Psychological responses to the Mexico City earthquake

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Psychological responses to the Mexico City earthquake

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Title:
Psychological responses to the Mexico City earthquake
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Creator:
Stewart, Abigail J
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Institute of Behavioral Science
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, University of Colorado
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
12, [7] p. : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Earthquakes -- Psychological aspects -- Mexico -- Mexico City ( lcsh )
Disaster victims -- Mental health -- Mexico -- Mexico City ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 11-12).
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Institute of Behavioral Science #6."
Statement of Responsibility:
Abigail Stewart.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
001985193 ( ALEPH )
39041322 ( OCLC )
F57-00051 ( USFLDC DOI )
f57.51 ( USFLDC Handle )

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NaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenterCampusBox482UniversityofColoradoBoulder,Colorado HAZARDHOUSECOpyPSYCHOLOGICALRESPONSESTOTHEMEXICOCITYEARTHQUAKEAbigail Stewart1986QuickResponse Research Report#18This pUblication is partofthe Natural Hazards Research&Applications Information Center's ongoing Quick Response Research Report Series. http://www.colorado.edu/hazardsInstituteofBehavioralScience #6 (303)

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PsychologicalResponsestotheMexicoCityEarthquakeAbigailJ.StewartBostonUniversityThebroadgoalofthisstudywastoassesstheemotional,cognitive,psychosocial,andbehavioralconsequencesofdisasters(inthiscase,anearthquake)forvictims,lessdirectlyaffectedneighbors,anddisasterreliefworkers.Specifically,thepresentstudywasdesignedtoexaminetheprocessofadaptationtodisasterswithinalargerframeworkforstudyingindividuals'responsestotraumaticlifechanges.Thismodelbeginswiththeassumptionthatwhiletheremaybeshort-termpsychologicalrisksfollowingdramaticlifechanges(typicallymanifestinmooddisturbance,increasedsymptomatology,andpsychiatricdisorders),thereisalsopotentialforemotionalandcognitivegrowthasaresultofsuccessfulemotionaladaptation.Todate,studiesofindividualsadaptingtoavarietyofmajorlifechanges(e.g.,maritalseparation,schoolandjobchanges,firstparenthood)haveprovidedempiricalsupportforarecursivesequenceofemotionalstancesthatindividualsexperienceafteranydrastic,relativelypermanentlifechange.(Thissequenceinvolvesfourstances:apassive-receptivestanceadoptedintheimmediatepost-changeperiod,followedinturnbyapostureoflimitedinitiativeandautonomy;greaterassertivenessandhostility;andfinallyaneutral,integratedstance.SeeStewart,1982;Stewartetal.,1982,1986forfullaccountsofthetheoreticalmodel,aswellasempiricalsupportforit.)Thus,inadditiontocreatingtraumaforanyonedirectlyexposedtothem,disasterexperiencesstimulateaprocessofadaptationatleastinthosewhosesubsequentlivesaresignificantlychangedbythem.Thisprocessofemotionaladaptationcreates,inturn,anopportunityforemotionalandcognitivegrowth.Thefirstgoaloftheproposedresearchwas,then,toexaminetheprocessofPage1

