USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Grand Canyon midair collision

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Grand Canyon midair collision
Physical Description:
4, 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Hartsough, Don M
University of Colorado, Boulder -- Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Publisher:
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aircraft accidents -- Psychological aspects -- Arizona -- Grand Canyon   ( lcsh )
Post-traumatic stress disorder   ( lcsh )
Park rangers -- Arizona -- Grand Canyon   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Don Hartsough.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"Disaster Worker Project. Interviewee #701, Ranger, National Park Service"--P. 1.
General Note:
Includes questionnaires on post-traumatic stress disorder.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001992508
oclc - 316231077
usfldc doi - F57-00059
usfldc handle - f57.59
System ID:
SFS0001140:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

ibCDLL'SIO I.

PAGE 2

GRANDCANYONMIDAIRCOLLISIONDisasterWorkerProjectInterviewee #701 Ranger,National Park ServiceTheinterviewwasconductedatthehorneofoneoftherangersAugust 11, 1986.ThisrespondentisChief(andonly)RangeratoneoftheremoteoutpostsintheGrandcanyon.Moreimportantly,heistheairspecialistfortheNPSatthecanyon.HishorneisattheGrand CanyonVillage,butheisapilotandcanflytotheremotelocation(usingagrassrunway)inordertowork.Sincethemidaircollision,hehasbeen workingathorneon a computertodraw upregulationsthatwillbeproposedbytheGrand CanyontotheNationalParkServicethatwouldregulate air trafficthrouc]houtthecanyon. EventParticipationHewasathornewhenthemidaircollisionoccurred.Hemonitorstheaviationfrequency(onhisradio)andheheardthatcontactwaslostwithoneoftheaircraft.Hedidnotwanttorespondtothisincidentatall,butButchcalledandsaid,"Get yourbuttdownhere,weneedyou."WhenthecollisionwasconfirmedbythecallfromButch,hisfirstthoughtwas,"Iknowthepilot.".HeexplainedthatpeoplearoundtheGrand Canyontendtoknowoneanotheranyway,butthatthereisasubgroupofpilotswhonumberabout 40. Therefore,he wascertainthathe wouldknowwhohadcrashed.Histhoughtwas,"I'vebeenaround,Idon'tneeditanymore."Hewenttotheheliport(commandcenter).Hisfirsttaskwastosetup arestrictedairspace,basicallytosealofftheairspace--airplaneswhohadnobusinessthere,for curiosityseekers,couldlegallybekeptoutofthezone aroundthedisaster.Thisinvolvedcontactwithaircraftcontrolcentersinthesouthwestregionand he hadthatdone by noon.Heended up onthisincidentastheCoordinatorforAirOperations,butitdidnotstartoffinthatway. weresittingaroundattheheliport,agroupofusplanningthisoperation.They wantedaninvestigatordownthereandallheadsturnedto me. But Isaid'No'.There werethreegoodbuddiesdownthere,andtherewas nowayI wantedtogodownthereifIcouldavoidit.I had abrother(who)diedinaplanecrash13yearsago--hewas a goodpilot,andtherewere alotofparallelsbetweenthisone andtheonehediedon.I sawhiscrash.Itwasasmallplaneanditburnedtoo--therewerejusttoomanyparallels.OneofthehardestthingsIeverhadtodowastogetbackintothecockpitafterhedied.Itoldthem and alotmight beridingonit.Isaidtheyneededanexperiencedinvestigator,Ranger #232. Iknewhe wasreallygood, and Igotoutofitbyusing(his)skills.Ididn'twanttogivethemtherealreason(fornotgoingintothecanyon)."I

