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Summary of major natural disaster incidents in the U.S., 1965-85

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Title:
Summary of major natural disaster incidents in the U.S., 1965-85
Series Title:
Special publication ;
Physical Description:
45 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Rubin, Claire B
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Natural disasters -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 38-45).
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online as part of a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
Statement of Responsibility:
Claire B. Rubin ... et al..
General Note:
"September 1986."

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University of South Florida Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001985069
oclc - 21529827
lccn - 90622592
usfldc doi - F57-00056
usfldc handle - f57.56
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lcc - GB5010 .S86 1986
ddc - 363.3/4/0973
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SFS0001137:00001


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Summary of major natural disaster incidents in the U.S., 1965-85 /
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SUMMARY OFMAJORNATURALDISASTERINCIDENTSINTHEU.S.1965-85ClaireB.RubinAnthonyM.YezerQaizar HussainAnneWebbGraduateProgramin Science, Technology,andPublic PolicyTheGeorgeWashington University SpecialPublication17September1986This publication is partofthe Natural Hazards Research&Applications Information Center's ongoing Special Publication Report Series. http://www.colorado.edu/hazardsNatural Hazards ResearchandApplications Information Center

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TABLEOFCONTENTSPageINTRODUCTION,PREVIOUSDATASTUDIES,PROBLEMSENCOUNTERED,ANDRECOMMENDATIONS5TABLES:Table 1: Federally-DeclaredDisasters,1965-198510Table1A:Selected NaturalDisasters:Deaths,Injuries,andDamagetoDwellings, 1965-198511Table 2: IceandSnowDisasters,Federally-Declared,1965-198512Table 3: HurricanesandTropical Storms,Federally-Declared,1965-1985 13Table3A:Hurricanes: Deaths,Injuries,andDamagetoDwellings, 1965-198515Table3B:Hurricanes: PublicandPrivateOutlays,1965-1985.16Table : Earthquakes, Federally-Declared, 1965-1985 18 Table4A:Earthquakes: PublicandPrivateOutlays, 1965-198519Table 5:DamandLeveeFailures,Federally-Declared,1965-1985 20 Table 6: Rains, Storms,andFlooding, federally-Declared, 1965-1985 21 Table6A:Floods: Deaths,Injuries, andDamageDwellings, 1965-1985 28Table 68: Storms: Deaths, Injuries,and 1965-1985 29Table1:HighWindsand30Table8:CoastalStonmsand1965-1985#"31

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PageTable9A:Tornadoes: Deaths,Injuries,andDamagetoDwellings, 1965-198535Table 10: Drought/Water Shortage,1965-1985.36Table 11: Other NaturalDisasters:Deaths,Injuries,andDamagetoDwellings, 1965-198537SOURCESOFINCIDENCEDATAFORSELECTEDNATURALDISASTERS4........38

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INTRODUCTION,PREVIOUSDATASTUDIES,PROBLEMSENCOUNTERED,ANDRECOMMENDATIONSIntroductionThisreportisdesignedtoprovideanoverviewofthemajornaturaldisastersthathaveoccurredintheU.S.duringtheyears1965through1985.ItisaninterimproductoftheStudyofLocal EconomicEffectsofNaturalDisasters,whichisbeingconductedbyTheGeorgeWashingtonUniversityGraduate PrograminScience,Technology, andPublicPolicy.TheprojectissupportedbytheNationalScienceFoundation,under GrantNo.ECE-8501986.Originally,weintendedtopresentafullarrayofdataforeachtypeofnaturaldisaster--includingthepublicoutlay,private.insurancepayments,deaths,i njuries,andpropertydamage--butdataproblemspreventedusfromdoingso.Those problemsincludedlackofavailabilityofdataand fundamentalinconsistenciesinthedatabasesthatwereavailablefromFEMA,theRedCross,andtheinsuranceindustry.Wecreatedninecategoriesofnaturaldisasters,whichareenumeratedinTable1.Twotypesofdisasters,firesandvolcanoes,wereintentionallyexcluded fromthisanalysis.Wehave chosentousefederally-declareddisastersastheb.asisforthisdataand havereliedheavilyonFEMAdatafortheoutlayoffederalagencies.Federaloutlay,asdefinedbyFEMA,includestheamountspentforpublicassistance,temporaryhousing,disasterunemploymentassistance,andindividualandfamilygrants.Theprimarysourceofdataonfederally-declareddisastersisFEMAls Report1.1.Thevariablesanalyzedarestate,FEMAcontractnumber,dateofdeclaration,disastertype,andfederaloutlay.Weusedthestatisticalcomputing packageSTATAfortabulationsandthenextractedthetablesandtransferredthemtoawordprocessingpackageforeditingandpresentation. Copiesofthedataonfloppydisksareavai1ab1eatcosttoresearchersandothersinterestedinworkingwiththisdataset.Duringtheperiod1965-85,thetotalnumberofdisastersdeclared(causedbythenaturaleventsselectedforthisstudy)was531andtotalfederaloutlayforthosedisasterswasapproximately$6billionin1982dollars,asisshowninTable1.Obtainingatotalpublicexpenditureforeachtypeofdisasterisvirtuallyimpossiblebecauseofthedifficultiesindeterminingtotalsforlocalandstateexpenditures.5

