Eciton burchell i i : Polymorphism of Submajor Caste and Foraging E fficiency Samantha Alger Department of Biology University of Rhode Island ABSTRACT Due to the link between efficiency and fitness, there should be selective pressure for morphology and behavior that promotes foraging efficiency. Among social insects, selective pressures act on individuals shaping the physical castes of a colony. The highly polymorphic army ant, Eciton burchelli i has castes with morphological adaptations to allow task specialization This study investigates what selective pressures are acting to shape the polymorphism of the submajor caste in E. burchell i i Ants were collected to find a relation ship between ant caste and the prey's biomass, width, and length Results show that prey width is the greatest pressure e ffecting transportation efficiency and in turn, shaping the evolution of the specialized porter caste ( i.e., submajor ) Results also indicate that of all the castes, submajors are found to be the most morphologically different and the y carry the most different sized prey. Possible explanations to Eciton 's physically exaggerated sub major caste include the ir outstanding need of transport efficiency and unique prey preferences. RESUMEN Debido a la union entre eficiencia y exito reproductive, debe haber una presiÂ—n selectiva por comportamiento y morfologÂ’a que promueve la eficiencia en el forrjeo. Entre insectos sociales, las presiones selectivas actÂœan en individuos dando origen a difer entes castas en la colonia. La altamente polimÂ—rfica hormiga arriera, Eciton burchelli posee castas con adaptaciones morfolÂ—gicas que permiten estas especializaciones. Este estudio investiga que presiones selectivas actÂœan moldeando el polimorfismo de l a casta submayor. Hormigas fueron colectadas para encontrar una relaciÂ—n entre la casta y la biomasa de la presa, ancho y largo. Los resultados muestran que el ancho de la presa es el mayor factor que ejerce una presiÂ—n selectiva en la eficiencia de tran sporte, por lo tanto, moldeando la evoluciÂ—n de la casta. Los resultados tambiÂŽn indican que todas las castas, submayores parecen ser las mÂ‡s diferentes morfolÂ—gicamente y estas cargan presas de diversos tamaÂ–os. Posibles explicaciones para las castas ex ageradas de Eciton incluyen una necesidad sobresaliente de transporte y preferencia Âœnica de presas. INTRODUCTION Fitness is increased when an animal maximizes foraging efficiency, which generally correlates to a faster handling time (Orians & Pearson 1 979 ; Krebs & Davies 1993). For social insects like army ants, g reater foraging efficiency indicates an increase in colony growth rate, and a greater fitness of all members of a colony (Franks 1985 a ). Due to this relationship between efficiency and fitness, there should be selective pressure for morphology and behavior th at promotes foraging efficiency. !"#$%&$'%($")*%+"),*$)-.#(-/*%)0*.-1.#$%&&2*%)(-/*3%-*%&&"4.0*5"6*(3.$6*$)#6.0$7&.*.#"&",$#%&* -8##. -* (Gotwald 1995 ; Powell & Franks 2005 ). *93.$6*-8##.--*$-*.:16.--.0*$)*(3.*5%#(*(3%(* 43$&.*%)(-*%)0*(.6+$(.-*+%;.*81*")&2*<=*"5*(3.*.%6(3>-*?@@/@@@*;)"4)*$)-.#(*-1.#$.-/*(3.2*
#")-($(8(.*5"6*+"6.*(3%)*3%&5*"5*(3.*$)-.#(*7$"+%--*AB$&-")*C*D"70"7&.6*<@@EFG**H )* %-1.#(* "5*$)-.#(*-"#$%&$(2*%&&"4$), *5"6*(3$-*-8##.--*$-*#%-(.*-2-(.+-G* The creation of worker castes is driven by the increasing efficiency of division of labor in a colony (Oster & Wilson 1978). This efficiency comes with -1.#$%&$'.0*4"6;*5"6#.-*4$(3* (% -; I 0.1.)0.)(* %0%1(%($")-G *93.-.* %0%1(%($")-*#%)*7.*.:16.--.0*%-*+"613"&",$#%&*0$55.6.)#.-*%+"),*#%-(.G A rmy ants a highly specialized group, have castes that are behaviorally as well as morphologically separated (Harvell 1994) While it is clear that these morphological and behavioral differences create efficiency among castes, the ecological pressures causing these differences are not yet clear. The circumstances needed for the evolution of specialized castes presents a key issu e in the understanding of social species. Eciton buchellii a well studied army ant species, has behavioral characteristics that may have great selective pressure on maximizing transportation efficiency. The ir aboveground life style puts them more at risk to kleptoparasites during prey retrieval than any other species of New World army ants which typically spend life partly or exclusively subterranean ( Rettenmeyer 1963; Powell & Franks 2005). Th is vulnerability may play a role in the fast tempo of E burchellii (Rettenmeyer 1963) Lower transportation costs benefit E burchellii by helping them to avoid kleptoparasitism. In addition, their strict raid migration