operatedbetweenthecitiesofSolapur,Omerga,Latur,andOsmanabad.Withinthecities,microwavelinksestablishedtwo-waycommunicationamongcityofficesinvolvedindisasterresponse.Withinthevillages,volunteersmannedwirelessstationstoconnectthemwiththelargernetwork.7Usingthiscommunicationsnetwork,theChiefSecretaryoftheStateGovernmentofMaharashtraestablisheda"hotline-thatconnectedhimtoallvillagesinquake-affectedareas.sSecond,theIndianAdministrativeService(lAS)hasestablishedaprofessionalcorpsofeducatedpublicadministratorsthatsharea commonbackgroundofprofessionaltraining,acceptacommonsetofresponsibilitiestowardsdevelopingthecapacitiesofthecitizenryintheirjurisdictions,andrepresentastrongpresenceofthenationalgovernmentinstateandlocaljurisdictions.MostofficershavealsohadsomeexperiencewithdisasterresponseaspartoftheirlAStraining.9The lASprovidedanationalpooloftrainedprofessionaladministratorsfromwhichemergencyassistanceduringdisasteroperationsweredrawn.Withintwodaysoftheearthquake,32secretariesofI.A.S.rankwerereassignedtodisasterresponse.ChiefSecretaryRaghunathan,MaharashtraState,coordinatedtheirworkandassignedtheirtasksindisasterresponse.10Fouradditionalcollectorswereassignedtothetwomostheavilyaffecteddistricts(twotoOsmanabadandtwotoLatur).Alltahsildars,orlocalsubdistrictadministrators,fromneighboringdistrictsofNasik,Pune,andAmararatiweresummonedtoworkondisasterresponse.11Third,thestrongHindutraditionofhumanitarianvaluesprovidedacoresetofwidelysharedbeliefsthatreinforcedactionstohelpothers.ThisphilosophicalapproachunderlaymanyoftheactionstakenbyindividualsandvoluntarygroupstoassistthevictimsofthedisasterinthevillagesofLaturandOsmanabad.12Itcontributedsubstantivelytothehighdegreeofparticipationbyindividualsinvoluntaryorganizations,andthehighproportionofvoluntaryorganizationsrepresentedinthisdisaster7Interview,DineshkumarJain,I.A.S.,DistrictCollector,Solapur,India,December22,1993.SLokasatta,Marathidaily.Bombay,India:October4,1993.9DineshKumarJain,DistrictCollector,Solapur.Interview,December22,1993.10Lokasatta,Marathidaily,Bombay.October8,1993.11Lokasatta,Marathidaily,Bombay,October5,1993.12Dr.EknathGodbole,CardiologistandAttendingPhysician,N.M.WadiaHospital,Solapur.December21,1993.29

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responsesystem.Thesethreeconditionscreatedastructureofcommunicationchannelsandsharedvaluesthroughwhichinformationcouldflowrapidlyamongparticipatingdecisionmakers.ConclusionsTheMaharashtraDisasterResponseprovidesaveryinterestingexampleofanevolvingcomplexsystem.Fiveconclusionscanbedrawnfromthesefindings:1.TheIndiannationalsatellitecommunicationssystemanditsextendednetworkofwirelessandhamradiotransmissionprovidedsufficienttechnicalstructureforcommunicationsprocessestosupporttherapidevolutionofacomplexdisasterresponsesystem.2.TheIndianAdministrativeService,usingthetechnicalinformationstructure,providedsufficientorganizationalstructuretoholdandexchangeinformationamongthewidersetofparticipatingagenciesandjurisdictions.3.Theclassicgoalofprotectinglifeandpropertyindisasterservedasfocusfordisasterresponseoperationsandboundedtheevolvingresponsesystem.Thisgoalwasreinforcedbythestrongparticipationofnonprofitvoluntaryorganizationswhowerecommittedtohumanitarianaidandofreligiousorganizationswhowerecommittedtohumanitarianideals.4.Theflexibilityshownbytheleadershipinpublic,nonprofit,andprivateorganizations,whichmaybeacharacteristicshapedbylimitedresources,combinedwiththeadvancedtechnicalcommunicationscapacityandhumanitariangoalsoftheresponsesystemtocreatearemarkablesetofconditionsthatfavoredthedevelopmentofselforganizing