Social disruption and psychological stress in an Alaskan fishing community

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Social disruption and psychological stress in an Alaskan fishing community

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Title:
Social disruption and psychological stress in an Alaskan fishing community the impact of the Exxon Valdex [sic] oil spill
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Creator:
Picou, J. Steven
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Southern Sociological Society (U.S.) -- Meeting, 1990
Place of Publication:
[Boulder, Colo.]
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado
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Language:
English
Physical Description:
27 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Alaska, 1989 ( lcsh )
Oil spills -- Social aspects -- Alaska -- Prince William Sound Region ( lcsh )
Disaster victims -- Mental health -- Alaska -- Cordova ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 24-27).
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library’s disaster mental health initiative.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Sociological Society, Louisville, Kentucky, March 23, 1990."
Statement of Responsibility:
J. Steven Picou ... [et al.].

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001985170 ( ALEPH )
39104753 ( OCLC )
F57-00049 ( USFLDC DOI )
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Social disruption and psychological stress in an Alaskan fishing community :
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J. Steven Picou ... [et al.].
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HAZARD HOUSE COPY .. Soc.\.. l b\s..a.w\ ..' S-\tess.. (, .....""c.e Oi' S /

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SOCIAL DISRUPTION AND PSYCHOLOGICALSTRESSINANALASKANFISHINGCOMMUNITY:THEIMPACTOFTHEEXXONVALDEXOILSPILL. J.StevenpicouUniversityofSouthAlabamaDuaneA.GillMississippiStateUniversityChristopherL.DyerUniversityofSouthAlabamaEvansW.CurryTexasTechUniversityQUICKRESPONSERESEARCHREPORT #35 *PaperpresentedattheannualmeetingoftheSouthernSociologicalSociety,Louisville,Kentucky,March23,1990.FundsforthisresearchwereprovidedbyTheNaturalHazardsResourceandInformationCenter,universityofColorado(Boulder),TheCoastalResearchandDevelopmentInstitute,TheUniversityofSouthAlabamaandTheSocialScienceResearchCenter,MississippiStateUniversity.SpecialthanksisextendedtoBobShipp,BradDavis,ArtCosbyandHildaCruthirdsfortheirrespectivecontributionstothecompletionofthisstudy.Theauthorsareresponsibleforthecontentsofthisresearch.Donotreferencewithoutauthors'permission.TheviewsexpressedinthisreportarethoseoftheauthorsandnotnecessarilythoseoftheNaturalHazardsCenterortheUniversityofColorado.This publication is partofthe Natural Hazards Research&Applications Information Center's ongoing Quick Response Research Report Series. http://wWW.colorado.edu/hazards

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SocialDisruptionandPsychologicalStressinanAlaskanFishingCommunity:TheImpactoftheExxonValdezOilSpillJ.S.Picou,D.Gill,C.L.Dyer,E.W.CurryABSTRACTThestudyofthesocialimpactsoftechnologicalaccidentsisfastbecominganareaofinterdisciplinaryresearchforbothbasicandappliedsocialscientists.TechnologicalaccidentssuchastheExxonValdezspillcreateman-madedisastersituationswhichthreatencommunitysurvivalandthewell-beingandqualityoflifeofcommunityresidents.Themostseveresocialimpactsofman-madedisastersoccurincommunitieswhichnotonlydependupontheintegrityandsafetyoftheirlocalenvironmentforexistence,butalsofollowalife-stylewhichisdirectlysupportedbytheuseofrenewableresourcesfromtheecosystem.Thebroadconceptof"socialimpact"isconceptualizedinthisresearchintermsofthreecomponents-1)economicimpacts;2)psychosocialimpactsand;3)culturalimpacts.Morespecifically,thisresearchreportfocusesonculturalandpsychologicalimpactsidentifiedthroughcomparisonsof"control"and"impactcommunity"data.Twogeneralpost-traumaticstressareasarecontrastedforsixteenseparateindicators1)intrusiverecollections;and2)avoidancebehavior(DiagnosticandStatisticalmanualofMentalDisorders,1987).Inaddition,patternsofsocialdisruptionwerecontrastedforbothcommunities.Adisasterimpactassessmentdesignwasdevelopedwhichincluded:1)arandomsampleofCordovahouseholds(impactcommunity,n=118);2)anethnographicnetworksampleofNativeAlaskans,(n=32)and;3) arandomsampleofPetersburgresidents(controlcommunity,n=73).Thedataanalysisrevealedthatsignificantlymoresocialdisruptionwasexperiencedintheimpactcommunityfromcomparisonstothecontrolcommunity.Specifically,socialdisruptionoffutureplansandworkactivitiesweremorepronouncedintheimpactcommunity.Intermsofpatternsofpost-traumaticstress,impactcommunityresidentsexperiencedmoretraumaintermsofhaVingmorerecollectionsofthespill,behaviorsthatreflectedtheavoidanceofstimuliassociatedwiththespillandageneraldiminishedresponsivenessor"numbness"toactivitiesassociatedwiththespill.Onlyoneoutofsixteencomparisonswasfoundnottobestatisticallysignificantintheanalysis.Thesefindingssuggesta maximumamountofsocialdisruptionresultedfromtheExxonValdezoilspillintheimpactcommunity.Thisdisruptionandcontinuingobservanceofextremeecosystemstressproducedhigh-levelsofpost-traumaticstressexistingfivetoeightmonthsafterthespill.Giventhatpreviousresearchindicatesthatman-madedisastersmanifestlong-termsocialpsychologicalimpactsoncommunities,continuedmonitoringandprogrammaticresponsestothesefindingsareneeded.

