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Integration of art and environmental education: the Centro de Educación Creativa in Monteverde, Costa Rica

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Title:
Integration of art and environmental education: the Centro de Educación Creativa in Monteverde, Costa Rica
Translated Title:
La integración del arte y la educación ambiental: el Centro de Educación Creativa en Monteverde, Costa Rica ( )
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Harried, Veronica
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Environmental education--Activity programs   ( lcsh )
Art--Study and teaching--Activity programs   ( lcsh )
Educación ambiental--Programas de actividades
Arte--Estudio y enseñanza--Programas de actividades
Tropical Ecology 2006
Ecología Tropical 2006
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Reports   ( lcsh )
Reports

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Abstract:
Population growth and deforestation are negatively affecting biodiversity in the Tropics, necessitating environmental education for local populations. Arts education increases the ability to comprehend complex information, enhance creativity and provide problem solving skills (Longley 1999, Siegesmund 1998). Together, environmental education and Arts education can enhance ecological processes and conservation themes in students’ minds so they are retained well into their adulthood. This increases the likelihood that these individuals will make environmentally informed decisions throughout their lives (Gurevitz 2000). In this project, I incorporate current Arts curriculum guidelines from the United States into the Costa Rican environmental curriculum used at the Centro de Educatión Creativa in Monteverde, Costa Rica. I create sample activities incorporating visual arts, music and theater into each of 12 curriculum themes. Evaluations by Amy Cherwin, the Curriculum Director at the CEC, and the first and second grade teachers there suggested the updated curriculum guidelines I extended were both useful and relevant to their classroom activities. According to evaluations, the sample activities I created were generally easy to understand and useful.
Abstract:
El crecimiento demográfico y la deforestación afectan negativamente a la biodiversidad en los trópicos, por lo que se necesitan programas de educación ambiental para las poblaciones locales. La educación de las artes aumenta la habilidad de comprender la información compleja, aumenta la creatividad y proporciona habilidades en la resolución de problemas (Longley 1999, Siegesmund 1998). La educación ambiental en conjunto con la de las Artes puede aumentar los temas ecológicos y los temas de conservación en la mente de los estudiantes para que sea retenido a lo largo de su edad adulta. Esto aumenta la probabilidad de que estas personas estén informadas para que tomen decisiones ambientales durante toda su vida (Gurevitz 2000). En este proyecto, yo he incorporado las pautas actuales del plan de Artes de los Estados Unidos al plan de estudios ambientales de Costa Rica utilizándolos en el Centro de Educacion Creativa en Monteverde, Costa Rica.
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Text in English.
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Integration of art and environmental education: the Centro de Educacin Creativa in Monteverde, Costa Rica Veronica Harried Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison Abstract Population growth and deforestation are negatively affecting biodiversity in the Tropics, necessitating environmental education for local populations. Arts education increases the ability to comprehend complex information, enhance creativity and provide problem solving skills (Longley 1999, Siegesmund 1998). Together, environmental education and Arts education can enhance ecological processes and conservation themes in students minds so they are retained well into their adulthood. This increases th e likelihood that these individuals will make environmentally informed decisions throughout their lives (Gurevitz 2000). In this project, I incorporate current Arts curriculum guidelines from the United States into the Costa Rican environmental curriculum used at the Centro de Educatin Creativa in Monteverde, Costa Rica. I create sample activi ties incorporating visual arts, music and theater into each of 12 curriculum themes. Evaluations by Amy Cherwin, the Curriculum Director at the CEC, and the first and second grade teachers there suggested the updated curriculum guidelines I extended were both useful and relevant to their classroom activities. According to evaluations, th e sample activities I created were generally easy to understand and useful. Resumen El crecimiento demogrfico y la deforestacin afectan nega tivamente la biodiversidad en los Trpicos, por lo que necesitan programas de educacin ambiental para poblaciones locales. La educacin de artes aumenta la habilidad de comprender informacin compleja, aumenta la creatividad y proporciona habilidades en la resolucin de problema (Longley 1999, Siegesmund 1998). La educacin ambiental junto con la de Artes pueden aumentar los temas ecolgicos de procesos y conservacin en mentes de estudiantes para que estas sean retenidos bien cuando lleguena adulta. Esto aumenta la probabilidad de que estos individuos hagan decisiones ambientadamente informadas a travs de su vivencia (Gurevitz 2000. En este proyecto, yo he incorporado las pautas actuales del plan de Artes de los Estados Unidos en la educacin am biental costarricense al Ce ntro de Educacin Creativa Monteverde, Costa Rica. He creado las actividades de la muestra que incorporan las artes visuales, la msica y el teatro en cada uno de 12 temas del plan. Las evaluaciones por Amy Cherwin, el Director a del Plan en el CEC, y los primeros y segundos maestros del grado all sugirieron que las pautas actualizadas del plan que se extenda fueron ambas tiles y pertinentes a sus actividades de aula. Se gn evaluaciones, las actividades de la muestra que cree fueron generalmente fciles de entender y tiles. Introduction The need for environmental education in schools is evident in light of the global impact of humans on the planet (Vitousek et al. 1997). The resulting loss of biodiversity, decreased water quality and availability, and excessive land use practices, especially in the tropics, portend a bleak future (Foley et al. 2005) ; one that can only be avoide d by changing long-standing human behavior. Many conserva tionists believe such ch ange will require a mu ltitude of strategies, including effective environmental education. This is true in bo th industrialized countries, the largest contributors of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and in developing countries, like tropical areas where deforestati on and population growth threaten biodiversity (Vitousek et al. 1997, Hopkins 2004). 1

