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After the factory explosion

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Title:
After the factory explosion family reactions to death in a disaster
Series Title:
Quick response research report ;
Physical Description:
1 v. (various pagings) : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
McNeil, Joan N
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Institute of Behavioral Science
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Center, University of Colorado
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Fireworks industry -- Accidents -- Psychological aspects -- Oklahoma -- Hallett   ( lcsh )
Children and death   ( lcsh )
Disasters -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Child disaster victims -- Mental health   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
Statement of Responsibility:
Joan McNeil.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Institute of Behavioral Science #6."

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001985195
oclc - 39096966
usfldc doi - F57-00052
usfldc handle - f57.52
System ID:
SFS0001133:00001


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After the factory explosion :
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Joan McNeil.
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Boulder, Colo. :
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Center, University of Colorado,
1986.
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1 v. (various pagings) ;
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Quick response research report ;
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Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
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Aerlex Corp. (Hallett, Okla.)
x Explosion, 1985.
650
Fireworks industry
Accidents
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Hallett
Psychological aspects.
Children and death.
Disasters
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Mental health.
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NaturalHazardsResearchandApplicationsInformationCenterCampusBox482Unive'rsityofColoradoBoulder,Colorado80309-0482AFTERTHEFACTORYEXPLOSION:FAMILYREACTIONSTODEATHINADISASTERJoanMcNeil1986QuickResponseResearch Report#15... rtofthe Natural Hazards This Information Center's ongoing Researc S. Quick Response Research Report enes. http://W'NW,colorado.edu/hazards InstituteofBehavioralScience #6 (303)492-6818

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AFTERTHEFACTORYEXPLOSION:FAMILYREACTIONSTODEATHINADISASTERThemostserious impactofdisasters,eithernaturalor"man-made,"onfamiliesandcommunities, is through the deathorincapacitatinginjuryoftheirmembers.Familiesthatcanface therealityofdeathafteradisastereventandencourage eachothertoworkouttheirgriefwillmovetoward healingmorequickly (Smith, 1983). Howevert in a1958study,Silber,PerryandBloch reportedthatstressesinducedbyparent-childinteractionsduring adisasterare considerable t especiallywhenparentshavedifficultydealing withtheirownfearsandarelesseffectivein providing supportfortheirchildren.Otherstudiesofparentsandchildrendealing withdeath-relatedissues(Becker&Margolin, 1967; Burket etal.,1982; McNeil, 1983;Wass&Cason, 1984;Weber&Fournier,1985)have emphasized thecrucialinfluenceonchildrenof parental handlingofa death crisist andthe importanceofemotional responsivenessandrelevantcommunication between parentandchild.Familiesandtheirspecial problemsafteradisasterhavebeenstudied only minimally, although most researchershavepointed outthatfamilies are primaryandnaturalpotentialstress-bufferingunitsduringallstagesofanaturaldisaster(Bolin, 1976; Raphaelt 1983; Smith t 1983).Inanattempttoprovidefurtherinformationonfamily copingstrategieswith deathaftera "human-caused"disaster,I sought a quick-response grant in 1985.OnTuesday, June 25, 1985, the Aerlex Corporation, a fireworksfactoryinruralPawneeCounty, Oklahomat exploded, destroying theentireplantandkilling21ofthe26employees then working in thefactory,fourofwhomwereteenagers. Threeofthe surviving victimswereinjured,including theplantowner,whose18-year-old stepsonwasamongthe dead.Numerousotherfamilies in small communities throughoutthisruralareawereseriouslyaffected(DallasTimesHerald, June 27, 1985).Through.contacts withthreechurches inPawneeCounty, I \."as able to conduct interviews with20families inanexploratory study,investigatingthe following questions:1)Whatwerethe immediate sourcesofstressforsurvivorfamiliesandtheirreactionsfollowing theplantexplosion?2)Whatweresomecharacteristiccommunicationpatternsbetween parentsandchildrenafterthedisaster?

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23)Whatpatternsoffamily cohesionandadaptabilitychangedfrompretopost-disaster?Whatimplications did theserelationshipdimensionshaveforparent-childcommunication abput the deathsoffamilymembersandfriends?4)Whatotherspecific haveaffectedthegriefprocessforsurvivorfamilies?SampleandMethodsThesamplesizeoftwenty familieswassmall,bygeneral standardsforempirical research, but each family inthisgroup provided information help ful foranexploratory study. Sixfathersand16mothers, ranginginagefrom24to52years,wereinterviewed;theirfamilies included atotalof31children,ages four through18years.All twenty familieswere"survivors"insomeway;thatis,atleastonememberof.thefamilyhadbeenkilledin the explosion,oratleastonememberofthe familyhadacloserelationshiptosomeonewhodied. Parents interviewedwereprimarilyworkingclassandmiddleclass,withallthemenandthe majorityofwomenemployedatleastpart-time.All but twoofthe parents belongedtoa church intheircommunity,andmostofthemattended churchservicesatleastonce aweek.Moststatedthattheirreligiousbeliefswerevery important to them. Thirteen parentsweremarriedforthefirsttime,sixwereremarried,andthreeweredivorced.Boththe motherandfatherintwofamilieswereinterviewed; these familieshadeachlosta teenagechildin the explosion.Ofthe31childrenwhosereactions were describedbyparents,21wereadolescents (ages12through18)andtenwerechildrenages 3 to 10. Therewere14maleandseven femaleadolescents,andsevenmaleandthreefemale youngerchildren.Theaverageageofadolescentswas15.7years;andthe averageageofthe youngerchildrenwas5.8years.Parentswereinterviewedsixweekspost-disasterabouttheirexperiences duringandafterthe factory explosion,especiallyregardingtheirchildren'sreactionsto the deathsoffamilymembersandfriends.Communicationpatternsandfamily beforeandafterthe explosionwereexplored,anda paper-and-pencil measureoffamily cohesionandadaptability(Olson,etal.1985)wasobtainedfromeachsubject.

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AFTERTHEFACTORYEXPLOSION:FAMILYREACTIONSTODEATHINADISASTERJoanN.McNeilDepartmentofHumanDevelopment and Family StudiesKansasStateUniversity Abstract Familyreactionsto21deaths occurring in aruralOklahomafireworksfactory explosionwereexplored throughstructuredinterviewsofparents.sixweekspost-disaster.Sixteen mothersandsixfathersofchildrenages four through18years discussed family communication behaviorsandchildren1sreactionsto the deathsoffamilymembersandfriends.Subjectsalsocompleted aquestionnairedescribingtheirfamilyrelationshipsbeforeandafterthe explosion. Findings revealed primary sourcesofofdisaster-relatedstressforbothadultandchildsurvivors.Aspredictedcoping behaviors.patternsoffamily cohesion andadaptabilitychangedafterthe explosion.andshowedsomerelationship toparentiscommunicationstyles.asshownin case examples. Parentsdifferedinwaysofsharingorwithholding informationfromyoungchildrenandteenagers aboutdisasterevents.andinwaysofpro viding reassurance about the deathsofloved persons. Implicationsforeducationandfurtherresearch are discussed.