schedule dependent on larval development brings further time limitations on foraging time (Franks et al. 1999) E citon burchellii caste evolution may be partly driven by this need to maximize foraging and transportation efficiency. Morphology varies greatly among the workers of E. burchellii ; corresponding to different behavioral role s, or castes, within the colony (Powell & Franks 2005, Franks 2005, Franks 1985b). A morphologically exaggerated submajor caste exists in E. burchellii This caste is more distin ct and exaggerated in E. burchellii than in any other army ant species known to have this caste (Powell & Franks 2005). Submajors are the second largest caste next to majors ( i.e., soldiers) and have disproportionately large legs, head, and grasping mandib les (Franks 1985 b Powell & Franks 2005 ). These characteristics make submajors better porters of prey ( Franks 1985b; Gotwald 1995; Franks et al. 1999; Powell & Franks 2005 ). Because their legs are the longest in proportion to body size of all E. burchellii workers they can run the fast est when not burdened with prey (Franks 1985 a ). This characteristic allows them to improve transport efficiency by returning to the raid quickly after depositing food within the bivouac (Franks 1985) Due to the large size o f submajors, and because unit transportation costs decrease with increasing worker size, they are able to carry heavier and larger prey items in relation to their body weight than any other caste (Franks 1985 a ). Based on this species' overpowering need for efficient transport, the morphological characteristics of E. burchellii submajors and their resulting specialty in carrying prey, it would appear that food transport is the ecological pressure causing the evolution of this caste. JKLMNO P G*H66"4-*6.16.-.)(*3.%0*4$0(3*+.%-86.+.)(G
In this study I explore prey transportation efficiency as an e volutionary pressure o n E. burchellii submajor evolution I plan to invest igate the roles and importance of 1) prey biomass 2 ) prey width and 3) prey length o n E. burchellii I predict that prey biomass is driv ing the selection for the production o f the submajor caste. Therefore, prey biomass will be the best indicator of caste differentiation in E. burchellii. METHODS T he stu dy was conducted in San Luis, Costa Rica on the trails of the University of Ge o rgia Ecolodge All specimens were collected along the Camino Real trail and closely surrounding forest Data collection occur red during afternoons from 13 April 2009 to 6 May 2009 Because all colonies studied were in the nomadic phase, where they were moving t heir colony every night to a new location, it is difficult to determine the exact number studied. A probable estimation is 3 6 different colonies. For each data collection period I spent 2 3 hours collecting both individual s and groups of ants traveling with prey items along the column back to the bivouac. I concentrated my efforts on a 1 2 meter portion of the column and collected ants as they passed. Every 30 minutes, I did a 5 minute collection of individuals not carrying ant prey items along a one me ter portion of the column to determine caste distribution i n E. burchellii colonies I placed all specimens into 70% alcohol vials or bags Before all calculations, specimens were briefly dried with a paper towel. I measured each individual's head width wi th a cali per and placed it into castes (N = 664). Head width was measur ed between the eyes (Fig. 1) and cas te was determined using Franks' definition of caste distinctions by head width ( Franks 1985a ) I weighed individuals and groups of porters with a sc ale to the nearest 0.001 mg (N =174). The prey the porters had in tow was also weighed in the same m anner (N =174). The maximum length and width of each prey item was measured with a caliper (N =236). Relationships between prey measurements and caste were analyzed using one way ANOVA Differences between pairs of means were determined us i ng a Tukey post hoc test. RESULTS A trend of all head widths of all ants measured shows a greater morphological differen c e in submajors when compared to the rest of the castes KLMNO*< "# D.%0*4$0(3*0$-(6$78($") G *Q$-($)#($")-*"5*#%-(. 0* $)0$R$08%&-*%6.*76%#;.(.0*PF*+$)"6*