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emotionaladaptationandpsychosocialadjustment1nearthguakevictims,less-affectedneighborsandreliefworkers.Inaddition,whiledisastersmayhavedirecteffectsoncognitionandbehavior,recentevidencesuggeststhattheprocessofemotionaladaptationitselfinfluencescomplexcognitiveprocessingabilitiesaswellasbehavior1ntheimmediatepost-disasterperiod.Previousresearch {see StewartandHealy,1985)hasshown that thefirststanceadoptedinthecourseofemotionaladaptation(Receptivity)interferesbothwithcomplexproblem-solvingskills ant withtakinginitiative(e.g.,help-seeking)intheearlypost-changeperiod.However,retentionoftheReceptivestanceintheearlypost-transitionperiodseemstofacilitatethegrowthofcognitiveinformation-structuringcapabilitiesovertime.Thus,inadditiontoexaminingtheeffectsoftheearthquakeonemotionaladaptationandpsychosocialadjustment,weproposedtoassesstheeffectsoftheprocessofemotionaladaptationoncognitiveproblem-solvingskillsandhelp-seekingbehavior.Finally,weselectedseveralvariableslikelytopredictindividuals'immediateresponsestodisasters,aswellastothelonger-termprocessofemotionaladaptation:aspectsofthedisasterexperienceitself(reflectedinthesubjects'group:victim,neighbor,reliefworker);othersourcesofstress(e.g.,lifechanges);andresourcesforcoping(e.g,socialsupport).Thus,wewillexaminepredictorsoftheprocessofemotionaladaptationandpsychosocialadjustmentinvictims,neighbors,andreliefworkers.ConceptualFramework Thestudybeganwiththenotionthatwhileexposuretomajorstressfuleventssuchasdisastersmayleadtoatleasttemporarypsychologicaldisturbance,itmaynotbebestunderstoodasproducingwidespreadextremementalhealthproblems(see,e.g.,Quarantelli,1985).ItmayinsteadbefruitfultoexplorethelinksbetweenthepsychologicalsequelaeofmorePage2

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normativelifechanges(e.g.,parenthood,bereavement,etc.)anddisasters.Thus,(1)like other dramaticlifechanges(thatchallengeanindividual'scognitiveschemasanddemand newadaptiveresponses),disastersmaystimulateaprocessofemotionaladaptationwhichinvolvesfoursuccessiveemotionalstancestowardtheenvironment:Receptivity,Autonomy,Assertiveness,andIntegration;(2)theprocessofemotionaladaptation.mayhavebothshortandlong-termconsequencesthatcanleadtoemotionalgrowth(StewartandHealy,1984,1985;Healy,1985);and(3)thecourseofpsychosocialadjustment,andofemotionaladaptation,maybeaffectedbyenvironmentalandindividualcharacteristics(e.g.,lifestressandsocialsupport).MethodSample.Intheearlyfallof1985,asevereearthquakestruckMexicoCityandthesurroundingregion.WiththeaidoffinancialsupportfromtheQuickResponseRes'earchProgramadministeredbytheNaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenter,andincollaborationwithDoraSchaeloftheInstitutoTecnologicoAutonomodeMexico(ITAM),wewereabletocollectinterviewandquestionnairedatawithina fewweeksoftheearthquakefromthreegroupsofadultsdirectlyorindirectlyaffectedbyit:1) 21residentsofTlaltelolco,ahousingprojectseriouslydamagedbytheearthquake,whosehomeshadbeencompletelydestroyed;2) 21neighborswholivedinundamagedapartmentsinthesamehousingproject;and3) 17communityworkerswhoassistedvictimsintheimmediatepost-disasterperiod.(Inthefallandwinterof1986,approximatelyoneyearaftertheearthquakeandtheinitialdatacollection,withthehelpofasmallgrant from theMcBerFoundation,thesegroupswerefollowedupwithalmostidenticalquestionnairesandinterviews.)QuestionnaireMeasures:CodingandAnalysisInadditiontoabasicdemographicquestionnaire,participantscompletedseveralstandardquestionnairemeasuresdesignedtotapdimensionsofadjustmentPage3

