USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Post-disaster adaptive responses

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Post-disaster adaptive responses parent-child reactions to the Los Angeles areaWhittier Narrows earthquake
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Portion of title:
Parent-child reactions to the Los Angeles area/Whittier Narrows earthquake
Physical Description:
13 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Gordon, Norma S., 1926-
Maida, Carl A
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Institute of Behavioral Science
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Disaster victims -- Mental health -- California -- Los Angeles   ( lcsh )
Child disaster victims -- Mental health -- California -- Los Angeles   ( lcsh )
Earthquakes -- Psychological aspects -- California -- Los Angeles   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 13).
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
Statement of Responsibility:
Norma S. Gordon, Carl A. Maida.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Institute of Behavioral Science #6."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001985182
oclc - 39061881
usfldc doi - F57-00042
usfldc handle - f57.42
System ID:
SFS0001123:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

HAZAROHOUSEcopy !.,,\;f04.+0LosIr flttJr-A......

PAGE 2

NaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenterCampusBox482UniversityofColoradoBoulder,Colorado 80309-0482 ..HAZARDHOUSECOpyPOST-DISASTERADAPTIVERESPONSES:PARENT-CHILDREACTIONSTOTHELOSANGELESAREA/WHITTIERNARROWSEARTHQUAKENORMAS.GORDONCARLA.MAIDA1989QuickResponseResearchReport #29 This publication is partoftheNatural Hazards Research & Applications Information Center's ongoing QUick Response Research Report Series. http://www.colorado.edu/hazardsInstituteofBehavioralScience#6(303)492

PAGE 3

he Public Health FoundationofLos Angeles County, Inc.13200 CROSSROADS PARKWAY NORTH, SUITE 135, CITYOFINDUSTRY,CA91746, (213) 699-7320 FAX: (213) 699-8856 POST-DISASTER. ADAPTIVE RESPONSES: PARENT-cHILD REACTIOBS TOTHELOS ANGELESAREA/WHITTIERBARROWSEARTHQUAKENorma S.Gordon. M.A.. Psychologica1 Tr8.1DUl Center.Cedars-SinaiHedica1Center.L.A.CarlA. Maida.Ph.D.. Universityof California. Los Angeles SubmittedSeptember.1989

PAGE 4

'IHEEVEN!' Amajor earthquakemeasurirg 6.1ontheRichter scale occurredintheLos Argeles MetropolitanAreaat7:42a.m.on october 1,1987.'!he earthquake wascenteredintheWhittier areaaboutsevenmilessouthofPasadena.'!heinitial trem:>r was followed by nore than15aftershocksinexcessof3ontheRichter scale. Itcaused$65millionin estilIlated damage am killedatleast3people.'!heAmericanRed cross setup8emergencycentersin5citiesto provide food am shelterforpeopleleft hcmeless bythe earthquake. Atleast400peoplesoughtrefugeatthesheltersaftertheir banes weredamagedordestroyed.Astateofemergency-wasdeclaredbythePresident for thecitiesofWhittier am MontereyPark.InWhittier,acityof70,000residents,atleast800 banesam 30businessesweredamaged am 200deemedunsafe,withdamage exceedi.n;] $12million.Instrument '!he instrumentusedinthis study wasa nxxtification ofthequestionnaireusedtostudythereactionsof childp=nam familiestothe1971SylmarEarthquake(Howard am Gordon,1972).'!his instnnnent includessectionsonthesocioeconomicstatusofthefamily, includi.rqincx:me, occupation,educationofparents,ethnic backgrourrl,am religiouspreference.'!hequestionnairealsorecordsthetypeofdwell irg ,thephysicaldamagetothe honeam whethertheresidencewas owned orrented,injuriessustained amtiJne off frc:m work.Detailed info:rmation wasobtained regardi.n;J recallofthereactiontotheevent, includi.rqpost-earthquake behavior ameIIDti.onal reactions,parent-child cannnunication patterns, am leadershippatternswithinthefamilywithaviewtowards identifyirg towhomonecanaddressoneselfinafamilyconstellationin tiJnes ofdisaster. Childre5{X>rrlents wereaskedabouttheirinitialreactionswhenthe earthquake occurred,theirleveloffear, instructionscannnunicated tothembyfamilyorother caretakers. '!heywereaskedto CCll'lpU'e theirreactionstotheirperceptionsabout how otherchildrenwere experiencirg theevent.'!heywerealsoaskedtodescribe how they currently felt, am whethertheirthoughts, feelirgsam anxietiesabouttheearthquakepersisted.'!heywerealsoaskedaboutthesupportsystemsavailabletohelpthemcopewiththeir feelirgs aftertheevent.Parentswereaskedtoreporttheirchild'sreactionsintheperiodimmediately followirg the earthquake (t-1) am theirchild'sstatusatthe tiJne oftheinterview,whichwas corrlucted betweenthree am five nonths aftertheeventoccurred(t-2).Abehaviorchecklistwasused askirYJ parentsift.heirchildhadanyofthebehavioraldifficulties.Behaviorslistedincluded leanri.ng problems(e.g.,shortattentionspan, urrlerachievirg), behaviorproblems(e.g. demarrli.ng behavior,hyperactivity), IrOOds, habitdisorders am problemssuchassleepdisturbances(e.g. bedwettirg,nightmares),am specificfears.-1-

