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Risk factors for death in the 27 March 1994 Georgia and Alabama tornadoes

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Title:
Risk factors for death in the 27 March 1994 Georgia and Alabama tornadoes
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Physical Description:
11 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Schmidlin, Thomas W., 1954-
King, Paul S
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
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Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo
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Subjects / Keywords:
Tornadoes -- Georgia   ( lcsh )
Tornadoes -- Alabama   ( lcsh )
Disasters -- Case studies   ( lcsh )
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government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 9-10).
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
Statement of Responsibility:
Thomas W. Schmidlin, Paul S. King.
General Note:
At head of title: Final report of Quick Response Grant from NHRAIC, Boulder.

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oclc - 31876937
usfldc doi - F57-00050
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RiskFactorsforDeathinthe27March1994GeorgiaandAlabamaTornadoesByThomasW.SchmidlinandPaulS.KingQUICKRESPONSERESEARCHREPORT#681994... rt of the Natural Hazards This publication f Center's ongoing Research&Applications Informa Ion Quick Response Research Report Series. http://wWWcolorado.edu/hazards TheviewsexpressedinthisreportarethoseoftheauthorsandnotnecessarilythoseoftheNaturalHazardsCenterortheUniversityofColorado.

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FinalReportofQuickResponseGrantfromNHRAIC,BoulderRiskFactorsforDeathinthe27March1994GeorgiaandAlabamaTornadoesThomasW.SchmidlinDepartmentofGeographyKentStateUniversityKentOH44242PaulS.KingBoyceThompsonInstituteCornellUniversityIthacaNY14853Correspondingauthor:ThomasW.Schmidlin,DepartmentofGeography,KentStateUniversity,Kent,OH44242USAAbstractFieldsurveysweremadeoneweekaftertornadoeskilled40personsandinjuredover300inruralregionsofAlabamaandGeorgiaUSAon27March1994.Surveyswerecompletedforsamplesofpersonskilled(N=20)andpersonsinthepathsofthetornadoesbutsurvived(N=31)todeterminewhetherthereweredifferencesinpersonalcharacteristics,behavior,orlocationbetweenthetwogroups.Personswhodiedweresignificantlyolderthanpersonswhosurvived,morelikelytobeinmobilehomesorinroomsabovegroundwithwindows,lesslikelytobewatchingtelevisionbeforethetornado,andwereawareoftheapproachingtornadoforlesstimethansurvivors.Therewasnodifferenceinage,gender,race,maritalstatus,education,disability,orpreviousexperiencewithtornadoespriorbetweenthosewhodiedandsurvivors.

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2IntroductionTornadoeson27March1994killed22peopleinnortheastAlabamaand18innorthernGeorgia.Weconductedfieldresearchinthedisasterareafollowingthestormstoassessriskfactorsassociatedwithdeathamongpersonsinthetornadopaths.Adversehealtheffectsofnaturaldisastersdonotoccurrandomlywithinapopulationbutoccurinasomewhatpredictablepatternclusteredintime,inspace,orincertaingroupsofpersons(BinderandSanderson,1987).Knowledgeoftheattributesofpersonskilledbytornadoes,theirbehaviorasthetornadoapproached,andthecircumstancesofdeath,whencomparedwiththosepersonswhowerenotseriouslyinjured,maybeusefultoevaluatetornadopreparednessprograms,safetyrUles,andwarningmethods(Ferguson,Ostby,andLeftwich,1987;Sanderson,1989).Thatinformationidentifieshighriskgroupsandhighriskbehaviorsthatcouldbeusedtoimprovetornadopreparednessprogramsandtornadowarningprocedures.WhiteandHaas(1975,p.276)observedthatgeographicdifferencesindeathrateswerenotexplainedbydifferencesintornadooccurrence.Theysuggestedthatregionaldifferencesindeathratescouldbecausedbydifferencesintornadoseverity,urbanization,buildingconstruction,preparedness,hospitalfacilities,warningsystems,andthedistinctivebehavioralcharacteristicsofindividuals.Previousstudiesofweatherdisastershaveshownfatalityratesvariedwithageofthevictim(Moore,1958;CentersforDiseaseControl,1985;Sanderson,1989;Carter,Millson,andAllen,1989),sexofthevictim(Beelman,1967;GlassetaI,1980,Ferguson,Ostby,andLeftwich,1987)andthevictim'sethnicity(Moore,1958;PerryetaI,1982,Aguirre,1988).Previousexperiencewiththehazard,accesstowarnings,andlocationwhenthetornadostuckhavealsobeenshowntoaffectriskofdeath.Ananalysisof155tornadodeathsoccurringoveraforty-yearperiodinOhiorevealedthatyoungboysandelderlywomenhadarelativelyhighrateofdeath(Schmidlin,1993).Informationfromdeathcertificatesshowed73%ofvictimswereinahouse,apartment,orcommercialbuildingwhenthetornadostruck,13%wereinmotorvehicles,and9%inmobilehomes.Theprimary(74%)causeofdeathwasheadorchestinjuriesormUltipletrauma.However,datafromdeathcertificates