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3Findings Immediate sourcesofstressWeisman(1976) has proposedthatcoping with unexpectedandcalamitous death presentsspecialproblemsforthe bereaved,andthiswasborneoutin the presentstudy.Theprimary sourceofstressforallfamilieswasthe sudden, overwhelming shockofhearing the explosion, seeing thehugecloudsofsmoke,andrealizingthatthe fireworksplanthadbeendestroyed. Peopleformiles around the factory areawereimmediatelyawareofwhathadhappened,andalthoughsomethoughtitmighthavebeenanoilwell exploding,orevenanatomicbomb,therewassoonnodoubtthattheplantwasthe cause.Thenextreactionwasthe painful impactoflearningthatnearlyallpersonspresentin thefactoryhadbeenkilled,includingspecificfamilymembersandclosefriends.Atfirst,thislearningwasaccompaniedbygeneraldisbelief,orafranticsearchforfactsmixedwithhopethatwhatwasfearedwasnottrue.Astherealizationwasmadeclearthatonly afewpersonshadescaped death, the immensityofthe tragedy began tosinkin.along with crushing sorrowandaweatthe suddennessofmultiple deaths, seemingly"allin asplitsecond." Athirdsourceofstress,unique tothistypeofdisaster.wasthefactofbodydisintegrationofthe victims.Asmorefactswerelearned about theresultsofthe explosion, survivors faced the horrorofthoughtsofthe victimsviolentmodeofdeath.Whilethiswasaspecialconcernofthosewhorealizedthatclose familymembershadbeenkilled.the awfultruthweighed heavilyonthemindsandheartsofallsurvivors,as revealed in repeatedcommentsthrough each interview.Onewomanexpressed thecommonfeeling:"Thewaythey diedissohard to think about,allblowntopieces.sosuddenly.Suchahorriblewayto Anadditional ofstressforfamilies,adding totheirshockandgrief,wastheirperceived invasionofprivacybynewspaperandtelevisionreportersandphotographers.Mediapersonnelfromnearbycitiesandfromotherstates,such asTexasandevenNewYork. appeared in the area "almostlikemagic,1Isoonafterthe explosion.Somelanded inhelicoptersin thecenterofonesmall town, followed grieving familiesintocrowdedchurchparlorsorthe local market. Otherssetupcamerasoutsidea funeralhome.

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4orattempted to crawl underbarrierserectedaround thedisastersite.Therewasgeneralstrongresentment toward theseintrudersamongsurvivorsandthosewhoweretrying to helpcreateorder in the confusionorcomfort the bereaved.AsRaphael(1983) has pointedout,whendestructionis"massiveandsudden,andisvividlyportrayed in the media,itcannotbedenied, becauseitisso pUbliclystated.Thusitisverydifficultforthose involvedandthe bereaved toshutout,even temporarily, the traumaanditsimplications...Thepublic natureofthese deaths, whileofferingpublicaffirmationofthe lossandgriefofthoseaffected,mayalsocreateextrasourcesofstress.II(p.336)Immediate responsesPredictably,manypeople in the area sought immediateaffiliationwithothersfor informationandreassurance.Manycalledclosefriendsorneighbors. Telephonelinesatthe countysheriff'sofficewerejammedwithfranticcalls.Manyothers ran to thevillagestore,acommonsocialcenterinonesmalltown,to congregate withotherfrightenedandhystericalpeople.Sometriedtogoto thefactorysite,but theywerepreventedbypolicebarricadesfromgettingclose.Eventually, dozensofpeople gathered in theparlorsofa for group solaceandcomfortfromthepastor.Grieving teenagers clungtogetherin severalhomesnear the county high school.Whennewsreached a churchcamp25milesaway,counselorstriedtocalmseveral hundred 10-and11-year-old campers.One boy, brotherofa teenagerwhodied in the explosion,wasdrivenhomefromthecampbyayoungminister,whohelpedhimlocatehis family.Protectionofchildrenwasacommonresponseofmostparents,especiallyofthe youngerchildren.Manyparentswereunable to hidetheirownfirstreactionsofshockandgrieffromtheirchildren,andwerelaterforced to answer questions theyfeltunprepared to face.Manyofthechildrenwatchedtelevisionreportsofthedisaster,andlearneddetailsofthe deathsoffamilymembersandfriendsthattheirparents did notknowhowto explain.Still,mosttriedtocouchexplanations in careful termsthattheyhopedwouldsootheandreassure anxiouschildren.Manyoftheyoungchildren'squestionsreflectedtheircuriosityaboutwhatthedeadpeople lookedlike,andif"gettingblownUp"wouldhurt.Olderchildrenandteenagersalsoexpressedgreatanxiety about thepossiblesufferingofthosewhohaddied. Parentsfoundthese matters extremelydifficultto handle inmostcases.Itisclearthatsignificantlossaffectspeoplephysically(Schneider, 1984).

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5Forthefirstsixweeks,post-disasterresponses tostressinchildrenandadolescents,asreportedbyparents,included stomachupsets,headaches, sleepingandeatingproblems,andnightmares.One16-year-oldgirl'shairbegantofallout,andshealsosufferedfromdizzyspells.Weepingspellsandclingingtendencies,irritability,restlessness,andconcerns about deatlwerealsocommonamongallchildren.Symptomsofdepression appeared mostofteninadolescents,andwereexpressed throughagitatedbehaviorsorwithflataffect,typicalofthe variedandcomplexresponsesofadolescents to death (Fleming&Adolph, 1986). Family communicationpatternsFindings insociallearningstudiesindicatethatadirectinfluenceonchildren'sfeelingsabout deathisthatofparents'behaviors.WassandCason(1984, 40-42) proposethat"opencommunication with children about suchsubjectsas death requiresthatparents themselveshave lowanxietiesandfearsconcerning death,thattheyarewillingto confront such issuesandencouragetheirchildrento expresstheirfearsratherthan to repressanddenythem.IIThisexploratorystudy focusedonthe problems involved in family communicationafterdeath-relatedcrisis,specificallyinvestigatingaspectsofthe CircumplexModelofMaritalandFamily Systems (Olson, Sprenkle,&Russell, 1979), inwhichcommunicationamongfamilymembersaffectsand is affectedbythe uniquerelationshipqualitiesofcohesionandadaptability.According to GalvinandBrommel(1982), cohesion irnplies the "emotional bonding of familymembers,1Iandadaptabilityisdefined as litheabilityofa family system to changeitspowerstructure,rolerelationships,andrelationshiprulesin response tosituationalstress"(p. 13).Undercrisiscircumstances, changes in such familyrelationshipstend to occur inmostfamilies.Aspredicted,family cohesionandadaptabilitypatternsofsubjectsin the present study changed in response to thetragicdeathsoffamilymembersandfriends,andresultingcommunication processes between parentsandchildren apparentlywerealsoaffected.Family cohesion scores changedfrompretopost-disasterforallbut threeofthesubjects,as follows (see Figure1):Six parents perceivedtheirfamiliesasbecomingmoredisengagedorseparated (low cohesion)afterthedisaster;ten parents reportedtheirfamilies asbecomingmoreconnected