PAGE 5

'!he IOOdifiedinstn.nnentm=luded itemsfranaquestionnairedesignedbyJamesGoltzofthe southeJ:n california EarthquakePreparedness Project regardin;Jbeliefsaboutearthquakepreparedness activities amkncJrNledge ofccmmmity resources. '!hequestions askedwere relatedtothestepsthatare recamnerrled byemergency preparednessorganizations. 'Ihese m=lude thestorageoffood,water am emergencysupplies m=1ucl:iIg flashlights,firstaidkits, am soforth, mood. Familieswhosought counselinJ fortheirchildren were queriedabouttheirreasonsfor seekiIxJ professionalhelp, how helpfulthey :regarded these savices tobe, am theeffectivenessoftheintervention. Intel:viewersamIntel:viewerTrainirgTwoexperienced interviewerswhohadbeentrainedbythe surveyResearchcenter, InstituteforSOCialscience Research attheuniversityofcalifornia,Los Argeles,CX>l"rlucted allfield interviews. Specific trainin;J wasprovidedin administerinJ the researchinstn.nnent.Recnrltme.nt ofSUbjects'!he sanple was develOPed incollaborationwiththe Elrergencysavices COordinator,CityofWhittier, am thesan Fe.rnarrlo Valley arild GuidanceClinic,Northridge.'!he I'laI'OOS offamilieswithchildrenages7-13 wered:Jta.ined fromthecityofficials am frantheclinic'sdeputydirector.Telephonecontacts were madewiththesefamiliestoexplainthe purpose ofthestudy,seektheircooperation, am to arrange a hane interview.Priortoeachinterview,theinfonnedconsentfonnwasdjscnssed, am consentwassecured.All interviews were corxlucted betweenthree am five llDnths afterthe earthquake.SOCiodenpgraphicO1aracteristics '!hestudy pop.l1ation of60respoments,wascomprisedof30parents am 30children. 'IWo-thirds ofthe sanpleresided inWhittierinclose oftheepicenteroftheearthquake;one-thirdofthe sanpleresided atagreaterdistancefonntheepicenterinthesan Fema.n:lo Valley.weinterviewed22girls am 8boys.'!heWhittiersubsampleconsistedof13girls am 7boys;thesan Fema.n:lo Valley subsample consistedof9girls am 1boy.'!he rrean ageofthetotal sanple was9years;thatoftheWhittier subsample was9.5years, am thatofthesan Fema.n:lo Valley subsample was8.5years.Ofthe30adult resporrlents, 27were llDthers ofthechildreninterviewed,2 were fathers, am 1wasthe child'sgrarrlnDther. '!he i.ncane leveloftherespoments ran:Jed fran urxier $10,000(13.3%),$10,000-$20,000(43.3%),$20,000-$30,000(23.3%)to$30,000-$40,000(20%)-2-