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Environmental education programs in tropical communities have the opportunity to make a significant positive impact. Providing a comprehensive and practical biological and environmental education program will help ensure that students in tropical communities have basic knowledge of ecological issues and et hics as a foundation for making ecologically conscious decisions throughout life (Bishop 2002). Environmental programs encourage students to feel a strong connection to their local enviro nments and communities (Pfirman et al. 2005). The question then becomes, how can local educators incorporate environmental education into their curriculum in a manner that will engage students and encourage them to make environmentally sustainable decisions in the future? I propose that using fine arts, including music, theater and visu al arts, as learning tools to convey environmenta l concepts is more effective than traditional methods in de livering environmental knowledge while stimulating students to use their creativity, imagination, comm unication skills, and a variety of other relevant social skills that will be useful in the future. The fine arts provide a context through which students can learn a variety of skills. In one study, employing various arts ac tivities to examine effectiven ess of arts education, it was discovered that art helps individu als use their sensory skills, refl ective thought and contemplative skills to extend awarenes s to their surroundings (Adams 1991, in Gurevitz 2000). Art allows people to express emotions and thoughts that are otherwise inexpressible (North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2000). When students learn to express themselves through art, they are learning to express complex ideas in a variety of ways, and to use creativity and innovati on (Longley 1999). Many philosophers believe the main purpos e of art is to simply preserve the imaginative life of the child and to encourage free expr ession. These philosophers believe emotional expression is an essential refuge from the complex cognitive concerns people are faced with in their daily lives. Children who have the ability to express their em otions will gain free dom and flexibility, and will thus be able to address new problems with ease (Siegesmund 1998). Conservation and ecological problems often require creative and flexible problem solving to accomplish change, thus using Arts will prepare individual s to work through complicated and complex environmental problems. Arts convey meaning about the factual inform ation we observe about the world around us (Fowler 1989). The arts are based on observations of the world around us, thus allowing individuals to know and understand the world and be able to extr act themes and concepts from reality (Siegesmund 1998). According to research done by the San Fr ancisco Art Commission (1996), most schools justify their Arts education program by acknow ledging the importance of personal expression and creativity, as well as multicultural learning and development of critical thinking. The most common justification was to use art in stre ngthening education in other subject areas (in Siegesmund 1998). When examining how Arts education and envi ronmental education can work together to form better understanding of the natural environm ent, we must first look at how individuals learn. According to the domina nt model for creating environm ental education, there are two types of learning, scientific/cognitive and emoti onal/experiential learning (Finger 1994, Gurevitz 2000). Scientific knowledge focuses on ecological processes and has been the dominant basis for environmental education in the past. Howe ver, recent studies have begun to examine how solely knowledge based education raises awarene ss of ecological issues, but may not affect the deeper value based learning which drives indivi duals to alter their be havior (Gurevitz 2000). 2

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Conventional methods of learning in nonintegrate d disciplines have lost its dominance, and knowledge is now considered an integrated sy stem, relying both on scientific knowledge and experiences with the body and mind (Marshall 2005). According to research based on the role of Drama in environmental education, theatrical lessons were particularly str ong in teaching sympathy and empa thy, which make students aware of how others might feel, and what life would be like in someone elses shoes (McNaughton 2004). These emotions have been found to create relationships between individuals and their environments, thus increasing the retention of environmental knowle dge and experiences (Palmer 1993, in Gurevitz 2000). Communication, collaboration and the ability to express emotions were also strong as a result of usi ng drama in environmental education. Students improved their ability to cooperate in work ing through environmental problem solving and becoming active and conscious citizens (McNaughton 2004). Currently, educators and philosophers believ e that effective environmental education must include both scientific/cognitive and emotional/experiential learning. Most environmentally concerned adults recall emoti onal responses to their surroundings, such as memories of certain landscapes and environmen tal experiences, more than the scientific knowledge gained while they were childre n (Gurevitz 2000). True learning requires understanding, and understanding can only be gained when one not only learns the facts but also comprehends how they relate together and how they relate to the world around us (Bransford et al. 2000, in Marshall 2005). Effective approaches to environmental e ducation in schools re volve around creating relationships between students and the natural world. This is ofte n aesthetically based, using the natural world as a resource for creativity and imagination, while simultaneously building this influential relationships (Cobb 1997, in Gurevitz 2000). Environmental education attempts to create awareness of global and local environmental concerns, in cluding ecologica l relationships, cause: effect, humans place in natu re, and more. As Arts can create a way to express emotions and observe meaningful concepts in nature a nd life, they provide a medium for enhancing environmental education, and concreting the mora ls and skills needed to create conscious and sympathetic individuals in the future (Gurevitz 2000). This project was designed to accomplish four main goals. 1. To facilitate the effort of the Centro de Educatin Creativa in Monteverde, Costa Rica by integrating the Arts into their environmental education curriculum. To do this I create an easily understandable and updated list of current art standards. 2. I created a sample of an integrated arts curriculum for the first and second grade level, including the main curricular objectives and examples of activities in each of three concentrations: visual ar ts, music and theater. 3. I recorded my methodology clearly and concisely so they are easy to follow, facilitating further arts curriculum integration for the other grade levels at the school. 4. Most importantly, I set out to discover th e success of integrating Arts and environmental education as an effective method for retaining ecological information. Materials and Methods Study Site The Centro de Educatin Creativa in Montever de, Costa Rica was chosen both for the schools curricula emphasis on environmen tal education and for the cons ervation oriented nature of Monteverdes culture and economy. Monteverde is located with in one of the worlds most threatened ecosystems, a tropical montane Cloud Forest. The average deforestation rate in 3

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tropical mountains is 1.1%, exceeding the averag e loss of all tropical forests by 0.3% annually (Nadkarni and Wheelwright 2000). The Monteverde landscape is covered with high regional biodiversity condensed into a small area with high ly varied elevations. Monteverdes vascular plants count for about a third of those in all of Costa Rica. As a result, conservation in an area such as Monteverde is very relevant to the surviv al of this unique but highly threatened system. In total, the Monteverde Reserve Complex of private reserves comprises approximately 29,000 ha. of land in the Monteverde area. Protecting these private reserves relies heavily on the support of Monteverdes local residents. They play a key role in protecting these areas from poaching, squatting and various othe r illegal activities, in addition to creating organizations that help meet conservation needs. Biologists who have spent years in Monteverde studying its highly diverse ecosystems have received a great deal of community support via access to private land and being welcomed into the community (Nadkarni and Wheelwright 2000). Maintaining this community support for cons ervation is critical for the future of the Monteverde cloud forests. The Centro de Educatin Creativa in Montever de began with similar conservation goals in mind. Their vision is to help create a sustainable future for Monteverde through education, and to encourage individuals to love, respect and protect each other and the local environment. The school is working towards providing students w ith the knowledge, skills and values to make ecologically aware and well-rounded decisions. Specifically, th ey have designed a curriculum to incorporate environmental education in every way possible. Demogra phically, the school is comprised of 90% of local Costa Ricans and 10% other community members, and they encourage people from all backgrounds to partic ipate in the environmental education provided there. The 106 acre campus was bought with donations from the Nature Conservancy, friends and various foundations who are committed to conserva tion. The students receive a highly integrated environmental education with emphasis on direct observation and formal learning. While their emphasis is on environmental education, they are currently looking to inco rporate more art into their weekly lessons. Curriculum Guideline Organization I began by researching the current arts curricul um standards for various individual states in the United States, by looking at up-to-date curriculum guidelines for individual states. Arts curriculum guidelines used in this project were divided into visual arts music and theater. Guidelines from North Carolina, California and Wisconsin formed the basis for my comprehensive list of current Arts curriculum guidelines, because they were organized and articulated the most clearly and had the most co mplete information. Stat e guidelines are divided into content standards with a list of achiev ement goals. Content standards are the primary objectives students need to accomplish by a certain age, and achievement goals are the specific activities children are exp ected to be able to do. I focused on the first and second grade level. To condense the standards, I read curriculum standards from North Carolina and first noted curriculum objectives, followed by the achievement goa ls for the three Arts concentration. Next, I read through the standards from California an d Wisconsin and compared them to the North Carolina standards, filling in any informati on missing from the North Carolina standards and condensing guidelines that were si milar between states. Due to si milarity among the goals, I felt using only three guidelines was more than adequate to create a complete comprehensive list of Arts curriculum guidelines. 4