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SocialDisruptionandPsychologicalStressinanAlaskanFishingCommunity:TheImpactoftheExxonValdezOilSpillIntroductionTheprimaryobjectiveofthisresearchisananalysisofsocialdisruptionandpost-traumaticstressexperiencedinanAlaskanfishingcommunityfivemonthsfollowingthelargestoilspillinUnitedStateshistory.Conceptually,theExxonValdezoilspillisdefinedasatechnologicaldisaster(Baum,efaI,1982;1983;omohundro,1982;GillandPicou,1989)andourresearchdesignincludesdatacollectedinbotha"controlcommunity"andthe"impactcommunity".Theanalysiscontrastsdifferencesinourindicatorsinboth"item-by-item"iterations,aswellasforaggregateindicatorsoftypesofpost-traumaticstressdisorder(DiagnosticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders,1987).DisastersandSocialDisruptionDisastersaresituationswhicharesociallydefinedinthecontextofhumancommunitiesandtheirphysicalenvironment.Anoccasionistypicallydefinedasadisasterifthesocialsystem'sabilitytoreasonableensurebiologicalsurvival,socialorder,socialmeaningsandsocialinteractionaredisrupted(Fritz,1961;Barton,1969;Dynes,1970;QuarantelliandDynes,1970).Disasterspossessavarietyofcharacteristics,e.g.,source,speedofonset,scopeofimpact,durationofimpact,etc.,whichidentifyuniquestructuralcomponents(Dynes,1970;Barton,1969).Disastersalsohavedirectconsequencesforthedisruptionofawidevarietyofcommunityactivities(Dynes,1970;Erickson,etaI,1976;DrabekandKey,1976;Mileti,etaI,1975).Mostrecentlyinthedisasterliterature,increasedattentionhasbeenaccordedto"man-made",or"technologicaldisasters"intermsoftheirpossessingbothuniquecharacteristicsandconsequencesforhumancommunities(Turner,1978;Baum,etaI,1983;Omohundro,1982;GillandPicou,1989;Bogard,1989).Abriefdiscussionofthisliteraturewillbepresentedbelow.TechnologicalDisastersThetwentiethcenturyhasbeenthesettingfortheemergenceoftechnologicaldisasters.MassivedisastersatBhopal(India,1986),Chernobyl(USSR,1986),ThreeMileIsland(USA,1979),LoveCanal(USA,1978-1980)andBuffaloCreek(USA,1972)wereuniquebecauseatechnologicalmalfunction,notnature,wasdefinedasthecause.Thisqualitativedistinctioncallsintoquestionacceptednotionsofliabilityandresponsibilityforsocial,economicandpoliticalcostsassociatedwithtechnologicalaccidentsandforcesareevaluationofapplieddisasterresearch(Shirvastava,1987;Bogard,1989;Edelstein,1989).1

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Technologicaldisastersareabruptdisturbancestoboththeecosystemandsocialsystem,whichresultinhighdegreesofuncertaintyandstressatalllevelsofeffectedcommunities.The"increasinghazardousnessofoureverydayenvironment"hasresultedinincreased"rates"and"vulnerability"totechnologicalaccidents(Bogard,1989).Researchhaddocumentedavarietyofconsequenceswhicharecharacteristicoftechnologicaldisasters.First,technologicaldisastershavethepotentialtopermanentlyeliminatecommunities.Althoughonecouldarguethatthesamepotentialconsequencecouldresultfromanaturaldisaster,evidencefromLoveCanalandChernoybalpointtothisrealisticpossibilityintermsoftoxicandtechnologicalmalfunctions(BrownandHarris,1979).Furthermore,communitysurvivalcanbedirectlythreatenedbyseverepollutiontotheenvironmentinareaswhereecosystemresourcesareutilizedtosupportbothphysicalandculturalstructures(RobbinsandMcNabb,1987).Inshort,technologicaldisastersmaypermanentlyeliminatecommunitiesthroughcontamination(Oliver-Smith,1986).Insomecases,especiallyinoilspills,noinitiallossoflifeorphysicaldestructionneedtakeplace(Omohundro,1987).Nonethelessthethreatposedbytechnologicaldisastersoftendirectlychallengescommunitysurvival.Secondly,technologicalaccidentsresultina"...lossofcontroloversomethingthatwasonceperceivedascontrollable,while...naturaldisastershighlightsaperceivedlackofcontroloversomethingthateitherneverwasperceivedascontrollableorforwhichcontrollabilitywasnotparticularlysalient"(Baum,etal.,1983:120).Thisconceptoflossofcontrolisdirectlylinkedtotheissueofliability,which,inturn,directlyinvolveslitigation.Class-actionlawsuitsandout-of-courtsettlementsbetweencommunitiesandliableorganizationshavebecomeanincreasinglong-termcharacteristicoftechnologicalaccidents(GIeser,etal.,1978;Edelstein,1989;RosebrookandPicou,1990).Thelitigationprocessmayhaveavarietyofsecondaryimpactsonacommunitywhichprolonglong-term,negativeconsequencesstemmingfromtheoriginaltechnologicalmalfunction(Erikson,1976).Insum,technologicaldisastersaremorelikelytospawnanumberof"secondarydisasters"whichprolongcommunityimpacts.Finally,technologicalaccidentsproducesurvivorswhoexhibitmore"...anger,hostility,andragethan...victimsofnaturaldisasters"(Ahearn,1981;Baum,etal.,1983).Inaddition,long-termsocialpsychologicalimpactshavebeendocumentedfromawide-varietyofstudies(Erikson,1976;Bromet,1980;GIeser,GreenandWingate,1981;GillandPicou,1990).Indeed,prolongedpsychologicalimpactsmaycharacterizetechnologicaldisasterswhentheyaredefinedasaparticulartypeofstressor(ElliottandEisdorfer,1982;AhearnandCohen,1984;Green,LindyandGrace,1985).Technologicaldisasters2

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haveproducedlong-termstressanddisruptionincommunities.effectedFromthisbriefdiscussionitisevidentthattechnologicaldisastersincreasinglyposearisktocommunitiesthroughouttheworld.Theexistenceofatechnologicaldisastermayactuallygounnoticedbythecommunity(toxicwastedisposalsites),threatentheeconomicviabilityofacommunity(oilspills)oreffectivelyeliminatecommunities(nuclearmeltdown).Allofthetechnologicaldisastersnotedabovemaypotentiallydisruptcommunitystructureandproducepost-traumaticstresspatternsforextensiveperiodsoftime.Aconceptualapproachforstudyingtheseimpactsispresentedbelow.TechnologicalDisasterImpacts:AConceptualApproachTechnologicaldisastersarecomplexsocialeventswhichcanbeunderstoodintermsofdisasterstructureanddisasterconsequences.Thisresearchfocusesonthe"consequences"or"impact"ofaspecifictechnologicaldisaster(theExxonValdezoilspill)onasmallAlaskanfishingcommunity(Cordova).Figure1presentsacomprehensiveconceptualframeworkforevaluatingthesocialimpactsoftechnologicaldisasters.Hazardsareviewedasresultingfromthemassintroductionofchemicalindustrialtechnologieswhichhavethepotentialtocauseharmtoboththeenvironmentandpeople(Bogard,1989).Theexistenceofanincreasinglyhazardousenvironmentincreasesthepotentialfortechnologicalaccidentsstemmingfromvariouscombinationsofhumanerrorandtechnologicalmalfunctions.Theseverityofthetechnologicalaccident,inturn,leadstoa"definitionofthesituation"oftheaccidentasbeingatechnologicaldisaster.Researchonthesocialimpactsofanytechnologicaldisastershouldminimallyincludeeconomic,culturalandpsychologicaldimensions(Picou,1984).[Figure1abouthere]Theassessmentofeconomicimpactsinclude"quantifyingandassigningmonetaryvaluestothedamagestothenaturalresourcesoftheimpactalregion"(FreemanandKopp,1989).Basedontheideaofcompensation,economicassessmentsinvolveresearchactivitiesrangingfromthecalculationofdirectlossofdollarslosttothequantificationofestimatesofdollarlossesforvariousresourcesoftheecosystem,e.g.,thesalmonfisheryinPrinceWilliamSound.CUlturalimpactsinvolveidentifyingtypesofdisruptionoftheday-to-dayactivitiesofmembersofacommunity,aswellastheirchangingperceptionsofthe"qualityoflife"available.CUlturalimpactsincludechangesincommunityvalues,socialactivities,perceivedrisksandout-migrationdesires.Essentiallyculturalimpactsaredisruptivetovarioussocialgroupingsofcommunitymembersinthatpatternedbehaviorisaltereddrastically.3

