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Calidad del agua en las quebradas en la regin de Monteverde, Costa Rica
Water quality of streams in the region of Monteverde, Costa Rica
The region of Monteverde, Costa Rica is rapidly growing and the water quality is undoubtedly being affected. The Quebradas Rodriguez, Mquina, and Cambronero were sampled at three elevations to assess the water quality of the rivers according to the parameters used to calculate the Water Quality Index. Two additional parameters, depth and velocity, were also taken. The data showed that there is a positive correlation between dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand at the three rivers. There is also a negative correlation between total coliform of the aforementioned variables. A large increase in nitrates and turbidity as well as a decrease in dissolved oxygen in the Quebrada Cambronero was found immediately following the Productores de Monteverde hog farm yet no such changes were seen in the Quebrada Mquina, which ran by Monteverdes main road, and which experienced different anthropogenic influences. This difference is evidence that the water contamination at the Cambronero was due to the hog farm inputs. The Quebrada Cambronero recovered to its normal values for nitrates and dissolved oxygen but not turbidity downstream. Stream ecology, however, may still be affected by this contaminated zone.
La regin de Monteverde, Costa Rica esta creciendo rpidamente y la calidad del agua esta siendo indudablemente afectada. Se hicieron muestras en las Quebradas Rodrguez, Mquina, y Cambronero a tres elevaciones para evaluar la calidad del agua de los ros segn los parmetros usados para calcular el Indice de la calidad del agua. Tambin se tomaron dos parmetros adicionales, la profundidad y la velocidad.
Text in English.
Ecotourism--Environmental aspects--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Stream ecology--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Ecoturismo--Aspectos ambientales--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde
Calidad del agua
Ecologa fluvial--Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde
Tropical Ecology 2008
Ecologa Tropical 2008
t Monteverde Institute : Tropical Ecology
Water Quality of Streams in the Region of Monteverd e, Costa Rica Shuhan He Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin Madi son ABSTRACT The region of Monteverde, Costa Rica is rapidly gro wing and the water quality is undoubtedly being affected. The Quebradas Rodriguez, M quina, and Cambronero were sampled at three elevations to assess the water quality of the river s according to the parameters used to calculate the Water Quality Index. Two additional parameters, depth and velocity, were also taken. The data showed that there is a positive correlation be tween dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand at the three rivers. There is also a negative correlation between total coliform of the aforementioned variables. A large increase in n itrates and turbidity as well as a decrease in dissolved oxygen in the Quebrada Cambronero was fou nd immediately following the Productor e s de Monteverde hog farm yet no such changes were s een in the Quebrada M quina, which ran by Monteverdes main road and which experienced different anthropogenic influences. This difference is evidence that the w ater contamination at the Cambronero was due to the hog farm inputs. The Quebrada Cambronero rec overed to its normal values for nitrates and dissolved oxygen but not turbidity downstream. Stre am ecology, however, may still be affected by this contaminated zone. RESUMEN La regin de Monteverde, Costa Rica esta creciendo rpidamente y la calidad de agua est siendo indudablemente afectada. Se probaron las Quebradas Rodrguez, Mquina, y Cambronero a tres elevaciones para evaluar la calidad de agua de los ros segn los parmetros usados para calcular el ndice de Calidad de Agua. Tambin se tomaron do s parmetros adicionales, la profundidad y velocidad. Los datos mostraron que hay una correlac in positiva entre la demanda de oxgeno disuelto y oxgeno bioqumico en los tres ros. Hay tambin una correlacin negativa entre el total de coliformes de las variables mencionadas. U n aumento grande en los nitratos y turbidez, as como una disminucin en el oxgeno disuelto en la Quebrada Cambronero se encontr siguiendo inmediatamente la granja de cerdos Produ ctores de Monteverde pero no se observ ningn cambio en la Quebrada Mquina que corre por el camino principal de Monteverde y qu influencias experimenta diferentes influencia antro pognicas. Esta diferencia es la evidencia que la contaminacin del agua en Cambronero es debido a las entradas de la granja de cerdos. La Quebrada Cambronero recuper sus valores normales en cuanto a los nitratos oxgeno disuelto pero no la turbidez ro abajo. La ecologa del arr oyo, sin embargo, todava verse afectada por est zona contmaninada.