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Educational standards were condensed into functional groups, creating a concise and representative sample list of Arts curriculum guidelines for each concentration. Functional groups were based on how similar the guideline concepts were. For example, all content standards based on history and culture, or anal ysis and reflection were grouped together. Condensed standards then became the focus of speci fic arts activities. In addition to content standards and achievement goals for each concentration, I also noted overall Arts participation abilities for students at the first and second grade level (California Department of Education 2004). Creating Sample Activities To understand the appropriate learning level fo r the activities, I spoke with Amy Cherwin, the curriculum director of the CEC, and researched sample activities in the Arts for first and second graders. Activities were created based on environmenta l curriculum themes and subject matter used at the school. The schools structure is designed so first and second graders are together in the same classroom. Curriculum for this level is spread out over two years (A and B), each divided into six themes lasting six weeks. Curricula r themes cover both environmental studies and international culture. For each theme in both A and B years, I created one sample activity from each Arts discipline: visual arts, music and theater. In total, 36 sample activities were created. The activities use specific environmental subject matte r from each theme and directly incorporate it as the objective of the activity. Due to the more philosophical and less physically active nature of the content standards, activities were creat ed using the content st andards that focus on physical activities. Content standards that focus on analysis and discussion were then divided up by themes and noted at the beginning of each them es list of activities as objectives to focus on while doing activities. In-class Activities Using Amy Cherwin as a resource to communicat e with the first and second grade teachers, I arranged a time to lead one activity in each cl assroom. I led one theater activity for 75 min., one visual arts activity for 60 min. and one musi c activity for 45 min. (See Appendix 4, Nigeria). Assessment Finally, to assess how easily understandable and accessible my methodology is I created an evaluation form to give to the three first a nd second grade teachers, and to Amy Cherwin (See Appendix 3). Each teacher was given the comp rehensive list of curriculum guidelines for each discipline, the condensed list of guidelines and two sample activities. Questions were asked about the clarity, ease of use and functionality of the suggested activ ities, in addition to how the classroom activity went and how their students responded to it. To complete the analysis, I collated and organized their f eedback (see Table 1). Results Three comprehensive lists of curriculum guidelin es including content standards and achievement goals were created, for visual ar ts, theater and music (Appendix 1) Each list contains a brief description of expected performan ce abilities for children in first and second grades for each Arts discipline. A condensed list of guidelines was cr eated based on the comprehensive list from each 5

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discipline (Appendix 2). A comprehensive list of activities wa s made and organized based on theme number and year. Activities included mate rials, methods and curriculum standards they meet. In addition to each activit y, a list of content standards was given as supplementary subject material to incorporate into lesson plans (Appendix 4 and 5). I taught one lesson plan in visual arts, music and theater to the first and second grade students and observe d the students being very responsive to my activities. In general, by the end of class, students were able to repeat the Arts information I pres ented at the beginning. Teachers responded that they believe arts edu cation is an important part of every childs education and that it is important to understand the reasoning behind it. All of the teachers believed the comprehensive arts curriculum lists were useful and rele vant to making arts activities and that the condensed lists were easier to read. Amy Cherwin responded that the comprehensive list would be more useful while planning activities. Two teachers believed the materials were easy to find in class, and two out of three found the methodology easy to replicate, and one found materials mostly easy to find. All of the teach ers found that students responded well to art activities in their classes, however the amount students retained varied between teachers. One teacher commented that all students learn differently. Two out of three teachers found the material useful and relevant in their classes and one found it to be moderately helpful. One teacher responded that visual aids would have been more helpful. Discussion After examining the evaluations given by the first and second grade teachers and Amy Cherwin it appears my methodology and reso urces for integrating the Arts and environmental education were overall understandable and ea sy to use. Both the comprehensive list of guidelines and the condensed list were easy to understand and intere sting; however, Amy Cherwin wrote that while the condensed list was easier to r ead, it was not as useful. Teachers may prefer looking at a more complete list of guidelines to understand the deve lopment level of students more clearly and to find more lesson plan ideas. Looking at a full list of curriculum guidelin es may clarify exactly what students at that age level s hould be working at and in partic ular, how they should be getting there, as opposed to getting brief suggestions. When asked if students responded well to arts activities and if teachers noticed a difference in how much information was retain ed, all teachers responded that arts activities stimulated their students. One comment was ma de that while the art projects were fun and useful, every student learns differe ntly. Therefore, providing arts as an alternative to other forms of education is useful in providi ng a variety of experien ces so that all students will have the opportunity to learn in th e best way they can. Considering the success of this project, the future of Arts and e nvironmental integration should continue at the CEC. As the majority of teachers responded that students usually respond well to art activities, and the sample activities were relevant to their current environmental curricula, environmental education and the Arts seem to compliment each other very well, and have great potential to increase the ecological consciousness of students throughout their lives. In the end, the goal of this pr oject was to help provide ideas to the Centro de Educatin Creativa, in hopes of encouraging an d facilitating the integration of Arts into their environmental curriculum. Based on the positive responses of the teachers and curriculum director, providing current curriculum guidelines and sample activities ideas was releva nt to their teaching methods and subject matter, as well as clear to understand and useful. The next step in the integration of Arts and environmental education process is to test more sample activities with the first and 6