PAGE 3

Becausehisploywassuccessful,thisrespondentdidnotgodownintothecanyonuntilafterallbodieshad been removed.Heidentifieshimselfashavingthreerolesduringthemidaircollision,oneofthemunofficial.HewasinchargeofAirOperations,andcoordinatedhelicoptertrafficinandoutofthecanyoninthatarea.Second, he wastheNPSrepresentativetotheNationalTransportationSafetyBoard(NTSB)investigationteam, whicheventuallyreconstructedtheaircraftpartsupattheairportonthe rim. Finally,heworkedwithsomeofthefamiliesofthedeadpilots. thebodiescameout(totheheliportonThursday),I wantedtostayoutofthearea.Ikeptwondering,isJohn (oneofthepilots)inthatbody bag? Ikeptwonderingwhowasinwhatbag.But I wantedtokeep away,soIdid." TheNTSBinvestigationwasnotbegununtilafterallbodieshad been removed. Thebasicgoaloftheinvestigationwastobringupallofthewreckage fromthefloorofthecanyon,toworkwiththeNTSBteam which wasattemptingtodetermineexactlyhowthecrashoccurred.WorkwiththeNTSBteam wasveryrewarding,and helearnedalot.HetendedtoavoidcontactwiththebOdybagsastheywerebeingtransportedfrom oneplacetoanotherattheheliport.Hedidmanagetolifttwoorthree,butgenerallystayedback.TheNTSBinvestigationwasmuchlessuncomfortableforhim,butthedeathofhisfriend,John,thepilotoftheTwinOtterwasonhismind agreatdeal."Isawtherudderpedal(duringthe NTSB investigation),and IknewJohn'sfoothad been onit,and Iknewhowhetriedtofightthedive.Thepedalwasallsplayedout.Itwasasensitivemoment."HewenttothememorialservicethefollowingSunday.Itwasoriginallyplannedforthepilots,buteventuallyexpandedforallpilotsandpassengers."The memorialservicewas a huge communitypurge,itwasnecessaryforallofus,and alotofemotionwasflyingaround.Theyallneededthememorialservicetodotheemotionalpurge,andthentheycouldgoaboutbeginningtheprocessofhealing."Hecopedwithhisfeelingsthroughoutthisfirstweek bykeepingbusy workingwithfamiliesofthedeceased,lookingafter many details,workingwiththevideo-tapethat#153 hadmadeofthecrashsite,andbeinggenerallyhelpful.Hethinkshehasa goodabilitytounderstandthefeelingsofothers.HethoughtaboutthetwopilotsoftheTwinOtter.They were a team,theywere alwaystogether,theydidalotofactivitiestogether.Herememberedseeingthemforthelasttimewhenoneofthepilotscalledup andsaidthathisTVsetwasout,couldtheycomeoverforaspecialprogram.Sotheybothcameovertothisrespondent'shomeandtheyallhad averygoodvisit.Hekeptthinkingaboutthem andhisfeelingswererunningvery hi'jh. "AfterSunday,ithadkindofleveledoutbythen,and I had alotmorefree time. BeforethatIjuststayedbusy."Herecalledthestrongneedtotalkwith saneone thefirsteveningafterthecrash(Wednesday).HeremembersthataCrisisImpactTeamcame up fromFlagstaffattherequestoftheSherifftodo workwiththefamiliesofthedeceased(CrisisImpactisa programthatworkswithlawenforcement,interviewingpeopleinneedwhocomeintothe system). The Impactvolunteers2