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(includingmeasuresofmooddisturbance,symptoms,andlifesatisfaction).Inadditiontothesolidempiricalsupportforthesemeasures,theywerechosenbecausetheyarerelativelywidely-usedand,thus,wouldpermitcross-culturalcomparisonstoothersamplesaffectedbymajortraumasortosamplesundergoinglessdrasticchanges.AllmeasuresweretranslatedintoSpanishbyabilingualpsychologist.Becauseanalysisofthesequestionnairemeasuresdidnotdependontranscription,translationorcodingofinterviews,wehavecompletedanalysesofthefirstyeardataatthistime.Foranindicationofmooddisturbance,eachadultinthestudycompletedtheProfileofMoodStates(POMS;McNair,Lorr, & Droppleman,1971).McNairandhiscolleaguespresentimpressiveevidencefortheinternalconsistencyandtest-retestreliabilityofthesealescomprisingthetotalmooddisturbancescore.Thesixscalescontributingtooverallmooddisturbancearetension-anxiety,depression-dejection,confusion-bewilderment,anger-hostility,fatigue-inertia,andvigor-activity.EachadultinthestudycompletedaquestionnaireonstresssymptomsadaptedfromGurin,Veroff,andFeld's(1960)andVeroff,Kulka,andDouvan's'(1981)nationalstudyofmentalhealthinAmericanadults.Thismeasurehasbeenwellestablishedasareliableandvalidindicatorofbehavioralandpsychologicalsymptomsinthesenation-widestudiesofmentalhealthinamericanadults.Finally,asingleitemassessingoveralllifesatisfactionwasincluded.Ithasbeenfrequentlyusedinnationalstudiesofsubjectivementalhealthandwell-being(Bradburn & Caplovitz,1965;Gurin,Veroff & Feld,1960;Veroff,Douvan & Kulka,1981).Results ot AnalysesResultsofsex groupanalysesofvarianceontheseindicators,comparingdirectvictimsandneighbors(seeTables1and2),suggestthatdirectvictimsPage4

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weresignificantlylowerthanneighborsinreportedlifesatisfaction,andsignificantlyhigherinoverallmooddisturbance(specifically,theywerehigherinangeranddepression;seeTable2).Therewasalsoatrend(p<.10) thatvictimswerehigherlnconfusion.Malevictimswerelowerinself-esteemthanmaleneighbors(thoughtherewasnodifferenceforfemales).Victimsandneighborsdidnotdifferinself-reportedfatigue,anxiety,orpsychosomaticsymptoms.Atleastinthecaseofanxiety,though(forwhich,alongwithfatigueandtheotherPOMSscalestherearesomeU.S.normativeandothercomparativedata),itappearsthatthismaybeduetothefactthatanxietyishighinbothvictimsandneighbors.WhileitispossibletocomparethescoresofthesethreegroupswithvariousU.S.samples,itis,ofcourse,unknownwhethertherearebase-ratedifferencesinthewayMexicanswouldscoreonthesemeasures.However,thepatternofsimilaritiesanddifferencesinscoresmayhelpusunderstandtheparticularscoresofthetwogroups.First,itisworthnotingthat.theMexicanearthquakegroupsdonotdifferfrom"normal"U.S.samples(collegestudents,divorcingmothers)invigor,confusionorfatigue(seeTable3).Theygenerallyscoremuchhigher,though,onanger,depression,andtension-anxiety.Infact,onthesethreescalestheMexicanearthquakegroupsscoreashighas(inthecaseofanxietyanddepression)orhigherthan(inthecaseofanger)U.S.psychiatricpatients.Comparisonoftheearthquakegroupswithvarioussamplesgiventhe life satisfactionitem(seeTable4)suggeststhattheearthquakegroupsaregenerallylesssatisfiedthananyU.S.samples;thedirectvictimsareespeciallylowonthismeasure(overhalfreportingthattheyarenotsatisfiedcomparedwithabout 10i. ofmostU.S.samplesandonly 27i. of recently--separated, divorcingmothersofschool-agechildren).However,comparisonoftheearthquakesampleswithanationalU.S.sampleintermsofthethreestresssymptomsubscalessuggestsnolargedifferences(seeTable5).Page5