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second graders at the CEC and then assess how mu ch information is retained through using the activities. Another step is to begin working with environmental material in the next grade levels and begin integrating Arts curriculum guidelines. Acknowledgements Id like to give a big thanks to Alan Masters, my advisor for this project. Thanks for being my soul mate and always knowing exactly what I am laughing at. Thanks to Karen Masters who might as well be my life partner, since I am so much like her husband. I appreciate you giving me a rough time, what doesnt kill you makes you stronger. Thanks to Amy Cherwin at the Centro de Educatin Creativa, for helping me get in touch with the teachers, and guiding me through the planning process. Thanks to Jean, May and Katie, the first and second grade teachers at the CEC, for taking time out of your schedules to have me into your classrooms. I had a great time in your classes! A special thanks to Camryn Pennington and Tom McFarland, for always helping out with the logistical issues, taking a lot of my crap and always laughing at even my bad joke s. Thanks to Aned Sugey Martinez and Michael Chinchilla for lending me instruments for my classroom activities. To flip flops after it rained and the hill going down to Santa Elena, thanks for nothing. Literature Cited Adams, Eileen. Back to ba sics: aesthetic experiences. 1991. Childrens Environments Quarterly 8(2): 19-29. Bishop, David. The American Biology Teacher. 2002. BioOne 64(3): 166-167. Bransford, J., Brown, A., Cocking, R. How peop le learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. 2000. Washington, DC: Commissi on on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, National Academy Press. California Department of Education. 2004. Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve California Department of Education. Sacramento, CA. California State Board of Education. 2001. Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools: Prekin dergarten through Grade Twelve California Department of Education. Sacramento, CA. Cobb, E. The Ecology of Imagination in Child hood. 1977. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Finger, M. From knowledge to action? Exploring the relationships between environmental experiences, learning and be havior. 1994. Journal of Social Issues 50: 141-160. Foley, Jonathan, et al. Global Consequen ces of Land Use. 2005. Science 309: 570-574. Fowler, Charles. Strong Arts, Strong Schools. 1994. Educational Leadership 52(3): 4-9. Fowler, Charles. The Arts Are Essential to E ducation. 1989. Educationa l Leadership 47(3): 6063. Gurevitz, Rachael. Affective Approaches to Environmental Education: Going Beyond the Imagined World of Childhood? 2000. Ethics, Place and Environment 3(3): 253-268. Hopkins, Michael. The Carbon Ga me. 2004. Nature 432: 268-270. Lamb, David, et al. Restorati on of Degraded Tropical Forest Landscapes. 2005. Science 310: 1628-1632. Longley, Laura. Gaining the arts literacy advantage. Educational Leadership. 1999. Alexandria 57(2): 71-74. Marhsall, Julia. Connecting Art, Learning and Creativity: A Case for Cu rriculum Integration. 2005. Studies in Art Ed ucation 46(3): 227-241. 7

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McNaughton, Marie Jeanne. Educational drama in the teaching of education for sustainability. 2004. Environmental Education Research 10(2): 139-156. Nadkarni, Nalini M. and Wheelwright, Nathaniel T. Monteverde: Ecology and Conservation of a Tropical Cloud Forest. 2000. Oxford Univer sity Press. New York and Oxford: 8-9, 39, 50, 372-373. North Carolina Department of Public Instru ction. 2000. North Carolina Arts Education Standard Course of Study and Grade Level Co mpetencies. North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Raleigh, NC. Palmer, J.A. Development of concern for th e environment and formative experiences of educators. 1993. Journal of Envi ronmental Education 24(3): 26-30. Siegesmund, Richard. Why Do We Teach Art Today? Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research 39(3): 197-214. Vitousek, Peter, M., et al. 1997. Human Domina tion of the Earths Ecosystems. Science 277: 494-499. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. 2000. Wisconsins Model Academic Standards for Art and Design Education Wisconsin Department of Pub lic Instruction. Madison, WI. 8

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Tables and Figures Table 1. Evaluation questions asked each first and second grade teacher and Amy Cherwin, and their responses in brief. Questions Katie May Amy Cherwin Additional Comments Do you consider the arts an important part of every childs e ducation? Yes Yes Yes -Makes a more well rounded person -Allows students a chance to shine Is it important for you to understand the reasoning behind arts education? Yes Yes Sometimes -It is important regardless of why -Some art activities should just be for fun Is the complete arts curriculum information relevant and important to you for creating arts lessons plans? Yes Yes Yes -It helps widen the developmental vision of what to work towards, and what students are capable of. Is the simplified version of the arts curriculum standards easier to understand? Yes Yes Yes -Not as helpful as the comprehensive list, just faster Are the materials for each activity easy to access and use in your classroom? Mostly Yes Yes N/A Are the activities useful and relevant in your class? Yes Yes Moderately -Kids love art projects! Is the methodology of each activity straight forward and easy to replicate? Yes Yes Some yes, some no -A picture of the final piece would be helpful Do your students respond well to theater, music and art activities? Do you notice a difference in their retention of the information covered? Yes, retention unknown Yes, higher retention Yes, some retain more, some dont -Everyone has a different level of learning, the idea is to have a variety of ways to do it. What other information is missing here that you would like to have when designing integrated arts activities? N/A None Pictures as examples N/A 9

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Appendix 1. Comprehensive Curriculu m Standards for Visual Arts, Music and Theater. 1.1. Music Art Standards 1st and 2nd Grade 1st Graders: Improve listening skills, accuracy and technique, and understanding musical forms through playing classroom instruments. Singing games from various cultures Use dance and other expression to rela te to music and rhythmic patterns. 2nd Graders: Learn verbal syllables (solfege) Read, write and perform simple pattern of pitch Elementary Level of Music Instruction: *Sing, do rhythmic speech, movement, play p itched and non-pitched percussion, use other instruments *Use vocabulary of musical elements *Talk about how they feel about music Curriculum Standards: 1. Students should sing alone, with others and with a varied repertoire of music. Students should: recognize the difference between speaking and singing voices, and be able to sing simple phrases or songs. match pitch using head tones, alone and w ith other students; begin using appropriate dynamics and phrasing. sing with correct posture, respond to a director and sing in a variety of genres, styles and cultures. 2. Students should play on instruments alone, wi th others and with a varied repertoire of music. Students should: recognize the difference between pi tched and unpitched instruments. play with good technique, posture and rhyt hmic accuracy (by maintaining a steady beat); begin using appropriate dynamics. respond to a director and play a variety of musical styles. begin to play while others sing/play ot her parts (both vocal and instrumental). 3. Students should improvise melodies, variations and accompaniments. Students should: begin to learn and underst and common musical elements such as melody, harmony, rhythm, form, tempo, dynamics, and timbre. improvise simple rhythms and melodies, in accompaniment to others to familiar melodies. 10

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improvise short songs and instrumental pieces using a vari ety of sound sources. 4. Students should compose and arrange music. Students should: select and create music to accompany reading or dramatizations. compose a simple melody using at least three pitches (up to 5 for upper level). compose a simple rhythmic pattern (use qua rter, eight and whole not es, and quarter note rests). 5. Students should read and notate music. Students should: read simple rhythmic notation and melodi c notation; begin studying 2/4 and 3/4 time. recognize and respond to si mple symbols and terms. 6. Students should listen to, analyze and describe music. Students should: identify simple music patterns like AB, ABA and introduction. be able to answer questions about and discuss music, includ ing identification if performers are solo or in a group, male or female. identify a variety of instruments (band, orchestral and classroom) visually and aurally. respond to music through purposeful movement. 7. Students should evaluate music and music performances. Students should: be able to explain reac tions to musical works. develop cognitive abilities by critiquing themselves and others. 8. Students should understand relationships between music, other arts and other disciplines of study. Students should: identify commonalities between music and the other arts. demonstrate responsibility, self -discipline and perseverance while informally or formally participating in music. 9. Students should understand music in relation to history and culture. Students should: identify aural examples of music from various historical pe riods and cultures. identify various used of mu sic, using musical terminology. listen to, read and perform music fr om various cultures and time periods 11