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6orenmeshed(closelybonded);andthreeparents reportedslightlyless"enmeshmentafterthedisaster.Thethree(allfathers)whothoughttheirfamilies'closenesshadnot changed perceivedthemas beingenmeshed(highly cohes ive). Familyadaptabilityscoresalsochangedfrompretopost-disasterforallbut threeofthesubjects(twoofwhomhadalsonot changed in cohesion), asshownin 2.Tenparentssawtheirfamiliesasbecomingmorerigidormorehighlystructuredinrulesandrolerelationships;nine parents perceivedtheirfamilies asbecomingmoreflexibleorchaoticafterthedisaster,withlittlestabilityororder.Thosewhoseperceptionsoftheirfamilieshadnot changedwereclassifiedasrigid,evidentlydesiringto repress changeandgrowth.Specificchanges variedfromfamily to family,relatedto unique losssituationsandthepersonalitiesofthe persons involved.Examplesofsuch individual changescanbeseen in oftwofamilies,bothofwhichhadlosta teenagechildin the explosion.I)TheA familyconsistsofa remarried coupleandthewife'sl3-year-oldson,C.Mrs.A's 18-year-old son,K,waskilledin thefactoryexplosion.Mr.Awasowneroftheplant,severelyinjuredinthe explosion,andsincethattime has endured aseriesofgovernmental hearingsandseverallawsuits.TheA'shavesoldalltheirbusiness holdingsanddeclared bankruptcy.Mr.A,aVietnamveteran,althoughopento a general discussionofhismanylosses,and admittingthatin the explosionhe"lookedDeathrightin the eye,IIshowsa strong tendency toward the disengagement dimensionofthe family cohesion measure, perhaps as awayofcoping with hisstressfulsituation.Incontrast,Mrs.A,grieving the deathofher son,hasmovedfroma disengaged dimension to a highlyenmeshed(cohesive) dimension,becomingmuchmorecloselyinvolved withandconcerned about her family.Sheisespeciallyanxious about her survivingsonandher husband'sreactionsto the traumatic events.II)TheB familyconsistsofa mother,father,andtwoteenage sons, ages13and15. Theirl8-year-oldadopted daughter,M,waskilledin thefactoryexplosion.Mr.Bwasmanageroftheplant,andoneofthreepersonswhoescapedinjuryor death.TheB'shadmovedto the area only a year before thedisaster,andstillhavefewfriends intheircommunity, as they bothnowworkin acity30milesaway.Their maritalrelationshipappears tobequiteclose,but they aresomewhatisolatedfromtheirsons,whoappear tobedealing withtheirsister'sdeath intheirownprivateways.This tendencyissomewhatapparent in the Bls family cohesionscores,bothofwhichmovedtoward "disengagementafterthe explosion. Mr. Blsadaptabilityscoremovedtoward thechaoticdimension,

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7whileMrs.B'sadaptabilityscoremovedfromchaotictowardflexibility.ThesechangesmayimplythatMr.Bhasreacted moststronglyto thestressofrecentevents.withfeelingsoflossofcontrol.(Hecommented,"Ihavelosttheabilitytoshowanyemotion.")Hiswife appears tobestrugglingto gainsomecontrol over the devastatingeffectsoftheirlosses.According to Olsonandhiscolleagues (1979),whodeveloped theoriginalFamilyAdaptabilityandCohesion Evaluation Scales(FACES).families operating.oneitherextremeofthe cohesionoradaptabilitydimensions are oftenlessfunctional,astheybecometoorigid,tooclose,ortooisolated.Some'families surviving theOklahomafactory explosionshowedchanges to extreme cohesionandadaptabilitydimensions,andthiswasofspecialinterestin thi s study.Communicationpatternsbetween parentsandchildrenwereinvestigated,andindividual familypatternswerecategorized as tomodeormannerofex changing information and/or supportafterthedisaster.Ina1980studyofparental communication withchildrenabout death, proposed amodelofIIcommunicationstylesllinwhichparents dealing with emotional issuesrelatedto death couldbecategorizedasfollows:1) Open-Warm -Awayoftalking,listening,andsharing openly with achild,answering questions honestlyandencouraging concernedexplorationoffeelings.2)Open-Cool-Awayoftalkingopenly with achild,answering questions honestly, but keeping discussionoffeelingsto aminimum.3)Closed-Warm-Awayofresponding to achild'sfeelingsabout thesubject,warmlyandwith concern, while keepingdiscussionofinformation to aminimum,andattempting tosmoothoveranyanxietiesbyavoidingdifficultissues.4)Closed-Cool -Awayqfavoiding discussionofeitherfactsorfeelingsbyfocusing thechild'sattentiononothermatters.bycorrectinghis/herbehaviors,orbysimply leaving him/ her alone.Whilethe small samplesizein the present study precluded a thoroughstatisticalanalysisofparents'communicationstylesandchildren'scoping be haviors, individual interviews revealedsomeevidenceoftheirrelationshipto

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8family cohesionandadaptabilityscores. Familieswhohadboth high cohesion (enmeshed)andhighadaptability(chaotic)scores,orwhohadboth high cohesion (enmeshed)andlowadaptability(rigid)scores,disclosed evidenceofgreatstressanddifficultywithparent-childcommunication about death, as in the following examples: I)TheC family (enmeshed, chaotic)consistsofarecentlydivorced mother, herl6-year-olddaughter,andathreeyear-oldson.Thethreeofthemare "veryclose."ButMrs.C.admits shehasgiven herchildrenagreatdealoffreedom, since sheworksfull-time.Herdaughter,T,spends mostofher free time withfriends,"naturalfora teenager, I guess."WhenTis boyfriend, litheboyIwasgoing tomarry,1Il8-year-oldD,waskilledin theplantexplosion, Twas devastated,andstayed withgirlfriendsfor several days.Shehas sincebeendepressed,sleepless,weepy,andgenerally inconsolable.Mrs.Cisextremely concerned abouther,stating"Icanhandle pain, butnobodylikesto seetheirchildhurtlikethat.1IShesays she wants toprotecther daughter asmuchas she can, because the familyhasalready been through"alotoftrauma"andshe wants T to"stressthepositivethings,forgetallthebadthings...Idon'twanther togrieve--Itellher toIPutonahappy '"(Mrs.Cwasclassifiedas aClosed-Warmcommunicator.)II)TheD family (enmeshed,rigid)consistsofa mother,father,andthreechildren,ages 3, 7,and10years.Theirclosefriends,the Y family,Josta teenage son in thefactoryexplosion,andonthedayofthe tragedy, theD'stook theYISyoungersonhometostayuntilhisparents returnedforhim.WhenMr.D entered his house, his youngestchildannounced, sawYgetkilledon Dsaid,"I lookedatmywife, she lookedatme,andwelet it drop.1IThechildrenwerefullofquestions,as wellasinterestinandconcernfortheirstunnedandgrievingyoungfriend,but theDiSdecideditwouldbebetterforallconcernediftherewerenotalkofthe explosionthatnight.AsfarasMr.D knows-,-therewasnodiscussionamongthechildren.(Mr.Dwasclassifiedas a Closed-Cool communicator.)Everyfamily has asetofrelationshipagreementsorrulesthatgovern communication behavior.Oneofthe functionsofsuchrules(whichmaybespokenorunspoken)relatesto whatoneisallowed totalkabout.Deathisoften a "taboolltopic inmanyfamilies,especiallyas asubjectthatisclearlynot discussed withchildren.Also,families-of-origin,wheredevelopmentofcommonmeanings begins,mayprovideblueprintsfor the communicationrulesoffuturegenerations (Galvin&Brommel,1982, pp. 46,