PAGE 4

sataroundforawhileatthecommandpost(heliport)buttherereallywasn'tanythingforthemtodointermsofworkwithfamilies.FinallyoneofthemsaidtotheSheriff,"Well Iguessthere'snobodyEorustotalkto,soshouldwegoback?"TheSheriEftoldthemto(Jo back toFlagstaff."Iwishtheycouldhavestayed,becauseboy, Ireallywantedtotalkwithsomeone. Icouldn'tfeelfreetogo andaskthem,butifoneofthem hadcomeoverwitha cupofcoffee,Icouldhavetalkedforalong tine." Thinkingofthatevening,madethisrespondentthinkof#068,whostayeddowninthecanyonthatnight.(Thefollowingisaparaphraseofhiscommentsaboutthispartoftheincident.)ItSdowninthecanyonallnight--it '",as amistake!Idon'tknowhowwemissedit.Weallshouldhaveknownbetter.Hell,I workedwithS upherealongtime.I would have beengladtogodown ti1ere withhim,justsohecouldhavesomecompany.Itwasn'trightputtinga guydowntherealone.Itjusthappened. I evenhelpedhim packhisgearandhewasjokingand makinglightofit.Wejustletitslipbyuswithouteventhinking.Itwaswrong."EffectsofParticipation"Ihad tworeallybad dreams, one twodaysafterthecrashand onethefollowingMondayorTuesday.Inthefirstone I wasloadingbody bagsatthetruck.Allofasudden,Johnrisesupoutofoneofthebodybags,andhe'sallfineand whole. Icouldseeallthedetailsjustlikehereallywas,itwasveryvivid.Everythingwasthere,thewayhe worehisjacket,thedetailsofhisface,everything.Itwasn'tveryemotional(inthedream)butitreallyshookmeupseeinghimlikethat."Inthesecond one I was onthejumpseat.Youknow, the jumpseatisaseatforanextrapilotwhentherearethreeinthecockpit,and I was onthejumpseatand Iknewtheothertwopilots,and Iwastryingtobringtheplaneoutofthedive.I was workingrealhardand Isensedwewere onfire.Ithinktherewas somethinginthebedroom arustlingnoise,and IputthatrightinmydreamastheEire.Weweregoingdownand Iwastryingtohelpthembringitout.The dreamwokemeup.Iknowhowitwasforthem,tryingtofightthediveandnotbeingableto."Thisrespondentwantedtohave adebriefingforallofthoseinvolved.Hetalkedwith#232, and twoofthem wenttoSuperintendentMarkstorequestadebriefing.Theygotinitialsupportfortheidea,and #232calledSan Diego totalkwiththepsychiatristwhohadrunprogramsaftertheaircrashseveralyearsago.Theideawaskickedaroundamongthoseinvolved,buttheredidn'tseemtobe enoughsupportamongthemtoholdadebriefing,andsoitwasnotheld.Duringthecritiquehebroughtuptheideaagain.Butagain,itwasletgo.HetoldtheSuperintendenthe neededtoseesomeonebecauseofhisownreactions,and heisnowseeingatherapistinFlagstaEf,sponsoredbytheNPS.Beforethememorialserviceon Sunday he was headedforanotherserviceforoneofthepilots.Hegottoacrossroads,andjustcouldn'tforcehimselftogo towardtheservice.Whenhewenttotheserviceon Sunday,hespenttimeconsolingothersandtalkingwithfamilies.Butallthistimehefeltthatheneeded saneone totalkwithhimself.That'swhenheaskedfordirecttherapeutichelp.3

PAGE 5

"MycounselorisEileenAdams, andshe'sreallygood.Inthefirstsessionwegotrightthroughthemidaircrashandrightbacktomybrother.Iguessthat'swhere alotofthefeelingscoming from.IIAttitudes About RecoveryWorkHehasanarcheologicalbackground and apilot'sbackground, andgotintotheNPSin1975.Hegotintosearchandrescuearound 1978, andinvestigatedsomeincidentsinvolvingdeathearlyinhiscareer.Hesaidthathehadreceivednotrainingforbodyrecoverywork,thatyoujustpickeditup onyourown,and,"bythetimeyou'reinit,nobodyhaspreparedyouforanything."Thereisa needfortraining,and heistryingtogetacounselorfromFlagstafforotherexpertsuptotheGrand canyonfortheirannualrefreshercourses.Thisrespondentactuallyenjoysworkingwithsurvivorfamilies,andhasacapacitytoempathizewiththem.Heisverysensitivetohisownfeelings,andobservesinhimselfanunusualreactiontothisparticularincident,onethatwasstrongenoughtorequireprofessional counseling.Interviewer ObservationsItseemedtomethatthisrespondenthad beendeeplytroubledbytheincidentaswitnessedinthedreams andinhisinalJilitytoconfrontone memorialserviceafterwards.Atleasttwoareasofstrongfeelingscameoutduringtheinterview.Thefirstoccurredwhenever hetalkedabouthisbrother,apersonfromwhomhelearnedagreatdealandwholedhimintoflying.Hisbrotherwasa andthisrespondentwasveryshockedwhenhesuddenlydiedinacrash.Although heatfirstdidnotrealizetheparallelsbetweentheGrand Canyonmidaircollisionandhisbrother'sdeath,thiswasquicklybroughtoutincounseling,and wasverymuchonhismindatthetimeoftheinterview.The secondareaofstrongemotionshadtodowithhisbeliefthattheparkrangersandotherpeopleinvolvedinthisincidentneededsomekindofemotionaldebriefing.Hewasfrustratedinnotbeingabletohavethisoccurfollowingtheincident,andwetalkedatsomelengthabouthisplansforsomekindofemotionalpre-trainingforsearchandrescueworkaspartoftheParkService'sregularin-servicetraining.I wouldagreewithhimthathehassensitivitiestowardpeopleindistress,andhisenjoymentinworkingwiththemisprobablybecauseheissuccessfulindoingso.4