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1.2. Theater Art Standards 1st and 2nd Grade 1st Graders: Use the facial expression, gestures, m ovements used to develop characters. Create scenes using improvisation 2nd Graders: Perform improve in groups Learn theatrical games to improve their skills Learn cooperative skills Learn vocabulary of theater Elementary Level Theater Instruction: *Use techniques such as improvisation, pantomime, story telling, and acting out stories Curriculum standards: 1. Students will begin writing based on personal experiences of heritage, imagination, literature and history. Students should: restate setting, characters and main themes (u sing pictorial, visual and physical aids) and begin teacher-guided playwriting of simple dramas. retell stories through dramatic plays of stories, poems, fairytales, etc., and of community experiences. discuss by comparing and contrast ing the moral of the story. utilize sequence of events through verbal a nd nonverbal communicatio n in simple dramas. 2. Students should act by interacting in improvisations and assuming roles. Student should: dramatize and improvise familiar storie s and learn vocabulary of theater, in addition to taking on a variety of roles. enact a variety of ro les based on personal experiences. express characters, ideas and em otions through gestures movement and voice. role play a variety of real and non-real characters make spontaneous deci sions to support character choices. imitate teacher-guided improvisations. 3. Students should design and produce theater by conceptualizing and realizing artistic interpretations for informal or formal productions. Students should: represent physically the setting for a story, by arranging space and materials, and participate in the artistic choices of the scenery. adjust character movement to include audience focus. acquire basic skills of interacting with others on stage. participate appropriately as an audience member. use simple props, scenery and costumes. 12

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4. Students should direct through planning and presenting informal and formal productions. Students should: learn ways to work cooperatively, such as listening and responding to directions, cooperating in decision making, and sh aring playing space with others. plan, prepare and carryout a production; be both and actor and an audience member (focusing on language, elements and tools of theater. create dialog for retelling a stor y in the studen ts' own words. adapt sounds and movements to objects, animals and people. understand the role of a narrator. 5. Students should research by finding inform ation to support informal or formal productions. Students should: use simple props and costumes, in addition to using movement and vocal levels and ranges to support a character or story. identify characte r traits through verbal and nonverb al communication, and choose vocal expression to demonstrate that character. identify five senses as they rela te to objects, animals and people. 6. Students should compare and integrate art forms by analyzing traditional theater, dance, music visual ar ts and new art forms. Students should: integrate sounds, music, movement and drawing into dramatic play. use puppetry and pantomime. understand that theater presen tations come from various cult ures, and identify them within their own. discuss basic similarities and differences between art forms. build skills to read wi th dramatic expression. 7. Students should analyze, critique, and cons truct meaning from informal and formal theater productions. Students should: observe an environment and derive meaning from it. be able to analyze feelings and thoughts elicited by theatrical experiences, through group discussion. understand characters actio ns have results in a va riety of literary forms. discuss likes and dislik es as audience members. describe characters, setting and even ts seen or portrayed in productions. explain reason behind artistic choice. 8. Students should understand context by analyzin g the role of theater in the past and present. Students should: consider the role of imitation in theater. experience live or recorded performers and discuss the differences between the two. 13

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1.3 Visual Arts Standards 1st and 2nd Grade 1st Graders: Begin work in 2D formats and 3D pi eces of art (using texture and color) Learn elements of art: line, color, shape, te xture (by doing and examining other pieces of art) 2nd Graders: Continue study with basic tools and artmaking processes (collage, print making) Begin to evaluate their own work Elementary Level Visual Arts Education: *Focus instruction on creative process cr eating and then talking about the work *Practice using the visual arts language Content Standards: 1. Students should learn basic visual arts vocabulary and begin working with elements such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Students should: learn to respond to other works of art, various patterns in nature and the environment, and reflect of them using the vocabulary and various techniques to desc ribe these patterns. be able to describe and repl icate simple patterns in nature. begin to distinguish among various types of media. perceive and examine repeti tion and balance in nature. discuss different moods created by warm and c ool colors; create a piece using either warm or cool colors exclusively. identify elements of art, such as line, sh ape and form, in natural settings and their environment. 2. Students in grades one through three learn th at becoming an artists requires viewing and describing art around themselves, and le arn ways to use line, color, shape and texture on paper and in 3D form. They begi n to use visual arts as an extension of human language Students should: Be able to recognize some of the formal qualiti es of visual arts (for example the elements mentioned above) 3. Create original works of art using processe s and skills, combining various media, to express meaning and intent. Students should: use texture in 2D and 3D pieces. be mixing secondary colors from primary co lors; draw or paint a still life using these colors. 14

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Demonstrate beginning skills in the use of scul ptural materials; create representative pieces of things in nature such as an animal or person. plan and use a variety of techniques such as line, shape, form, color, and texture; create pieces using these elements and specifically texture. create pieces based on act ual everyday observations. demonstrate beginning skills of basic tool s and processes (printing, crayon rubbing, stencils, etc). begin using media such as oil pastel s, watercolors, and tempera paints. use bilateral or radial symmetry to create visual balance in a picture. 4. Express feelings about art both orally and written, and examine the purpose of art and how they can apply it to other disciplines. Students should: learn how to apply what they have learned in the visual arts across other art subject areas, for example, compare and contrast various types of folk art, or use songs brought together by visual aids. begin to understand that visu al arts convey mood and emoti on; identify pictures and sort them into categories according to moods, or sele ct and use expressive colors to relate mood in a piece. 5. Derive meaning, asses and analyze their own pi eces and those of others, in relations to techniques and processes of art. Students should: discuss pieces made in the classroom by fo cusing on select elements such as line and shape. identify, describe and discuss various reasons for making art select things they like a nd dislike about their own pieces. compare what has been expresses in their own pieces to what was expressed in others pieces. compare different responses to the same pieces of art. use art vocabulary to express what th ey intended to do in their own pieces. 6. Examine art in a historical and cultural co ntext and note differences between cultures and historical art and current art. Students should: examine everyday objects from other times a nd cultures and decide d what the students have in common with them and how they differ. use art vocabulary to recognize ob jects in pictures and other pieces from other cultures and in history. discuss how art is used in ev ents to celebrate and in other cultures and in history compared to their own traditions. 15

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Appendix 2. Abbreviated Curriculum Standards. Visual Arts Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Basic art vocabulary, work with lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Create pieces combining media, to express meaning and intent Analysis, assessment and comprehension of ar t around the students: view art and how it relates to vocabulary and elements, express fee lings about it, analyze their own and others pieces. View and describe art around them, and how pieces relate to elements and vocabulary Express feelings about art, orally and written, and how it relates to other disciplines. Asses and analyze their own pieces and those of others. Understand and discuss historical and cultural context of art and how it is important. Historical and cultural context, note differences between other times and places. Music Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melo dies and rhythms. Sing alone and in groups Play instruments alone and in groups Improvise melodies and rhythms Compose and arrange music, understand and read musical notations. Compose and arrange music Read and notate music Listen to, evaluate, understand music; analyze and describe music and performers, as well as how it can relate to other art disciplines. Listen to, analyze and describe music Evaluate music and performers Understand relationships between mu sic and others arts and disciplines. Examine the Historical and cultural aspect s of music and their significance. Theater Write scripts and stories based on personal experiences with heritage and culture. Write based on personal experiences, heritage, culture Work cooperatively in productions; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and ho w to incorporate other arts disciplines. Direct shows, work cooperatively to plan and play out productions 16