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BoththeRedCrossandtheinsuranceindustryhavedifferentdefinitionsof a majordisasterfromthatof FEMAt andthedatafromthethreesourceswerenotreconcilable.Themainproblem intryingtoprovide bothdamageandinjuryfiguresononetablewasthattheRedCross dataondeaths,injuriestanddamagetodwellingsispresentedbyfiscalyear'(JulyI-June 30)t andtheothertwosources producedatabycalendaryear.Thisdifferencemadeitimpossible prepare asingletablewith personal injuryandpropertydamageforeach category ofdisaster.Consequently,wehave provided datapertinenttoeach majordisastercategoryonsequentialtableswherepossible.Oureffortstoincorporateboth federaloutlayandinsurance payoutarecontained in Tables3Band4A.Fortwotypes ofdisastersthurricanes/tropicalstormsandearthquakes,wewereable achieve a reasonable match of eventst sothatwecould comparethefederal segment of publicoutlayandtheinsurance segment oftheprivateoutlay.AscanbeseeninTables3Aand4B,however,thereisnoconsistentrelationshipin terms oftheproportion oftotalexpendituresfora givendisasterthateachsectorcontributes.Previous Data StudiesandProblems Encountered This studyisthelatestin aseriesofeffortstoidentifyandaggregatedatafrommanysourcesintoa useful datasetanddocumentforthoseinterestedinnaturalhazards incidence information.Someofthedata problemsidentified earlierremain troublesome.Anoutstandingearliereffortis HazaMs Data Resources:UsesandNeeds,edited bySusanIK.TUbbesing(1919j,which addressed problems in datacollectionatthat timeuproblerm,sw'lnJiichW"e' encountered inthisstudy.First,Tubbesing notedthat:Informationpertainingtohistoricalincidence of extremeeVel"Tlts,tllTeiir" frequency, magnitude,spatiallocation, etc.t is reqlJiredlJyCl!lm11li\1lU:l!tfty plannerstodesignmitigationandresponseplans, anabyresealfchiers;ii!'1l theireffortstofacilitatedecision-making responsiib1iHtiiesat levelsof government.Atpresent,hazards dataaremaintained in eachofI1fl!.)lfeHlllDl datacollectionagencies. Thissituationdoes Tittleto,plfOOl!Jite andapplication.Tofurthercomplicatematters,these dataalfe segregatedbyspecifichazard, often causingusers tolocatel!lliDltjwst@!'1Ie source but perhaps asmanyasthreeormore.Potential is not somuchbylack ofsuitableinformation,asby Tack:ofaIWaiferme55 about wheretogotoobtainwhatisneeded (p.170).Tubbesingrecommendedthatthe {then}rlew FederaT Emerg,en:c:y (FEMA)takeonthe respons i bilityforfacil itat i ngtheexc:l'l'aJl'11g;el!JI$e 6

PAGE 7

hazardsinformation.However, inthesevenyearsthatFEMAhasbeeninexistence,thesituationwith regardtoaccesstoscattereddatasources has not improvedmuch.TUbbesingalsonotedthat:Inthepast,agenciesestablisheddatacollectionactivitiesin responsetotheirassignedmissions,takingintoaccountavailablemanpower,time,money,andexpertiseathand.Theresultingcollectionandstorageproceduresreflectedtheseconsiderationsandgenerallysatisfiedtheirmissionorientation,butlittlethoughtwasgiventowhatotheragencies were doing,whichdata weregathered,whatunitofanalysiswasused,andwhatstoragetechniqueswereapplied.Thereforeexistingdatabaseslack uniformityandcompatibility.Evendatapertainingtoacommonnaturalhazard suchasfloodmaybecollectedfordifferentpurposes or periodsoftimebyanumberofdifferentagencies.Thetaskof comparing information over time thusbecomesextremelydifficult(p. 174).Wehavealreadynotedsomeoftheproblemsthatourteam encounteredincoordi nat ingdifferentdatasources,compli catedbytryingtouse nonfedera1sources aswell.TheTubbesingreportalsonotedthedifficultyingatheringdatawheredamagesare notgreatenoughtowarrant a federaldisasterdeclaration,butareimportant intheirimplicationsforpUblicpolicy.AmorerecenteffortcompiledbyPaulaD.GordonforFEMAin 1982,theSpecialStatisticalSummary:Deaths,Injuries,andPropertyLossbyTypesofDisaster1970-1980,discussesmanyofthesamedata1imitations.Thestudypointsoutespeciallythatdetermining economiccostsandlossesishighlyproblematic.For example,differentdatasources usedifferentlosscriteria;insurancecompanydata arelimitedtoinsured property only;andtheeconomic assumptionsonwhichestimatesarebased can varygreatly.Gordonalsopointsoutthat:differencesinthedefiningofdisastercategoriesmakeitdifficulttodraweasy comparisons ofdata.Differences inthetime frameforwhichthedataarecollected,andthepurposesforwhichthey arecollected,compoundproblems in comparativeanalysisandcan render such attemptsatanalysisfruitlessexercises(p.1-4).Ourstudy foundthattheproblemsandconstraintscitedabovearestillveryreal,andthatthereisanobviousneedforastandardizationof proceduresforcollectingdataonnaturalhazardsandforreporting tile information.Untilthisisdone,decisionmakers will havetodeal withnumerousandverydiffusesources ofdata,as demonstratedbythelistof sources included inthelastsectionofthisreport.Somerul es ofthumbcitedbyGordonthathavebeenconfirmedbyothersourcesare:7

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InjuryfiguresoftheRedCrosshavebeenfoundtobelow. 1 Figuresoneconomiclossesarethemostinexactbecause theyaresubjecttoavarietyoferrorsandproblems ofinterpretation.Ifdataaresoughtforcomparison, such astherelativelossesresultingfromdifferenttypes ofdisasters,the"RedCrossdataarethebest.Ifonly one type ofdisasterisbeingresearched,thenothersources,such asspecificgovernmentagencies,maybethebestsources ofdata.TheTubbesingvolumeisstilloneofthebestdirectories of wheretolookfordata.Between50and75%ofalllossesarestillbornebytheimpactedpersons.2.Thetotalcostofdestructioncanbeestimatedat2 1/2 timesthevalue ofbuildinglosses.Inaddition,inthecourse oftryingtoarriveatatotalcost,wewere advisedbyanexperi encedFEMAstafferthatthefederaloutlay,whichistheeas iestfiguretoobtain,isestimatedtorepresentlessthan25%(ontheaverage) ofthetotalcostof adisaster.Inactuality,forsomedisasters,thefederalshareisfar1essthan25%andforothersfarmore.Atthepresenttime,thedataproblems mentioned above preclude amorethoroughintegrationofexistingdatasourcesintoa usefuldatabaseforusebypractitionersandresearchers.Recommendations We havebrieflydescribedtheproblemsoneencounters in attemptingtoaggregateexistingdisasterdataandnotedearlierreportsondisasterdataandtheirrecommendations.Theproblemsweencounteredarenotnew,andmanyarisebecause eachorganizationcollectingdata has adifferentmission. Nevertheless,wefeelthatthefollowingstepswouldhelptoresolvemanyofthegaps,inconsistencies,andoverlapsnowencounteredinanydisasterdatacollectioneffort.1.Reviewcurrentandrecent datacollectionefforts,such asFEMA'sone-yeardisastercensusproject,andenumeratecommondataproblems theyhaveexperienced.1TheRedCrossreportsinjurydata onlyonthosepersonstheRedCross hasactivelyhelped;therefore,thetotalnumberofinjuriesconnectedwithadisastermaybehigher.2Accordingtopersonal communicationfromJ.H. Wiggins.8