PAGE 6

'!he employneIt statusofthesampleconsistedoffull-timeemployedpersons(37%),part-timeemployedpersons(20%), hc:mamakers (33%) am unemployedpersons(10%).Forty-fourpercentofthe responjentsC1NI1ed their hcInesani 56%wererenters.Sixty-sevenpercentlivedin sin3'le family:residences,23%livedin aparbnents,ani 10%livedinaduplexorother type of housin3'.Adult:respon:ients self-reportedtheirethnicityas An:Jlo (33%),Black(20%),Hispanic(40%), aniAmericanIrrlian (7%).Fiftypercentofthesamplewerecatholic,40%wereProtestant, ani 10%wereJewish.FOrtypercentoftheadultsreportedthatreligionwasvery iIrportant, 40%claimedthatitwas sanewhatiIrportant,ani 20%attributedlittle iIrportance toit.Parental Response In reportin3'contextual information regarc:li.rg theeffectoftheeventontheirhouseholds ani families,57%reporteddamagetotheir hcmes, afamily member wasinjuredin17%ofthefamilies, ani 47%oftheadultstooktimeoff f:rcm work. Cllan:Jes intheir sleepin3'arran;]em:mts, invol vin3'change ofbedor room weremadein90%ofthehouseholdsatthetimeofthe intel:viewani 17%stillhadthese changedsleepin3'arran;]errents. In:responsetothequestion regarc:li.rg theirperceptionoftheevent,63% knew itwasanearthquake,10%thoughtitwas l:::x:lmb or explosion,ani the remairrler thoughtitwaseithera thurrlersto:rm, sonicboomoraplanecrash.Parentsreportedthe followin3'inunediate reactionstotheearthquake:37%reported "goin3' totheir drildren", 33%went urrler adoor durin3' thequake, ani another17%wenttoa"safeplace",13%satorstoodstill ani 7%leftthehouse.In reportin3' theirnextactionsafterthequake,20%saidtheywentoutofdoors,17%remainedina doorway,13%inspectedresidentialdamage,10%reported bein3' inastateofpanic;10%comfortedtheir drildren, 10% tun1ed onthetelevision ani 7%resumedactivities. When askedtoreportspecificactionstakeninthetwo-hourperiod i111medi.atelyfollowinl theearthquake,60%oftheadultsreported checki..rganiadjustirg utilities,suchasgas,33%leftthe neighbortloodani 30%evacuatedtheir hcmes.Olring thissameperiod,allofthe respon:lentslistened totelevision ani theradio,90%triedto contact othersoutsidethehome, ani 47%helpedsomeoneelseinthe neighbortlood torecover f:rcm thedisaster..Inreportingtheir ownenotional reactionsatthetimeofthe.earthquake,77%saidtheycriedor screarred, 20%remainedsilent, ani 3%begantoquestionwhathad'occurred.In self-reportirg their own leveloffear durirg theevent:63%wereveryfrightened,24%weresomewhatfrightened,7%werenotvery-3-

PAGE 7

frightened,3%werenotfrightenedatall, am 3%couldnotsay. When asked how theyreactedtothe aftershock thatoccurredfourdayslater,37%reportedthattheyreactedthe saIream 63%reported act.i.n:J .differently.Ofthisgroup who reacteddifferently,anequalrnnnber werelOOre frightenedorlessfrightenedthan duriIg theinitial earthquake.Parentswere asked whether they verDally expressedtheir feelinJsabout the earthquake totheir d1ildren.seventy-seven percentsaidtheydid am 23%saidthattheydidnot.Alloftheadults :inteJ:viewed reported t.alki.n:J abouttheevent.'!heytalkedwithfamily 'Il'IPJTIbers (93%),with trierrls (73%),withneighbors(43%), am withavarietyofothers, includ.i.n3' ex>-WOrkers, counselors,teachers, church members,physicians am inasupportgroup.'!heyallreportedthateveryonetheytalkedtofeltasthey qidam 83% in:licated that t.alki.n:J abouttheirfeelingswashelpfultothem. When asked ''How oftendoyou d;scU$ your ownPersOnalfeelinJs withyourfamily?",40%saidveryoften,23%fairlyoften,23%occasionally,7%seldan am 7%never.'!he earthquake wasaneventthatallofthose :inteJ:viewed d; SOlSSE!d exceptforthe7% who nevertalkedtotheirfamiliesabout feelinJs. Parentsreportedtheir d1ild' sinitialreactions i.lnroodi.atelyfollowing the earthquake as follows: 43%criedor screamed, 37%wantedtobecanforted,10%begantoquestionwhathadoccurred,3% remai.ne::i silentor wit:.hdrew,am 7%ofthesample resporrled inavarietyofways.'!he followirg table CCIl'pareS theparent-reported POSt-earthquake behaviorsofchildreninthetotalsampleofthet-1(imnediately followiIg the earthquake)am t-2(3-5 IlDl1ths later) periods: BEHAVIOR amcKLIST* (N=30)t-1t-2 learning ProblemsShortAttentionSPanInattentative UrrlerachieviIgTroancy WithdrawnDepressedHabitDisordersNail BitiIgLyiIgFatiIg Problems-4-43%23% 20%7%23%37% 37%13%27%30%13%17%3%17%20%37%13% 10%