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Comparisonofthevictimandneighborgroupswiththereliefworkerswasproblematic.First,therewereonlythreefemalereliefworkers;sexbysampleanalyseswerethereforeimpossible.Second,althoughthe victimsandneighborswerequitecomparabledemographically,thereliefworkersweresomewhatdifferent:theytendedtobeyoungerandbettereducated,especiallythantheneighborsample.However,incomparisonsofmenonlythatcontrolledforageandeducation(seeTables6and7),therewerenodifferencesbetweenreliefworkersandvictimsinpsychologicalstate.Reliefworkerswerecharacterized,then,byhighscoresonanger,anxietyanddepression,likethevictims.Theonlydifferencesfoundsuggestedthatneighborswerehigherinlifesatisfactionandlowerindepressionthaneitheroftheothertwogroups.Finally,sinceindividualswereinterviewedbetween6and12weeksaftertheearthquake,wecorrelatedscoresonallmeasureswithlengthoftimebetweentheearthquakeandtheinterview.Forthesampleasawhole(N-59),therewas nosignificantcorrelation.However,amongvictims(N-2l),therewas asignificantpositivecorrelationbetweentimeandthesomaticcomplaintssubscaleofthestresssymptomsmeasureandthefatiguescaleofthePOMS.Forneighbors(N=2l) ,therewasonlyasignificantpositivecorrelation timeandtheconfusionscaleofthePOMS.Forreliefworkers(N-17),thereweresignificantnegativecorrelationsoftimewiththeanxietysubscaleofthestresssymptomsmeasure,andtheconfusionscaleofthePOMS,butasignificantpositivecorrelationwiththetension-anxietyscale.These results suggestthattheover-timeanalysesareveryimportant,andwillhelpclarifywhetherthevictims(andperhapsthereliefworkers)weremorelikelytodevelopthepost-traumaticstresssyndrome(whichwasdirectly atTime 2)thantheneighbors(astheseresultsseemtosuggest).Inanycase,thesedatatakentogethersuggestthatthedifferentexperiencesoftheearthquakeassessedintermsofgroupmembershipdidindeedPage6

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havedifferentpsychologicalconsequences.Thethreegroups,therefore,verylikelyexperienceddifferentneeds,intermsofinterventionandsupport.Onlytheanalysesnotyetcompleted(ofinterviewmaterial)willallowustoaddresstheseissuesmoreadequately.TranslationofInterviewMeasuresInsomeways,theheartoftheoverallresearchprojectdependsonthecodingoftheinterviewmaterial.Sincetranslationofallinterviewsatbothtimesisverycostly,wehaveadoptedanalternativecodingstrategy.Wewillusebilingualcoders,whocanbetrainedinEnglishusingtrainingmaterialsdesignedinEnglish.Initialreliabilitycanbeestablishedontranslatedmaterials,buteventuallyexistingexpertcoderscancodeinterviewsinEnglishthatbilingualcoderscodedirectlyinSpanish.Oncereliabilityhasbeenestablishedinthisway,bilingualcoderscancodetheremaininginterviews 1n Spanish,obviatingtheneedfortranslationofallinterviews.Becauseover-timechangeisanimportantpartoftheresearchquestionanimatingthisstudy,itisimportantthatcOdingofopen-endedmaterialbecarriedoutblindtotime(aswellasgroup).Thus,thiscodingcanonlybeperformedafteralldatahasbeencollectedandtranscribed.Atthistime,thesecond-yeardataiscollected,andtranscriptionofitinSpanishisinprocess.WithhelpfromtheBostonUniversityPsychologyDepartment,andouroriginalQuickResponsegrant,wewereabletohave18oftheoriginalinterviewstranslated(drawnfromallthreegroups).However,noneofthefollowupinterviewshasbeentranslated.Werecentlysecuredfundsforthetranslationofninefollowupinterviews(threefromeachofthethreegroups)fromtheSocietyforthePsychologicalStudyofSocialIssues,aswellasfortrainingofcodersandestablishmentofreliability.Thethreemeasureswhichwilleventuallybecodedfromtheinterviewsareemotionaladaptation,structuredproblem-solving,andhelp-seekingbehavior.Page7