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Design and produce productions Research shows, such as finding accurate costumes and props, defining characters. Compare and integrate other art forms, su ch as dance, visual arts and music. Assume a variety of roles and act. Act with improve and assuming roles Analyze, critique and understand meaning of thea ter themes and stories, including its role in the past and present. Analyze, critique and derive meaning from themes Past and present role of theater Appendix 3. Evaluation given to te achers, excluding sample activities. I began this project by examining the current st andards for Arts education, by looking at various states guidelines in the United States and joining them together into similar relevant guidelines. After establishing a full list of guidelines for visual arts, music and theater, I then condensed them further into three or four main categories to focus on. The activities I made were based on these guidelines Each activity has a list of materials, the lesson plan and the guidelines they are based off of. Due to the nature of the guidelines, it was very difficult to create activities for the students that would focus on just one, so in addition to the activity, there is a list of more conceptual objectiv es in the complete activities list, to work on while completing ac tivities. These objectiv es are things such as evaluate your work and others work, or how does this discipline rel ate to the other arts curriculum. The goal behind creating these activities is to pr ovide an outline of activities designed in a way that can be easily manipulated to make activities more relevant to current subject matter, while still accomplishing the arts curriculum goals. To complete this evaluation, please look at bo th the full and abbreviated guidelines as well as at the sample visual ar ts activities attached. Thanks for your time! I had a great time learning about the Esquela Creativa and spending time with you and your kids! General Questions. 1. Do you consider the arts an important pa rt of every childs education? Why? 2. When designing activities that include the arts, is it impor tant for you to understand the reasoning behind arts education? 3. Did you find reading over the co mplete arts curriculum informa tion relevant and important to you for creating arts lessons plans? 4. Is the simplified version of the arts cu rriculum standards ea sier to understand? 5. Are the materials for each activity easy to access and use in your classroom? 6. Are the activities useful and relevant in your class? 17

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7. Is the methodology of each activity strai ght forward and easy to replicate? 8. Do you think it is possible to in corporate arts curriculum into e nvironmental education? What makes it difficult? How is it easy to in corporate the arts into your curriculum? 9. What resources do you use wh en developing lesson plans? 10. Do you find your students respond well to thea ter/movement, music and art activities? Do you notice a difference in their retent ion of the information covered? 11. What other information is missing here th at you would like to have when designing integrated arts activities? 12. In what ways are you currently incor porating arts into your course work? Classroom Activity Questions. 1. Did you think the activity presented in class was relevant to your current course of study? 2. What parts did you like best? What parts did you like the least? 3. How could this activity been improved? 4. Do you feel your kids responded well to the activity? 5. Were the materials used easy to find and use around school? Appendix 4. Activities: Year A Theme 1: My Classroom Community Visual Art *For this theme, focus on viewing and descri bing art around the classroom, and on how certain pieces relate to elements of art. Materials: Small squares of cotton material (approx. 10in x 10in). If material isnt available, use pieces of paper. Markers or fabric paint Glue Small buttons, pieces of bark, leaves, etc. Methods: Begin this activity by brainstorming parts of the school comm unity with the entire group. Next, describe a few elements of art to focus on in their piece, such as playing with line thickness, demonstrate the difference between warm and cool colors and tell them to focus on one or the other, demonstrate basic shapes and tell them to use one in their picture. Next, split up the students into small groups, and give each group a part of the community to focus on. Allow each group a few minutes to discuss how they want to represent this portion on their square. Encourage each group to give each member a part to focus on themselves. Give the students time to put their piece together. Allow 15 minutes at the end to put the pieces t ogether. Encourage all of the students to help arrange the pieces. 18

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Finally, spend a few minutes disc ussing what their favorite and le ast favorite parts are, and how it makes them feel about their school. Ask if it was easy to work in groups, and what their individual part was for their square, and finally what art elements they used in their piece. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus music activities on liste ning to, analyzing and describing music. Materials: Photocopies and a recording of the song All Earths Creatures Got a Place in the Choir Methods: Play the song once for the kids. Ha ve the kids look at the words. Play the song again and have the kids sing along. Have the students each make up a verse to the song and share them with the group. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Theater Materials: Props needed for the small skits. These c ould be empty bottles, can or paper recycling. Methods: Divide the students into three groups. Have them create a small skit on how they can explain to someone that recycling is important, include themes such as respect and why it is important to recycle and compost. Perform the skits in front of class. Guidelines: Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out producti ons including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate the other arts disciplines. Assume a verity of roles and act. Theme 2: We are the Same, We are Different Visual Art *For this theme, focus on expressing feelings about art, both orally and written, and how it may relate to other disciplines. Materials: Popsicle sticks (or twigs) Glue Any other materials to make a 3D sculpture. 19

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Methods: Begin this activity by taking the students on a walk around the school grounds. Tell them to choose one place that is significant to them, and choose one or two specific things about that place that are particularly interest ing. Tell the students to pick up little things from their place, such as a fallen leaf, twig, stone, etc. to bring back with them. Back in the classroom, explain that they will be making a sculpture with the things they picked up at their place and with the other materials in the classroom. The sculpture should represent their place, and should include the specific thing they liked about their place and if possible, one thing they can do to care for their place. At the end of the period, allow a few minutes for discussion. First, ask the students to describe one color in their sculpture. Then, what they like and dont like about their pieces. Then ask students to share their favorite pl ace, the thing they liked the most in it, and the way they can care for that place. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus music activities on lis tening to, analyzing and describing music. Materials: Different instruments you that can be found around school. They can be anything from drums to sticks to hit together. If you can find instru ments that are pitched a nd unpitched to compare, that would be ideal. Methods: Give students the chance to play various types of instruments. After they have had the opportunity to try each of them, lead a discussion about how different instruments sound and how different they are. Then talk about how they can sound similar or be used together in similar songs, how the sounds vary when one person is playing versus when many instruments are playing. Another option for this activity is to sing familiar melodies. Have students sing them by themselves or with others. Lead a simila r discussion about how voices can sound different: lower in pitch, higher in pitch, th icker, thinner, what it sounds like when one person is singing versus when lots of pe ople are singing. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Listen to, evaluate, understand music; analyze and describe music and performers, as well as how it can relate to other disciplines. Theater Materials: Paper and pencils Methods: Divide the group into small groups. Have each group make a list of different parts of a family and what their roles are. 20