PAGE 8

Behavior Problems Hyperactive Bossy FightiIgArgumentative DoesNot Obey AccidentProneSleep Problems NightmaresSleep Disturbances SpecificFears* Results donottotal100%20% 23%17%20%33% 30%14%47%63%53%13%20%13%23%30%26%10%13%43%50%Whenasked how they wouldharxlle their drildren ISfearsinafuturedisaster,23%saidthatthey would tellthemitwasokayto be afraid,23%would attempt tocalmtheir chi.ldren, 20% wouldexpress theirtruefeelings,17% would trytom.ini.mizetheproblem,17%wouldencourage tal.ki.n:J, 17%wouldseek counselirx], an13%wouldofferreligiouscomfort(responsestotal IlDre than100%,sincethe respon:lents wereabletoreport IlDre thanone copirx] style).Whenaskedtheiropinion regardin;J thelikelihoodofanothermajor earthquakestri.kiIglosAnJeles inthenext12 IlDnths, 53%feltitwasverylikely,33% sc:mewhat likely,0% sc:mewhat unlikely,10%veryunlikely, am 3%didnotknow.Whenaskedaboutthelikelihoodofothertypesofdisasters occurrirx], 7%saidverylikely,7% sc:mewhat likely,33% sc:mewhat unlikely,47%veryunlikely, am 7%didnotknow.'!hemajorityof resporrlents inthesampleviewedanothermajorearthquakeasapossibility,theprospectofanothertypeofmajordisasterwasheldas minimal. Whenaskedtheiropinionofwhetherthisearthquakehad been predicted,10%saiddefinitely,20%werenotsure,57%saiddefinitelyitwasnot, am 10%saidtheydidnotknow. When askedwhethertheyhaddiscussedthepossibilityof leavirx]losAnJeles withtheirfamilies am friends,57%ofthoseinterviewedsaidthattheyhad. PreparednessAdultrespon:lents werequestionedabouttheirearthquake preparedness activities.'!he followirx] table shows theresultsofthesw:veyofearthquake preparedness activities:-5-

PAGE 9

Activities(N=30) Donefor EarthquakeOther Reason stored Water stored Food Bat1:el:y-operatedRadio FirstAidKit FlashlightotherSUpplies Reinforced House Rearran;)'ed0JP00ardsOlpboardIatd1es:IrxiUired Re: <;):lake InsuranceBought Earthquake InsuranceInstructed Children FamilyPlansforPostEarthquakeRem1ian FamilyPlansforanEmergency Procedures Planat Heme ContactedNeighbors amFrierrls forInfo./ldeasset-up NeighbortloodResponsi bilityPlanfortheElderly amChildrenAtterrled Block Meetirg Re: EarthquakePreparedness 30%20%30%23%37% 7%3%0% 0%7% 7%27% 27% 27%10% 3%0%7%0%30%23%37% 3%0% 0%0%0% 0% 3% 3% 3%7%0% 0% Respoments werealsoaskedtoreporton how well-preparedthey regardedthemselves, the canum.mity-at-largeamplblic officialstobe.'!he followirg table in:licates theirperceptionsof preparedness: PERCEIVED PREPAREmESS (N=30) General Public Perceptionsself PublicOfficialsVery wellPrepared10% 3%30% SOmewhatPrepared33% 17%40%FairlyUnprepared23%54%17%TotallyUnprepared 33% 27%3% Resporxients werealsoaskedtoreporttheirknowledgeof canum.mity agenciescurrentlyofferinginfonnatian am assistancein earthquakepreparedness. sixty-threepercentoftheadult semple wereunawareofgroupsthatpreparedthe canum.mity's residentsforadisaster.Alistoftwenty-fouragencies am organizationswasprovidedtothose in:licatingawareness of canum.mity preparednessactivities.'!hefollowingweretheonlyonesofwhichtheyhadknowledge:'!he Redcross (27%),school systems (17%),citygovernmentagencies(10%),churches(7%),firedepartment(3%),television(3%) am radio(3%).-6-