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Eachofthesemeasureshasbeenusedinpreviousstudiesofindividualscopingwithstressfullifeevents;ourprimarypurposeinselectingthem was tomaintaincomparabilitytopreviousstudiesweandothershavedonewhileapplyingourmodeltoa newculturalcontextanda newformoftraumaticlifechange.EmotionaladaptationtotheenvironmentwillbeassessedusingStewart'smeasureofaffectivedevelopment(Stewart,1979,1982).Thismeasure1Susuallybasedontheanalysisofprojectivestoriestoldbysubjectsinresponsetoambiguouspicturecues.Anindividual'sscoreonthismeasureindicatesthenatureofhis/heremotionalorientationtowardtheenvironment.Forthepurposesofthisproject,wewillusetheadaptationoftheStewartcodingsystemusedinseveralpreviousstudiestocodesubjects'open-endedresponsestoquestionsinthecourseofaninterview.Intheadaptedcodingsystem,thecodingcategorydefinitionsremainthesameasin tWe traditionalcodingprocedures.However,ratherthancodingacategorypresentorabsentintheresponsetoaparticularpicturecue,theactualnumberofimagesfittingeachcategoryiscountedfromalloftheavailabletextmaterial.Specificcategorytotalsarerepresentedasproportionsofthetotalamountofcodedimagery.Winter(1983)hasdemonstratedtheviabilityofadaptingcodingsystemsoriginallydesignedforcodingprojectivematerialforusewithfreeresponsetextmaterial.Sokol(1983)firstmodifiedtheemotionaladaptationcodingsystemforuseincodingpatients'utterancesintherapysessions.OurownsecondaryanalysesofParkesandWeiss'(1983)interviewswithrecentlybereavedwidowsandwidowerssuggestthatouradaptationofthecodingsystemcanbeprofitablyusedtoassessemotionaladaptationinfreeresponseinterviewmaterial.Thelevelofactivehelp-seekingbytheearthquakevictims,neighborsandreliefworkerswillalsobeassessed.Thequalityortypeofneedfeltbytheparticipantmayaffecthowtheneedis,orisnot,met.Forexample,Veroff,Page8

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Kulka, & Douvan(1981)foundintheirstudyofhelp-seekingthatpeoplearemorelikelytopursuehelpforinterpersonalandemotionalproblemsratherthanfinancialormaterialneeds.Inaddition,theyfoundthatindividualsocialcharacteristicsmaymediateaperson'shelp-seekingactivity;women,youngpeople,andthosewithmoreaducationare,onthewhole,mostlikelytopursuehelpforthemselves.Questionsconcerning behavior,adaptedfromVeroff,KulkaandDouvan(1981)forcurrentproblems,wereincorporatedintotheinterviewdiscussionofhelpandresources. We askedquestionstoidentifywhoinitiatedthehelp,andhowitwasinitiated.Responsesforeachoffourareas(privatefeelings,materialaid,advice,andphysicalassistance)willbecodedaccordingtofour-pointscales(fromnohelpneeded,toactivehelp-seeking).Intheproposedresearchstructuredproblem-solvingwasassessedbyaskingparticipantshowtheywouldhandlevariousproblemswhicharoseinthecourseoftheearthquake(e.g.,locationandcareoflostpets,coordinationofreliefefforts,etc.).Previousresearchsuggeststhatstructuredproblem-solvingabilityisimpairedinindividualscopingwithatraumaticlifechange(seeHealy,1985).Moreover,inlaboratorystudiesofproblem-solvingunderstressfulconditionsthereisconsistentevidencethattheamountofinformationattendedtoandusedinproblem-solvingbecomeslimited(seeHockey,1979,forareviewofthesestudies).Thus,problemsthatrequireorganizingandstructuringarangeofinformationtoformacoordinatedsolutionshouldprovedifficultformanyoftheparticipantsintheproposedproject.Participants'responsestotheproblem-solvingtaskswillbecodedfortheabilitytocreateanorganizingstructurefor theproblemunderwhichspecifictasksareorganized.Specifically,wewillusethreecategoriesfromtheTestofThematicAnalysis(WinterandMcClelland,1978),whichmeasurestheabilitytoanalyzeandrestructuretheinformationinacomplexprobleminordertoarrive at anorganizedsolution.ThesethreecategoriesassessthedegreetoPage9