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958).Thecaseofafifthandsixthfamily (bothenmeshedonthe cohesionscale,andrigidontheadaptabilityscale)inthissampleofsurvivorsillustratestheseideas,as wellasemphasizing again the precariousstateoffamilies incrisiswhomay qecome too close or toorigidto functionwe11.AnnandBetty(fictitiousnames)aresisters,wholivewiththeirhusbandsandyoungchildrennext door to eachother.Intheirchildhoods,theirfatherwaskilledinanautomobile explosion;Ann,astheolderchild,wastolddetailsofthataccident,andhadnightmaresformanymonths.IIIsworeI'dnevertellmykidssomanyhorriblethings.1IBetty, the youngersister,said,IITheykept thenewsofmyfather'sdeathfromme--itwouldhavebeenbettertoknow,because I wondered aboutitforyears,andimaginedawfulthings.1IAfterthe fireworksfactoryexplosionanddeathofAnn's mother-in-law(whowasalso1I1ikea grandmotherlltoBetty'schildren),a familyconflictarose overwhatthechildrenshouldorshould notbetold.Bettywasfrank with herfour-year-oldson Kevin.whoaskedifGwasIIblowedupin the'splosion.1IBettysaid,"I neverliedto him--Itoldhim'Yes, she was.'"ISuchfranknesswasnotappreciatedbyAnnandher husband,whoseseven-year-oldBobbiewasinformedbyhislittlecousinthatthe grandmotherwas"blowedupintolittlepieces."AnnhadpreviouslyinformedBobbiethat"Grandmafelldownin the explosionandhitherheadanddied,"believinghedid notneedtoknowlithe gorydetails.IIImmediately, BettywastoldshemustkeepKevinaway from theotherchildren,includingothercousins gathered next door with the family. Bettytoldhersonthatotherswere"upset"andhemustplaybyhimself.Hewasbewildered about beingseparatedfromtheotherchildren,andanxious about beingIIblowedUpllforquitea time. Familyrelationshipswerealsostrainedforweeksoverthisdisagreement.(Annwasclassifiedas aClosed-Warmcommunicator; Bettywasclassifiedas Open-Cool.) Talking withyoungchildren/adolescentsOnefactorinparents'communication about deathafterthe explosionwasthe ofthechildren.Ofthesixparentswhohadchildrenunder ten yearsofage, onlytwodiscussedspecificdetailsofthedeaths,andthesedifferedin contentand"style"(see example above).Languageused with veryyoungchildrenwasmostoften phrased inquasi-religiousterms, suchas"Grandmawent to heaven tp bewith Jesusilor"Godput handover everyone.1IWhenchildrenasked questionsrelatedtoparents'

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10explanations,such as "IsGrandmaanangel?" parentswerelikelyto continue the fantasy with suchcommentsas "Yes,she'saspecialangel,whowatchesdownuponusfromheaven." Further ques t; ons, suchas "Wi 11Ibeanange1someday?"or"WhydoesGodwantustogoupto heaven?"compoundedthe complexityofdiscussions inthisvein.Evenfurtherdifficultiesensuedwhenchildrenweretaken toviewthe graveofarelative,as in"HowcanGrandmabeupin heavenwhenshe'sburied in the ground?" Parentswhofound themselves inthisdilemmaadmitted to being unable to pursue thesubjectwithanyreasonable explanations.Themajorityofchildren(21)ofinterviewed familieswereadolescents,withanaverageageof15.7years,andtheirinteractionswith parents about the explosionweresubstantiallydifferentfromthoseoffamilies with youngerchildren.These adolescentchildrenlearned about the deathsoffamilymembersandfriendsin awidevarietyofways.Manyheard the explosionandinquired about the cause;somewereatwork,orattendingsummercamp,orvisitingfriends,oreven asleepwhenthedisasteroccurred. Several teenagers immediately droveoutto theplant.wheretheywereturnedawayfromthesite;othershurriedto thehospitaltoinquireabout possible victims.Itwasanextremely confusing. emotional period forallconcerned,andearlyinterventionbyparentsorotheradultswasnot alwaysavailable.Parental coping withtheirado1escents 'griefreactionsvaried.dependingontheparent's grief andoftenonthe sexofthe parent.Themotherofa teenageboywhowaskilledwasespeciallyoverwhelmed.andherl3-year-oldsonwascaredforbyfriendsduring thefirstdays ufter the explosion.Onemother working in a nearbycitywascalledbyherdaughter'sfriendtocometo thehospitalwherethe daughter,overcomewith shockandgrief,hadcollapsed.Fathers admitted to a lackofskillforthe taskofhelpingtheirchildrenwith the immediatecrisis.Onefathercommented,"Theydon'ttalktomealotabout what happened with them--probab1ymoretotheirmother."Infact,allfathersstateditwasdifficultforthemtotalkwiththeirchildrenaboutmostsubjectsexceptforsportsorschoolwork. Anotherfatherconfessed. "Feelings are uncomfortable. Igetawayfromthemsomehow."Butthatfatherdid make aneffortto help hisdistraughtsondeal with the deathofaclosefriend.Theystayeduplatetogether several nights totalkabout the deadfriend,triedtorecallthe funny thingsheandthefriendhaddonetogether,laughedandcried,andweresomehowcomforted intheirgrief.

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11Mothers inthissamplewereoften understandingandsupportiveoftheiradolescentchildren'sreactions.andtalked withthemabouttheirthoughtsandfeelings.as in the following examples: f1y son askedme.IIWhenwi11the hurtgoaway?"Itoldhimitwouldbepainfulforawhile, butwouldhurtlesseventually.Itoldhimhe'd always havememoriesofhisfriend. MY daughter thinks about death alotnow.Shetoldme."Idon'tthinkI'lllivetogotocol1ege--I'mafraid death willhappentome,too.III needed toknowthatshewasafraid.Itoldheritwasrarethatpeople have to face such a tragedyather age,thatshe must pickupthe piecesandgoonwith herlife.J.wasso angryatfirst.hepaced thefloorandhitthings.Hewouldn'tbelieveD.wasdead,yelledatmethatIdidn'tknow.Nowhetalksmoretome.especiallywhenhewakesupwith nightmares.Hesometimesjustneeds tobeclose.Oncehegavemeahugandsaid,III'm gladyou'realive.1IS.waswornoutfortwoorthree weeks.Shecouldn'teatorsleep.orifshesleptshewokeupcrying. Ilethertalk.triedtogether to cryitout.liThelongeryouholditin,the worseitwillbe.1ISheaskedIIDidH.suffer?Didsheknowshewasgoing todie?1IItoldher Ifeltliketherewasnotimetothinkofdeath--God kept herfromsufferingbygrabbing herinstantly.Teenage peerswerealsoa major sourceofcomfortandcompanionship during thefirstweeksfollowing the tragedy,asadolescents confided feelingsmoreoftento friends than to family.Oneparentsaid,IISheandher friendsshutusoutforawhile.butIdidn'tintrude.Shewasdesper atetobewithsomeone1ike thefriendshe lost.IIOccasional1yanado1escentgroup's fearsandfantasiesescalatedandincreased theanxietiesofparticipants.Onemotherreported:Inatownthissizethereare somanyrumors.Thekidshadworkedthemselvesuptosomehysteria,buildingupalotofdramaticdetailsabouthowtheirfriendshaddied. thehorriblesuffering,the broken bodies.allthat.I found outfroma niecewhoworkedwith the ambulanceservice,thensatmysondownandtoldhimthe realtruth:thatpeoplehadnotIIwaitedtodie.1Ithattherewasinstantdeathforeveryone,andnobodiesleftto lookat.A.cried,butI.think