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3cannotprovideinformationonbehaviorofthevictimasthetornadoapproached,typeofwarningreceived,orexperiencewithtornadoes.comparableinformationonthosewhowerenotseriouslyinjuredisalsonotaccessibleyearsaftertheevent.Thepurposeofthisresearchwastoobtaininformationonpersonswhodiedinthetornadoesandthosewhosurvived.Fieldresearchintheweeksafterthedisasterallowedustogatherandpreserveinformationwhichwillbelostincomingyears.TheTornadoesof27March1994SevereweatherdevelopedovernorthernAlabamaandGeorgiaduringtheafternoonofSunday27March1994(CentersforDiseaseControl,1994).sixmajortornadoesandseveralsmallertornadoestoucheddownoveraneight-hourperiodgivingatotalpathlengthofabout400km(Fig.1).FourtornadowatcheswereissuedfortheaffectedareabytheNationalSevereStormsForecastCenteron27MarchandtherewerenumeroustornadowarningsissuedbytheNationalWeatherService(NWS)officesatBirmingham,Atlanta,andAthens.Allbutonedeathoccurredincountiesundertornadowarningsatthetimethetornadostruck.TimebetweenNWSissuanceofawarninganddeathwastypically10to20minutes.Forwardmotionofthetornadoeswasabout80km/hr.TheregionaffectedbythetornadoesinthesouthernAppalachianmountainsishilly,wooded,andruralwithalowpopulationdensity(about20personskm-1).Medianageintheaffectedcountieswasabout32years,56%ofthepopulationover25yearsoldhadgraduatedfromhighschool,and30%oftheoccupiedhousingunitsweremobilehomes(U.S.BureauoftheCensus,1993a,1993b).Therewerenotornadowarningsirensintheruralregionsstruckbythetornadoes.Mostofthedeathsoccurredinareasnearthemarginsoroutoftherangeof NOAA WeatherRadiobroadcaststations.Nocitieswerestruckbytornadoesalthoughthetornadopathswerejust75kmfromAtlanta.Mostofthedamagewasthroughforestsandagriculturalland.Manymobilehomeswerestruckbythetornadoes,alongwithisolatedruralframehouses,farmbuildings,subdivisionsofmodernframehomes,andseveralruralchurches.MaximumstrengthofthetornadoeswasdifficulttojUdgewherethepathwasonlythroughforestsandmobilehomesastotaldestructionofthesewarrantsnomorethananF2ratingontheFujitascale(maximumwind180-250kmhr-1 )(Grazulis,1991).Severalofthetornadoesstruckframehomes,however,andstrengthsof