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Have the group make a short skit of a family. Have each group choose a different theme, such as a family celebration, or describing a good way to communicate with others in their family or between families. Guidelines: Write scripts and stories based on persona l experiences with heritage and culture. Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Theme 3: World Cultures: Nigeria *For this theme, focus all arts activities on the m eaning of art in culture an d how it plays a role in celebration. Visual Art Materials: Short folktale from Nigeria Blank paper Paper plates, Popsicle sticks; tape/glue sticks on to paper plates to simulate a mask with a holder Tempera or finger paints. Glue/tape Pictures of animals fr om Nigeria (optional) Methods: Tell students about primary a nd secondary colors, and how you can make them. Give them paints and allow them each to try mixing secondary colors from primary colors. Read short folktale to class. Have students pick out characters from th e folktale they can make masks for. Create masks by having students paint on the shee t of blank paper. Have students use both a primary and secondary color. Cut out faces when done and glue to plates. When everyone is finished sit in a circle and ta lk about what primary and secondary colors they used. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music Materials: Various Nigerian instruments, such as drums Methods: Begin by presenting the instruments to the cla ss, one by one. Demonstrate to the class how they can make different sounds with their inst ruments. Pass each instrument around the circle and allow the students to take a turn playing them. Split the group into three. Give each group the task of creating a beat with an instrument, that can be played with a 4/4 time signature. 21

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Get the group back together. Have one group start with their instrument and then add one group at a time, until everyone is playing together. If you have time, split back into groups and pass the instruments to a new group, repeating the same steps. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Compose and arrange music, unders tand and read musical notations. Theater Materials: Short folktale from Nigeria Blank paper Paper plates, Popsicle sticks; tape/glue sticks on to paper plates to simulate a mask with a holder Crayons, markers, colored pencils, etc. Glue/tape Pictures of animals fr om Nigeria (optional) Methods: Read the folktale out loud to the students. Ha ve them pay special attention to the characters. Give each student a part of the folktale Create masks by drawing a face onto the blank sheet of paper first. When the face is finished, cut it out and tape/glu e it onto the masks. Have the kids perform out the play using their masks as props. Read th e story out loud, slowly and have the students do the acti ons and act out their parts. Guidelines: Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Assume a variety of roles and act. Theme 4: Respecting Living Things Visual Art *For this theme, focus on expressing feelings about art, both orally and written, and how it may relate to other disciplines. Materials: Drawing paper Variety of media (markers, temperate paint, colored pencils, crayons, etc.) Methods: Begin this activity by s howing the kids pictures of plants and animals, and lead a discussion about where these organisms live and what basic things they need to live (food, water, shelter, air and space). Next give the kids paper and se t out the various media. Ask them to draw a picture of plants and animals and how they live together, making su re to include the five necessities. 22

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Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus music activities on critically evaluating music and performers. Materials: A recording and print outs of the words to Down by the Bay Paper and pencils Methods: Listen to a recordi ng to Down by the Bay Have students look at the word s and sing along a second time. After the second time, have students make up th eir own verse to the song, focusing on animals they have seen around the school or in the area, a nd then share it with the class (sing it if they feel comfortable or have ot hers sing it with them). If you have time, encourage the students to draw a picture of the animal and its unusual appearance. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Theater Materials: Props from around the classroom Paper and pencil Methods: Give each student a sense to focus on (sight, feel, taste, smell, sound). Have the students write down what their sense is and how they can express it, such as giving someone a hug for touch or smelling a flower for scent. After the students have described their sense, ha ve them find an object in the classroom they could use to describe th eir senses to class. Have students with similar senses get into gr oups and talk about their senses and share their object with each other. Get back into the large group and have each group present their sense and each of their props. Guidelines: Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Theme 5: The Interrelating of Life Visual Art *For this theme focus on analyzing pieces, both their own and others. 23

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Materials: Drawing paper Crayons, markers, colored pencils, oil pastels, etc. Methods: Lead a discussion about how environments wo rk, and what might happen if something was removed from or added to the environment. Brainstorm a list of environment scenarios and how they function. Have students draw two pictures, one with a normal functioning system, and one with something added or removed and how things might change. Have each student compare thei r pictures for the class. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus music activiti es on evaluating music and performers. Materials: Recording of The Green Gra ss Grows All Around if necessary. Chalkboard (or dry erase board) to demonstrate what notes look like. If possible a print out of the song with notations. Methods: Begin by demonstrating what a whole note, half note and quarter note looks like. Have students create three measures in 4/4 time using these notes. Learn the song The Green Grass Grows A ll Around and practice clapping four beats a measure to the song. Learn whole, half and quarter notes that are in it. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Compose and arrange music, unders tand and read musical notations. Theater Materials: Simple pictures or books depicting how animal s interact with other animals, or how animals interact with plants. Methods: Show the pictures and books and have a disc ussion about how organisms have jobs in their habitats. Split the group up into smaller groups and give them scenarios about how organisms work together in a habitat. Have the students create a short skit a bout how their organisms work together. Present the short skits for the class. Guidelines: Write scripts and stories based on persona l experiences with heritage and culture. Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. 24

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Assume a variety of roles and act. Theme 6: Growth and Change Visual Art *For this theme focus on analyzing pieces, both their own and others. Materials: Paper and pencils Crayons, markers, colored pencils, etc. Methods: Lead a discussion about how life cycles work. Have students draw cartoon stri p of a life cycle of an organi sm. This organism could be a human, animal or plant. Share them with the class and talk about the life cycl e they chose to draw. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus musi c activities on understanding the relationship between music and other disciples of art. Materials: Instruments that can be found ar ound the school, preferably ones th at take a little time to learn like guitar, a drum, and recorder. Methods: This activity is meant to be extended over the entire theme. Lead a discussion at the beginning of the theme about how changes occur. Have the students choose and instrument they wa nt to learn, one that th ey may have at home or one they can use at the school. Each music lesson, have them practice their inst rument. At the end of each time, talk about how they have improved. At the end of the theme, have the students play for each other and show their progress. The last lesson, learn a new song, preferably one that is short and has simple words. Afterwards, talk about how easy it was to learn that song, versus how hard it was to learn the other instrument. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Listen to, evaluate, understand music; analyze and describe music and performers, as well as how it can relate to other art disciplines. Compose and arrange music, understa nd and read musical notations. 25