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12ithelpedhimcope.Knowledgeistheanswer--iftheyknowandface the trutht theycancopewithit.Uncertainty often causesfear.Inallcasesofyoungchildrenoradolescentsreactingto the deathsoffamily or closefriends,thosewhohadatleastoneparentwhotalked withthemaboutfeelingsandthoughts surroundingthe tragedyweremostlikelytoreturnwithin afewmonthstonormalbehaviors.Thosewith feweradultresources,orwhowerestrugglingwithotherpersonal problems, appeared tobestillgreatlytroubledbytheirlosses,even elevenmonthsafterthe factory explosion. Factorsaffectingsurvivors'griefTheunique natureandmeaningofa losssustainedorarelationshipsevered are individual in nature (Rando, 1984),andeach person'sgriefwillbeidiosyncratic.Previous death experiences undoubtedly influence the copingstrategiesanddefensemechanismsusedbythe mourner,especiallyifformer lossesareunresolved. Findings inthisstudy appear to support Smith's (1983) suggestionthat,ingeneral,familiesthatcope withdisastersleasteffectivelyare thosethathavelowfamily adequacy innormaltimes. Parentswhotalkedoffamily problemsthathadbeenmajor concerns before thedisaster,such as divorces, alcoholism, deathsfromaccidentsorsuicides,jobinstability,or personal estrangementswereoften thosewhowerefindingdisasterlosses tobemostoverwhelming. Other environmentalfactorsmayhaveaffectedthegriefprocessforsurvivorsoftheOklahomaexplosion.Onemajor influenceisthe perceptionofpreventabilityofsuch adisaster,andsubsequentimplications.Bugen(1979) proposesthatwhenmournersareconvincedthattheirsignificantlossesarehuman-causedandsopreventable,theirgriefwilllikelybeprolongedandespeciallyintense.Activitiesinvolved in mass-producingvolatileand potentially dangerous products (suchasfireworks) are vulnerable tohumanerror.Sucherrors,whenhumanlivesareatstake,areinevitablyperceived as preventable,andthis'isacriticalfactorin the emotional impactandcoping processofsurvivor-victims.Oneofthefirst,majoreffortsin resolvingdilemmascreatedbya"man-made"disasteristo seek cause.Thusthereare oftenintricateinvestigationsofpossible causesandreasons, with accompanying emotionalcom-

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13ponents suchasanger,fear,guilt,andthestrongneed to placeblameonsomeone(Raphael, 1984, p. 332).Thefactoryexplosion hasbeenthe focusofformal inquiry through the federal Occupational SafetyandHealthAdministration,andrecentlythrough theJusticeDepartment.Blamehascomefromindividualsaffectedbythe tragedy, aswell,asevident in the harrassmentbyanonymousphonecallsto theplantowner's family withthreatstoblowuptheirhomeforpurposesofrevenge. These events have added to the ordealandhaveexacerbatedthisfamily'sgrief.A secondfactoraffectingsomegrievingfamilieswasconflictsregard ing funeral arrangements.Anespeciallypoignant exampleisthe caseofthe familywhosel8-year-olddaughterwaskilled.Becauseofdifficultiesinidentifyingher body--whentherewasliterallynobodytobefound-her funeralwaspostponedfortwoweekswhile dental recordsweresoughtfromanotherstateandapplicationto a nearby crematory (closed during the holiday season)wasfinalized.Extended familymembersfromoutofstatearrivedfora funeralthatwasdelayed,sodeparted without finding closurefortheirgrief.Theparents'finaldecision to cremate thegirl'sremainswasextremelydifficultforthemandreflecteda profounddistasteforthisprocess.Somefamilymembersobjectedonreligiousgrounds,resultingin a familyconflict.Cremainswereburied in a simple ceremony, but the familyfeltemptyandincomplete.Themotherstated,"There's nothingleftofher but herpicture--it'shard to believethat'sher buriedthere." Apositiveinfluenceonsurvivors,however,camefromthesocialsupportofferedbysurrounding communities during the funeral ceremonies. Althoughfewofthe youngerchildrenofinterviewed parents attendedfunerals,forvarious reasons, a majorityofadolescents attendedoneormoreofthe nineteenseparatefunerals,often withtheirparentsorwith ofclosefriends.Mostattended theritesheldforanl8-year-oldhigh schoolfootballstar,noted as thelargestfuneral ever held in thetownofCleve land,andmanyyoungmenwhohadbeenhisfriendswerepallbearers.Inadditiontoprivateceremonies, amemorialservicewasheld to honorallthe dead. Thisservicewasattendedbythe governorofOklahomaandmanycommunityleaders,providing recognitionofallsurvivors,knownandunknown,ofthistragicevent. Thereislittleevidencethatanyoftheespeciallyvulnerable

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14familieshadsoughtorwere finding helpfrommental health agencies.However,manyinthisrural "Bible Belt" areahadsoughtassistanceand$.upportfromtheirlocal churches orpastors,andemphasizedthat"ourfaithhaspulledusthrough.1I Those without connections to a churchorothercommunitygroupwereobviouslystrugglingtoadjustthroughtheirownresources tolifeafterthedisaster.SummaryandImplications Resultsofthisexploratory studyoftwenty bereaved familiessurviving a fireworks factory explosionshowreactionsof shock, grief,somaticdistress,affiliationneedsandprotectionofchildren,similarto those foundinotherdisasterstudies.Aninvestigationoffamily cohesionandadaptabilitypatternsbeforeandafterthetragicdeathsoffamilymembersandfriendsindicatedeffectsofthese familyrelationshipson.communication processes. Families with changes to very high cohesionandhighadaptabilityscores,orhigh cohesionandlowadaptabilityscores,tended tohavemoredifficultiesinparent-childcommunication about thecrisis.Theimportanceofopenparental communicationandsupportforchildrenandadolescents duringdeath-relatedcriseswasreaffirmed.Examplesoffamily coping behaviors in adapting to multiple deaths emphasizedhuman causedfactorsthataffectedthegriefprocess.Someimplicationsforadditionalresearchmaybe:Touselargersamplesoffamiliesandcontrol groups, including interviewsofchildrenandadolescents,as well astheirparents;Toinvestigatelong-termeffectsoflarge-scale,unexpecteddisasterswheredeathoffamilymembersoccurs;Toexplore long-range changes in family cohesionandadaptabilityafteradisasterandtheirrelationshiptoparent-childcommunication processes;Toinvestigatetheeffectsoftragiclossonfamilies withandwithout various support systemsorparent educational prepa ration.

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Figure1.ChangesinFamilyCohesion 1 Scores, Pre-andPost-DisasterEnmeshedConnected Separated Disengaged(Norms): (46-50) (41-45)(35-4Q)(10-34) Subjects Pre Post Pre ,Post Pre Post Pre Post10120181024340103403810448481054242106444210736341083735109474411038.321114733112474111342441144343115443911639271174338118414211946441203634121464912246 43101son,D.L.;Portner,J.;andLavee,Y.FACESIII:Familyadaptabilityandcohesion evaluationscale.FamilySocial Science, UniversityofMinnesota,St.Paul, 1985.