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4F3(maximumwind250-330km orF4(over330km wereindicated.Inthegreatesttragedy,20personsdiedinthepartialcollapseoftheGoshenChurchstruckbyatornadoinCherokeeCounty,Alabama.Oftheother20deathsinAlabamaandGeorgia,15personswereinmobilehomeswhenthetornadostruck,twowereinframehouses(onewithoutafoundation),twowereoutside,andonewasinadestroyedmotorvehicle.Inadditiontothedeaths,therewere157personsinjuredinAlabamaand147injuredinGeorgia(JohnBryan,FEMA,communicationwithauthors).FieldMethodsInformationonthetornadotracksandfatalitieswascollectedfromnewspapersandcountycoronerspriortoenteringthefield.Duringtheperiod4-8April1994wevisitedthesiteswhere37ofthe40fatalitiesoccurredinAlabamaandGeorgia.Avisitwiththecountycoronersprovidedinformationonthosewhodiedinthetornadoesandnamesofrelativesandotherpersonswhocouldassistusincompletingthefieldresearch.QuestionnairesmodeledafterthatusedbyCarter,Millson,andAllen(1989)werecompletedfortwosamples,(1)personswhodiedfromtornadoinjuriesand(2)personswhowereinthepathofthetornadoesbutsurvivedwithminorinjuries.(CopiesofthequestionnaireareavailablefromauthorSchmidlin).Most(84%)surveyswerecompletedinperson.Theremainderwerecompletedbytelephone.Informationtocompletethequestionnairesforthefatalitieswasobtainedfromcountycoroners,neighbors,orrelatives.Severalquestionsonbehaviorofthevictimspriortothetornadoremainunansweredbecauseeveryoneinthestructurewaskilled.Surveyswerecompletedforall18deathsinGeorgiaandthetwodeathsinAlabamathatdidnotoccurintheGoshenChurch.Surveyswerenotcompletedforthe20personskilledintheGoshenChurch.Thosepersonswerekilledunderacollapsedconcreteblockwallsodifferencesinlocation,experience,age,gender,andotherpersonalorculturalcharacteristicswerenotlikelytobesignificantfactorsindeterminingriskofdeathinthechurch.Toobtainasampleofsurvivors,wedrovealongroadsthatintersectedthepathsandstoppedtospeakwithpersonsfoundhomeorworkingoutdoorsintheareasofdestruction.Bythismethod,31surveyswerecompletedforpersonswhowereinthepathofthetornadoesbutsurvivedwithonlyminorinjuries.

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5statisticalAnalysesDatawereanalyzedwithSPSS(release4.1,1990)totestthenullhypothesisthatresponsestothesurveyquestionsdidnotdifferbetweenthosewhowerekilled(N=20)andthosewhosurvived(N=31).At-testwasusedtotestforadifferenceinagebetweenthetwogroupsandthechi-squaretestwasusedonthecategoricaldata.Thehypothesisofnodifferencewasrejectedifp<0.10.Responsesof"refused"or"unknown"wereconsideredmissingintheanalyses.Therewerefewresponsesof"refused"inthesurveybutmanyresponsesof"unknown",especiallyforthosewhowerekilled.Thisreducedthesamplesizeinmanysurveyquestions.ResultsTherewasasignificantdifference(p=0.04)inagebetweenthosewhodied(mean55.6years,standarderror5.5years)andthosewhosurvived(42.4,3.7).Therewasnosignificantdifferenceinmaritalstatusorgenderbetweenthosewhodied(47%presentlymarried,55%female)andsurvivors(62%presentlymarried,61%female).Educationlevelswerenotdifferentbetweenthetwogroups.Allpersonssurveyed,bothfatalitiesandsurvivors,werewhite,exceptonesurvivorwhowasAsian-American.Thisisnotsurprisingsince90%to98%ofthepopulationiswhiteinthecountieswheretwoormoredeathsoccurred(U.S.BureauoftheCensus,1993a,1993b).Amongthesurvivorsinthisstudy,84%requirednomedicalattentionafterthetornado,10%weretreatedandreleased,and6%werehospitalized.Therewasasignificantdifference(p=0.001)inthelocationoftherespondentwhenthetornadostruck.Amongthefatalities,75%wereinamobilehomeand10%inaframehouse,whileonly23%ofsurvivorswereinmobilehomesand74%inframehouses.Theotherswereoutsideorinamotorvehicle.Thisreinforcespreviousfindingsthatpersonsinmobilehomesaremorevulnerabletodeathfromtornadoesthanpersonsinframehouses.Amongsurvivors,29%firstbecameawareofthetornadowhentheyheardtheroarofthestorm,23%sawitapproaching,16%heardthewarningontelevision,16%weretoldbyarelative,friend,orneighbor,and13%heardthewarningonradio,and10%didnotknowitwasatornadountilitstruck.Themethodoffirstbecomingawareofthetornadowasunknownfor80%ofthefatalitiessocomparisonswiththesurvivorswerenotpossible.Telephones,televisions,andradioswerepresentinallofthehomeswherepersonsdiedandinhomesof