INTRODUCTION The region of Monteverde, Costa Rica has seen consi derable expansion in the past few decades with a large influx of tourists, creating a booming local economy and an expanding populace. It has been well documented that one of the primary re sults of urban expansion is the increased contamination of streams (Walsh 2005). While there has been some work to collect data about the watersheds in Monteverde, Costa Rica (Kim 2002) the sparse literature does not include many physical or biological indicators that can be associated with E. coli levels, a vital indicator of the health of the stream. Physical, chemical, and biological factors can all influence the dynamics of a streams ecosystems. For example, oxygen consumption occurs at unique rates depending on the composition of a stream community (Allan 1995). Thi s means that information about dissolved oxygen content in streams is not enough to elucidat e the true biological integrity of a watershedrate of input and output of oxygen is nee ded. Biochemical oxygen demand, the rate of change of the oxygen content due to aerobic requ irements, and velocity of streams (which affects oxygen content) are needed as well. Low oxy gen levels have been shown to correlate with coliform bacteria (Keylon 2008) that can upset sensitive invertebrate communities (Kerans and Karr 1994), and thus coliform bacteria serve as a canary in a coal mine to signal the degradation of a streams invertebrate life forms. The most critical manipulation of ecosystem dynamic s is not the coliform bacteria itself, but rather the pollution from nearby residences and businesses that allow this bacteria to grow. Key point-sources of pollution are considered in th is study to investigate their effects on the health of the stream. Dissolved oxygen content (DO) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), stream velocity, depth, nitrate levels (NO3), phosphorus levels (PO4 -), total solids (TS), pH, turbidity, and temperature are measured so that rel ationships between these aforementioned factors and levels of coliform bacteria can be dete rmined. These data can supply a valuable baseline data set that can be the foundation for a long-term monitoring program of the health of Monteverdes streams through establishment of the p arameters that determine the Water Quality Index (WQI) Value (Brown et al. 1973). Although it will only allow a snapshot of the complicated dynamics of a stream, these data may pr ovide a valuable, baseline prognosis of the health of key water sources in the rapidly growing Monteverde region. A long range monitoring program is also becoming more imperative with chang ing conditions in the Monteverde region hypothesized as a result of the Lifting Clouds Hypo thesis (Pounds 1999). Methods Study Sites Water samples for this study were collected in the Monteverde Region of Costa Rica during the wet season on two separate days, July 27th and August1st. This region includes Premontane Moist Forest, Lower Montane Moist Forest, and Lower Monta ne Wet/Cloud Forest. Three streams with distinctive levels of development were selected for contrasts of water quality: the Quebrada Rodriguez which runs through the town of Santa Elen a and thus receives a high amount of anthropogenic waste, the Quebrada Mquina which tra nsects primary forest and has only minimal amounts of development, and the Quebrada Ca mbronero, which receives water from the
Productores de Monteverde hog farm in two forms: tr eated waste water and water and farm runoff. Sample Collection Three sites at each of the three rivers were sample d, at locations about 100-200 meters apart from each other, which created a high, medium and l ow elevation sample gradient. Altitudinal congruence between rivers was limited by physical b arriers such as sheer cliffs and dangerous falls. The Quebrada Rodriguez had sites at 1350 m ( RA), 1200 m (RB), and 1125 m (RC). The Quebrada M quina was sampled at 1425 m (QA), 1100 m (QB) and 1 000 m (QC). The three sampling sites at the Quebrada Cambronero were at 1 200 m (CA), 1100 m (CB), and 900 m (CC).The samples were taken before the daily rains; this was done to avoid changes of the quality of the samples due to the large influx of f resh rainwater (Singh 1998). Velocity, depth and temperature were measured on site and water sam ples were taken in packages specifically prepared or treated according to the type of test a s described below. Physical and Chemical Parameters Temperature was assessed with a standard water ther mometer placed in the