systems atthecommunitylevelinresponsetoneedsgeneratedbytheMarathwadaEarthquake.5.Selforganizationconstitutesanimportantelementintheprocessoftransitionfromresponsetorecoveryfollowingdisaster,andrequirestimely,accurateinformation,communication,andadministrativeprocessestosupportit.30

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SOURCESInadditiontothesetofsemi-structuredinterviewsusedforthisstudy,otherdocumentarymaterialsprovidedinsightandinformationregardingtheevolvingdisasterresponseprocess.Thesesourcesincludethefollowing:OfficialReports:1.30thSeptember1993Earthquake,DistrictOsmanabad: AStatusReportQnRelief&RehabilitatiQnoftheEarthquakeVictimsinOmergaTaluka,DistrictOsmanabad,Maharashtra.DistrictCQllectQr,Osmanabad.OctQber30,1993.Osmanabad,India.2.30thSeptember1993.03:54hQurs,Latur:ACQmprehensiveNQteQnLaturEarthquake.VimilendraSharan,OrnprakashGupta,SanjaySethiundertheguidanceQfShriPraveensinghPardeshi,CQllectQr,Latur;ShriAnilDiggikar,AssistantCollector(RehabilitatiQn)Latur,December13,1993.Latur,India.3.GQvernmentQfMaharashtra.1993.PreliminaryReport.30thSeptember1993Earthquake,MaharashtraState.Bombay,India.4.TataInstituteQfSocialSciences.1994.SurveyofPeopleAffectedbyEarthquakeinLaturandOSmanabadDistricts(1993):JQintActionGroupofInstitutiQnsforSQcialWQrkEducatiQn.Bombay,India.FinalRepQrt.February.5.WQrld Bank.1994.ReportonMarathwadaEarthquake.AideMemQire:IndiaMaharashtraEmergencyEarthquakeReconstructionCreditAppraisalMissiQn(4-29January1994).Draft,January27,1994.6.EarthquakeRehabilitationCell,GovermentQfMaharashtra.1994.EarthquakeRehabilitatiQnPolicyofGQvernmentofMaharashtra.BQmbay,India:19March.7.EarthquakeRehabilitationCell,GovermentQfMaharashtra.1994.RehabilitationActiQnPlanforPersQnsAffectedbyLandAcquisitiQn.BQmbay,India:19March.8.OsmanabadCQllectorate.1993. Earthquake ReliefReportofOsmanabadDistrict.StatementshowingReliefOperationsWQrkinEarthquakeAffectedVillagesQfOmergaTaluka.9.MonthlyReport,October,1993.CenterforMQnitQringtheIndianECQnomy.Bombay.Reports, Volunt&ry Organizations:1.VQluntaryOrganisationsCo-ordinationCommittee,(EarthquakeRelief).C/ONalinH.Sheth,Opp.SuhanaHQtel,Latur413512.ListofvQluntaryorganizationsbyname, phQne,contactperson,activity,villageadQpted,helpneeded,rehabilitation.8pp.Fall,1993.2.GQvernmentofMaharashtra.1993.AVillagewiseProfileofNGOsOperatinginOsmanabadandLaturDistrictsfortheLong-termRehabilitationoftheEarthquakeAffected.6pp.3.GovernmentofMaharashtra.1993.ListofDonorAgenciesbyVillage,LaturandOsmanabadDistrict.31