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6allsurvivors.Onlythefewpersonsoutsidewerenotinalocationwiththesesourcesofinformation.Onlyonehomewasfoundtohavea NOAA weatherradio.Informationonwhetheraradioortelevisionwasonduringthehourbeforethetornadostruckwasobtainedforonly20%ofthepersonswhodied.Therewasnodifferencebetweenthetwogroupsinthepercentagewitharadioonbuttherewasasignificantdifference(p=0.08)inthepercentagewiththetelevisiononbetweenthosewhodied(25%)andsurvivors(70%).Survivorswereawareoftheapproachingtornadoforalongertime(p=0.002)thanthosewhodied.Ofthesevenfatalitiesforwhichthisinformationwasavailable,allbecameawareofthetornadolessthanoneminutebeforeitstruck.Amongsurvivors,32%firstbecameawareofthetornadolessthanoneminutebeforeitstruck,45%wereawareofthestormonetofiveminutesbeforeitstruck,and23%wereawareatornadowascomingmorethan15minutesbeforebeingstruck.Forpersonsinabuildingwhenthetornadostruck,therewasasignificantdifference(p=0.0004)inpositionwithinthebuilding.Allpersonswhodiedwereinafirst-floorroomabovegroundwithwindows.Amongsurvivors,37%wereinafirst-floorroomabovegroundwithwindows,33%wereinafirst-floorroomabovegroundwithoutwindows(hallwayorcloset),20%wereinaroombelowgroundwithoutwindows(basementorstormshelter),and10%wereinaroombelowgroundwithwindows(walk-outbasement).Allpersonswhodiedinbuildingswereinroomswherethefloors,walls,andceilingwereblownaway.Incontrast,only27%ofsurvivorswereinroomswithoneormorewallsblownaway,33%wereinroomswithacollapsedorremovedceiling,and10%ofsurvivorswereinaroomwherethefloorwasblownaway.Allpersonswhodiedwerestruckbyanobjectduringthetornadowhileonly30%ofsurvivorswerestruckbyobjectsduringthetornado.Thesedifferencesbetweenpersonswhodiedandthosewhosurvivedwereallsignificant(p<0.0001)andillustratedtheimportanceintheintegrityofthestructureinprotectingpersonsfromdeath.Samplesizesamongthosewhodiedoutdoors(N=2)andinamotorvehicle(N=l)weretoosmalltoanalyzestatistically.OnepersondiedofmUltipleinjuriesfromflyingdebriswhilepullingaboatoutofalake.Anotherdiedunderacollapsedtreewhileattemptingtogetintoherhouse.Onlyoneofthe40deathsoccurredinamotorvehicle.Thismanwasejectedfromaminivanwhenitwasdestroyedbythetornado.Three

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7othermembersofthefamilywereinjuredbutworeseatbeltsandwerenotejectedfromthevehicle.Therewasnosignificantdifferencebetweenthosewhodiedandsurvivorsinwhethersomeoneelsewarnedthematornadowascoming.significantly(p=0.03)moreofthesurvivors(35%)triedtowarnorprotectsomeoneelsethandidthosewhodied(0%).Thiswassurprisingsinceithadbeensuggestedinthepastthatpersonsmayputthemselvesatrisktoprotectothers(CentersforDiseaseControl,1988).However,aresponsetothisquestionamongthosewhodiedwasgenerallyavailableonlyforthosewhodiedaloneandthereforehadnoopportunitytowarnorprotectsomeoneelse.Noneofthosewhodiedwereknowntohaveattemptedtoprotectapetormovepropertyorpossessions.Noneofthesurvivorsorfatalitieswereknowntohaveexperiencedatornadobefore.Amongsurvivors,45%reportedpracticingwhattodoifatornadostruckbutthisinformationwasgenerallynotavailableforthosewhodied.Therewasnosignificantdifferenceinthepresenceofamentalorphysicalimpairmentamongthosewhodied(25%)andsurvivors(10%).Themostcommonreportedimpairmentwas'conditioncausingslowmovement.'Only13%ofsurvivorsreportedhidingundersomethinginabuilding,suchasfurnitureorastairway,and20%ofsurvivorsreportedcoveringthemselveswitharug,blanket,oranotherperson.Thisinformationwasnotavailableforthefatalities.DiscussionTheimportanceofasubstantial,well-anchoredbuildinginprotectingoccupantsfromdeathisevidentfromthisresearch.Alldeathsofpersonsinbuildingsoccurredwhenfirst-floorroomsdisintegratedinthewind,mostofteninmobilehomes(Fig.2).Mostsurvivorstooktherecommendedactionofgoingtoanundergroundbasementorstormshelteror,inhomeswithoutabasement,toafirst-floorroomwithoutwindowsthatprotectedthemfrombeingejectedfromthebuildingandgaveprotectionfromflyingdebris(Fig.3).Fewsurvivorstooktherecommendedstepsofhidingunderheavyfurnitureorcoveringthemselveswithablanket.Personskilledoutsidewerecrushedundertreesorkilledbyflyingdebris.Thesingledeathinavehiclecameafterejectionfromthevehicle.Theseconclusionsgenerallyagreewithcarter,Millson,andAllen(1989)andothers.Incontrasttosomeothertornadodisasterstudies,wefoundnodifferencesingender,education,orracebetweenpersonswhodiedandsurvivorsinthissample.