middle of the running stream for one minute. Velocity was calcula ted by averaging the amount of time (sec) required for a ping pong ball to progress through o ne meter of the stream (n = 10 trials per site). The depth was measured with a meter tape at the dee pest position at each site. One large, chemically untreated, yet clean glass jar was used to take the water sample used for turbidity and total solids. The water sample for DO was treated o n site with Manganous Sulfate solution and Alkaline Potassium Iodide Azide to fix the oxygen c ontent in the water sample as instructed by the LaMotte Dissolved Oxygen Test Kit. Two jars bla ckened with electrical tape were used to take the sample used for BOD with special vigilance against water bubbles in the sample that could manipulate the results. The sample was sealed on site with duct tape. The water sample for pH, NO3 and PO4 was taken in a jar treated with deionized water to ensure that no ions were present in the container prior to sampling. DO, BOD NO3, PO4, Turbidity, and pH were tested with the LaMotte Water Testing Kit. All of the Lamo tte water tests were done twice and the average of the values were taken. TS was measured b y evaporating a 50mL sample and calculating the mass of the solid remaining. Coliform Bacteria Sampling Only two water samples were taken at two different sites along the Quebrada Mquina and the Quebrada Cambronero due to logistical constraints. To prevent contamination, the water sample was taken in new zip lock bags with no extra space for oxygen available. The water samples were plated the same day on Pall MicroFunnelTM Filter Funnels and MF-Endo agar following the manufacturers instructions. The plates were invert ed and incubated in an incubation device for 24 hours. After this time, the plates were removed and total coliform colonies were counted under a dissecting microscope and averaged. Only on e water sample from the lowest elevation on the Cambronero survived for plating and thus the total coliform count could not be averaged for this site.
RESULTS The results of the data collection are summarized i n Appendix 1. An analysis indicates that there is a positive correlation between DO and BOD for th e average values of BOD and DO at the three rivers (Figure 1). There is also a negative c orrelation between total coliform and both BOD and DO (Figure 2). There are three parameters that show jarring changes for the Quebrada Cambronero at the CB site, which is at 1100 m. The value of NO3 increases at 1100 m but recovers at 900 m. DO drops dramatically at CB, but likewise shows a recovery at the lowest elevation site. An increase is also seen in turbidi ty but does not show any recovery at 900 m. Neither the Quebrada Rodriguez nor the Quebrada M quina shows this pattern. Qualitative Site Assessment The Quebrada Rodriguez originates above the town of Santa Elena and passes through town, where there are many open sources of contamination stemming from local residences and businesses. The river became a steep gorge once ent ering the Ca itas area yet had large tires, coffee sacks, and other assorted anthropogenic junk items scattered. The river continued this pattern, curving around to the Los Llanos area to f orm a loop around the greater Monteverde region. The Quebrada M quina originates above the Monteverde Biological St ation and seemed unaffected by human waste until it passed a clear s ite of intrusion at the main road that transverses the Monteverde region. This small inter section had homes that deposited waste materials much like the Quebrada Rodriguez. The env ironment returned to a rather pristine condition following this particular area. The Quebrada Cambronero originates in the town of Monteverde and passes through the Productores de Monteverde hog farm. This area had a strong odor reminiscent of fecal waste and carried noticeably dirty water. The river then cont inued until it plummeted into a waterfall that descended about 75m with smaller drops thereafter. WQI Values The Q values for the three rivers are located in Ap pendix 2, with the appropriate weight of these parameters and the corresponding WQI value s calculated for MA, MC, CA and CC. DISCUSSION Figures 1 and 2 suggest that increased oxygen avail ability in streams as indicated by high levels of DO allow for more life, which is implied by the high BOD values in these streams. The positive correlation between these two factors may explain the negative correlation between DO and total coliform bacteria seen by Kaylan (1998). More oxygen in the streams would seem to support more life which allows for high oxygen cons umption. A survey of the streams of Costa Rica done by Pringle and Ramrez (2007) showed that the invertebrate composition was dominated (>90%) by insects. This is also supported by Callisto et al. (2004). Thus, it can be hypothesized that in locations with conditions that are favorable for aerobic invertebrates such as insects, the conditions will probably not be suitab le for coliform bacteria growth. When the conditions incline towards anaerobic conditions, th ere are much smaller insect populations and