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Figure 2.Changesin FamilyAdaptabilitylScores, PretoPost-DisasterRigidStructuredFlexible Chaotic(Norms): (10-19)(20-24)(25-28) (29-50) Subjects Pre Post Pre Post Pre PostPrePost101182010236 3210319211041818105181810612111072730108272910924 2611022231112226112151511314151142421115192011618301172936118192311925301202322121364512229381 .Olson, D.L.;Portner,J.;andLavee,Y.FACESIII:Fam11yadaptabilityandcohesion evaluationscale.Family Social Science, UniversityofMinnesota,St.Paul, 1985.

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References Becker,D.andMargolin,F.Howsurvlvlng parents handledtheiryoungchildren'sadaptation to thecrisisofloss.AmericanJournalofOrthopsychiatry, 37:753-757, 1967. Bloch, D.A.;Silber,E.;andPerry,E.reactionofchildrentodisaster.113:416-422, 1956.Somefactorsin the emotionalAmericanJournalofPsychiatry,Bolin,R.Family recoveryfromnaturaldisasters.MassEmergencies, 1976, 1, 267-277.Bugen,L.Humangrief:Amodelforpredictionandintervention.AmericanJournalofOrthopsychiatry, 47, 196-206, 1977. Burke,J.D.;Borus,J.F.;Burns,B.J.;Millstein,K.H.;andBeasley,M.C.Changesinchildren'sbehavioraftera naturaldisaster.AmericanJournalofPsychiatry, 1939:8, August 1982, 1010-1014. Fleming,S.J.andAdolph,R.Helping bereaved adolescents:Needsandresponses.InCarr,C.A.andMcNeil, J.N.(Eds.),Adolescenceanddeath.NewYork:Springer Publishing Co., 1986, 97-118. Galvin,K.M.andBrommel,B.J. Family communication: Cohesionandchange. Grenview,Illinois:Scott,Foresman&Co., 1982, 12-21. McNeil, J.N.Youngmothers' communication about death withtheirchildren.DeathEducation, 6:323-369. 1983. Murphy,S.A.Stress,coping,andmental health outcomes following anaturaldisaster:Bereaved familymembersandfriendscompared.DeathStudies,10:411-429, 1986. _. Olson, D.H.;Portner,J.;andLavee,Y.FACESIII:Familyadaptabilityandcohesion evaluationscale.Family Social Science, UniversityofMinnesota,St. Paul, 1985. Olson, D.H.; Sprenkle, D.H.;andRussell, C.S. Circumplexmodelofmaritalandfamily systems: Cohesionandadaptabilitydimensions, family types,andclinicalapplications.FamilyProcess, 18(1979); 3-28.Rando,T.A.Grief, dying,anddeath:Clinicalinterventionsforcaregivers.Champaign,Illinois:ResearchPress,1984. Raphael,B.Deathanddisaster,in Raphael, B., Theanatomyofbereavement.NewYork:BasicBooks,1983, 320-351. Schneider,J.Stress,lossandgrief.Baltimore,Md:University ParkPress,1984, 11-14.Silber,E.; Perry,S.E.;andBloch,D.A.Patternsofpa'rent-childinteractionin adisaster.Psychiatry 21(2): 149-167,1958.

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Smith,S.M.Disaster:Familydisruption in thewakeofnaturaldisaster.InFigley,C.R.andMcCubbin,H.(Eds.), Stressandthe family:Vol.II:Copingwith catastrophe: "NewYork:Brunner/Mazel,1983, 120-147.Wass,H.andCason,L.Fearsandanxietiesabout death, inWass,H.andCarr,C.A.(Eds.), Childhoodanddeath.NewYork:Hemisphere,1984,25-45.Weber,J.A.andFournier,D.G.Familysupportanda child1s adjustment to death.FamilyRelations,1985, 34:43-49.Weisman,A.D.Copingwith untimely death, inMoos,R.H.(Ed.),HumanadaptationCopingwithlifecrises.Lexington,MA:D.C.Heath,1976, 261-274.

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APPENDIXIInfor.medConsentForm

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INFORMEDCONSENTFORMThisdocumentdescribes the researchprojectandtheparticularwaysinwhichwehopeyouwillparticipate.Please readitcarefully.Then,ifyoudecidetoparticipate,sign yournameandrecordtoday'sdate.Purposeofthe Study. A majordisasterplaces unusualstressonfamilymembersandcommunities. We are trying to learnhowparentsandchildreninteractduringandafteranemergencysituationsuchasthefactoryexplosionyouhaverecentlyexperienced. We willalsotryto determinefactorsrelatedto family communication and coping behaviors withthistypeofcrisis.Procedure.Youare asked toparticipateintwointerviews about your experiences during therecentdisaster.Thefirstinterviewwillbeheld today.Thenext interview will take place within the nextsixmonthstooneyear.Eachinterviewwilltake approximatelyoneto one-and-a-half hours to complete.Youwillbeasked questions about your background, your familylife,yourchildren'sandyourownprevious experiences with deathorotherloss,andyourchildren'sandyourownexperiencesandreactionsto the factory explosion.Bothduringandattheendofthe interview,wewillalsoaskyouto answersomequestionsona paper-and-pencilquestionnaire.These questions will concern yourfeelingsabout your familylifeboth beforeandafterthedisasterhappened.Confidentiality.Yournamewill notberecordedonanyofthe informationyouprovide, whetherwrittenorspoken. We willuse acodenumberwhichwillprotectyouridentityandtheidentityofyour family, but willstillpermitustocompareonetype of information with another. Resultsfromi ntervi ewswith theentire groupofpartici pantsmaybewrittenupinscientificpublicationsand/or presentedatscientificmeetings.However,afterthefinalreportofthe researchhasbeenwritten,thewrittenresponsesandinterview notes willbedestroyed. Until then., thesematerialswillbesecured in a lockedfileandonly theinvestigatorwillhaveaccess tothem.RisksandBenefits. Since thetopicoftherecentdisasterandthe lossesyoumayhaveencounteredisadifficultone,re-livingpainful experiences in the interviewsmaymakeyouuneasy, anxious,orsad.Ifthisshould occur, theresearchercanprovide a support person or counselor totalkwith you.Andyoumayfeelthatsomequestions unreasonably invade your privacy.Ifso,justtellusthatyouprefernot to answer.Ontheotherhand,youmayfind the interviews tobehelpfulandhealing in termsofencouragingyouto share yourinsightsandfeelings about your experiences. Also,byparticipatingin the study,youwillhelpustolearnhowto helpotherpeoplecopewith suchstressfulsituations.Finally,youwillbeprovided with acopyofthe completed study,ifyouwish to see one. VoluntaryParticipation. participationisstrictlyvoluntary.Youarefreeto discontinueatanytimeyouwish. I have readandunderstandthisdescriptionandagree toparticipatein the study under the conditionsitdescribes.DateSigna ture