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8Governmentwarningsprecededthedeadlytornadoesby10to20minutesandnearlyallpersonshadaccesstoradioandtelevision.However,thetransferofthewarningstoresidentsinthisruralregionwasinefficient.Although61%ofsurvivorshadaradioonduringthehourbeforethetornadoand70%hadtelevisionon,only29%ofsurvivorsbecameawareofthetornadothroughradioortelevisionand68%becameawareofthetornadobyseeingorhearingthestormorbeingtoldbyanotherperson.Thismayhavebeenduetoconfusionfromtherepeatedwarningsissuedformanycountiesoveraneight-hourperiod,duetopowerfailuresinstormsthatprecededthetornadoes,ortolackofattentiontoradioortelevisiononthisholidaySunday.Ourobservationscastdoubtontherecommendationthatoccupantsofmobilehomesandvehiclesshouldgetoutandlieinaditch.A commonobservationafterthe27March1994tornadoeswasvehiclessittingwithminordamagewithin10mofthelocationwhereamobilehomewasdestroyedanditsoccupantskilled.Thevehiclesremaineduprightwhilethemobilehomewasblown50mormore.untilathoroughstudyismadeoftornadoinjuriesanddeathsinvehicles,residentsofmobilehomesshouldentertheirvehicleanddrivetoasubstantialbuilding.Eveniftheydonotreachabuilding,ourobservationsindicatetheyaresaferintheirvehiclethaninthemobilehome.AlthoughtherehavebeensomecasesofmUltipletornadodeathsinvehicles(Glass,etal.,1980),mostrecenttornadodisastershavehadfewdeathsinvehicles.Carter,Millson,andAllen(1989)foundthatbeingejectedfromavehiclewasariskfactorforseriousinjuryordeathinatornadoandsuggestedthatwidespreaduseofseatbeltsmayimprovesurvivabilityinvehicles.Wesuggestpersonsmaybeatlowerriskbeltedinavehiclethanoutdoorswhereditchesmaynotbeavailableandflyingdebrisandlightningcanbelethal.Riskfactorsassociatedwithvehiclesintornadoesneedadditionalresearch.Onlyonefamilywasfoundtohaveastormshelter.Thisfamilybuilta3mby3mconcreteblockundergroundshelter12yearsearlierandlefttheirmobilehomefortheshelterduringallseverethunderstorms.Thefamilyoffourwasinthestormshelterfor15minutesbeforethetornadoon27Marchdestroyedtheirmobilehome.Theirsurvivalinthemobilehomewasunlikely.Just150maway,afamilyofsixwaskilledwhentheirmobilehomewasdestroyed.Theydidnothaveastormshelterbutavehicleremaineduprightatthesiteofthesixdeaths.A

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9simpleeffectiveundergroundstormsheltershouldbeencouragedforresidentsofmobilehomes.Thisstudyofpersonswhodiedandpersonswhosurvivedthetornadoesof27March1994wasonlythesecondofitskindandprovidessomenewinformationonriskfactorsfordeathintornadoes.Likemoststudiesofindividualtornadodisasters,ithadasmallsamplesizeinaparticularsituation,asundayafternoonintheruralsouthernAppalachians.Continuedfieldresearchofthistype,collectinginformationondeathsandsurvivorssoonafterthedisaster,willleadtoimprovedpreparednessandwarnings.AcknowledgementsOurfield-workforthisresearchwasfundedbya'QuickResponse'grantfromtheNaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenter,Boulder,Colorado.WethankDr.AnneCarter,DepartmentofNationalHealthandWelfare,Ottawa,Canada,forsharingherpost-disastersurveywithus.CountycoronersFlorenceChapman,BenHulsey,BradMcKinney,DonStarnes,LarryTucker,DavidWall,andJeffWyattwereveryhelpfulinthisresearch.InformationonthetornadoeswasprovidedbyBuddyMcIntyre(NWS),GaryWoodall(NWS),andJohnBryan(FEMA).JuneGrimesprovidedinitialpressclippingsonthestorms.JanWinchellassistedwiththeanalysisofdata.ReferencesAguirre,B.E.(1988)ThelackofwarningsbeforetheSaragosaTornado.InternationalJournalofMassEmergenciesandDisasters,6,65-74.Beelman,F.C.(1967)Disasterplanning:ReportoftornadocasualtiesinTopeka.JournaloftheKansasMedicalSociety,68,153-161.Binder,S.andSanderson,L.M.(1987)Theroleoftheepidemiologistinnaturaldisasters.AnnalsofEmergencyMedicine,16,1081-1084.Carter,A.O.,Millson,M.E.andAllen,D.E.(1989)Epidemiologicstudyofdeathsandinjuriesduetotornadoes.AmericanJournalofEpidemiology,130,12091218.CentersforDiseaseControl(1985)TornadodisasterNorthCarolina,SouthCarolina,March28,1984.MorbidityandMortalityWeeklyReport,34,205-206,211-213.