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2.UrgeFEMAtocollectandaggregatedisasterdatawithattentiontoaspecificdisasteragents(e.g.,earthquakes,floods).3.Reviewrecordsautomationprojects,suchastheonenowgoingonattheNationalRedCross'sDisasterServicesOffice,todetermineifdatacan beextractedina form morecompatiblewithothersources.Specifically,theRedCrossdataareprovidedbyfiscalyearandareimpossibletoreconcilewiththecalendaryeardataprovidedbyFEMAandtheinsuranceindustry.4.Begi nalong-termefforttoachievecooperationandcoordinationamongdatacollectors--FEMA,theRedCross,theinsuranceindustry--toimproveabilitytointegratedatafromeachsourceinordertogetabetterideaofthetotalcostsofdisasters.9

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TABLE1FEDERALLY-DECLAREDDISASTERS,1965-1985TYPEOFDISASTERNUMBERFEDERALOUTLAYFEDERALOUTLAY(thousands of (thousal'lds ofcurrentdollars)1982dollars)IceandSnowEvents19151,427 205,511Hurricanes/Tropical Storms391,173,141 1,947,939Earthquakes7 203,881 405,706DamandLeveeFailures7 55,764 80,806Rains, Storms&Flooding*3371,684,702 2,439,852HighWinds&Waves2 125,313 120,536Coastal Storms&Flooding7 158,261 205,357Tornadoes109441,685 648,352Drought/Water Shortage4 1,134 5,344TOTALS5313,995,308 6,059,403*Includes1and,mud,anddebris flowsandslides.Note:TheFixed-Weighted Price Index for Gross National ProductwasobtainedfromTheEconomicReport ofthePresident,1986.Source: FederalEmergencyManagementAgency,DMISReports,1965-1985.10

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TABLElASELECTEDNATURALDISASTERS:DEATHS,INJURIES,ANDDAMAGETODWELLINGS,1965-1985FISCALNOOFPERSONSPERSONSDWELLINGSDWELLINGSDWELLINGSYEAREVENTSKILLEDINJUREDDESTROYEDDAMAGEDDESTROYED&DAMAGED1965-661352302696735381655571690951966-67NA1142143113231471326031967-68NA20815011230351590538931968-69NA127133967334277349501969-70NA40412388699192566 995571970-711522517520339251225546171971-721855691874481381697811779191972-731591742688449590449949441973-74208498111231181659401712171974-752031211550245943416458751975-7621018081318281933711016521976-771342432076429142108463991977-782633859346314972279754281978-793103118306796668751767171979-802812391273510065126377 1364421980-81366NANANANA650651981-823681706592NA NA683171982-833151374719NANA713761983-843402447076NA NA849451984-859718336NANA4541TOTALS1,565,552 Source: American NationalRedCross,AnnualSummariesofDisasterServicesActivities,1965-1985.Notethatthesedataarepresentedbyfiscalyear(July1June30).11

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TABLE2FEDERALLY-DECLAREDICEANDSNOWDISASTERS,1965-1985FEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAY(; n thousands)t234NC1968282KY1970304FL1971444AK1974493AK1975494NY1976500NE1976524NJ1977525VA1977526FL1977527NY1977528NJ1977536GA1977548RI1978696TX1984697ID1984698FL1984732FL1985734NY1985TOTALNO=19291349754151674359006204051731158520283374282962318924255210890010019 857 Note:ThetotalFederalOutlayin1982Dollars is $205,511,000. The FixedWeightedPriceIndexforGross National Productwas obtainedfromTheEconomicReportof the President,1986.Source: FederalEmergency ManagementAgency,DMlSReports,1965.12

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TABLE3FEDERALLY-DECLAREDHURRICANESANDTROPICALSTORMS,1965-1985FEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAY(inthousands)208LA196538543209FL19651706210MS19651783232TX19679925252FL1968640271MS196974524272LA196915167280AL1969918292TX197035808315LA19711160337FL19723361338NY197298098339VA197216815340PA1972351531341MD197223309344WV1972 1294345OH19721453448LA19744565520NY19766773521CA19768507598AL1979189893599MS197933684600FL19793691627TX198031817632TX1980386671HI198211920689TX198340038724NC19843460741MS198518929742AL19854647743FL198513933745PA19859233 747CT198521359748 RI19855846749NJ19854613750NY198538750751MA198513862752LA198523962756FL19857238TOTALNO=391,173,14113

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Table 3 (continued) Note:ThetotalFederal Outlay in1982Dollarsis$1,947,939,000.TheFixedWeightedPrice Index for Gross National ProductwasobtainedfromTheEconomicReport of thePresident,1986. Source: FederalEmergencyManagementAgency,DMISReports, 1965-1985.I14

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TABLE3AHURRICANES:DEATHS,INJURIES,ANDDAMAGETODWELLINGS,1965-1985FISCALNOOFPERSONSPERSONSDWELLINGSDWELLINGSDWELLINGSYEAREVENTSKILLEDINJUREDDESTROYEDDAMAGED,DESTROYED&DAMAGED1965-66 5722520220591486071506661966-67NA01363163221967-68NA191139638829405297931968-69NA24517057061969-70NA2729062604648734547801970-71 594498188734442363291971-72 422353624258 242941972-73 000 00 0 1973-74 00 000 0 1974-75 2 3 845251425591975-76 3324409464231670363121976-77 1223154985131977-78 308 6142148'1978-79 1 00 13 4 1979-80 6206765689765033719301980-81 2NANA NA NA148651981-82 100NA NA3 1982-83 22961NA NA74541983-84 4163094NANA186631984-85 00000 0TOTALS--449,341 Source:AmericanNationalRedCross,AnnualSummariesofDisasterServicesActivities,1965-1985.Notethatthesedata are presentedbyfiscalyear (July 1June 30).15