PAGE 10

'!he resporrlents inthisstudywere asked toidentifytheir sources ofpublicinfonnationaboutthe earthquakeam aboutdisasterassistance seJ:Vices. '!he follow:in:J table irxlicates these sources of"infonnation regardi.n;Jearthquakepreparednessamearthquake predictions: SOORCES OF INFORMATION (N=30)Television NewsPrograms 87% DisalSSion withFamily, Friendsamothers 87% Newspapers 77% Radio 73%TelevisionSpecial73% PanPllets intheMail47%MagazineArticles37% Movies 30%Television Commercials 27%Books13% ChildResponses '!hechildreninthe sanple were asked abouttheirreactionstothe earthquake. Fourofthechildreninthestudy :reported thatthey knew itwasan earthquake thatwas occurr:in:J, sixofthemhadnoideawhatwastakingplace.sixofthemthoughtitwasatruck,plane,trainorbulldozer,sixchildrenthoughtitwasvarioushouseholdnoises,tworecognizedthe sourx:l as grourrl-shaJd.rg noises,butnotasan earthquake.'lWo childrenthoughtthatan intruder was breakirg:into thehouse,onechildthoughtthatitwasagunshot.oneofthechildrenthoughtthathis nether wasangry am shakingthehouse,onesaidthatitwas''me IlXJV:in:J myfeet",anothersaidthatitwasherfather bump:in:J hisheadagainsta lanp,am still anotherchild thoughtthat"Godwasreadytocame".'!hemajorityofthechildren(80%) :reportedbe:in:J ''very dur:in:J the earthquakeam whentheshakingstoppedchildren :reported takingthe follow:in:J actions:Post-EarthquakeActions(N=30)Wentoutdoors33% Remained inthe doonvay 30%Soughtcamfortfromparents14%stayedwheretheywere10%WatchedT.V./listenedtotheradio7%contactedothers3%Inspecteddamage3% Whenasked whethertheytalkedabouttheirfearstosomeoneinthefamily,67%saidtheyrelatedtheirfeelingstooneoranotherparent.Ninety-seven percent ofthechildren :reportedbein;)' told what theyshoulddobyanadult,usuallybytheirparents.-7-

PAGE 11

Whenaskedto cx::anpare their own reactionstothoseofpeers am others,amajorityofthe dlildren (73%)perceivedtheirreactionstobethesameasothers.'!hemajorityof drildren (SO%)reportedthat 'talk:in1 aboutthe earthquake madethemfeelbetter. 'Ihree tofive llDIl1:hs afterthe earthquakeoccurred, S7%ofthe dlildren werestill t:hink:in;J abouttheevent am 40%werestillfeelingfrightened. crJ:NICSAMPlE sixteenfamiliessoughtcrisis counseling for post-earthquake reactions.'!he:reasonstheygavefor seekin:Jcounselingincluded the followirg: sleep di.sb.1nJances (25%), am parentsunabletocopewiththeir dlild's problems(20%).otherreasonsgivenwere:toalleviateproblem, drild soughthelp, dlild wasalreadyin counseling,dlildpersistently'talk:in1 aboutthequake, chan;Je in dll1d' spersonality, am the drild's fearofbeingalone.'!heclinicservicestheyreceivedwereprimarilygroup intervention (SO%) amirxtividualcounseling (20%). 'Ihese serviceswere regarded by62%oftheparentsasbeingconsiderablyor m:xierately helpfulindealingwith earthquake-re1ated problems.Sixty-six percent ofthe.parentsfelttheywerethenbetterableto harrlle their drildren' sreactions.'!heparentswhosoughtclinicalservices irxticated thattheywouldseekclinicservicesinthe:future.Tenof.thefamiliesincludedinthe sample received ata drild guidancecliniclocated approximately 30miles fran Whittier,wherethe earthquakeam itsaftershockswerealsofelt,albeitata lower intensity. 'Ihese families atterrled aone-time "earthquake crisis group" ledbytrainedmentalhealthprofessionals. WHI'ITIER (N=20)SFV(N=10)t-1t-2t-1t-240%30%50%30%10% 10%50%20%15%15%30%20%5% 5%10%0%ShortAttentionSpanInattentive UIXieradlievingTroancy '!hefollowingtable c::c:arpares theparentreported post-earthquake behaviorsof drildren intheWhittier am san Fernarrlo Valley StJbsaIrples inthet-1 (immediately followingthe earthquake)am t-2(3-5 m:mths later)Periods:BEHAVIOR aIECKLIST*I.eaming ProblemsMoodsWithdrawnDepressed15%25%15%15%40%60%20%30%-S-