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4.VoluntaryOrganisationsCo-ordinationCommittee.ReportonEarthquakeRelief.October14,1993.S.CorrespondencebetweentheCommunityforHumanDevelopment,Bombay,IndiaandNalinSheth,Chair,VoluntaryOrganisationsCoordinationCommitteere:EarthquakeRelief.November 8,23,24;December8,1993.[ShowsinteractionbetweenBombayheadquartersandlocalLaturfieldoffice.]6.Desai,N.K.1993.Reportof Earthquake ReliefWork.IndianRedCrossSociety,SolapurDistrictBranch.Solapur,India:IndianRedCrossSociety.7.IndianRedCrossSociety,SolapurDistrictBranch.1993.AnnualReport,1992-1993.Solapur,India.8.IndianRedCrossSociety,SolapurDistrictBranch.1993.StatementshowingReceiptandDistributionandStockof Relief Materialfrom4-10-93to31-20-93.Solapur,India.9.AssistanceGainedfromVoluntaryOrganisationsforEarthquakeVictims.(11VoluntaryOrganisations.1)N.S.U.I.(NationalStudentsUnionofIndia)Students'WingofCongressParty(rightwingpol.party)2)R.S.S.RashdriyaSwayamsevakSangha(rightwing)3)B.J.P.BharatiyaJanataParty(A.V.B.P.-Students'WingofB.J.P.)(rightwing) 4) VishwaHinduParishad-BajrangDal.(voluntaryorg.)5)BalidanTarum MandaI -voluntaryorganization(altruistic)6)NationalCadetCorps(NCC)38MaharashtraBattalion7)NCC-SangameshwarCollege8)Sub-OrdinateEngineers-M.S.E.B.MaharashtraStateEngineeringBoard9) BankofMaharashtra10)Home-Guards(IndianequivalentofCivilDefense;engageinrescueoperations)11) BackwardCasteGirlsHostel10.NursingStaffWorkingforEarthquakeVictimswhowereadmittedtoSolapurGeneralHospital,October,1993.11.RamakrishnaMission, Khar, Bombay.GeneralReport,April1992-March,1993.BriefReportofWorkdoneforMaharashtraEarthquakeReliefandRehabilitation.TechnicalReports:1.EarthquakeEngineeringResearchInstitute.1993.TheKillariEarthquakeofSeptember30,1993.Bombay,IndiaandOakland,CA.2.PlaceWiseListofPatientsAffectedDuetoEarthquake.October30,1993.[GiventousinLaturbyNalinShethinDecember,1993.]ListpreparedbytheVoluntaryOrganizationsCoordinationCommittee,attherequestoftheLaturCollectorate.Latur.3.ListofWidowsandPersonsRenderedDestituteDuetoEarthquake,30/9/93inDistrictLatur.[GiventousbyNalinShethinDecember,1993.]PreparedbytheDistrictSocial32

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Welfare Department,LaturDistrict.4.?ansi,V.D.October14,1993.GeneralHospitalSolapur: Future ActionPlanforDisasterManagement.Solapur,India.5.N.M.WadiaCharitableHospital.1993.ListofPatientsbyVillage.Age.Sex.AdmissionDate.AttendingPhysician.Solapur,India.[DadasahebGaikwadRoad,Solapur-413001]6.Poptani,Dr.December,1993.GeneralStatisticsforEarthquakeRelatedPatientsTreatedinN.M.WadiaHospital,Solapur.7.N.M.WadiaHospital.1993.ListofvoluntaryOrganisationsProvidingRelieftoPatientsattheHospital,byOrganisationandTypeofRelief,October,1993.8.ListofRuralHospitalsoutsideSolapurandAdjoiningTalukaswithgovernment-appointedphysicians.9.ListofpositionsatN.M.WadiaCharitableHospital:positionsapproved(22);positionsfilled(21);positionsvacant(1).10.Vigne,Jacques.1993.CounsellingtheQuakeHit:AFrenchPsychiatristinLatur.October.11.NationalInformaticsCentre,DistrictLatur.1993.ListofZonalOfficersfor42VillagesinAusaTalukaandNilangaTaluka,LaturDistrict.12.CenterforMonitoringIndianEconomy.StatisticalDataonLaturDistrict.Bombay,India400025Engineering/Construction:1.Siporex.1993.ReviewofEarthquakeResistantMaterialsforConstructionofHomes.2.TechnologyActionResearchUnit[TARU].1993.ActionPlanforReconstructioninEarthquakeAffectedRegionsofMaharashtra.NewDelhi,India:GovernmentofIndia,MinistryofUrbanDevelopment,BuildingMaterials&TechnologyPromotionCouncil.October21.Newspapers:Englishlanguagenewspapers:1.TheTimesofIndia.Bombay,India.October1,3,7,1993.2.TheHindustanTimes.NewDelhi.October1,2,1993.3.TheStatesman.Calcutta.October1,2,3,5,6,7,10,1993.4.TheBusinessStandard.Calcutta,October2,3,1993.5.Indian