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TABLE3BHURRICANES:PUBLICANDPRIVATE 1965-1985FEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAYINSURANCEPAYMENTSTATES(inthousands)(inthousands)AFFECTED208LA 196538543500000LA,FL,MS209FL19651706210MS1965 178342032232TX1967992534800TX252FL19686402580FL271MS196974524165300MS,LA,AL,FL272LA196915167273AL196991890609292TX197035808309950TX315LA197111604730LA,MS337FL1972336197853FL,NY,VA,PA338NY197298098MD,WV,OH,GA339VA197216815SC,NC,MI,DE340PA1972351531DC,NJ,CT,RI341MD197223309MA,VT,ME344 WV 19721294345 1972 1453495861448LA1974456514721LA520NY1976677322697NY,NJ,CT,MA521CA19768507NA598AL1979189893752510AL,MS,FL,GA599MS197933684SC,NC,VA,MD600FL19793691DC,DE,PA,NJ227268NY,CT,MA627TX19803181757911TX632TX1980386NA16

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Table38(continued)671HI198211920137000HI689TX198340038675520TX724NC1984346036000NC,SC741MS198518929543304MS,AL,FL,LA742AL19854647743FL19851393337509745PA19859233418750PA,CT,RI,NJ747CT198521359NY,MA,NC,VA748RI19855846MO,OE,NH,VT749NJ19854613ME750NY198538750751MA19851386293663752LA19852396244000LA,MS,AL,FL756FL1985723877600FL,GATOTALNO=391,173,141 3,895,226 Sources: FederalEmergencyManagementAgency,OMISReports, 1965-1985,andPropertyClaimServices,CatastropheStatisticalRecord, 1965-1985.17

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TABLE4FEDERALLY-DECLARED 1965-1985IFEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAY(inthousands)196WA1965299CA1971383HI1973490HI1975609CA1979682CA1983694101983TOTALNO=71182186930155391781574174968203,881 Note:ThetotalFederal Outlay in1982Dollarsis$405,706,000.TheFixed-Weighted"Price IndexforGross National ProductwasobtainedfromTheEconomicReport ofthePresident,1986. Source: FederalEmergencyManagementAgency,DMISReports, 1965-1985.18

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TABLE4AEARTHQUAKES:PUBLICANDPRIVATEOUTLAYS,1965-1985FEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAYINSURANCEPAYMENTSTATES(in thousands) (in thousands) .AFFECTED196WA19651182NA299CA197118693031600CA383HI1973 1553NA490HI1975917NA609CA197981572500CA682CA1983417410000CA694ID1983968NATOTALNO=7 203,881 Sources: FederalEmergencyManagementAgency,DMISReports, 1965-1985,andPropertyClaimServices, CatastropheStatisticalRecord, 1965-1985.19

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TABLE5FEDERALLY-DECLAREDDAMANDLEVEEFAILURES,1965-1985FEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAY(inthousands)342CA1972379CO1973505ID1976541GA1977633CA1980665CO1982669CA1982TOTALNO=7488163933327244340801420897455,764 Note:ThetotalFederal Outlay in1982Dollarsis$80,806,000.TheFixed-Weighted Price Index for Gross National ProductwasobtainedfromTheEconomicReport of thePresident,1986. Source: FederalEmergencyManagementAgency,DMISReports, 1965-1985.20

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TABLE6FEDERALLY-DECLAREDRAINS,STORMS,ANDFLOODING,1965-1985*FEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAY(;nthousands)187NV1965956188MN19659589193IA19654432195ND1965307197SD1965587198MO1965432201KS19651021202NM19652328203MO19651303211CA19652000212CA1966328214GA1966249215MN19661385216ND1966934217AZ19662801218TX1966429220ND1966382221NE1966635222TX196662223CA19676379224 WV 1967323226KY1967383228NE1967927230AK19677328233NY1967463241OK1968146243OH1968276244TX196868245NJ1968 1223246TX1968183247IN1968148248IA1968505249MN1968437250MN1968176251HI1968219253CA 1969 83780254AR1969304255MN19694612256ND19693503257SD1969792258NV1969999259IA1969 157421

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Table 6 (continued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Table 6 (continued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Table 6 (continued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Table6(continued)496WI19765848501NO19763598504OK1976738507GA1976619510TX 1976 8116511SO19761247512NY19761115513PA19762641514KS1976 t802 515NY19762437516MO1976504 517CO197612083518VT19768201519NJ19763476522MO19761357523PA19766353529KY197769780530VA197729321531WV197745863532AL19771877533TN19772304534LA19772253537PA1977128933538MO197714357539KS19773908540AZ19772203542NC 1977 18086.543VA19773874544TN19773422545WA19773941551AZ197810551552NE19784351553IN19781675554NO19783414555 MN 19782095556LA19788745557WY1978 1619 558MT19785789561TX197812105563AL1978 482 564AR1978 1843 565LA1978 974 566CA1978 1769568KY19789399569 WV 1978 6031 570AZ197822919571NM19792363573HI19191338578AL 1919 5729581NO 1919 19422582MN 1979 6300583IL 19191188825

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Table 6 (continued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

PAGE 27

Table 6 (continued)680685686 687688 690691692693706707708709711712713717719720721 722723 725 726727728730731733 735740744753754755TOTALNO=337UTOKAZCAARCAAZNMOKWVVATNOKCTVTMOSOCOUTPANMNVNYTX TXLAAZNMNYILWYMI WV PAVA19831983 1983 1983 1983198319831983 1983 1984 1984 19841984 19841984 1984 1984 1984 1984 19841984198419841984 19841984198519851985 1985 1985 198519851985 19854210645363211559 878 2356187118266148417831331454627222044295371226915099135925889827391029783169 3210111973513061287382132004608114319789447138 1,684,702 *Includes land,mud, anddebrisflows and Note:ThetotalFederal Outlay in1982Dollars is TheFixed-WeightedPrice IndexforGrossProductwas obtainedfromThe EconomicReportof Source: FederalEmergency Agency,O"ISReports,21