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whichanindividualactivelyengages in simultaneouslyprocessingandrestructuringtheproblemwiththegoalofarrivingatanorganizedsolution:(1)Analytichierarchyassessestheabilitytocreateanoverarchingframeworkorcentralorganizingprincipletoguidethesolution;(2)Redefinition'involvesredefiningorreconceptualizingtheproblem in ordertobring it intolinewiththeframework thesolution;(3)Subsumingalternativesinvolvesthecreationofintegrativesolutionsforseeminglydisparatefacetsoftheproblem.Todate,themeasureofstructuredproblem-solvingthatwehavechosenhasbeenvalidated in severalsamplesofcollegestudentsusingproblemsbasedonreal-lifecontent(Winter,McClelland, Stewart,1981).Thecodingsystem1Sdesignedforfree-responsecontentand,therefore,1Sidealforusewiththekindofdataweintendtocollect.Moreover,thisconceptualskillhasbeenshowntodevelopasaresultofexposuretoawidevarietyofexperiences(Winter,McClelland,andStewart,1981),suggestingthat it doesassessadimensionofcognitiveprocessingabilitieslikelytobeaffectedbynovelexperiences.Finally,ourownresearchhasshownthatstructuredproblem-solvingabilitiesareimpairedintheearlyperiodofemotionaladaptation(Healy,1985)andthatmaintenanceoftheReceptivestance in thepost-transitionalperiodfacilitatesdevelopment in structuredproblem-solving(StewartandHealy,1985).Analysesofthesevariables--intermsofgroupdifferencesandcorrelations,aswellaschangeovertime--willbecompletedwhenallsecondyear interviews havebeen,transcribed,andenoughhavebeentranslatedtopermitacceptableinterraterreliabilitytobeestablished.Page10

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ReferencesBarrera,M.J.(1981).Socialsupportinadjustmentofpregnantadaloscents:Assessmentissues.InB.H.Gottlieb(Ed.)Socialnetworksandsocial.support.BeverlyHills,CA:Sage.Bradburn,N. & Caplovitz,D.(1965).Reportsonhappiness.Chicago:Aldine.Cobb,s.(1976).Socialsupportasamoderatoroflifestress.PsychosomaticMedicine,38,300-314.Gurin,G.,Veroff,J., & Feld,S.(1960).NewYork:BasicBooks.Americansviewtheirmentalhealth.Healy,J.M.,Jr.performance.(1985).EmotionaladaptationtolifetransitionsandcognitiveUnpublishedDoctoralDissertation,BostonUniversity.Hockey,R.(1979).Stressandthecognitivecomponentsofskilledperformance.InV.Hamilton & D.M.Warburton(Eds.)Humanstressandcognition,NewYork:Wiley.Janoff-Bulman,R.(inpress).Understandingpeopleintermsoftheirassumptiveworlds.InD.Ozer,A.J.Stewart, & J.M.Healy,Jr.(Eds.)Perspectives personality:Theory,'measurement,andinterpersonaldynamics,Vol.III,Greenwich,CT: JAIPress.Janoff-Bulman,R.(1985).Theaftermathofvictimization:Rebuildingshatteredassumptions.InC.R.Figley(Ed.)Traumaanditswake.NewYork:Brunner/Mazel.Janoff-Bulman,R., & Frieze,I.F.(1983).Atheoreticalperspectiveforunderstandingreactionstovictimization.JournalofSocialIssues,39(2),1-17.McNair,D.,Lorr,M., & Droppleman,L.(1971).Profileofmoodstates.SanDiego,CA:EducationalandIndustrialTestingService.Melick,M.E.,Logue,J.N., & Frederick,C.J.(1982).Stressanddisaster.InL.Goldberger & S.Breznitz(Eds.),Handbookofstress:Theoreticalandclinicalaspects.NewYork:FreePress.Parkes,C.M., & Weiss,R.S.(1983).Recoveryfrombereavement.NewYork:BasicBooks.Quarantelli,E.L.(1985).Anassessmentofconflictingviewsonmentalhealth:Theconsequencesoftraumaticevents.InC.R.Figley(Ed.),Traumaanditswake.NewYork:Brunner/Mazel.Rahe,R.H.(1972).Subjects'recentlifechangesandtheirnear-futureillnesssusceptibility.AdvancesinPsychosomaticMedicine, Robins,L.N.(1984).EvolutionoftheDIS.DISNewsletter, l(I), 1-2.Robins,L.N.,Helzer,J.E.,Croughan,J., & Ratcliff,K.S.(1981).TheNIMHDiagnosticInterviewSchedule:Itshistory,characteristicsandvalidity.Page11