(minors and medias) (Fi g 2) Submajors carried the most different prey based on width (ANOVA, F ratio= 11.3661, P < 0 001, d f = 235 ; Fig. 3). Submajors carried the most different prey based on prey length (ANOVA, F = 6.8147, P = 0 0 013, df = 235 ; Fig. 4 ) and on prey biomass (ANOVA, F ratio= 3.2813, P = 0 .04, df = 173 ; Fig. 5). Overall submajors carried the widest, longest, and heaviest prey items (Figs. 3, 4, and 5). DISC USSION # In comparing the head width distributions of all ants measured, I found that submajors appear to be the most morphologically different from other worker castes (Fig. 2 ). A clear distinction is apparent between submajor headwidth and the headwidths of the other two castes The distribution of the headwidths for media an d minor are less distinguishable from each other and a smooth gradient exists. This difference in morphology shows submajors may be specialized for a specific task within the colony, a behaivoral role which medias and minors do not need to accomplish. In constrast to my pr ediction I found that prey biomass does not play the greatest role in predicting caste d etermination In fact, I found that prey width best deter mines the caste of its carriers while p rey length is the second best determinant and p rey biomass is the last. For all three analysis, I found tha t submajors carried more varied prey than media and minor castes Among the three castes observed and measured carrying prey, submajors are the most JKLMNO*SG # 93.* +.%)*16.2*4$0(3*#%66$.0*72*.%#3*#%-(.G* U.((.6-*0.-$,)%(.*0$55.6.)(*+.%)-*#%-(.-G # JKLMNO*VG # 93.*+.%)*16.2*&.),(3*#%66$.0*72*.%#3*#%-(.G* U.((.6-*0.-$,)%(.*0$55.6.)(*#%-(.*+.%)# JKLMNO*EG # 93.*+.%)*16.2*7$"+%--*#%66$.0*72*.%#3* #%-(.G*U.((.6-*0.-$,)%(.*0$55.6.)(*#%-(.*+.%)-G #
morphologically different and carry the most different sized prey. T he morphological differences of submajors makes them better suited for wider prey In comparison to minors and medias, submajors have the longest legs, largest head and largest mandibles. Like all other army ants, E. burchellii individuals carry prey items slung bene ath their bodies (Franks 1985b) T his load transport method is mechically efficient and adheres to E burchellii 's time limited lifestyle (Powell & Franks 2005). The submajor caste of E. burchellii 's i s adapted to transport awkward prey loads : their longer legs increase ground clearance, while their large head and mandibles allow for a more powerful grip to hold the load well above the substrate (Paul 2001). The inefficiencies of under body prey transport is typically noted with wider prey, no t necessarily longer prey. Long legs may make carrying wider prey more efficient, where this morphological variation may not change the efficiency of carrying long prey items. Long prey can be tackled by groups of ants forming a line and carrying the item in tandum. Accordingly, m y results indicate that prey width is more of a pressure on caste differentiation. If all army ants carry prey slung below their bodies, what ecological pressures are at work that make E. burchellii 's submajor caste more exaggerat ed than other army ant species ? Possibly, their diet preference appear s to be a factor. E citon burchellii 's diet is composed of approxi mat e ly 50% social insect larvae and 50% large arthr opods (Franks 1983). These large arthropod prey sources are captured and then dismembered into a multitude of different sized portions E citon burchellii is the only Eciton that is not a specialist on social insect larvae as prey (Powell & Franks 2005). T he submajor caste has evolved as a specializ ed caste for awkward prey loads which typically differ greatly in width. Contrasting c aste composition and diet of other species such as E. mexicanum proves this assertion. This species lacks a submajor caste and specializes on monomorphic poneroid ant lar vae as prey (Rettenmeyer et al. 1983) I f E. burchellii had maintained a stri ct larvae only diet, transport ation efficiency would be greater and submajors may not have evolved (Powell & Franks 2005). Well known theories of evolution explain how morphological characteristics often develop through ecological pressures and niche partitioning. However, little is known about the pressures that act to develop castes within social species. My results strongly sugg est that prey size, in particular width, is the driving force behind the evolution of E. burchellii 's submajor caste. The special ization of the submajor caste in porting awkward loads may explain these results. In investigating the pressures that act on ca ste evolution, my results attribute to the overall understanding of social insects and their evolutionary history. Future studies could delve deeper into the selective forces acting on the submajor and other castes. Due to submajor's extreme efficiency, one may expect to find greater numbers in caste distribution analysis. Future studies may want to focus on other selective forces for the submajor caste and attempt to find an answer to their relatively small proportion s In addition, measuring the velocity of carrying ants with prey in tote would offer a better explanation as to the efficiencies of different castes and may offer insight to the specialties of other castes.