PAGE 28

TABLE6AFLOODS:DEATHS,INJURIES,ANDDAMAGETODWELLINGS,1965-1985FISCALNOOFPERSONSPERSONSDWELLINGS DWELLINGSDWELLINGSYEAREVENTSKILLEDINJUREDDESTROYEDDAMAGEDDESTROYED&DAMAGED1965-66672210291913192221966-67NA1616110822353224611967-68NA388248414224143081968-69NA242847117674177451969-70NA517838333769338521970-71492258105699370981971-72775191658773461338051411511972-73781051559322981467846961973-748371366141731309 327261974-75904850080325008258111975-7670552071137726179275561976-77581651469358135942395231977-78106 1963712148948508499971978-791481433842265956646593051979-8012279112188737439383261980-81115NANANANA195781981-82133702561NA NA462561982-83149691988NA NA 488741983-84121651478NA NA 415781984-8548929NA NA2308TOTALS 762,371 Source: American NationalRed AnnualSummariesofDisasterServicesActivities,1965-1985.Note that these dataare presentedbyfiscalyear (July 1June30).

PAGE 29

TABLE6BSTORMS:DEATHS,INJURIES,ANDDAMAGETODWELLINGS,1965-1985FISCALNOOFPERSONSPERSONSDWELLINGS DWELLINGSDWELLINGSYEAREVENTS INJUREDDESTROYEDDAMAGEDDESTROYED&DAMAGED1965-662042548122612341966-67NA84323172317461967-68NA1278298121415121968-69NA5124227611331116071969-70NA32221395039711970-7127271117120713241971-72311411654249287 97111972-7319172104468747911973-74268106113158917021974-75377336238760078381975-76394438761028080 286901976-772454187106266227681977-7878164509647617105175811978-79806127144189220361979-805622299566816285169531980-8160NA NA NANA218851981-8297242805NANA107461982-835519421NA NA67251983-847119188NA NA57741984-8511225NA NA438TOTALS159,032Source:AmericanNationalRedCross,Annual Summaries ofDisasterServicesActivities,1965-1985.Notethatthesedataarepresentedbyfiscalyear(July1 June30).

PAGE 30

TABLE7FEDERALLY-DECLAREDHIGHWINDSANDWAVES,1965-1985FEMA#367677TOTALNO=2STATENYCAYEAR1973 1983FEDERALOUTLAY(inthousands)1115124198Note:ThetotalFederal Outlay in1982Dollarsis$120,536,000.TheFixed-Weighted Price Index for Gross National ProductwasobtainedfromTheEconomicReport of thePresident,1986. Source: FederalEmergencyManagementAgency,DMISReports, 1965-1985.30

PAGE 31

TABLE8FEDERALLY-DECLAREDCOASTALSTORMSANDFLOODING,1965-1985FEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAY(in'thousands)327NH1972546MA1978547CA1978549NH197855UME1978701NJ1984702NY1984TOTALNO=7272369759091941021401599011555 158,261 Note:ThetotalFederal Outlay in1982 Dollarsis$205,357,000.. Fixed-Weighted Pri ce Index forGross Hatlcmalwas obtainedfromThe EconomicReport of thePresident,1986.. Source: FederalEmergency ManagementAgency,DHlSReports,3lll

PAGE 32

TABLE9FEDERALLY-DECLAREDTORNADOES,1965-1985FEMA#STATEYEARFEDERALOUTLAY(inthousands)189IN19651426190MI1965 1177191OH1965192192WI1965627194IL19653045199TX1965289200CO196514206219KS19662797227IL1967205229KS1967830236AR1968224237KY196853238OH1968114239AR1968349240IA1968472242IL1968247266OH19694229267KS1969716285AL1970120286TX19705475297OK1970461302MS19714248305KY1971212306TN1971204365TX1973616368MS19738013369AL1973 1871370GA1973 1107372MO197317754391GA1973285392OK19731837403KS19734134420KY197412575421OH197418370422AL19747326423IN197411384424TN19743292425GA1974424427IL1974139428NC1974215429MI1974102431WI197410932

PAGE 33

Table 9 (continued)456MS1975638460GA19751069462TX1975298463AR1975464466MO1975393467NE19753018470LA19753710474OK19751112476MN19754207477NJ19755875478IL1975605480OH19754090482WI1975625484FL19755220485PA197529062488AL19755642491OK1975302495MI19768563497OK1976291498AR1976411499MS19761000509IL19761280535MO19771318559WI19786386560MN197810529567LA1978889574AR1979 1862575TX197936003576OK1979854577MS197931354579MO19797836580TX19794148585TN19794766586FL1979938590IA19791373591WY1979468601MD197910696608CT1979952617AR1980128618MS19803408619AL19804604620MO1980"137621MI1980541625NE19805103638AL1981453642OH19811019643IL19812130644KS1981651660IL1982890673AR19829471674IL19826442678MS1983567533

PAGE 34

Table 9 (continued)683MS19832877684IL19834302695AL19833440699NC19845902700SC19843121703MS19841243704OK19842405705KY198421333710WI19841138711KS19844569715IA19842998716HE19846397718NE1984245737PA19858340738OH19852900TOTAL NO =109 Note:ThetotalFederal Outlayin1982Dollarsis The Fixed-Weighted Price Indexfor Gross National Productwas obtainedfromThe Economic Reportofthe 1986, Source: Federal IElllllergencyManagementIDIMIIS1965 ... 1985,