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-.'.'HAZARD1TECHNOLOGICALACCIDENT1TECHNOLOGICALDISASTEREXXONVALDEZOiLSPILL1ECONOMIC IMPACTS SOCiAL IMPACTS ON COMMUNITY CULTURALIMPACTSAssessedBy:(1)DescriptiveResearch;(2)ControlCommunity;(3) ImpactVariationsWithinCommunity:PSYCHOSOCIALIMPACTS1 Assessed By:(1)DescriptiveResearch;(2)ComparisontoStandardizedNorms;(3)Control Community;1InterdisciplinaryAnalysis1 Assessed By:(1)ExplanatoryStatisticalProcedures1Impact Assessment(1)TypeofImpact(2)MagnitudeofImpact(3)DirectionofImpact Assessed By:(1)DescriptiveResearch; (2) ComparisontoStandardIzedAverages;FIGURE1: A Conceptual Model forDisasterImpact Assessment4

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Psychosocialimpactsincludeawidevarietyofindividuallevelconsequenceswhichresultinincreasedstress,fearandattitudesofvulnerability,which,inturn,contributestoillnessandpersonaldysfunction(AhearnandCohen,1984).Socialpsychologicalstressmaybemeasuredintermsofposttraumaticstressdisorderpatterns.Figure2identifiestheconceptualfocusofthepresentstudy.OUrresearchfocusesonsocialdisruptionandposttraumaticstressexistingfivemonthsafterthespillinthefishingcommunityofCordova,Alaska.Assuch,Figure2identifiestheimpactsofthespillasbeingdisruptiveandproducingtypesofpost-traumaticstressdisorders(DiagnosticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders,1987).ReturningtoFigure1,thisresearchisaninterdisciplinaryanalysisofculturalandpsychosocialimpactsdeterminedthroughacomparativeanalysisofdifferencesobservedbetweencontrolandimpactcommunities.[Figure2abouthere]TheExxonValdezOilSpillOnMarch24,1989at12:04a.m.thesupertankerExxonValdezranagroundonBlighReef,resultinginthelargestoilspillinUnitedStateshistory.Withinfivehoursoftheaccident,tenmilliongallonsofPrudhoeBay(NorthSlope)crudeescapedintothepristinewatersofPrinceWilliamSound.OverthenexttwoweeksExxonoffloadingoperationsresultedinthetransferofover950,000barrelsofoilfromtheExxonValdeztoothertankers.DuringthistimeperiodadditionaloilwasreleasedintoPrinceWilliamSound(NationalResponseTeam,1989).Thisoilspillofelevenmilliongallonswouldbetoolargeforanyresponseplanortechnologytocontain.Theimmediateimpactofthespillonthelocalecosystemwasdevastating.Figure3identifiesthelocationoftheExxonValdezspillintermsofbird,marineandmammalconcentrationsinthePrinceWilliamSoundarea.Theenvironmentalconditionscharacterizingthisspillactuallyincreasedtheseverityoftheenvironmentalimpact(NationalResponseTeam,1989).Forexample,thetypeofoilspilledandthelowertemperaturesresultedina muchslowerrateofbiodegradation,physicalweatheringandevaporationoftheoil.Inaddition,considerablymorecoastline(350miles)wasimpactedfromtheExxonValdezspillthanthe68milliongallonAmocoCadiz(240miles)spilloffthecoastofNorthwestFrance.[Figure3abouthere]SixmonthsfollowingthespillthedeathtollforbirdsandmarinemammalsinthePrinceWilliamSoundareawasstaggering.Conservativeestimateshadover33,000birds,980seaotters,30harborseals,17graywhalesand14sealionsdocumentedinthe5

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JSocialOil DisruptionSpillandImpactTraumaIntrusive Recollections___ Stress)Context Avoidance FIGURE2:Conceptualmodelofsocialdisruptionandtraumaticstress.6post-

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201ft'oLSf!ltblrdlJ."'8t8"0"",ind.lStihnonhlt'ehftry........Pltcll1chfJrrln!1!"ltwn'ng"fl'ltSf!'ottftrcrmcftnlrlttlonIt""..ASdlion.ndtee'heulout!ileoio'", III.r _._ ..:,. -'.:'A,,,,,'rom,,110'. o.'.'.: ,u/dfthtt'n""rfthrough th. frle", :.I0 Vjldtt Njrro""t. 'h' I:uonYlt'der "0' ....tAttIntobrlghn.. ,...' .. :.", '.0.. .,,. -8. FIGURE3:Locationofspill,wildlifeconcentrationsandCommunityof Cordova. 7