PAGE 12

HabitDisordersNail Bitirg 40%45%30%20% Lyirg 10%10%20%20% FatirgPrdJlems 15% 10%50%10%Behavior PrdJlems Hyperactive10%10%40%20% Den1anlln] 10%10%50%40% Bossy 10%10%30%20% Fightirg 15%15%30%40% Argl.ml:mtative 25%25%50%40% J):)esNotObey 25%25%40%30% Accident Prone5%0%30%30%SleepProblemsNightmares40%10%60%20%Sleep Di.sturbances 60%30%70%60%SpecificFears35% 35%90%80%* Results donottotal100%'!he earthquake crisis groups atthechildguidanceclinicfocusedonthechildren'sfears,managementofthechild'sbehavior, am therapist rec::armterrl.ationsregarciin;J effectiveparenting.Art therapywas usedtoelicitthechild'sfeelings.Parentalfearswereoftenseenas affectirg thechild'sadjusbnent.Referralsweremadeforfurtherclinical inteJ:ventions, whenappropriate.Itcanbeconj ectured thatthe earthquakeam thebehavioralsequelaeprecipitated anDng a group ofparents who were havirg difficultiescopingwiththeirchild'sbehavior. case HistoriesFollowingarecasestudiesof children whoattendedthepostearthquake crisisgroup.'!hesecasespresentreactionsofthechildren:Girl1\ge 9Afterthe earthquake, shehadtrouble sleepirg atnight. OJring thedaytimesherefusedtostayinherroamalone,wouldn'tleaveher IlDther's sight amwould notgotothebathroombyherself.Motherreported feelirg overwhelmedasshe was alsobusynursingthegirl's4 11DI1th oldbrother.Mother am daughter att:errled one group therapysession.Bothfeltrelievedto fim outthatseveralother9-yearoldsinthe group hadbeen manifestirgsilnilar fears.'!hegirl'sfearshave IlOW' subsided.-9-

PAGE 13

GirlAge 7Whenthe earthquakestrock, shewas practicirr;J thepiano. SUbsequently, she fearedapproach.iIg the instrument. Shealsohaddifficulty sleepirr;Jan::l hergeneralbehaviorwasmarkedly lOOredeperrlent thanitwaspriortothe earthquake.'!hegirlclUI'J toher m:>theran::l oftencried whenm:>ther leftherwiththebabysitter.A few weeks followi.r' onegroupsession, not:her reportedgradual i.nq;>:rovement.'!he girl seeIrailOOre confident.Shestillrefusestopracticethepiano. However,not.her believesthatshewillstart doirg sointhenearfutureasheranxietyhas dilninished noticeably. Boy P@ 11Afterthe earthquake, he worried aboutthe"nextone Herefusedtorideelevators.He worried constantlyabout beirg away fran his parents whenthe''bigonestrikes".sinceseveralother dlarges had taken placeinhislife,thatis, 1lJVirg toanewneighborhood an::l newschool,the m:>ther wasadvisedtowaita few weeks an::lobserve thechild. Rec:c:mnerrlation wasmadetoseektherapyiffearscontinue. '!hefollowi.r' caseswerenotincludedinthesurveybecauseoftheageofthechild. However, weare includi.rq themasillustrativematerial:Girlp@ 1Year11 M:lI1t:hs Sincethe earthquake shehadbeen tn1Willirg tosleepinher ovm crib.She screamed,jl.ll1'ped out,rantoherparentsbedroamseveral times anight. Accol:'dinJ toher m:>ther, neithershenorherparentshadsleptwellinweeks. '!hey were losirg patience, an::l hadevenspankedthegirlonce, an::l feltveryguiltyaboutit.Motherdidnotwanttofeel argry atthe chi.l.d, butfeltsheneededrespitefram what sheperceivedwere overwhelIni.n:J problemsat heme. Shehadtriedtofollowtheadviseofpsychologistsbut worked". Mother att.errled one counsel.irg sessionwiththe childan::l feltbetter, beirg ableto canplainan::lexpressfrustrations.'!hefollCJWiI'g day,she an::l her husbarrl boughtthe child anew bedan::l thechild'sfearssubsided. Boy-p@4'll1echild wouldnotgotoorstayinhisroamatnight.Motherhadtosleeponthefloorinhisroamtokeep him there.Whenshe an::l her husbarrl wenttothebedroamatnight,the 00y followed.Shetriedtolockthebedroamdoor,buthe childbecame hysterical,nearlybreakingthedoor. 'Ihe00y wasafraidof lOOnstersm hisroam, an::l afraidthathis m:>ther was goirg toleave him. Itispossiblethatthechildwas reactirg tootherfears which weretriggeredbythe earthquake, but which have lOOre todowiththefact-10-