ExPress. NewDelhi.October1,1993.6.EconomicTimes.Bombay.October3,1993.7.TheObserverofBusinessandPolitics.NewDelhi.October1,1993.8.ArticlefromUnidentifiedNewspaper,October3,1993.9.EconomicandPoliticalWeekly,BombayMarathilanguagenewspapers:1.Lokasatta[People'sPower],Bombay33

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2.MaharashtraTimes,Bombay3.TarunBharat,Solapur4.Marathwada,Aurangabad5.DainikLokamat,[PublicOpinionDaily]Latur6.DainikEkamat,[UnanimityDaily],Latur7.BhukampVarta[EarthquakeNews]fortnightlypaper,editedbyShailaLohia8.Lokprabha,Bombay,weeklypaperNews Magazines, VideoTape:1.IndiaToday,October31,1993:43-71.IndiaToday, "Time istheEnemy."Nov.15,1993:83-88.2."ThenandAfter:30September 1993", VideotapeofdisasterconsequencespreparedbyGovernmentofMaharashtra.Maps:1.MaharashtraRemoteSensingApplicationsCentre,DepartmentofPlanning,GovernmentofMaharashtra.1993. Geomorphological andLineament Map ofKillariEarthquakeAreainPartofLaturandOsmanabadDistrictUsingSatelliteData.NagpurII,India.2.PublicWorksDepartment,LaturandOsmanabadDistricts.ExecutiveEngineer.MapofLaturandOsmanabadDistricts.InMarathi. [Map showsdamagedvillagesmarkedinred.]3.DepartmentofSpace,GovernmentofIndia.1993.MapshowingsuitablesitesforrehabilitationofEarthquakeaffectedvillagesofLatur&OsrnanabadDistricts,Maharashtra.Mapshowsvillagesbydegreeofdamagesufferedduringearthquake.4.SeismotectonicandHazardManagementCentre,GeologicalSurveyofIndia,Lucknow.IsoseimalMapofKillariEarthquakeof30September1933.5.GovernmentofMaharashtra.1987.MapofLaturDistrict.(InMarathi.)6.GovernmentofMaharashtra.(Before30September1993).MaharashtraStateSeismicZonesasperI.S.I.7.MaharashtraRemoteSensingApplicationsCentre,DepartmentofPlanning,GovernmentofMaharashtra.1993. Map showingEarthquakeAffectedVillagesintheLaturandOsmanabadDistricts.8.SonalOffsetPress,NewDelhi,India.MapofPoliticalBoundaries(Talukas)andvillagesofOsmanabadDistrict.9.Manavlok(HumanHabitat).MapofLaturandOsmanabadDistricts.InMarati.VoluntaryOrganizations,Literature:1.LaturVivekanandHospitalsupportedbyVivekanandMedicalFoundationandResearchCenter.Havefoundedthe"Peoples'Welfare"CommitteeinLatur.2.IndianRedCrossSociety.WhatitdoesinMaharashtra.3.IndianRedCrossSociety.TheJuniorRedCross.4.RotaryInternational,District3130,India[Salegaon]34

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Earthquake RehabilitationProject.5.TheMudVillageSociety.NewDelhi.BuildingtheFuturewithMud.Voluntary Organizations, Brochures:1.JanKalyanSamite(Peoples'WelfareCommittee)a.Bhukamp 30September1993(Earthquake)b.VivekanandHospitalinLatur2.SOSChildrensVillage:SOSMessenger,4brochurestotal.3.SwarninaryanTrust,BombaySwarninaryanBliss:ReliefWorkbyB.A.P.SansthaduringEarthquake,Maharashtra.BrochuredescribinggeneralactivitiesofSanstha.4.SarvodayMedicoEducationalSociety.Brochurecitinggeneralactivitiesofsociety.CollaborativeactivitywithRotaryClubofBombay.35