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deathtoll(Nichols,1989).However,fearsoffoodchaincontaminationandtheobservationofaberrantbirdbehavior(75percentofallbaldeaglesfailedtonest)portendscontinuedcontaminationrisksforbirdsandmarinemammalswellintothefuture.TheimpactofthespillonmicrobioticlifeinintertiddalzonesandforthevariousfisheriesinPrinceWilliamSoundishighlyuncertain.The1989Herringseasonwasclosedfollowingthespill.Long-termimpactsonthelargesalmonfisheryinPrinceWilliamSoundwillnotbeaccuratelyknownuntilfryreleasedthisyearbegintoreturn(NationalResponseTeam,1989).Therefore,salmon,halibut,herring,crabandclamfishermenwillnotunderstandthefulleconomicconsequencesofthespillforlocalfisheriesuntilthe1992to1994fishingseasons.TheResearchSettingCordovaisasmall,picturesquefishingcommunitylocatedinPrinceWilliamSoundinsouthcentralAlaska.Cordovaisisolatedfromothercommunitiesbymountains,glaciers,riversandthesea.NoroadshaveconnectedCordovatoothercommunitiessincetheearthquakeof1964.Amaritimeclimateofheavypercipitation'andmoderatetemperaturescharacterizesthisregion.TheeconomyofCordovaisdominatedbycommercialfishing.Cordovafishermenhold44percentofallPrinceWilliamSoundherringfisherypermitsand55percentofallPrinceWilliamSoundsalmonfisherypermits(Stratton,1989).SubsistenceactivitiescharacterizemostoftheresidentsofCordova.Harvesting,receivingandgivingawayfish,moose,deer,berries,etc.areactivitiescommontothevastmajorityoftheresidentsinCordova.Historically,thecommunityofCordovacanbetracedtofourEyakIndianVillagesandtheterritoriesoftheChugachEskimos.Earlydocumentsidentifythe1898AlaskagoldrushasareasonforgrowthinCordova'spopulation.Thecitywasofficiallyincorporatedin1909andquicklybecametheexportcenterofcopperbeingminedintheWrangellmountainsnorthofCordova(Stratton,1989).Followingtheclosingoftheseminingoperationsandtherailroadin1939,Cordovaresidentsbecameinvolvedinthegrowingsalmonindustry.Cordova'spopulationremainedaround1000residentsuntilthe1970'sfoundthepopulationtoalmostdouble.Thisdecadeofgrowthstemmedfromadiversificationofthecommercialfishingindustryintheareaandincreasedin-migrationtrendstoAlaskaingeneral.AtthetimeofExxonValdezoilspillCordovacouldbedescribedasanisolatedcommunity,highlydependentoncommercialfishingforaneconomicbase,andhavingaculturalhistoryofsubsistencepracticesstemmingdirectlyfromaNative-8

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Alaskanheritage.Approximately20percentoftheresidentsofCordovaareNative-Alaskans.Duetothecommunity'slocation(seeFigure3),nooilfromtheExxonvaldezreachedtheshoresorimmediatevicinityofCordova.However,thespilldirectlyimpactedcriticalfishinggroundsofPrinceWilliamSoundwhichareusedbylocalfishermen.ResearchDesignAdisasterimpactassessmentresearchdesignguidedthemethodologicalproceduresforthisstudy(PicouandGill,1989).ThisdesignincludesallassessmentproceduresnotedinFigure1foracomprehensivesocialimpactassessmentoftechnologicaldisasters.Cordovawasselectedastheimpactcommunityofinterestbecauseofitseconomicdependencyoncommercialfishinganditsculturalheritageofsubsistenceactivities.TheoverallresearchdesignispresentedinFigure4.Datawerecollectedfrom:(1)astratified,randomsampleofhouseholdsinCordova;(2)anethnographicnetworksampleofNative-Alaskans;(3)arandomtelephonesurveyofpetersburg,Alaskaresidents(seebelow)and(4)arandomtelephonesurveyofCordovaresidents.ThisresearchreportdoesnotincludedataonNative-Alaskans.Separatestudiesonthispopulationareinprogress(see:Dyer,Picou,GillandCurry,1990).[Figure4abouthere]Thelogicofthesedata-collectionproceduresrelatestouniqueresearchproblemsassociatedwithidentifyingandevaluatingtheimpactsofdisasters(PicouandGill,1989).Minimally,suchanassessmentshouldinclude:propersamplingprocedures,controlcommunitycomparisons,appropriatemethodologiesforspecialpopulationsandstandardizedindicatorsofimpactsusedinpreviousdisasterresearch(Solomon,1989;PicouandGill,1989).ControlCommunitySelection:AfteranevaluationofdemographiccharacteristicsofAlaskancommunitiesfromcensusandculturalinformation,thecityofpetersburg,Alaskawasselectedasacontrolcommunityforthisresearch.LikeCordova,Petersburgisisolatedbynothavingroadslinkeddirectlytoitandisdependenteconomicallyoncommercialfishing.Petersburghasapopulationof3,137peopleandhasanAlaskanNativepopulationwhichcomprisesapproximately20percentofthecommunity(Smythe,1988).A29.5milliondollarsalmonfisheryexistsinPetersburg,whilea 36milliondollarsalmonfisherycharacterizesCordova'seconomy(Smythe,1988;Stratton,1989).petersburgresidentssharesubsistenceharvestsinamannersimilartoCordovaresidents.Forexample,intermsofsalmonsubsistenceactivities72percentofCordovaresidentsharvestsalmon,while63percentofPetersburgresidentsengageinsalmonharvesting.InCordova,58percentoftheresidentsreceivesalmonwhile61percentreceivesalmoninpetersburg.Percentagesofresidentswhogiveawaysalmonarealsosimilar9

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T1August,1989CORDOVAHOUSEHOLDSURVEY(1)RandomHouseholdSample(2)PersonalInterviews(3)N=86CORDOVANATIVEAMERICANSURVEY(1)EthnographicNetwork Sample(2)N-32T2November-December, 1989CORDOVARELIABILITYSURVEY(1)RandomTelephoneSample(2)Cat1Interviews(3)N-32PETERSBURGCONTROLSURVEY(1)RandomTelephoneSample(2)CAT1Interviews(3)N-73IMPACT ASSESSMENTS ,.--------, NATIVEAMERICANDATAFIGURE4:ResearchDesignforDisasterImpactAssessment10