higher amounts of coliform bacteria. BOD and total coliform bacteria therefore seem to be two sides of the same cointhey both are indicators of DO levels available for consumption. The green arrow in Figure 2 indicates the location of the Productores de Monteverde hog farm located at ~1180 m, which is a large source of water input into the river. This water input seems to be the cause of the changes seen at site C B and there is strong evidence that suggests that the poor quality of the input water rather tha n the quantity of the water coming from the hog farm is the factor that causes this change. A chang e of congruent magnitude in the values for nitrates, turbidity, and DO is not seen at the Queb rada M quina following intersection with another well known source of water input into this riverthe main road that intersects the M quina at 1400 m (red arrow). The Quebrada Rodriguez which runs through the main town, has anthropogenic inputs at numerous points rather than one concentrated input and had values that serve as a reference for both rivers. A hypoth esis to explain the elevated nitrate levels from the hog farm is rather straightforward: the hog far m uses whey feed for their hogs. This, combined with runoff from cattle feces which is not treated in their water treatment pools (per. obs), should be enough to account for the elevated nitrate levels observed. The feces as well as the chemically treated water could also explain the elevated turbidity in the Cambronero. A possible reason for the low DO levels observed in o ur data is that the treatment pools at the Monteverde hog farm do not filter biological agents (Sarah Stuckey pers. comm.) following the removal of swine fecal matter. In spite of the possible incursion by the Productor s de Monteverde on the Quebrada M quina, the steep waterfall downstream of the hog fa rm seems to effectively recover both the DO and the nitrate levels. The turbidity, according to our data, does not recover at the site collected but this is not as important of a factor to biological ecosystems as the prior two factors (Mitchell and Stapp, 1995). The recovery may be the reason why our WQI values do not reflect a large disparity between the quality of the Quebrada M quina and the Quebrada Cambronero. It is important to also recognize that the main utility o f the WQI lies in its ability to detect long term change in a wide breadth of parameters in future me asurements. It is still possible that this localized area of di sturbance, even though it recovers downstream of the contamination site, affects the e cosystem downstream. Brittain and Eikeland (1987) discuss the importance of stream drift in ma cro invertebrate ecology; it is a key factor for colonization and distribution as well as population dynamics of downstream macro-invertebrate communities. Drift allows these organisms to escape predators and thus is a key function of the lives of stream macro invertebrates. An ecologicall y dead zone in the Quebrada M quina due to extremely low oxygen levels and high nitrate levels could severely disrupt this mechanism. In addition, both Meyer and Johnson (2006) and Gulis a nd Suberkropp (2002) have found that the decomposition of leaf litter is affected by altered nitrogen dynamics in temperate areas, thus suggesting that the recycling mechanisms in the Que brada Cambronero could be affected although how this translates in the tropical latitu des is yet to be resolved. This information as well as further data collection for the WQI index w ould be insightful information for future studies to explore. Furthermore, the correlation be tween DO and coliform should be investigated to resolve the exact nature of this relationship.