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(home)913-539-3653(work)913-532-5510 Person in chargeofthe study (Contact for questions about the study):JoanN.McNeil,Ph.D.DepartmentofFamilyandChildQevelopmentKansasStateUniversityJustinHall310Manhattan,Kansas66506Telephone: Contact for health concerns: PastorJamesTaylor Terlton BaptistChurchTerlton,OklahomaPastorGaryWashburnFirstChristianChurchCleveland,Oklahoma

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APPENDIXIIPARENTINTERVIEWQUESTIONS

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-2II.FAMILYCOMMUNICATION:Everyfamilyisunique in thewaystheyordinarilytalkabout things with'each other, andwhether theyshowtheirfeelingsto eachotherornot. 1 m sure you've noticedthatevenpeople in thesamefamily aredifferentfromeach other. We'reinterestedinthewaysthatfamilymembers,particularlyparentsandchildren,talkto eachother.Forexample:13)Doyouthinkmostpeople in your family (bothadultsandchildren) usuallytalkaboutwhatthey'rethinking orfeelingto each other?ordothey usually tend tokeepthings to themselves?(1)_Usuallytalkto eachother(2)_Usuallykeepthings to (3)_Other:()14)Dosomepeople in your family tend to confide inotherfamilymembersmorethan othersdo?(1)_YesRemarks:15)Whatkindsofsubjectsdoesyour family usuallytalkaboutwhenyou'realltogether, say, atthe dinner table?16)Ifyouhaveproblems,orthingsthatmaybebothering you,whendoyouusuallytalkaboutthem?(Doesyourchild)17)Dothe children share inthiskindofconversation--ordoyouusually wait unthe children are not around? (1) Share in problem conversation (2)Waituntilchildrennotaround--(3)_Other:(' )18)Isitusually easyordifficultforyoutotalkabout your thoughtsandfeelings with your family? -(l)Usuallyeasy(2) Usuallydifficult(3) Other: _19)Whatkindofsubjectisusuallyeasiestforyoutotalkabout with yourchild(ren)?---20)Whatkindofsubjectisusually hardestforyoutotalkabout with yourchi1d( ren )? .--21)Doesyourchild(ren)talktoyouaboutwhathe/she/they'rethinking orfeeling--often,occasionally, ordoeshe/she/they usuallykeepthings to him/her/themselves?(l)Oftentalkstome(2)Occasionallytalkstome (3)----Ysually keepsthings toself(5)OTHER:(4)Eachchilddifferent

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-322)Whatisusually the ofsubjectfor yourchild(ren}totalkabout withyou?23)Whatisusually the hare?t kindofsubjectfor yourchild(ren)totalkabout withyou?24)Doyouthink he/she/they confide(s) personal thoughtsandfeelingsmoreoften to orto your husband, or to other children in the family? (1)__moreoften tome(2)__moreoftentomyhusband (3)__moreoften tootherchild(ren) (4) Other: __25)lidlikeyouto thinkbackto your recentpast--earlierthisyear,ormaybelastyear...Thinkofa timeyourememberwhenyourchild(oneofyour children)wasAFRAIDof something...Doyourecalla timelikethat?(1)_Yes(2)__No26)(IFYES)...Whathappened then?27)Whatdidyourchildsay toyouthen?28)Whatdid yourchilddo?(cry,havenightmares,hangonto you,etc.)29) Wha tdid J:.Q.!! do?(say) 30)Canyouremembera timewhenyourchild(oneofyour children) orMADabout something?Canyourecalla timelikethatwithin thelastyear? (l)----1es 31)(IFYES)...Whathappenedthen?32)Whatdid yourchildsay toyouthen?33)Whatdid yourchilddo?(cry,havetantrum,sulk,fight,etc.)34)Whatdid do?(say)

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-435)Howdoyouusuallyknowwhenyourchildhassomethtngonhis mind--that he(she'isthinking about,orisworriedormaybeupset about?Whatdoesheusuallydoorsaythatgivesyouthatidea?36)Doyouthink there aresomethoughtsorfeelingsthats/he (they)doesn'tshare withyou?(1)Yes(2)No(3) Idon'tknow(4) Other37)Howdoyoufeel aboutitwhenyouknows/he(they)doesn'ttellyouabout something that1son her/hts mind?PAUSE....Beforewe qo anyfurther,I'dlikeforyouto take afewminutes tofilloutthisshortquestionnaire.Itsimply asksyouto describe your family thewayyouWERElastspring--before the big factory explosion happened...Justwritein,thenumberthatdescribes your familybest,oneach item...thewaytheywerelastspring. (Put a1forAlmostNever, 2 forOncein Awhile, 3 for Sometimes, 4forFrequently,and5 forAlmostAlways.)FACESIII,PartA(#38 57)III.DISASTEREVENTSANDRESPONSESNow,let'stalkabout the recent explosion in the fireworks factory. Thiswasquiteanunexpected,tragicevent inthisarea,wasn'tit...58)Whatwere doingwhenthe explosion happened?59)Tellmemoreaboutit...Whatdidyou whenithappened?Whatdidyoudonext?60)Didyouknowanyofthe peoplewhowerekilledorinjured?Wereanyofthemfamilymembers,orfriends?(1)__Yes,familymembers(Speci fy: (2)Yes,friends (Specify): _----------------------------------(3)Yes,both family&friends (see above) (4)__Yes,only acquaintances (5)No,knewnoone

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61)Didyougotoanyof the funerals?(l)Yes,one(2)Yes,two(3)Yes,three(5)No,did not attendanyfunerals-5(4)Yes,morethan 362)Didyoutake yourchild(ren)toanyofthe funerals?(1)_Yes,one(2)_Yes,two(3)__Yes,morethantwo(4 )..:...-.No: 63)(IFNOT): What didyoudowith yourchild(ren)whileyouattended the funeral (s)?64)Hadyourchild(ren)everbeento a funeralbefore?(2)Yes,morethanone never before65)IFYOUTOOKCHILD(REN):Whatreactions did he/she/theyhaveto thefuneral(s)?Whatdid they sayordo?66) youtook yourchild(ren)to a funeral or not) didyoudoor say anything to preparethembeforehand?(1)Yes-(2)No _(Conments:. _67)Howdid yourchild(ren)find out about the deathsthattook placefromthe explosion?68)Whatspecificquestions orcommentshaveyourchild(ren)hadabout the deathsofpeople in explosion?69)Whatwereyour responses to those questionsorcomments?

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-670) What reactionsofadultsdid yourchild(ren)see? (familyorfriends)71)Howdid they respond to those reactions?(Whatdid they say ordo?)72)Whatinvolvement did yourchild(ren)havewith thetragiceventitself?Forexample, dids/he/theyhear the explosion?(l)Yes(2)No(3) Don'tknow73)Didyourchild(ren)see the factorysiteafterthe explosion?(l)Yes(2)No (3)----Pon't know74)Didyourchild(ren)seeanyofthe victimsafterthe explosion? (1)Yes(2)No(3) Don'tknow---75)Has(have) yourchild(ren)talked toanyofthe familymembersof (other) victims?(l)Yes(2)No(3) Don'tknow76)Haveyoudiscussed the deaths of (family,friends)andthe reasons for the explosionwhenthe childrenwerepresent? (1 )_Yes(2)_No(3)_Other:_77)Hasyour family takenpartinanysortofmemorialtoanyonekilledin the explosion?(1)yes(Explain: _(2)__No78)IFSO:Has(have) yourchild(ren)hadapartinthismemorialinanyway?(1)_Yes(Explain: _(2)_No79)Didthisdisastereventdifferfromanyotherexperiences you'vehadwith death?(l)_Yes(Explain: _(2)No-(3)_Notsure80)Doyourememberyourfirstencounter with deathwhen wereyoung?(1)Yes,clearly(2)__Yes,vaguely (3)__No,don'trecall81)(IFYES):How01dwereyou,andwhathappened?