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(61% Cordova; 55% Petersburg.Formoreinformation,see:Smythe,1988andGarrett,1989).Giventhedemographicandculturalinformationdiscussedabove,itwasfurtherdecidedthatpetersburgreceivedminimaldirectimpactsfromtheExxonValdezspill.Fishingseasonswerenotdirectlyeffected,althoughsomelimitedleasingofboatsbyExxonforthecleanupdidoccur.ItshouldbenotedthatitishighlyprobablethatsomePetersburgresidentswereimpacteduponnegativelybythespill.ItisobviousthatallAlaskancommunitiesaresensitivetoenvironmentalstressandrelatedpoliticalissuesinvolvingtheoilindustryandstategovernment.Becauseofthisfact,theuseofpetersburgshouldprovideaveryconservativeestimateofthemagnitudeofanyimpactsobserved.ThedataforthecontrolcommunitywerecollectedbytelephoneinterviewsbytheSurveyResearchUnitoftheSocialScienceResearchCenter,MississippiStateUniversity.Inaddition,telephoneinterviewswerealsocollectedinCordovaduringthesametimeperioddatawerecollectedforthecontrolcommunity.Thehouseholdstobeinterviewedwererandomlyselectedfromalistofallpossibletelephonenumbersinbothcommunities(peopleinterviewedinthehouseholdsurveywereexcluded).Onceahouseholdwasreachedbythetelephoneinterviewer,interviewersrandomlyaskedtotalkto:1)theoldestmale;2)youngestmale;3)theoldestfemale;and4)youngestfemale(over17yearsofage).ThisprocedurereflectsamodifiedversionoftheThroldahl-Carterapproachforrandomhouseholdsamplingfortelephoneinterviews(formoreinformation,see:Frey1983).Theinterviewswereconductedinearlytomid-December,1989.HouseholdSampleSelection:AresearchteamoftwosociologistsandoneanthropologistarrivedinCordova,AlaskaonAugust19,1989.Uponarrivalandthroughoutthefirstday,theresearchersidentifiedseven(7)residentialareasinthetownofapproximately2,300residents(seemap1).Oncethesesevenresidentialareaswereidentified,householdswereidentifiedandassignednumbersforrandomselection.Tablesofrandomnumberswereutilizedforselectionofhouseholds.Astratified,randomhouseholdsamplewasobtained.Datawerecollectedinapproximatelyseventy(70)households,resultinginafinalsampleofeighty-six(86)residentsofthecommunity.Householdsmemberspresentinselectedlocationswereinterviewedbymembersoftheresearchteam.Duringthemorningofthefirstdayofinterviewing,theresearchersconductedafieldpre-testoftheinterviewinstrument.Thesepre-testingactivitiesidentifiedanumberofquestionnaireindicatorswhichwereinappropriateforuse.Indicatorswereeliminated,addedandseveralitemsweremodified.Theseactivitiesresultedinafinalquestionnairewhichcontaineditemsjudgedtobecommunicable,relevant,accurateandappropriateforcollectingin-depthdataontheeconomic,psychological,culturalandcommunityimpactsoftheExxonvaldezoilspill.11

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[Map 1abouthere]IndicatorsandMeasures:Questionnairescontainingsimilarindicatorswereusedforbothtelephoneandpersonalinterviews.Theinstrumentsincludedonthequestionnairewereselectedbecauseoftheiruseinpreviousdisasterresearch,theiracceptanceinprevioustoxictortlitigationandtheirdocumentedrelevancetotheactualdisasterexperience(Siegel,etaI,1984;Picou,1984;Solomon,1989).Fourindicatorsofperceivedsocialdisruptionareanalyzedinthisresearch.Thespecificitemswereoperationalizedintermsofchangesinthewayfamilymembersgetalong,makingchangesinfutureplans,havingrelativesmakechangesinfutureplans,andhavingmadechangesintheworkplacesetting(seeTable1).Theseitemsprovideaindicatorofgeneralsocialdisruptionforcommunitygroups(familiesandworkgroups).Psychologicalstresswasoperationalizedintermsofthe"ImpactofEventsScale(IES)"whichprovidesabasisfordeterminingandmeasuringPost-TraumaticStressDisorder,aclinicallyrecognizedstressdisorderwhichhasbeendocumentedasoftenhavingdelayedsymptoms(2years)resultingfromtraumaticevents(HOrowitz,WilnerandAlvarez,1979;DiagnosticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders,1987;Glesner,Greenandwinget,1981;Green,LindyandGrace,1985;Solomon,1989).ThelogicoftheIESscalesuggeststhatverystressful,traumaticevents,suchasadisaster,resultinahigh-incidenceofrecurring,distressingthoughtsabouttheeventandattemptstoavoidthoughtandbehaviorassociatedwiththedisasterortraumaticevent(Horowitz,WilnerandAlverez,1979;DiagnosticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders,1987;Solomon,1989).ThesetwoPTSDComponentswillbecomparativelyanalyzedbelow.DataAnalysisThedataanalysiswillbeconductedinthefollowingmanner.Firstanitem-by-itemcomparisonofcontrolandimpactcommunityresponseswillbeconductedforindicatorsofbothsocialdisruptionandpost-traumaticstressdisorder.Achi-squaretestofdifferenceswasconductedforeachresponsecomparison(Yeomans,1968).Second,thepost-traumaticstressindicatorsweredividedintoscaleindicatorsforintrusiverecollectionsandavoidancebehavior(Seigel,etaI,1984).Thesescaleitemsweresummatedandcomparisonsofmeanscoreswereconductedbyttestsofdifferences(Yeomans,1968).Comparisonsofmeanscoresweremadeforthecontrolcommunityandimpactcommunity,aswellasforthevarioussourcesofdataidentifiedinFigure4.Finally,correlationcoefficientswerecalculatedbetweenthedisruptionindicatorsandthetwoformsofPTSDwithintheimpactcommunity.Table1presentsthefoursocialdisruptionitemsforbothcontrolandimpactcommunities.Allfourchi-squarecomparisonswerefoundtobestatisticallysignificant,indicatingfroman12

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hE N 1 MAP1:CordovaCommunity13 Lak.e

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inspectionoftheresponsepatternsthatconsiderablymoresocialdisruptionwasreportedintheimpactcommunity.Almostfortypercentoftherespondentsintheimpactcommunityreportedthatasaresultofthespilltheyhadexperiencedchangesintheirfamilyrelations.Approximatelyninepercentofthecontrolcommunityrespondentsgaveasimilarresponse(Table1).[Table1abouthere]Theuncertaintygeneratedfromthespillisapparentinthatfifty-onepercentoftheimpactcommunityrespondentsreportedthattheyhadmadechangesintheirfutureplans.Only14percentofthecontrolcommunityrespondentshadsimilarresponses.Thirtypercentoftheimpactcommunityalsoreportedthatotherfamilymembersandmadechangesintheirfutureplans,suggestingabroadimpactintermsofthecreationofanuncertainfuture.Thefocusofthisuncertaintyforthefuturemaybetheworkplace,orimmediateeconomicuncertainty,generatedbythespill.Table1revealsthatalmostsevenofeverytenrespondentsreported"thingshadchangedforthematwork.Thenatureofthesework-basedchangesreflectthedependencyoftheimpactcommunity'seconomicbaseonPrinceWilliamSound'sresources.Commercialfishingactivitiesweredirectlydisruptedbythespill,resultinginacorrespondingseriesofmixedimpactsonthecanneriesandtheentirebusinesscommunityinCordova.Insomeinstancesworkwasstoppedorsloweddown,whileinothersituationsworkloadsincreasedasaresultofrapidjobshifts(e.g.,clean-up,influxofmedia,technicalandpoliticalrepresentatives,etc.).TheresultspresentedinTable1canbesummarizedasfollows.Significantlymoresocialdisruptionisapparentintheimpactcommunityasaresultofthespill.Thenatureofthisdisruptiveimpactcanbedescribedasincludingfamilyrelationsandfutureplansofcommunitymembers.Wesuggestthatthis"generaluncertainty"thatcharacterizesCordovadirectlyrelatestothreatsposedbythespillforthefutureeconomicviabilityofthecommunity.Thevestmajorityofallrespondentsinterviewedintheimpactcommunityreporteddisruptionandchangesintheirworkrole,furthersuggestinganimmediatesocialimpactontraditionalday-to-dayworkactivities.Table2providestheitem-by-itemcomparisonsofthesixteenpost-traumaticstressdisorderitemsforcontrolandimpactcommunities.Chi-squaretestswereappliedforallsixteenitems.Fifteenofthesixteenchi-squareapplicationswerefoundtobestatisticallysignificant(Pr<.05),indicatingtheexistenceofastrongersymptomology of PTSDintheimpactcommunity.[Table2abouthere]14