PAGE 6

BSIPatient No. __ I VisitNo.: Mode:S-RNar_-jIRemarks: .INSTRUCTIONSM __ F __ Date: ---._.---_._------------------------Belowisa I,stofproblems and complaintsthatpeople sometimes have. Read each onecarefully,and select oneofthe numbered descriptorsthatbest describes HOWMUCHDISCOMFORTTHATPROBLEMHASCAUSEDYOUDURINGTHEPAST TODAY.Placethatnumberin the openblocktotherightoftheproblem.Donotskip any items, andprintyournumberclearly.Ifyouchangeyourmind,eraseyourfirstnumbercompletely.Read the examplebelowbefore beginning, andifyouhave any questions pleaseaskthetechnician.Descri ptorsaNotat all1Alittlebit2Moderately3Quiteabit4ExtremelyHOWMUCHWEREYOUDISTRESSEDBY:DescriptorsEXAMPLE HO\;'I WEREYOUDISTRESSEDBY:aNotat all1Alittlebit Answer2Moderately I EX ..... Ex.03QuiteabitiI4ExtremelyLn----------__ .--t -----------------j HOWMUCHWEREYOUDISTRESSEDBY:44.Never feeling closetoanotherperson 28. Feeling afraidtotravel on buses, subways,ortrains.."..29.Troublegettingyourbreath .30.Hotorcoldspells .o o0ooooo oo oooooooo o o......0......0......0 0Feelingsofguilt -0 The ideathatsomethingiswrong with yourmind051.52. 53.49.Feelingsorestlessyoucouldn'tsit still 50. Feelingsofworthlessness .47.Feeling nervous whenyouareleftalone'.'..48.OthersnotgIvingyoupropercreditforyourachievements .45.Spellsofterrororpanic .46.Gettingintofrequenyarguments .41.Having urgestobreakorsmash things .42.Feeling very self-consciouswithothers .43.Feeling uneasy in crowds .40.Havi.ng urgestobeat,injure,orharm someone37.Feelingweak in partsofyourbody.38. tenseorkeyedup '.' .39.Thoughtsofdeathordying.36.Troubleconcentrating.......31.Havingtoavoid certain things, places,oractivities becausetheyfrightenyou.32.Yourmindgoingblank.33.Numbnessortinglingin partsofyourbody,34.The ideathatyoushouldbepunishedforyoursins .35.Feeling hopelessaboutthefuture.o oooo o o ooo o o o oooooooooooooo ",I,;'JtlLltpeople areunfriendlyordislikeyou..'.... i",m:ble remembering things ,:",,"lllJinft:rior toothers '<.:"S, dOl'upset stomach. ,,) Dille..............................\, ,1l,' being easilyhurt. 1: even \ivhen youarewithpeople..... i,,!,,',. OUlLurststhatyoucouldnotcontrol. LU;,,'ldlynldking clecisions. ... "',:::,'Tit1::S BY RDEROGATIS,PHD. Pall15 in neart orchest tilat youarewatchedortalkedaboutbyothers.. f'"cllng othersaretoblameformostofyourtroubles.... It) check and doublecheckwhatyoudo.... Trw!dedthat someoneelsecancontrolyourthoughts.I\jervousnessofshakiness inside..i F.,"j;lIg 'unely ................... _,r,ollili,; L11lingasleep \'e3sily annoyedorirritated.... fhouqhts ofendingyourlife...r. F","!illlj afraid in openspaces....JFdintnessordizziness i ,; :-.. :"i<) nointerest in things..,) "JlJl0Ck'"d in getting things done... i 1. p,jU'cll1petlte .; /:,!"nl\, fornoreason .11) r:e"ling that most peoplecannotbetrusted