PAGE 35

TABLE9ATORNADOES:DEATHS,INJURIES,ANDDAMAGETODWELLINGS,1965-1985FISCALNOOFPERSONSPERSONSDWELLINGSDWELLINGSDWELLINGSYEAREVENTSKILLEDINJUREDDESTROYEDDAMAGEDDESTROYED&DAMAGED1965-66369216061357657879351966-67NA901926995707980741967-68NA13927131533674782801968-69NA50768325456748921969-70NA782521841611369541970-716214518231191522564161971-725722653332242927611972-7341319931135406852031973-7489412105741028326478367611974-755448688136777169083\80851975-7674401213160964761976-773711369589294235311977-7849214481153631074631978-7944100420951129717148291979-80592610421436623476701980-8170NA NA NANA81711981-8265521158NA NA111451982-835327437NA NA61821983-84801362160NA NA175731984-85216243NANA1742TOTALS182,750 Source:AmericanNationalRedCross,AnnualSummariesofDisasterServicesActivities,1965-1985.Notethatthesedataarepresentedbyfiscalyear(July1June30).35

PAGE 36

TABLE10FEDERALLY-DECLARED DROUGHT/WATER 1965-1985FEMA Ii 204205206 207TOTALNO=4STATENYNJPADE YEAR 196519651965 1965OlUlll.AY Note:ThetotalFederal Outlay;in1982]$ Fixed-WeightedPrice Index'ross obtainedfromThe [canonicof Source: FederalEmergency Mall1la9lemll!!l!1ltIImlIUS

PAGE 37

TABLE11OTHERNATURALDISASTERS:DEATHS,INJURIES,ANDDAMAGETODWELLINGS,1965-1985FISCALNOOFPERSONSPERSONSDWELLINGSDWELLINGSDWELLINGSYEAREVENTSKILLEDINJUREDDESTROYEDDAMAGED ElESTROYED &DAMAGED1965-66 7232315381966-67NANA NA NANANA1967-68NANA NA NANANA1968-69NA NA NANANANA1969-70NANANANANANA1970-71 9731070923358 34501971-72161210402 2 1972-7321376427227 2541973-7410777325281974-7520151865785841975-762495143961391979-803892812177138815651980-81119NA NANANA5661981-82722468NANA1671982-835620912NA NA21411983-84648156NANA13571984-8517139NA NA53TOTALSSource: FederalEmergencyManagementAgency,DMISReports, 1965-1985.37

PAGE 38

MajorFederal Information Sources Private Organization Sources AdditionalAgencySources BibliographySOURCESOFINCIDENCEDATAFORSELECTEDNATURAL PUBLICATIONSANDAGENCIESGENERALAmericanNationalRedCross.AnnualSummary of DisasterServicesActivities.Washington,D.C.Published annually1965-1985.Listsdeaths,injuries,numberof dwellings destroyed fordisastersinwhichtheRedCrossisinvolved,byfiscalyear (July1 :.. June30).Brokendownbyhurricanes,tornadoes, windstorms,floods/flashfloods,andother(including earthquakes). Federa 1 Emergency ManagementAgency(FEMA).DMIS(DisasterManagementInformation System) Reports. Washington,D.C.Compiledannually.DMISReport1.1isa computerprintoutof severalcategoriesof information aboutPrsidentially-declareddisasters.Thelistisnot published ordistributed;itisprimarily used in-housebyFEMAstaff.Foreach decl areddisaster,data i ncludethenumberanddate of thedeclaration,thenamesof the countiesaffected,totalfederal outlay(whichincludes not onlyFEMA'sIndividualandPublicAssistancePrograms but alsotheexpendituresbytheSmallBusiness AdministrationandtheFarmersHomeAdministration). Acopyofa segmentoftheprintout (e.g., for a two-year period)canberequestedfromFEMAcentralor regionaloffices.Atthetime ofthisstudy,theperson tocontactatthecentralofficeisJosephRussell,Federal Response Coordination Branch,FEMA,500CStreet,S.W., Washington;D.C.20472, (202) 646-3069.Federa 1EmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA).EmergencyHazards in the U.S.: National IncidenceandImpacts. Washington,D.C.1985.Includes:AppendixC:AppendixD:AppendixE:AppendixF:Covers floods; thunderstorms,lightning,tornadoes, hurricanes; extreme temperatures; droughts;andearthquakes. FederalEmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA),Federal Insurance Administration,Office of Insurance SupportServices,500CStreet, S.W., Washington,D.C.20472.Provides information about the cost of flooddisastersin terms of theamountpaid in insurance claimsandtheamountpaid in insurance policy premiums.Atthe time ofthisstudy,thepersontocontactisJamesTaylor,(202) 646-2777.38

PAGE 39

FederalEmergency Management Agency {FEMAJ.Special Deaths,Injuri es, andPropertyLoss byTlpeaf1970-198, compiledby PaulaD.Gordon. Washington,10.'.1982. Providestheindicatedhistorical data. InsuranceInformationInstitute. 1985-36 New York. 1984.Forearthquakes,tornadoes, andhurricanes,at catastrophe,estimatedloss payments. Petak,William J., ArthurA. Atkinson,andPaul:HI.!Gl!leye.Hazard RiskAssessmentand PublicPolicy.1982. Seealsotheearlier volume bytheiHlazards: APublicPolicyAssessment. RedondolBeaclh!,CaHfl\1)rnl1a:J.IHI.Wiggins Company. 1978(outof print}. Analyzesnine hazardcategories:(J11, riverine flood,hurricane]i!lIca]1ill1calwind, and tsunami;and proviidiesstattstiicsi!lIl!1IIPlfillllPlerty 11 (JS amounts(bUlii1 dii ngs and contell1lts):,ts] I!lI$t,lPlersillIlfl1-yeaf(Jf homelessness andIUInell!lllpllo.1oel!1lt,iilf1lci!lIllI11e]i!lISSatil(JI individual). Dataare all fol!'Jl91llJI\fiitlhiti!ll2llJOO ..Property ClaimServiices.CatastrrlUJPJlhle ..Ra hway,NewJersey.Pub 11 isl!1iediljill.l'aned.1 ..Provides dataoniillllsllIIrrel!llPJrrlDlllPell1t1 .. fi!llrl"occurrencessucl!1asi!lIrr"fi!llfIPropertynotnomaH)"C(Qlwell"elttiilJJ1growingcrops,tiiniEr-blllJdls"1!JJeaJ.
PAGE 40