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TABLE1:PatternsofSocialDisruptionforControlandImpactcommunities.(Control)(Impact)Asaresultof % % % % thespill...YesNoYesNo1) Haveyounoticedanychangesinthewayyourfamilygetsalongtogether?9913961*Pr<.00012) Have you madeanychangesinyourplansforthefuture?14 86 5149*Pr<.00013) Haveotherfamilymemberschangedtheirfutureplans?17833070*Pr<.0294)Havethingschangedforyouatwork? 19 81 6832*Pr<.0001*Chi-SquareAnalysis15

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TABLE2:ControlandImpactCommunityResponsestoPost-raumaticStress Items* NotatSome-AllRarelyTimesOftenIthoughtaboutitwhen(control)36 19 24 21 Ididn'tmeanto.(The *Pr <.0001thoughtofitjustpopped(Impact)14 9 2948intomyhead).Picturesaboutitpopped(Control)2926 26 19intomymind. *Pr <.031(Impact)17173234Otherthingskeptmaking(Control)26 22 30 22mehavethoughtsaboutit *Pr <.005it(evenwhen Ididn't(Impact)15 12 2746wantto)Ihadtostopmyselffrom(Control)45 14 22 19gettingupsetwhen I *Pr <.001thoughtaboutitorwas(Impact)18 19 28 35remindedofit.Itriedtoremoveit(Control)82 9 54frommymemory. (To make *Pr <.001itasthoughitnever(Impact)55 17 1018happened)Ihadtroublefalling(Control)82114 3asleeporstayingasleep *Pr <.050becauseofpicturesor(Impact)58 16179thoughtsaboutitthatcameintomymind.Ihadwavesofstrong(Control)26 15 33 26feelingsaboutthespill. *Pr <.036(Feelingsaboutitjust(Impact)12 20 33 35seemedtowashoverme).16

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NotatSome-AllRarelyTimesOftenIdidn'tfeelupset.Myfeelingsaboutitwere(Control)70 12135Kindofnumb.(Ireally *Pr <.037don'thaveany(Impact)60 19 15 6feelingsaboutit.)Ihadalotoffeelings(Control)69 14 10 7aboutitthatIdidn't *Pr <.005dealwith(ordidn't(Impact)4616 17 21didn'tknow howtohandle.Ihaddreamsaboutit.(Control)858 4 3 *Pr <.017(Impact)64 20 88 Istayedawayfrom(Control)90 72 1remindersofit(e.g., *Pr <.0001liketheroadbythe(Impact)63 20 98tracks.Ifeltasifithadn't(Control)88 35 4reallyhappened(oras *Pr <.007ifitwasn'treal).(Impact)70 16 10 4 Itriednottotalk(Control)85 4 6 5aboutit. *Pr <.001(Impact)6116 1913Itriednottothinkabout(Control)79876it.(triedtoforcemy *Pr <.002attentionawayfromit-(Impact)54 13 2013perhapstootherthings).Anyreminderbrought(Control)43 14 22 21backtheway Ifeltabout *Pr <.275it.(Impact)30 15 2827 17

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NotatSome-AllRarelyTimesOftenIsuddenlyfeltlikeit(Control)79885washappeningallover *Pr <.023gain.(Impact)4918158*Probabilityestimatesderivedfromchi-squareanalysis.18

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ThefirstfourindicatorsofPTSDwerefoundtorevealthatmajorityoftherespondentsintheimpactcommunityhadintrusiverecollectionsofthespill(i.e.,theyinadvertentlythoughtabout,experiencedpicturesofthespillorhadtopreventthemselvesfromgettingupset).Othercontrastsofintrusiverecollectionandavoidancebehavioritemsalsorevealproportionatelymorereportsofexperiencesofstressbehavior(i.e.,avoidance,numbingandrecollectionsofthetrauma)intheimpactcommunity.Theitem"anyreminderbroughtbacktheway Ifeltaboutit"manifestednostatisticallysignificantdifferencebetweenthetwocommunities.However,theresponsepatternforthisquestionrevealedthatthetrendobservedforotheritemcomparisonsalsoheld.Thatis,proportionatelymoreimpactcommunityrespondentshadexperiencedsuchthoughtsthanrespondentsinthecontrolcommunity.Atthisstageoftheanalysisitisapparentthatmoredisruptionandpost-traumaticstressexperiencescharacterizetheimpactcommunity(Cordova)thanthecontrolcommunity(Petersburg).InanattempttofurtherclarifythisobservedimpactoftheExxonValdezspill,summatedscoreswerecalculatedforthePTSDitems,reflectingexperiencesofintrusiverecollectionsandavoidancebehavior(Siegel,Blanchard-Fields,GottfriedandLowe,1984).Table3presentsmeansandstandarddeviationsforthesescalesandresultsfromthecalculationoft-tests.Severalsetsofcomparisonsweremadeinordertoevaluatethevalidityoftheresearchdesign,aswellastoevaluatedifferencesbetweencontrolandimpactcommunities.[Table3abouthere]Table3presentsPTSDscoresforthreesetsofcomparisonsforboththeintrusiverecollectionsandavoidancebehaviorscales.Thefirstcomparisoninvolvedthecontrolcommunityandtheimpactcommunity.Scoresforbothscaleswerefoundtobestatisticallysignificantlyhigherinthecontrolcommunityfromtheresultsoft-testapplications.Thesecondsetofcomparisonsofthesescalesinvolveddesegregatingtheimpactcommunitydataintothehouseholdsurveydata(Impact1)andtelephoneinterviewdata(Impact2)andcomparingdifferencesinmean.scalescoresbetweenthesegroups.Avisualinspectionofthemeanscalescores,aswellast-testresults,revealednodifferencebetweenthetwoimpactcommunitysamples.ThesefindingsfurthervalidatethedisasterimpactdesignemployedinthisresearchandsuggestthatthePTSDpatternsoriginallyobservedinAugustfortheimpactcommunityremainedrelativelyconstantthroughDecember.ThefinalcomparisonbetweenthetelephoneinterviewdatagatheredinourresearchdesignfurthervalidatesboththedirectionandcontinuingpatternofexperiencingsignificantlymorePTSDbyrespondentsfromtheimpactcommunity.19