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ArchivesofGeneralPsychiatry,38,381-389.Robins,L.N., & Smith;E.M.(1984).Impactofdisaster previouslyassessedmentalhealth.St.Louis,MO:WashingtonUniversitySchoolofMedicine.Sokol,M.(1983).AcontentanalysisMeasuringemotionalperspectives.BostonUniversity.oftime-limitedpsychotherapy:UnpublishedDoctoralDissertation,Stewart,A.J.(1979).Measuringaffectivedevelopment in adults.PaperpresentedattheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationConference,NewYork.Stewart,A.J.(1982).Thecourseofindividualadaptation.JournalofPersonalityandSocialPsychology,42,1100-1113.Stewart,A.J., & Healy,J.M.,Jr.(1984).Processingaffectiveresponsestolifeexperiences:Thedevelopmentoftheadultself.InC.Malatesta & C.Izard(Eds.) Emotioninadultdevelopment.BeverlyHills,CA:SagePublications.Stewart,A.J., & Healy,J.M.,Jr.(1985).Personalityandadaptationtochange.InR. Hogan & W.Jones(Eds.),Perspectives personality:Theory,measurementandinterpersonaldynamics.Greenwich,CT: JAIPress.Veroff,J.,Douvan,E. & Kulka,R.(1981).TheinnerAmerican.NewYork:Basic.Veroff,J.,Kulka,R.A., & Douvan, E.(1981).MentalhealthinAmerica:Patternsofhelp-seekingfrom1957to1976.NewYork:BasicBooks.Winter,D.G.(1983).Developmentofanintegratedsystemforscoringmotiveimageryinverbal running text.Unpublishedmanuscript,WesleyanUniversity,Middletown,CT.Winter,D.G., & McClelland,D.C.(1978).Thematicanalysis:Anempiricallyderivedmeasureoftheeffectsofliberalartseducation.JournalofEducationalPsychology,70,8-16.Winter,D.G.,McClelland,D.C., & Stewart,A.J.(1981).A newcasefortheliberalarts.SanFrancisco:Jossey-Bass.Page12

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Table1ComparisonsofDirectVictimsandNeighborsMEANSMEN WOMEN SIGNIFICANT F-TESTS aLife-SatisfactionDirectVictims(N-21)Neighbors(N-21)Self-EsteemDirectVictimsNeighborsTotalStressSymptomsDirectVictimsNeighbors2.60b3.57b3.113.50b1.721.792.822.933.222.89b1.951.94Fgroup-4.11*Finteraction4.88*OverallMoodDisturbanceDirectVictimsNeighbors59.5368.6941.2953.18Fgroup"6.87*abt '* Basedonsexbygroupanalysesofvariance,covaryingageandeducation.Onlysignificanteffects(p<.05)ortrends(p<.10)arelisted.Meanssharingthissubscript,withinananalysis,aresignificantlydifferentfromeachother.p<.10p<.05 '*'* p<.Ol

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ComparisonsofDirectVictimsandNeighborsMEANSMENWOMENSIGNIFICANT F-TESTS a AngerDirectVictimsNeighborsConfusionDirectVi.ctimsNeighbors'TensionDirectVictimsNeighborsDepressionDirectVictimsNeighborsFatigueDirectVictimsNeighborsVigorDirectVictimsNeighbors20.0017.149.606.0016.5015.8622.0415.299.308.0017.9121.0021.9117.7811.189.2417.1816.9624.3918.9411.5510.06 17.5219.10Fgroup-6.60*Fgroup-3.33tFgroup9.57** at*Basedonsexbygroupanalysesofvariance,covaryingageandeducation.Onlysignificanteffects(p<.05)ortrends(p<.10)arelisted.p<.10p<.05 ** p<.Ol