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Karen Masters for all of her logistical support, for all the trials and tribulat ions, and for all the tender loving care I have received to overcome thos e trials and tribulations over the course of this p rogram. I am extremely grateful to Pablo Allen for all the day t o day help and emergency care, Moncho Calderon for being a pillar of support, and Tania Chavarria for help wit h the equipment needed for this project. Special th anks go to my mother, father, and my little sister their patient guidance, unwavering love, and constant assistance. This also applies to the Delgado-Badilla family. I would also like to thank the staff at the Biological Station in Monte verde, Costa Rica for the excellent meal preparations and consta nt supply of coffee that made this project possible LITERATURE CITED Allan, J. D. 1995. Stream ecology: structure and fu nction of running waters. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York. Brittain, J.E., Eikeland T.J. 1987. Invertebrate dr ifta review. Hydrobiologia 166. 77-93. Brown, R.M., McClelland, N.I., Deininger, R.A., OC onnor, M.F. 1973. A water quality index crashing the psychological barrier. Proceedings of the sixth international conference in advances in water pollution research, Jerusalem. Callisto, M., Goulart, M., Medeiros, A.O., Moreno, P., and Rosa, C.A. 2004. Diversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates, yeasts, a nd microbiological indicators along a longitudinal gradient in Serra Do Cip, Brazil. Bra zilian Journal of Biology 64. 743-755. Gulis, V. and Suberkropp, K. 2002. Leaf litter deco mposition and microbial activity in nutrientenriched and unaltered reaches of a headwater strea m. Freshwater Biology 48. 123-134. Kerans, B. L. and J. R. Karr. 1994. A benthic index of biotic integrity (B-IBI) for rivers of the Tennessee valley. Ecological Applications 4: 768-78 5. Keylon, R.A. 2008. Effect of coliform bacteria on i nvertebrate community composition, in the streams of Monteverde, Costa Rica. Tropical Ecology and Conservation, CIEE Spring 2008: 62-75. Kim, E. 2002.Water Quality Study of a Cloudforest W atershed in Monteverde, Costa Rica. 25 March 2002. 5 July 2008. Northeastern Section 37t h Annual Meeting. Meyer, J.L., Johnson C. 2006. The influence of elev ated nitrate concentration on rate of leaf decomposition in a stream. Freshwater Biology 13. 1 77-183. Mitchell, M.K., and Stapp W.B. 1995. Field Manual f or Water Quality Monitoring. Mark K. Mitchell and William B. Stapp Publishers, Ann Arbor 1995. 27-85 Pounds, A. J., Fogden, M. P., Campbell, J.H. 1999. Biological responses to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature 398. 611-615. Pringle, C.M., Ramrez, A. 2007. Use of both benthi c and drift sampling techniques to assess tropical stream invertebrate communities along an a ltitudinal gradient, Costa Rica. Freshwater Biology 39. 359-373. Singh, V. P. 1998. Effect of spatial and temporal v ariability in rainfall and watershed characteristics on stream flow hydrograph. Hydrolog ical Processes 11. 1649-1669 Walsh, C.J., and Allison H.R. 2005. The urban strea m syndrome: current knowledge and the search for a cure. Journal of the North American Be nthological Society 24. 706-723.
n FIGURE 1. Correlation between average BOD (ppm O2) and average DO (% saturation). This figure suggests that as the average DO increases, m ore oxygen is available for consumption and the waters have a higher rate of oxygen utilization thus accounting for the increased BOD. FIGURE 2. This figure shows the relationship of tot al coliform counts per 100ml sample with (a) DO as measured in percent saturation in the Quebrad a M quina, (b) DO as measured in percent saturation in the Quebrada Cambronero, (c) the aver age BOD in ppm at the Quebrada M quina, and (d) the average BOD in ppm at the Quebrada Camb ronero. Notice that only the highest and lowest altitudes of samples are included.
FIGURE 3. Nitrates (a), dissolved oxygen (b) and tu rbidity (c), three parameters that show extreme changes at the second sampling site on the Quebrada Cambronero, which is located following water input from the Productors de Montev erde hog farm at ~1180m (green arrow). The Quebrada M quina is used as a reference for the effects of ano ther well known site of water input from the main road which intersects at ~1400m (red arrow); this input has little or no effect on these three parameters. The Quebrada Rodriguez i s a river that has no large points of intersection but has many smaller inputs deriving f rom its path through the town of Santa Elena, Costa Rica. These three parameters also show some r ecovery on the Quebrada Cambronero following a large altitudinal descent before the lo west elevation sampling site.