PAGE 14

thathis IIDther hadjustremarried.Ifthechild'sfearsdonotsubsideinthenext fewweeks,recarmnerx1ation wasmadethatthefamilyapplyforassistancetotheclinic.Girl, Age 3Years, 6!b1t:hs'!he girlhadbeen"devastated'bythe earthquake. Shewasafraidof "everyt:.hi,n:;J" When the earthquakecx:::curred,there wasanelectricaloutage am thetelevisionwentblank.Sincethat tinE shehadbeenafraidevery tinE thatthetelevisionis tmned offorevenchannels changed. Atthe tinE ofthe earthquake, shewas eatin:J her 1OOnU.rq snack. SUbsequently she would noteatanysnacks, awarent!yassociatirg themwiththescaryevent.Eightdayslater, sane oftheabove synptans still cxmtinued, butlessso am thegirlwas reM happyagain, goirg toschoolwithoutany problems.Mother feelsthatwhathelpedwas enJagirg herin drawirgamtalki.rg aboutthe earthquakeam her feelirgs.BaY Age 5 '!he childwouldn'tgotohis roomwithoutsoneonegoirg withhim.On overcast daysoratnighttimehewouldn'tgoinatall.Heimagined m:msters in his:r:oan. Inhisschoolclasshe covered hisheadwith harrls atthe nenti.on ofthe earthquake. Hewashelpedtodraw am totalkaboutthe earthquake inagroupwithotherchildrenwhohadsimilarfears.His problems rapidly am practically disappeared ina fewweeks. GirlAge 3Years, 6!b1t:hs'!he girlwasafraidtobeanywhereinthehousewithoutherparentspresent.Parents werefirxiin;J thesituation Hoursbeforeshewenttosleepshemadesureherparents would bethere. Mother was"atherwits en::l"am shehadstartedscoldingchild,whichonlyescalatedthe problems, butshe"couldn'tstopherself". Mother washelpedin acceptirg herdaughter'sfears am1i.stenirxJ to them whileatthesametime beirg firm, amencouragi.rg thechildto resune herpriorlevelofadjustment am mastery. Symptansdisappeared withina fewweeks.BaY Age 3Years, 6!b1t:hs sincethe earthquake, theboyhadbeen acti.rg upatschool.Hewas frustrated, upset, refusi.rg toshareanythingwithotherchildren am showingopenanxiety.Heoftenhitotherchildren am wasoversensitivetonoises. When lights were outatschool,becauseofashortcircuit,hehadatemptertantnnnintheclassroom.Closer examination ofthehomesituationrevealedthatthechildwas reactirg tomanyotherfactors,thatis,illnessofhis :rrotheram -11-