Maintains data bases or computerized recordsthatinclude materialonemergencydisasterassistance,emergency loandistribution,insurancepaid out for croplosses,avalanches,hail,anddrought.U.S.Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),NationalEnvironmentalSatellite,Data,andInformationService,AssessmentandInformation Servi ces Center.ClimateImpactAssessment. Washington,D.C.Summariespublished annually. Includesfloods, storms, 1i ghtni ng, hurri canes, extreme temperatures,andothernatural hazardsandtheirimpactsonpeople,property,agriculture.U.S. Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),NationalEnvironmentalSatellite,Data,andInformationService, National ClimaticDataCenter. Climatological Data (NationalAnnualSummary),1965-1980.Asheville,NorthCarolina.Atthetime ofthisstudy,thepersontocontactattheNOAALibraryisMrs.Littlejohn,(301) 443-8334.U.S. Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),NationalEnvironmentalSatellite,Data,andInformationService,National ClimaticDataCenter.StormData(Decemberissues),1981-1985.Asheville,NorthCarolina. U.S. Small "Business Administration(SBA),DisasterAssistanceandDataSections,1441 Street,N.W.,Washington,D.C.20416.Atthe time ofthisstudy the persontocontactisJerryFico,(202)653-6375.Theagencymaintainsdataonlocation,typeofdisaster,numberanddollaramountofdisasterloans--includinghome,business,andeconomicinjurydisasterloans.Annotationsformostof the followingentriesare included in theGENERALcategory.SNOW,SNOWMELT,ICING,ICEJAMSFedera 1EmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA).EmergencyHazards in the U.S.: National IncidenceandImpacts. Washington,D.C.1985.Coveredunder the category oflIextreme temperatures.IISeealsoGENERALandFLOODINGcategories.HURRICANES/TROPICALSTORMSAmericanNationalRedCross.AnnualSummaryofDisasterServicesActivities.Washington,D.C.Published annually1965-1985.40

PAGE 41

FederalEmergency Management Agency(FEMA).DMIS(DisasterManagementInformation System) Reports. Washington,D.C.Compiledannually. FederalEmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA).EmergencyHazards intheU.S.: National IncidenceandImpacts. D.C.1985.Insurance InformationInstitute.1985-86Property/Casualty FactBook.NewYork.1984.Petak, WilliamJ.,ArthurA.Atkinson,andPaulH.G1eye.NaturalHazardRisk AssessmentandPublic Policy.NewYork:Springer-Verlag.1982.Seealsotheearliervolumebythesameauthors,Natural Hazards: A Public Policy Assessment.RedondoBeacn,California:.J.H.WigginsCompany.1978(out ofprint).PropertyClaimServices.CatastropheStatisticalRecord,1965-1985.Rahway,NewJersey.Publishedquarterly.u.s.Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),National Hurricane Center.TheDeadliest,Costliest,andMostIntense U.S. Hurricanes of This Centur (and Other Fre uentlReuested HurricaneFacts.Coral Gables,Florida.1983.TheHurri caneCenter'saddressis1320South Dixie Highway,Coral Gables, Florida33146, (305) 666-4612.u.S. Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),NationalEnvironmentalSatellite,Data,andInformationService,NationalClimaticData Center. Tropical Cyclones of the N.AtlanticOcean,1871-1980.Asheville, North Carolina: Publishea jointlybytheNational Climatic Data Centerandthe National Center.1981.Classifiesanddiscusses data sources; gives ana intensitiesofhurricanes,butnodamagefigures. EARTHQUAKES AmericanNationalRedCross.AnnualSummaryofDisaster Serwices Washington,D.C.Published annually1965-1985.FederalEmergency ManagementA.gency {fEHA,}.Ii),"KS(iDlisIilsterr Information System) Reports. Washington,D.C.cl!Jl1l!IlPlnedi
PAGE 42

Petak, WilliamJ.,ArthurA.Atkinson,andPaulH.Gleye. NaturalHazardRisk AssessmentandPublic Policy.NewYork:Springer-Verlag. 1982.Seealsotheearliervolumebythesameauthors,Natural Hazards: A PublicPolicy Assessment.RedondoBeach,California:J.H.WigginsCompany.1978(out ofprint).PropertyClaimServices.CatastropheStatisticalRecord, 1965-1985.Rahway,NewJersey.Publishedquarterly.u.S. Department of theInterior,UnitedStatesGeological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center,MS967,Box25046, Denver, Colorado 80225, (303) 236-1500.HistoricData: U.S. Department oftheInterior,UnitedStatesGeological Survey. CatalogofSignificantEarthquakes,2000B.C.-1979,IncludingQuantitati.veCasualtiesandDamage.Washington,D.C.1981. U.S. DepartmentoftheInterior,UnitedStatesGeological Survey (withNOAA).Earthquake History oftheUnitedStates.Boulder, Colorado. 1982. U.S. Department oftheInterior,UnitedStatesGeological Survey, Geologic Division. National Earthquake Catalog Database(NEQCAT).TheUSGSOffice of Earthquakes, Volcanoes,andEngineeringislocatedat345MiddlefieldRoad,MS922,MenloPark, California"94025, (415) 323-8111.DAMCOLLAPSEAmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers(ASCE).LessonsfromDamIncidents U.S.A.NewYork:PublishedjointlybyASCEandU.S.CommitteeonLargeDams.1975.Listsnumberofdamincidentsbytype 1965-73(and"earlier),butnoinformationondeaths,injuries,or propertydamage.ASCE'saddressis345East 47thStreet,NewYork,NewYork10017. FederalEmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA),Stateand Local Programs Support, Office of NaturalandTechnologicalHazardSPrograms,500CStreet,S.W., Washington,D.C.20472.Atthe time ofthisstudy the persontocontactisWilliam Bivins, (202) 646-2817.LANDSLIDES,SLIDES,MUDSLIDES,MUDFLOWSU.S. Department oftheInterior,UnitedStatesGeological Survey, Landslide Information Center,MS966,Box25046, Denver, Colorado 80225, (303) 236-1599.42