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10CentersforDiseaseControl(1988)TornadodisasterTexas.MorbidityandMortalityWeeklyReport,37,454456,461.CentersforDiseaseControl(1994)TornadodisasterAlabama,March27,1994.MorbidityandMortalityWeeklyReport,43,356-359.Ferguson,E.W.,Ostby,F.P.andLeftwich,P.W.,Jr.(1987)Annualtornadosummary:Thetornadoseasonof1985.MonthlyWeatherReview,115,1437-1448.Glass,R.I.,Craven,R.B.,Bregman,D.J.,stoll,B.J.,Horowitz,N.,Kerndt,P.andWinkle,J.(1980)InjuriesfromtheWichitaFallstornado:Implicationsforprevention.science,207,734-738.Grazulis,T.P.(1991)Significanttornadoes1880-1989,VolumeI:DiscussionandAnalysis.EnvironmentalFilms,st.Johnsbury,Vermont.Moore,H.E.(1958)TornadoesoverTexas: A studyofWacoandSanAngeloindisaster.UniversityofTexasPress,Austin.Perry,R.W.,Lindell,M.K.andGreene,M.R.(1982)Crisiscommunications:Ethnicdifferentialsininterpretingandactingondisasterwarnings.SocialBehaviorandPersonality,10,97-104.Sanderson,L.M.(1989)Tornadoes.InThePublicHealthConsequencesofNaturalDisasters1989,pp.39-49,CentersforDiseaseControl,U.S.DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices,Atlanta, GA. Schmidlin,T.W.(1993)TornadofatalitiesinOhio,1950-89.InTheTornado:ItsStructure,Dynamics,Prediction,andHazards,C.Church,D.Burgess,C.Doswell,R.Davies-Jones,eds,GeophysicalMonograph79,AmericanGeophysicalUnion,Washington,DC.U.S.BureauoftheCensus(1993a)1990CensusofPopulationandHousing-Alabama,CPH3-2,U.SDepartmentofCommerce,Washington,DC.U.SBureauoftheCensus(1993b)1990CensusofPopulationandHousing-Georgia,CPH3-12.U.SDepartmentofCommerce,WashingtonDC.White,G.F.andHaas,J.E.(1975)Assessmentofresearchonnaturalhazards.MITPress,cambridge,Massachusetts.

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11FigureCaptions1.PathsofmajortornadoesinAlabamaandGeorgiaon27March1994.Severalsmallerandshort-pathtornadoesarenotshown.Locationsoffatalitiesandthenumberofpersonskilledineachlocationareshownbynumbersalongthepaths.2.RemainsofamobilehomestruckbyatornadoinBartowCounty.Twopersonsdiedasthehomewasblownabout20mintotrees,visibleintheupperright.Theunmortaredcementblockfoundationisshownintheforeground. A 'tie-down'strapdesignedtoanchorthehomeinhighwindsisvisibleinthecenter,stillanchoredinthegroundbutbrokenasthehomewastornaway.Othertie-downstrapsonthishomewerepulledoutoftheground.3. A destroyedframehomeinLumpkinCounty.Fivepersonstookshelterinthehallwayatthecenterofthehouseandsurvivedwithoutinjury.Thehallway,visiblewithwhitewallsinthecenter,lostitsceilingbutthewallsremainedintactandprotectedtheoccupants.

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DOUGLAS COBB cow:\ PAULDING CARROLL HEARD POLK HARALSONRANDOLPHCLEBURNEKMJACKSONo50100I!IMADISON..'Figure1

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