PAGE 7

Name------------WaysofCoping (Revised)Mysituation:Date----------Pleasereadeachitem below andindicate,bycirclingtheappropriatecategory,towhatextentyou useditinthesituationyou havejustdescribed.1.Justconcentratedonwhat I hadtodo nextstep.2. Itriedtoanalyzetheprobleminordertounderstanditbetter.3.Turnedtoworkorsubstituteactivitytotakemymindoffthings.4.Ifeltthattimewouldmakeadifference--theonlythingtodo wastowait.5.Bargainedorcompromisedtogetsomethingpositivefromthesituation.6.Ididsomething which Ididn'tthinkwould work,butatleastIwasdoing something.7.Triedtogetthepersonresponsibletochangehisorhermind.8.Talkedtosomeonetofindoutmoreaboutthesituation.9.Criticizedorlecturedmyself.10.Triednottoburnmybridges,butleavethingsopen somewhat. Not usedooooo o o oooUsed some what1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1Usedquiteabit2 22222 222 2Used agreatdeal3 3 3333 3 33 3

PAGE 8

UsedUsedUsedNot scme-quiteagreatused what abitdeal11.Hopedamiraclewould happen.012312.went alongwithfate;sanetimes Ijusthave badluck.012313.wentonasifnothing hadhappened.012314.Itriedtokeepmyfeelingstomyself.012315.Lookedforthesilverlining,50tospeak;triedtolookonthebrightsideof,things.012316.Sleptmorethanusual.012 317.I expressed angertotheperson(s)whocausedtheproblem.012 318.Accepted sympathy and understanding fran saneone.012319.Itoldmyselfthingsthathelped 3\ metofeelbetter.01220.Iwasinspiredtodo somethingcreative.01 2321.Triedtoforgetthewholething.012322.Igotprofessionalhelp.012323.Changedorgrewasa personina good way.012 324.Iwaitedtoseewhat would happenbeforedoinganything.012 325.I apologizedordidsomethingtomakeup.012326.Imadeaplanofactionand followedit.012327.I acceptedthenextbestthingtowhat I wanted.012 3

PAGE 9

28.Iletmyfeelingsoutsomehow.29.RealizedIbroughttheproblem onmyself.30.IcameoutoftheexperiencebetterthanwhenIwentin.31.Talkedtosomeonewhocoulddo somethingconcreteabouttheproblem.32.Got away fromitfor a while;triedtorestortake a vacation.33.Triedtomakemyselffeelbetterbyeating,drinking, snoking, usingdrugsormedication,etc.34.Took abigchanceordidsomethingveryrisky.35.Itriednottoacttoohastilyorfollowmyfirsthunch.36.Foundnewfaith.37.Maintainedmypride andkept astiffupperlip.38.Rediscoveredwhatis importilllt inlife.39. Changed somethingso wouldturnout il11 right.40.Avoidedbeingwithpeople1ngeneral.41.Didn'tletitgetto me; refusedtothinktoomuchaboutit.42.Iasked a relativeor friend Irespectedforadvice.43.Keptothersfrom knmvinq howbadthings were.tJot usedoo oooooo o o ooo oo oUsed some what1 111 1 1 111 1 111 1 11Usedquiteabit2222 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2222Used agreatdeal3 3 3 3 3 3 333 3 3 3 3 333

PAGE 10

44.Madelightofthe situation; refusedtogettooseriousaboutit.45.Talkedtosaneone aoout howI wasfeeling.46.Stoodmygroundandfoughtforwhat Iwanted.47.Tookitoutonotherpeople.48.Drewonmy past experiences;I wasinasimilarsituation before. 49.Iknewwhat hadtobedone,soIdoubledmyeffortsto mLlke thingswork.50.Refusedtobelieve that ithad happened.51.I made a pranisetomyselfthatthings \oJould be di tferent next time.52.Cameupwithacoupleofdifferentsolutionstotheproblem.53.Acceptedit,sincenothingcouldbedone.54.I tried to keep myfeeling (ran interferingwithother things toomuch. 55. Wished that Icould chcJn(Jcwhat had happenedorhowIfelt.56.I changed sauething about myself.57.I daydreamedor ima,] i ned.)better timeor place than the one I wasin.58. \vished thatthesituation would goilway or sanehowbe overwith.59.Hadfantasiesor about howthingsmightturnout.Notusedo o o o oooo o oooooo oUsedsanewhat1 1 1 1 1 1 11111 1 1 1.L1Usedquiteabit22 222 22222222222Used agreatdeal3 3 33 3 33 3 333 3 333 3