PAGE 15

grarrlfather,ani arecent IlJVe to anotherhouse. Adecisionwasmadetofocuson helpirg himwiththesefears anii.rrleed,when they were dealtwith,the earthquake fears disappeared.DISCIESICN InthispilotstudyofreactioristotheWhittier Narrov.'SEarthquake, 60 iniividuals (30adults ani 30chi.ldren), wereintervier.ved. A c:x:llIprrison wasmadeoffamilies residi.rg neartheepicenterinWhittierwiththose :receivirg servicesata chi.ld guidancecliniclocatedinthesan Femarrlo Valley,30miles fran theepicenter. 'D1e analysisofthereportedtraumaticeffectsofthis earthquakerevealed that a1.nDst allofthe chi.ldren didnot recognize theeventtobean earthquake. '!hisresponseisparticularly interestirg since preparedness activities such asdrillshadbeen taki.rgplace attheschools ani televisionspecialson earthquakes hadrecentlybeenpresented. 'D1eearthquake wasa frighte1'1in:J eventtoparents ani chi.ldren.'!hemajorityoftheadult respon:lents viewed another major earthquake asapossibility;theprospectofanothertypeofmajordisaster, however, washeldasminimal.'!hemedia,particularlytelevision,wastheprimary source ofinfonnation followinJ theevent. 'lWo-thirds ofthe drildren reportedthattheysought enotional supportfromtheir parent (s) ani toldthemofthefears.Parentstookcharge aniinstnlcted their chi.ldren whatthey were todo. Ventilatirg their fee1in:Jsanitalkin:J abouttheeventtotheirparentswasreportedas alleviatirg theirfears.Althoughthreetofive II:>nths later, a1.nDst halfofthesample were still fee1inJ frightened aniII:>st ofthe chi.ldren werestill havinJintrusive thoughts;thatis,they were still think.irg aboutthe earthquake. otherfrequentlyreportedpost-traumaticeffectsonthe chi.ldren weresleepproblems ani specificfears.Althoughthesereactions appeared to cilinini.sh over time aswell,theypersistedin a1.nDst halftheoverallsample.Itis inportant tonotethat several aftershockshadoccurred durinJ thisperiod.'!here were also rernin:lers, inWhittierparticularly,ofthedamagecausedbytheearthquake.Familieswhosoughtclinicservicesinanareadistantfromtheepicenter seemed torepresenta II:>re troubledpopulationwith II:>re persistentfears.In c::cmparirg theresponsesoftheWhittiersamplewiththoseofthesan Fernan:lo Valleyclinicsample,we fourrl thatthelatterhadahigherpercentageofreported di.stw:binJ behaviorintheperiod inunediatelyfollowirg the earthquake. weare aware thataselectivefactoris operatirg, astheparentssoughtclinical intavention becauseof sympt:cms their chi.ldren manifested.-12-

PAGE 16

'lhese f:in:linJs areconsistentwiththe1972studyof post-earthquake :reactionsoffamilies usirg clinic seJ:Vices atthissameclinic.Inthatstudy,clinicfamiliesalso rep:>rted ahigherlevelof synptanatology intheirchildrenthanthenon-cliniccontrols residi.n;J inthesame geographic area.consistentwiththe f:in:linJs ofthe1972studyisthepersistenceofspecificfears ani sleep

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader cam 2200289Ia 4500
controlfield tag 001 001985182
005 20090311110242.0
008 980505s1989 cou b s000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a F57-00042
035
(OCoLC)39061881
040
DDB
c DDB
d OCLCG
043
n-us-ca
086
UCB6/57.15/29
2 codocs
1 100
Gordon, Norma S.,
1926-
0 245
Post-disaster adaptive responses :
b parent-child reactions to the Los Angeles area/Whittier Narrows earthquake /
Norma S. Gordon, Carl A. Maida.
3 246
Parent-child reactions to the Los Angeles area/Whittier Narrows earthquake
260
Boulder, Colo. :
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado,
1989.
300
13 p. ;
28 cm.
440
Quick response research report ;
v #29
500
Cover title.
"Institute of Behavioral Science #6."
504
Includes bibliographical references (p. 13).
530
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
650
Disaster victims
x Mental health
z California
Los Angeles.
Child disaster victims
Mental health
California
Los Angeles.
Earthquakes
California
Los Angeles
Psychological aspects.
700
Maida, Carl A.
710
University of Colorado, Boulder.
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.
University of Colorado, Boulder.
Institute of Behavioral Science.
773
t Natural Hazards Center Collection
TKR
ARL-FMHI
049
FHIM
994
C0
FHI
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?f57.42