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Table 3 ComparisonsofEarthquake GroupswithOther SamplesonPOMSScalesMean onPOMSscalefor:Tension-Depres-ConfuGroup Anxiety AngersionsianFatigueVigor"EarthquakeGroups16.5719.1320.259.16 9.8018.88Victims16.8621.0023.2710.4310.4817.71Neighbors16.6017.57 17.72 8.169.34 19.73 Reliefworkers16.1818.7719.658.829.5119.29Normative SamplesofPsychiatricPatientswithVariousDiagnosesMales Females18.4020.7013.5022.3014.9028.0012.4013.3010.1013.0011.309.30Normative SampleofU.S.CollegeStudentsMales Females12.9013.9010.109.3010.5013.1010.2011.7010.4010.7015.60 15.60U.S. SampleofDivorcingMothersofSchool-ageChildrenAboutsixmonthsafterphysicalseparation13.5315.0513.739.039.8515.92Abouteighteenmonthsafterphysicalseparation10.539.699.806.328.2216.08

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Table 4 ComparisonofEarthquakeGroupswithOther SamplesonLifeSatisfaction*Very GroupSatisfied EarthquaKe GroupsVictims24Neighbors43Reliefworkers24Normative SampleofU.S.AdultsinaNationalMentalHealthSurvey**17PrettySatisfied24 294773Not VerySatisfied52292910NationalSurveyofAdultsontheUseofTimeinAmericanSociety *** NationalSampleofPost-ElectionPoliticalBehavior***U.S. SampleofDivorcingMothers ofSchool-ageChildrenAboutsixmonthsafterphysicalseparationAbouteighteenmonthsafterphysicalseparation2424162865 66 5754 11102718*Allfiguresinthetablearepercentages...Veroff,J.,Douvan.E.,&Kulka,R.A.(J.981).TheinnerAmerican.NewYork:BasicBooks.***Unpublisheddatafrom Survey ResearchCentersurveys.describedinRobinson,J.P.,&Shaver.P.R.(1973).Measuresofsocialpsychologicalattitudes.AnnArborMI:InstituteforSocialResearcl1.

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Table 5 ComparisonofEarthquake Groups with a National SampleonSymptomsSubscales*Somatic Anxiety Complaints Immobil izationGrouplowhighlowhighlowhigh Earthquake SampleMalevictims307040604060Femalevictims366318814555Maleneighbors287129712872Femaleneighbors793643628.71Malereliefworkers2870366450 50National SampleofAdultAmericans' MentalHealth**Males425849514257Females28724258 44 57*Allfiguresinthetablearepercentages.**Veraff,J.,Dauvan,E.,& Kulka,R.A.(1981).TheinnerAmerican.NewYork:BasicBooks.

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Table6ComparisonofMaleDirectVictims,NeighborsandReliefWorkersLife-SatisfactionDirectVictims(NalO)Neighbors(N-7)ReliefWorkers(N-14)Self-EsteemDirectVictimsNeighborsReliefWorkersTotalStressSymptomsDirectVictimsNeighborsReliefWorkersOverallMoodDisturbanceDirectVictimsNeighborsReliefWorkersMEANS2.60.573.003.113.503.32'1.721.791.6659.5341.2955.83SIGNIFICANT F-TESTS a Fgroup co 3.95*a*Basedonone-wayanalysesofvariance,covaryingageandeducationp<.05

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'l'an.le Comparisonsof Male DirectVictims.NeighborsandReliefWorkers AngerDirectVictimsNeighborsReliefWorkersConfusionDirectVictimsNeighborsReliefWorkersTensionDirectVictimsNeighborsReliefWorkersDepressionDirectVictimsNeighbors.ReliefWorkersFatigueDirectVictimsNeighborsReliefWorkersVigorDirectVictimsNeighborsReliefWorkersMEANS20.0017.1419.009.606.009.43.5015.86 16.5722.0415.2920.299.308.0010.4117.9121.0019.86SIGNIFICANT Fgroup-3.59*a*Basedonone-wayanalysesofvariance,covaryingageandeducationp<.05


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