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TABLE3:IndependentSamplesT-TestsforPostTraumaticStressDisorderComponents.XS.D.IntrusiveRecollectionsImpact61.0719.14*T-Test(N=118)=4.275;Control49.7017.02Pr<.0001(N=73)Impact161.0819.20*T-Test(N=86)N.S.Impact261.0419.28(N=32)Impact261.0419.28*T-Test(N=32)=2.871;Control49.7017.02Pr<.006(N=73)AvoidanceBehaviorImpact47.8016.75*T-Test(N=118)=5.306;Control36.7312.01Pr<.0001(N=73)Impact148.5516.38*T-Test(N=86)N.S.Impact245.8017.83(N=32)Impact245.8017.83*T-Test(N=32)=2.628;Control36.7312.01Pr<.012(N=73 )20

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InordertoclarifythepatternsofPTSDobserved,Pearsoncorrelationcoefficientswerecalculatedbetweenthefoursourcesofsocialdisruption(seeTable1)andthetwoPTSDindicators(seeTable3)forthecontrolcommunitydata.Table4providestheresultsofthesecalculations.[Table4abouthere]Interestingly,thestrongestcoefficientswereobservedfortheassociationbetween"disruptionoffamilyrelations"andPTSDcomponentsand"disruptionoffutureplans"andPTSDcomponents.TheseresultspointtoanimportantrelationshipbetweensourcesofsocialdisruptionandexperiencingperceptionsandbehaviorscharacteristicofPTSD.Thefactthatuncertaintyandfamilydysfunctionisassociatedwithhigh-levelsofPTSDclearlyidentifiesapatterncharacteristicoftheshort-termsocialimpactoftheExxonValdezoilspill.SummaryandConclusionsThisresearchprovidesinitialempiricaldatawhichdocumentsthesocialimpactsoftheExxonValdezoilspillonanAlaskanfishingcommunityinPrinceWilliamSound.TheExxonValdezspillwasconceptuallyapproachedasatechnologicaldisaster,resultingfromhumanandtechnologicalmalfunctionsofanecosystemhazard(oiltransportationactivitiesinPrinceWilliamSound).Thestudyofthesesocialimpactsrequiresaninterdisciplinaryresearchdesignwhichminimallyevaluateseconomic,culturalandpsychosocialimpacts.Thepresentresearchprovidesdataonpatternsofsocialdisruptionandposttraumaticstressdisorderderivedfromacomparisontocontrolcommunitydata.Theempiricalanalysisclearlydocumentedtheexistenceofsignificantlymoresocialdisruptionandpost-traumaticstressdisorderinCordova.Allbutoneofthetwentyindividual-itemcontrastsofdatafromCordovaandpetersburgwerefoundtobestatisticallysignificant,documentingtheexistenceofhigherlevelsofdisruptionandstressintheimpactcommunity.TheexistenceofhigherlevelsofbothformsofPTSD,i.e.,intrusiverecollectionsandavoidancebehavior,wasdocumentedthroughcommunityandsamplecomparisonsofmeanscalescores.ThisanalysisfurtherrevealedthattherewasnosignificantdeclineofPTSDintheCordovacommunityfromAugusttoDecemberoflastyear.AcorrelationanalysisfurtherdocumentedthatPTSDwasmostacuteforcommunityresidentswho,asaresultofthespill,hadexperiencedfamilyrelationsproblemsandwereforcedtochangetheirplans.Thisdisruptionoffamilycohesionandanuncertainfutureprovidethemostimportantcontextsforexperiencinghigh-levelsofPTSD.Inshort,theinitialsocialimpactoftheExxonValdezspillonCordovahasbeennegative.SignificantlymoresocialdisruptionandstresshasbeenexperiencedbyCordovaresidents.Theimplicationsoffindingswillbebrieflydiscussedbelow.21

PAGE 25

ofSocialCommunityTABLE4:CorrelationCoefficientsBetweenTypesDisruptionandPTSDComponentswithinImpact(N=118)PTSDSourceofSocialDisruptionAsaresultofthespill:1.Have younoticedchangesinthewayyourfamilygetsalongtogether?2.Have you madechangesinyourfutureplans?3.Haveotherfamilymemberschangedtheirfutureplans?4.Havethingschangedforyouatwork?*Pr<.0122IntrusiveRecollectionsScale.31* .33*.24*.10AvoidanceBehaviorScale.37*.33* .27*.13

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Theresultsofthisstudyarerelevanttothegrowingbodyofinterdiscipliningresearchontechnologicaldisasters.Althoughalldisastersprovideacontextforhavingnegativeimpactsoncommunities,theimpactsoftechnologicaldisasterscanbemorelong-termandinvolveahostof"secondarydisasters",which,inturn,produceadditionalnegativeconsequences.Asenseofcontinueduncertaintyoftencharacterizescommunitieseffectedbytechnologicaldisasters.Thedocumentationofperceptionsofuncertainty,deterioratingfamilyrelationsandPTSDfivemonthsfollowingtheExxonValdezspillestablishesanunderstandingoftheinitialpatternoftechnologicaldisasterimpacts.Thisstudyalsoprovidesdatarelevanttoclass-actionlitigationassociatedwithcompensationclaimsofPrinceWilliamSoundresidentsagainstExxonandotherparties.Increasinglysocialsciencedataisbeingusedbyplaintiffs,defendantsandthecourtstomitigatesettlementsandprovidedataforcourtjudgments(Picou,1984;Edelstein,1989;RosebrookandPicou,1990).AlthoughtheresultsofthisresearchmayonlybedirectlyapplicabletotheCordovacommunity,wesuggestthatsimilar,short-termnegativeimpactsexistforallPrinceWilliamSoundcommunitieswhichhaveaneconomybasedoncommercialfishing.ItisapparentthatappropriatelydesignedresearchoncommunitiesinPrinceWilliamSoundwillbeneededoverthenextfouryearstoadequatelyunderstandthecontinuingsocialimpactsoftheExxonValdezoilspill.Finally,theresultsofthisresearchareimportantforidentifyingtheprogramandserviceneedsofallcommunitiesinPrinceWilliamSound.Thisstudyclearlydocumentstheneedforthedeliveryofcounselingandmentalhealthservicesbylocal,stateandfederalagenciestoCordova.Thetimelydeliveryofappropriateservicesinvolvesavarietyofissuesassociatedwithorganizationalactivitiesandoutreachprograms(BaisdenandQuarantelli,1981;Lindy,Jacob,GraceandGreen,1981).Carefullydesigned,innovativeprogramshavebeenfoundtomitigatenegativedisasterimpacts(Heffron,1977;Dohrenwend,1978;Lindy,Jacob,GraceandGreen,1981).TheidentificationofspecificprogramneedsfortheCordovacommunitygoesbeyondthescopeofthedataanalyzedinthepresentresearch.Insummary,thenegativeimpactsoftheExxonValdezoilspillgobeyondthedirectdestructionofecosystemresourcesinPrinceWilliamSound.Thisresearchhasdocumentedtheexistenceofnegativesocialimpactsreflectedintermshigh-levelsofsocialdisruptionandpost-traumaticstressdisorder.TheseimpactscharacterizedtheCordovacommunityfromlatesummerthroughearlywinter.FuturelongitudinalresearchisneededtomonitortheseandothersocialimpactsofthelargestoilspillinUnitedstateshistory.Suchinformationiscriticalforunderstandingthethreatstocommunityviabilityandsurvivalposedbytechnologicaldisasters.23