APPENDIX APPENDIX 1. Data on physical and biological paramet ers of water quality at three streams (Rodriguez, R; Mquina, M; and Cambronero, C), at t hree elevations (A, B, and C). Appendix 1 RA RB RC MA MB MC CA CB CC Altitude (m) 1350 1200 1125 1425 1100 1000 1200 1100 900 DO (%Sat) 60 68 68 80 80 93 80 49 90 Coliform (Colonies/100ml) X X X 917 X 770 1352 X 1058 pH 6.7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 BOD(mg/l) 1.07 3.5 3.46 7.08 6.79 7.89 3.72 3.22 7.63 Nitrates(mg/l) 1.1 1.65 1.54 1.32 1.43 1.32 1.87 4 .18 1.87 Turbidity (NTU) 15 20 X 0 5 5 5 15 20 Total Solids (mg/l) 980 960 700 1320 2380 720 900 1020 1400 Depth (m) 0.15 0.5 0.46 0.07 0.33 0.37 0.6 0.23 0.45 Temperature (C) 18 18 18 16 17 17 21 21 20 Velocity (m/s) 0.323 0.139 0.370 0.204 0.263 0.303 0.250 0.227 0.385 Appendix 2. The Q values and their appropriate weig hts to assign a WQI value. RA Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (%Sat) 58 0.17 9.86 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 0.16 0 3. pH 68 0.11 7.48 4. BOD(mg/l) 95 0.11 10.45 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10 7. Nitrates(mg/l) 94 0.1 9.4 8. Turbidity (NTU) 68 0.08 5.44 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 RB Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (% Sat) 75 0.17 12.75 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 0.16 0 3. pH 69 0.11 7.59 4. BOD(mg/l) 63 0.11 6.93 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10 7. Nitrates(mg/l) 91 0.1 9.1 8. Turbidity (NTU) 61 0.08 4.88
r 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 RC Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (% Sat) 75 0.17 12.75 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 0.16 0 3. pH 69 0.11 7.59 4. BOD(mg/l) 63 0.11 6.93 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10 7. Nitrates(mg/l) 92 0.1 9.2 8. Turbidity (NTU) 0.08 0 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 MA Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (%Sat) 88 0.17 14.96 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 22 0.16 3.5 2 3. pH 28 0.11 3.08 4. BOD(mg/l) 48 0.11 5.28 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10 7. Nitrates(mg/l) 93 0.1 9.3 8. Turbidity (NTU) 98 0.08 7.84 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 64.68 MB Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (% Sat) 88 0.17 14.96 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 0.16 0 3. pH 28 0.11 3.08 4. BOD(mg/l) 48 0.11 5.28 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10 7. Nitrates(mg/l) 92 0.1 9.2 8. Turbidity (NTU) 85 0.08 6.8 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 MC Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (% Sat) 96 0.17 16.32 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 26 0.16 4.1 6 3. pH 28 0.11 3.08 4. BOD(mg/l) 43 0.11 4.73 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10
7. Nitrates(mg/l) 93 0.1 9.3 8. Turbidity (NTU) 85 0.08 6.8 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 65.09 CA Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (%Sat) 88 0.17 14.96 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 20 0.16 3.2 3. pH 28 0.11 3.08 4. BOD(mg/l) 60 0.11 6.6 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10 7. Nitrates(mg/l) 90 0.1 9 8. Turbidity (NTU) 85 0.08 6.8 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 64.34 CB Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (% Sat) 40 0.17 6.8 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 0.16 3. pH 28 0.11 4. BOD(mg/l) 67 0.11 7.37 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10 7. Nitrates(mg/l) 69 0.1 6.9 8. Turbidity (NTU) 68 0.08 5.44 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 47.21 CC Q Value Weighting Factor Total 1. DO (% Sat) 95 0.17 16.15 2. Fecal Coliform (colonies/100ml) 21 0.16 3.3 6 3. pH 28 0.11 3.08 4. BOD(mg/l) 43 0.11 4.73 5. Temperature ( o C) 93 0.1 9.3 6. Total Phosphate(mg/l) 100 0.1 10 7. Nitrates(mg/l) 90 0.1 9 8. Turbidity (NTU) 62 0.08 4.96 9. Total Solids (mg/l) 20 0.07 1.4 61.98