PAGE 43

u.s.Department of theInterior,UnitedStatesGeological Survey.BibliographyofU.S.LandslideMapsandReports,compiledbyChristopher S. AlgerandEarlE.Brabb.MenloPark,California.1985.FLOODINGAmericanNationalRedCross.AnnualSummaryofDisasterServicesActivities.Washington,D.C.Published annually 1965-1985.FederalEmergency ManagementAgency(FEMA).DMIS(DisasterManagementInformation System) Reports. Washington,D.C.Compiledannually. FederalEmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA).EmergencyHazards intheU.S.: National IncidenceandImpacts. Washington,D.C.1985. F ede ra 1EmergencyManagementAgency(.FEMA),Nationa1 Flood Insurance Program, Underwriting PolicyandProgramStatisticsDivision,500CStreet,S.W., Washington,D.C.20472.Atthetime ofthisstudy thedivisionchiefisJamesCochrane, (202) 646-3433. Insurance InformationInstitute.1985-86 Property/Casualty FactBook.NewYork.1984. PropertyClaimServices. CatastropheStatisticalRecord, 1965-1985.Rahway,NewJersey.Publishedquarterly.U.S.Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),NationalWeatherService, Office of Hydrology, HydrologicalServicesDivision806013thStreet,SilverSpring,Maryland20910, (301) 427-7624. Provides estimated annuallossoflifeandpropertyduetofloods.HAILSeeGENERALcategory.HIGHWINDSAmericanNationalRedCross.AnnualSummaryofDisasterServicesActivities.Washington,D.C.Published annually 1965-1985. FederalEmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA).EmergencyHazards in the U.S.: National IncidenceandImpacts. Washington,D.C.1985. PropertyClaimServices. CatastropheStatisticalRecord, 1965-1985.Rahway,NewJersey.Publishedquarterly.43

PAGE 44

COASTAlSTORMSSeeHurricanesandFlooding.TORNADOESAmericanNationalRedCross.AnnualSummaryofDisasterServicesActivities.Washington,D.C.Published annually 1965-1985. Federa1Emergency ManagementAgency(FEMA).DMIS(Disaster Information System) Reports. Washington,D.C.Compiledannually. FederalEmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA).EmergencyHazards in the U.S.: National IncidenceandImpacts. Washington,D.C.1985.Grazulis,ToP.ViolentTornadoClimatology,1880-1982.NUREG/CR3670,PNL-5006.Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1984.Lists969Fujitascale4and5 tornadoes, withreconciliationbetweenDAPPL(University of Chicago) andNSSFC(NOAA)lists,plusothersources.Information given includesdate,state,time of day, path length inmiles,path width inyards,deaths,injuries,intensityscale.Insurance InformatiopInstitute.1985-86 Property/Casualty FactBook.NewYork.1984.U.S.Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),National EnvironmentalSatellite,Data,andInformationService, National ClimaticDataCenter. ClimatologicalData(NationalAnnualSummary),1965-1980. Asheville,NorthCarolina. U.S. Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),National EnvironmentalSatellite,Data,andInformationService, National ClimaticDataCenter.StormData(Decemberissues),1981-1985. "Asheville,NorthCarolina.DROUGHTFedera1EmergencyManagementAgency(FEMA).EmergencyHazards in the U.S.: National IncidenceandImpacts. Washington,D.C. 1985. U.S. Department ofCommerce,National OceanicandAtmospheric Administration(NOAA),National ClimaticDataCenter. Atlas ofMonthlyPalmerDroughtSeverity Indices (1931-1983) for the Contiguous UnitedStates.HCS3-11. Asheville,NorthCarolina. 1984. Closest thingtoa nationalmapof the incidence of drought.44

PAGE 45

u.s.Department ofAgriculture.AgriculturalStatistics.Washington,D.C.Published annually. u.S. Department ofAgriculture,FederalCropInsurance Corporation, 14thandIndependenceAvenue,S.W., (South Building), Washington, D.C., (202) 447-3287.45

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RECENTPUBLICATIONSfromthe Natural Hazards ResearchandApplications Information CenterInstituteof Behavioral Science#6CampusBox482University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado80309(303) 492-6818 SpecialPublications#14.LandUsePlanning for EarthquakeHazardMitigation: A HandbookforPlanners. P.A. Bolton, S.G. Heikkala,M.M.Greene,andP.J.May.1986.123pp. $7.50.WorkingPapers #55.DisasterPre arednessandthe1984Earth uakes in CentralItalDavidAlexander. 1986.98pp. 4.50. #54.TheEnvironmental Hazards of Colorado Springs.EveGruntfest.1985.58pp. $4.50. #53. Local ReactiontoACquisition:AnAustralian Study.JohnW.Handmer.1985.65pp. $4.50. #52.TheEffects of FloodHazardInformation DisclosurebyRealtors:TheCaseof theLowerFloridaKeys.JohnA.Cross. 1985.85pp. $4.50. #51.EmergencPlanning:TheCaseof the DiabloCanyonNuclearPowerPant.JuneBelettodePujo. 1985.63pp. 4.50. #47. Disseminatin Disaster-Related InformationtoPublicandPrivateUsers.CaireB.Rubin. 1982.32pp. 4.50.Monographs#43.UnreinforcedBui1dingsinEar th qua kes:City0r din ancesforRehabilitation.Daniel AleschandWilliam Petak. 1986.280pp. $10.00. #42. Race, Reliion,andEthnicitandPatriciaBolton. 1986.400 Robert Bolin #41.CommunityRecoveryfromaMajorDisaster.ClaireB.Rubin,etale 1985.295pp. $10.00. #40. Debris #39. TerminalDisasters:ComputerApplications in EmergencyManagement.SallieA.Marston, ed. 1986.218pp. #10.00.

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BibliographiesAB.ASelected,PartiallAnnotatedBibliograh of Recent 1984-1985} Natural HazardsPublications.DavidMorton. 1986.160pp.7.00.#12. A Bibliography of WeatherandClimate Hazards. William Riebsame,HenryDiaz,andToddMoses. 1986.410pp. $15.00. NewsletterTheNatural Hazards Observer. Published 16pp.NocostintheU.S.