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ReferencesAhearn,FrederickL.andRaquel E. Cohen1984Disastersandmentalhealth:Anannotatedbibliography.Rockville,MD:NationalInstituteofMentalHealth.AmericanpsychiatricAssociation1987Diagnosticandstatisticalmanualdisorders.Thirdedition-revised.D.C.AmericanpsychiatricAssociation.ofmentalwashington,WestviewBaisden,B.andE.L.Quarantelli1981"Thedeliveryofmentalhealthservicesincommunitydisasters:Anoutlineofresearchfindings."JournalofCommunityPsychology9(3):195-203.Barton,AllenH.1969CommunitiesinDisaster:ASociologicalAnalysisofCollectiveStressSituations.GardenCity,NewYork:DoubledayandCompany,Inc.Baum,Andrew,RaymondFlemingandJ.E.Singer1982"StressatThreeMileIsland:applyingpsychologicalimpactanalysis."Pp.217-248inL.Bickman(ed.),AppliedSocialpsychologyAnnual,3.BeverlyHills,CA:SagePublications.1983"Copingwithvictimizationbytechnologicaldisaster."JournalofSocialIssues39(2):117-138.Bogard,William1989TheBhopalTragedy.Boulder,Colorado:Press.Brohmet, E. 1980ThreeMileEsland:MentalHealthFindings,FinalReport,NIMH.October.Brown,GeorgeW.andTirrelHarris1979LayingWaste:LoveCanalandthePoisoningofAmerica.NewYork:RandomHouse.Dohrenwend,B.S.1978"Socialstressandcommunitypsychology".AmericanJournalofCommunityPsychology6(1):1-14.Drabek,T.E.andW.H. Key1976"Theimpactofdisasteronprimarygrouplinkages."MassEmergencies1(2):89-105.24

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Dyer,ChristopherL.,J.S.Picou,DuaneA.Gill,andE.W.Curry1990"SocialRelationsandSubsistenceTraditionDisruptionamongNativeAmericansinCordova,Alaska:AnAssessmentoftheConsequencesoftheExxonValdezSpill."PaperpresentedattheannualmeetingsoftheSocietyforAppliedAnthropology,March,York,England.Dynes,RussellR.1970OrganizedBehaviorinDisaster.Lexington,MA:D.C.HeathandCompany.Edelstein,MichaelR.1989"PsychosocialImpactsonTrail:TheCaseofHazardouswasteDisposal."Pp.153-176inD.peck(ed.)PsychosocialEffectsofHazardousToxicwasteDisposalonCommunities.Springfield,Illinois:Charlesc.ThomasPublishers.Erikson,1976bKaiEverythinginitsPath:DestructionofCommunityintheBuffaloCreekFlood.NewYork:SimonandSchuster.Frey,JamesH.1983SurveyResearchbyTelephone.BeverlyHills,CA:SagePublications,Inc.Fritz,CharlesE.1961"Disaster."Pp.651-694inRobertK.MertonandRobertA.Nisbet(eds.),ContemporarySocialProblems.NewYork:Harcourt.Gill,DuaneA.andJ.StevenPicou1989"Toxicwastedisposalsitesastechnologicaldisasters."Pp.81-97inD.L.Pick(ed.)PsychosocialEffectsofHazardousToxicwasteDisposalonCommunitiesSpringfield,Ill.:CharlesC. Thomaspublisher.1990"TheSocialPsychologicalImpactsofaTechnologicalDisaster."Paperunderreview,JournalofHazardsResearch.GIeser,G.C.,B.L.GreenandC.N.Winget1981ProlongedPsychosocialEffectsofDisasters:AStudyofBuffaloCreek.NewYork:AcademicPress.Green,B.L.,L.LindyandM.C.Grace1985"Post-TraumaticStressDisorder:TowardDMS-IV."TheJournalofNervousandMentalDisease173(7):406-411.25

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Robbins,LynnA.andstevenMcNabb1987"OildevelopmentsandcommunityresponsesinNortonSound,Alaska."HumanOrganization46,(1):10-17.Rosebrook,1990DonandJ.StevenPicou"AReviewofLitigationActivitiesAssociatedwiththeLivingstonLouisianaTrainDerailment:A SummaryofCourt-OrderedResearchFindings."DepartmentofSociologyandAnthropologyandCostalResearchandDevelopmentInstitute,SpecialPaperSeries.No.9001,March.Shirvastava,Paul1987Bhopal:AnatomyofaCrisis.Newyork:BallingerPublishingCompany.Siegel,Laurence,FreddaBlanchard-Fields,NathanW.GottfriedandRosemaryLowe1984Ecological,Physical,Economic,SociologicalandPsychologicalAssessmentoftheIllinoisCentralGulfTrainDerailmentVol.6PScholoicalAssessment.BaonRouge:GuSoutResearcInstitute.Smythe,1988CharelsW."HarvestanduseoffishandwildliferesourcesresidentsofPetersburg,Alaska."Anchorage,AlaskaDepartmentofFishandGame,DivisionSubsistence,TechnicalpaperNo.164,June.byAI<:ofSolomon,SusanD.1989"ResearchIssuesinAssessingDisaster'sEffects."Pp.308-340inR.GistandB.Lubin(eds.) AspectsofDisasters.NewYork:John Wiley andSons.Stratton,Lee1989"ResourceuseinCordova:AcostalcommunityofSouthcentralAlaska."Anchorage,AI<. :AlaskaDepartmentofFishandGame,DepartmentofSubsistence,TechnicalPaperNo.153,December.Turner,BarryA.1978ManMadeDisasters.NewYork:Crane,RussakandCompany.Yeomans,K.A.1968AliedStatistics:StatisticsforSocialScientist.VO.II.Miesex,Engand:PenguinBoos.27


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