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to most gratefully t h ank Anjali Kumar for her expertise and support through discussion, careful guidance and answering my endless questions I also wish to thank Yi men Ar aya for his helpful discussions on this project and generous statistical assistance. The photos of ant sp ecimen and procedure would not have be en possible without the help of Luke Manlove. In addition, I wou ld also like to thank S cott Kos iba for his field and lab support. This project would not have been possible without Fabricio a nd the University of Georgia 's E colodge facilities. I would like to thank the EstaciÂ—n BiolÂ—gica de Monteverde for much needed supplies. Lastly, I most importantly would like to thank my parents, Edward and Jacqueline Alger. If not for their funding, I woul d not have had the opportunity to pursue this project. LITERATURE CITED J NHWX! / WG NG 1 983. Ecology and Population regulation in the arm y ant Eciton burchelli. In E.G. Leigh, A. S. Rand and D. M. Wind sor ( Ed s .) The ecology of a tropical forest: seasonal rhythms and long term changes pp. 389 395. Oxford University Press F RANKS N.R. 1985 a Reproduction, foraging efficiency and worker polymorphism in army ants. I n B. Holldobler and M. Lindauer (Ed s .). Experimental Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology pp. 9 107. G. Fi s cher Verlag, Stuttgart. F RANKS N.R. 1985 b Teams in social insects: groups retrieval of prey by army a nts ( Echiton burchelli Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Behaivoral Ecology and Sociobiology 18: 425 426. F RANKS N. R., A.B. S ENDOVA F RANKS J. S IMMONS AND M. M OGIE 1999 Convergent e volution s uperefficient t eams and t empo in o ld and n ew w orld a rmy a nts. Proceedings: Biological Scie n ces 266: 1697 1 701. L Y 9 BHUQ / BG DG *P??EG*H6+2*H)(-Z*93.*[$"&",2*"5*!"#$%&*\6.0%($")G*]"6).&&*M)$R.6-$(2*\6.--/*K (3%# %/ W^G* D HN_OUU / QG ]G *P??VG*93.* R"&8($")*"5* 1 "&2+"613$-+*$)* # "&")$%&* $ )R.6(.76%(.-*%)0* "#$%&* $ ) -.#(G*93.*`8%6(.6&2* N.R$.4*"5*[$"&",2 G *a?Z*PEE I PbEG K REBS J. R. AND N. B. D AVIES 1993. An Introduction to Behavioral Ecology. Bla ckwell Science Ltd, Osney Mead, Oxford. Y NKHW! / LG DG/ *HWQ* WG OG \ OHN!YW G*P?c? G*Y)*(3.*(3."62*"5*#.)(6%&*1&%#.*5"6%,$),G* !" *QG *d G*D"6)/*LG NG*!(%$6-/*%)0*NG QG*e$(#3.&&*AO 0 GFG* H)%&2-$-*"5*O#"&",$#%&*!2-(.+-/ Y3$"*!(%(.*M)$R.6-$(2*\6.--/*]"& 8 + 78-G O STER G. F. AND E. O.W ILSO N 1978. Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University Press. \ YBOUU / !G/ * HWQ* WG NG J NHWX! G <@@EG ]%-(.* R"&8($")*%)0* #"&",2Z* % 1.#$%&* 4 "6;.6*5"6* ) "R.&* 1 6.2 G \6"#..0$), -Z [$"&",$#%&*!#$. ) #.G
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
leader 00000nas 2200000Ka 4500
controlfield tag 008 000000c19749999pautr p s 0 0eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a M39-00115
Eciton burchelli: polimorfismo de las principales sub-castas y la eficiencia de forrajeos
Eciton burchellii: polymorphism of submajor caste and foraging efficiency
Due to the link between efficiency and fitness, there should be selective pressure for morphology and behavior that promotes foraging efficiency. Among social insects, selective pressures act on individuals, shaping the physical castes of a colony. The highly polymorphic army ant, Eciton burchellii, has castes with morphological adaptations to allow task specialization. This study investigates what selective pressures are acting to shape the polymorphism of the submajor caste in E. burchellii. Ants were collected to find a relationship between ant caste and the preys biomass, width, and length. Results show that prey width is the greatest pressure effecting transportation efficiency, and in turn, shaping the evolution of the specialized porter caste (i.e., submajor). Results also indicate that of all the castes, submajors are found to be the most morphologically different and they carry the most different sized prey.
Possible explanations to Ecitons physically exaggerated submajor caste include their outstanding need of transport efficiency and unique prey preferences.
Este estudio investiga que presiones selectivas actan moldeando el polimorfismo de la casta submayor en E. burchelli. Las hormigas fueron colectadas para encontrar una relacin entre la casta, la biomasa, la anchura y la longitud de la presa.
Text in English.
Tropical Ecology 2009
Ecologa Tropical 2009
Castas de hormigas
t Monteverde Institute : Tropical Ecology