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-780)Since the explosion,doyouknowwhether or not your children think about death?(l)__Yes(2)__No(3)DonItknow81)(IFYES)Doyouthink they (he/she) think about death agreatdeal,or once in awhile, or hardly ever?(1)__Agreatdeal(2)Oncein awhile(3)__Hardly ever83)82)Howolddoyouth.ink children are before theyrealizethereissuch a thingasdeath?(1)Youngerthan3years(2)Three to5years(3)Five to7years(4)7to10years(5)Adolescence(6)__Don' tknowHowoldwere whenyoufirstknewtherewassucha thingasdeath? _Whathappenedthen?84)Whatdoyouthink yourchild(ren)understand about death?85)Doyouthink they (he/she)aremoreafraidofdeathnow,than theywerebefore the explosionhappened?(l)__Yes,moreafraid(2)Nodifference(3)Donatknow86)Howdoyoufeel about death, yourself?87)Whatdoyouthink parents shoulddoor say tochildren,whenthey areafraidofthings?BEHAVIORALCHECKLIST...?? ??No NoEveryonehasreactions to majorstresssituationsthataredifferentfromtheirusual behavior.Youmayhavenoticedsomespecialwaysyourchild(ren)havebeenbehaving since the factory explosion--probablya'l1normalreactions,butcertainlynottheirusual behavior.Iidliketo read alistofpossibleeffectsofthedisaster,andhaveyoutellmewhether or not yourchild(ren)haveexperienced these: Since the explosiononJune25,has(have) yourchild(ren):88)hadtrouble s1eepingatnight?Yes__No__??39)hadnightmares?Yes89)hadproblems with bed-wetting?Yes91)(IFYES:Howhaveyouhandledanyofthese?

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YesNo??------YesNo??-----YesNo??---8Have(any of) yourchild(ren)had:92)stomach-achesorvomitingspells?93)headaches or dizzyspells?94)problems with eating?95)(IFYES:Howhaveyouhandledanyofthese?Have(anyof) yourchild(ren):96)beendepressed,hadweeping ?pe 11s?Yes No,-??--97)beenwhineyandcling-ey?YesNo??-98)beenreluctantto return to school th isfall?YesNo_??--99)appeared tobehighly nervousandscared?YesNo??-100)(I FYES:Howhaveyouhandledanyofthese?Have(any of) yourchild(ren):101)hadtemper tantrumsmoreoften?YesNo??102)got intofightswithotherkidsmoreoften?YesNo??103)beenextraboisterousandtroublesome?YesNo??104)playedgamesaboutviolentdeathorexplosions?Yes_No_??105) (IFYES:Howhaveyouhandledanyofthese?106)Hasyourchild(children) acted coolandnotmuchaffectedatallbyanyof the tragic events?YesNo_??__107)Whatdoyouthinkisthe reasonhedoesn'tseemupsetbyeverything?108)Haveyounoticedanyotherunusual behaviors in (any of) yourchild(ren)?(l)_No(2)Yes:(Specify) _109)Doyouthink your family as awholehaschanged since the factory explosion?(1)_Yes(2)__No(3)Notsure110)(IFYES:Inwhatwaysdoyouthink havechanged in your family?IV.FACESIII,PartBNow,for thelastthing,Iidlikeyoutofillout thelittlequestionnaireyoudid before--but describing your family thewayitis NOW --afterallthathashappened toyouthissummer...THANKYOUVERYMUCHFORYOURHELPWITHTHISPROJECT.IFYOUHAVE ANY QUESTIONSABOUTTHESTUDY,IlllBEHAPPYTOANSWERTHEM..ORIllllEAVEYOUMYNAME,ADDRESS,ANDPHONENUMBER....

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APPENDIXII IFACESIII:Pre-andPost-DisasterMeasures

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page4FACES III -cDavidH.Olson,JoycePortner,andYoavLavee1ALMOSTNEVER2ONCE IN A WHILE3SOMETIMES 04 FREQUENTLY5ALMOST AL WAYSDESCRIBEYOURFAMILYNOW:1.Familymembersask each otherforhelp.2.Insolvingproblems,thechildren'ssuggestionsarefollowed.3.Weapproveof each other'sfriends.4.Children have asayintheirdiscipline.5.Weliketodothingswithjustourimmediatefamily.6.Differentpersonsact as leadersinourfamily.7.Familymembersfeelcloserto oth'erfamilymembers than topeopleoutsidethefamily.8.Ourfamilychangesits way ofhandlingtasks. 9.Familymembersliketospendfreetimewith each "'other.10.Parent(s) and childrendiscusspunishmenttogether.II.Familymembersfeelveryclose to each other.12.Thechildren make thedecisionsinourfamily.13.Whenourfamilygetstogetherforactivities,everybodyispresent.14.Ruleschangeinourfamily.15.We can easilychinkofthingstodotogether as a family.16.Weshifthouseholdresponsibilitiesfromperson-toperson.17.Familymembersconsultotherfamilymem.bersontheirdecisions.18.Itishardtoidentifytheleader(s)inourfamily.19.Familytogethernessisveryimportant.20.Itis hard to tellwhodoeswhichhouseholdchores. FAMIL YSOCIALSCIENCE,290 Hall,UniversityofMinnesota,S,t.Paul, 55108 ().H. Olson,1985

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Code# .... '_FACESIII-ADavidH.Olson, JoycePortner,andYoavLavee1ALMOSTNEVER2ONCEINAWHILE3 4FREQUENTLY5ALMOSTALWAYSDESCRIBEYOUR THEWAYYOUWERELASTSPRING:1. Familymembersasked eachotherforhelp.2.Insolving problems, thechildren'ssuggestionswerefollowed.3. We approvedofeachother'sfriends.4. Childrenhada say intheirdiscipline.5. We likedtodothings withjustour immediate family.6.Differentpersons acted as leaders in our family.7.Familymembersfeltclosertootherfamilymembersthan to peopleoutsidethe family.8.Ourfamily changeditswayofhandlingtasks.9.Familymemberslikedto spend free time with eachother.10.Parent(s)andchildrendiscussed punishmenttogether.11. Familymembersfeltvery close to eachother.12.Thechildrenmadethe decisions in our family. 13.Whenour family gottogetherforactivities,everybodywaspresent.14.Rules changed in our family.15. We couldeasilythinkofthings todotogetheras a family.16. We shiftedhouseholdresponsibilitiesfromperson to person.17.Familymembersconsulted familymembersontheirdecisions.18.Itwashard toidentifytheleader(s)in our family. 19. Family togethernesswasvery important.20.Itwashard totellwhodidwhichhousehold chores. G) D.H.Olson,1985Family Social Science,290McNealHall UniversityofMinnesota,St.Paul,MN55108