PAGE 11

-'--'-'---'._._---_.UsedUsed Used Not sane-(-lUi teagreatused what a bit deal 60.Iprayed.0I2361.Ipreparedmyselffortheworst.012362.Iwentoverinmymind whatIwouldsayordo.012363.IthoughtabouthowapersonI admire wouldhandlethissituationand usedthat as a model.012364.Itriedtoseethingsfromtheotherperson's [X)int ofview.012365.I reninded myselfhowmuchworsethingscouldbe.012366.Ijoggedorexercised.012367.Itriedsomethingentirelydifferentfrom anyoftheabove.(Pleasedescribe).0123

PAGE 12

NamePurdue PfSD SCdleDate---------_... _--Thesequestions ask aboutyour reilctionfj to anevc'nt inyourIi fee Theeventinyourlifetouse asabas isforyour is--------------Thefirstelevenquestionsask ubout your reactions durincJthepastseven tlays.Thelust fourquestionsaskaboutyourreactionssince theeventhuppened. Circleone tor each question. m.()derately 1234 S DURING THE PASTSEVENDAYS, IIICLUI)HJC'l'OI)J\Y 1.howmuchhaveyoubeenbotheredby m('mor orthol!eoEJle? 123451 23 4 I) 1')345 L 1 }4 5 --> 123451 ;2'3 5 2 }t1S.J 1 2 .. } 4 I) )12 '}4 5 .J 1 2.}'1 5)12345 12 '3 45 1234 12'3 4 5

PAGE 13

GRANDCANYONMIDAIRCOLLISIONInterviewRatingScaleStronglyAgree AgreeNeitherAgreeNorDisagreeDisagreeStronglyDisagree1.Thisworkerwasexposedtostressorsthatwould evokesignificantsymptomsofdistressin almost everyone.123452.Aftertheincident,thisworker showedsignsofreexperiencingthetraumainsomeway(example:recurrentdreams,intrusiverecollectionsoftheevent).12 3453.Atsometimeafterthetrauma,thisworkerexperienceddiminishedresponsivenesstotheexternalworld (example:feelingdetachedfromothers,lossofinterestinsignificantactivities).123454.Thisworkerexperiencedsymptomsofexcessiveautonomicarousalthatwerenotpresentbeforethetrauma (example:hyperalertness,difficultysleeping,troubleconcentrating).123455.Thisworker showedthesymptomsnecessaryforadiagnosisofPost-traumaticStressDisorder.123456.Thisworkerdemonstratedapositivestyleofcopingthatwouldallowhimtomanagesignificantamountsofstress.123457.Thisworkerholdsdefinite,wellthought-outbeliefsaboutdeath.12 345


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam 2200325Ia 4500
controlfield tag 001 001992508
005 20090319111214.0
006 m d s
007 cr bn|||||||||
008 090318s1988 cou s s000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a F57-00059
035
(OCoLC)316231077
040
FHM
c FHM
043
n-us-az
1 100
Hartsough, Don M.
0 245
Grand Canyon midair collision
h [electronic resource] /
Don Hartsough.
260
[Boulder, Colo. :
b Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center],
1988.
300
4, [8] p. ;
28 cm.
500
Title from cover.
"Disaster Worker Project. Interviewee #701, Ranger, National Park Service"--P. 1.
Includes questionnaires on post-traumatic stress disorder.
533
Electronic reproduction.
[Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida Libraries,
d 2008].
n Digitized from copy owned by Natural Hazards Center, University of Colorado at Boulder, in a joint project with the Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI) Research Library's disaster mental health initiative.
650
Aircraft accidents
z Arizona
Grand Canyon
x Psychological aspects.
Post-traumatic stress disorder.
Park rangers
Arizona
Grand Canyon.
2 710
University of Colorado, Boulder.
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center.
773
t Natural Hazards Center Collection
049
FHMM
090
TL553.525.A6 (ONLINE)
994
C0
FHM
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?f57.59