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Theater Materials: Props, costumes, makeup Paper and pencils Methods: This activity is meant to be sp read out over the entire theme. Plan and carryout and entire production. Begin the first peri od by writing a play. Have the theme encompass cycles, in nature, or in life. The next period, plan what props and costumes might be needed. Assign roles and have students begin to organize their parts (costumes and props). Near the end, practice th e play without costumes. Finish the theme by adding everything together. At the very end, talk about how things changed throughout the theme and how the process worked and how things changed throughout. Guidelines: Write scripts and stories based on persona l experiences with heritage and culture. Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Assume a variety of roles and act. Analyze, critique, and understand meaning of theat er themes and stories, including its role in the past and present. Appendix 5. Activities: Year B *During this year, the activities for themes about specifi c taxonomic groups of animals are designed to be similar to place emphasis on the differences between the different types of organisms and their natural history. Theme 1: Amphibians and Reptiles Visual Art For this theme, focus on viewing and describi ng art around the classroom, and on how certain pieces relate to elements of art. Materials: Paper and pencils Markers, crayons, colored pencils, etc. Book and pictures of animals that can help identify parts and identi fying characteristics. Methods: Begin this activity by talking a bout the certain characteristics th at make amphibians and reptiles unique. You may also want to emphasize particular ly interesting natural history characteristics. Have students draw pictures of amphibians and reptiles. When they are done, have them label the parts of that animal that is unique to this taxonomic group. 26

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At the end, have students share their pictures an d have them explain the parts they identified. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus music activities on lis tening to, analyzing and describing music. Materials: Recordings of various noises made by amphibians and reptiles in Costa Rica. Rocks, sticks, etc. Pictures of the amphibians and re ptiles you will pl ay a call from. Methods: Begin class by playing recordings of differe nt species and showi ng their pictures. Have the students choose their favorite call, and things of things they can use around the classroom and school campus that can help them recreate that sound (Ex: Blue jeans frog, Stone clinking frog, etc.) After they have gotten their sound makers toge ther, have them create a rhythm with them. Finally, have them demonstrate their noise and rhythm to the class. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Compose and arrange music, unders tand and read musical notations. Theater Materials: Drawing paper Markers, crayons, colored pencils, etc. Methods: Begin this activity by discussing the specific role amphibians and reptiles play in their habitats in terms of their food webs, natural history and behavior. Divide the students into smalle r groups and have them create a small skit about these unique characteristics. Suggest themes about how amphibians and rept iles change their behavioral patterns because they are ectotherms, for example basking during the day. Use paper and coloring materials to create pictures to use as props. Have the students present their skits to the cl ass, and afterwards discuss the behaviors they presented. Guidelines: Write scripts and stories based on persona l experiences with heritage and culture. Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Assume a variety of roles and act. 27

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Theme 2: Birds and Flight Visual Art *For this theme, focus on expressing feelings about art, both orally and written, and how it may relate to other disciplines. Materials: Paper and pencils Markers, crayons, colored pencils, etc. Book and pictures of animals that can he lp identify parts and unique characteristics. Methods: Begin this activity by talking abou t the certain characteristics that make birds and flight unique. You may also want to emphasize pa rticularly interesting natural history characteristics of birds, such as how they nest. Have students draw pictures of birds perching or in flight. When they are done, have them label the parts of that animal that is unique to this taxonomic group. At the end, have students share their pictur es and explain the parts they identified. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus music activities on lis tening to, analyzing and describing music. Materials: Recordings of various bird calls found in Costa Rica. Rocks, sticks, whistles, etc. Pictures of the bird s you play a call from. Methods: Begin class by playing recordings of differe nt species and showi ng their pictures. Have the students choose their favorite call, and things of things they can use around the classroom and school campus that ca n help them recreate that call After they have gotten their cal l makers together, have the stude nts get into small groups and demonstrate their calls. Then put their calls in an order that they think sounds the most cohesive. Finally, have them demonstrate thei r call and melody to the class. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Compose and arrange music, unders tand and read musical notations. Theater Materials: Drawing paper Markers, crayons, colored pencils, etc. 28

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Methods: Begin this activity by discussing the specific role birds play in their habi tats, in terms of their food web ecology, natural history an d behavior, as well as how fli ght is unique only to birds. Divide the students into smalle r groups and have them create a small skit about these unique characteristics. Suggest themes about how birds play a ro le in the ecosystem by dispersing seeds and pollinating flowers, or how they lay eggs, incubate them and care for their young. Use paper and coloring materials to create pictures to use as props. Have the students present their skits to the class and discuss the be haviors they presented. Guidelines: Write scripts and stories based on persona l experiences with heritage and culture. Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Assume a variety of roles and act. Theme 3: World Cultures: Australia Visual Art Materials: Paper Crayons, colored pencils, markers, paints, etc. Large piece of paper -Map pf Australia Informational books on animals and ecosystems in Australia Methods: Begin this activity by discussi ng various ecosystems that can be found in Australia including deserts and coral reefs. Als o, talk about animals that might be found only in Australia. Begin having a large outline of Australia made on the large piece of paper. Have students draw or paint pict ures that depict vari ous ecosystems in Australia, which include animals unique to Australia that wo uld be found in those ecosystems. At the end have the students put up their pict ures in the correct locat ion on the map, creating a collage of Australia. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music Materials: Recordings of music from Australia (t raditional Aboriginal drumming or songs) Materials to makes traditional Australian inst ruments (the exact materials depend on what instruments are easy to make) Methods: Begin this activity by looking at traditional inst ruments and listening to recordings of them. 29

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Give students two or three opti ons of instruments they could make, and demonstrate how they can make them. Make the instruments, and when they are finished practice playing together. Guidelines: Understanding the history and culture of music in an area. Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Theater Materials: Aboriginal folktale Paper plates -Paper Markers, colored pencils, crayons Tape Scissors Books with pictures of Australia and its animals Methods: Read an Aboriginal folk tale in the large group. Talk about different types of anim als that are unique to Australia. Split up the parts of the folktale by drawing names and characters. Create masks of the characters. Make the char acters into animals found only in Australia. Reread the folktale at the end and have the students act out th eir parts as you read. Guidelines: Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Assume a variety of roles and act. Theme 4: Arthropods! Insects, Arachnids and More Visual Art *For this theme, focus on expressing feelings about art, both orally and written, and how it may relate to other disciplines. Materials: Paper and pencils Markers, crayons, colored pencils, etc. Book and pictures of animals that can help identify parts and identi fying characteristics. Methods: Begin this activity by talking about the certain characteristic s that make arthropods unique, such as body segments, number of legs, exoskele tons, etc. You may also want to emphasize particularly interesting natural history characteristics. Have students draw pictures of various types of insects, including spiders, beetles, flies, etc. When they are done, have them label the parts of that animal that is unique to this taxonomic group. 30

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At the end, have students share their pictur es and explain the parts they identified. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus music activities on critically evaluating music and performers. Materials: Recordings of various noises made by amphibians and reptil es in Costa Rica. Rocks, sticks, etc. Pictures of the arthropo ds you will play a call from. Methods: Begin class by playing recordings of differe nt species and showi ng their pictures. Have the students choose their favorite call, and things of things they can use around the classroom and school campus that can help them recreate that sound (Ex: Crickets, flies, etc.) After they have gotten their sound makers toge ther, have them create a rhythm with them. Finally, have them demonstrate their noise and rhythm to the class. Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Compose and arrange music, unders tand and read musical notations. Theater Materials: Drawing paper Markers, crayons, colored pencils, etc. Methods: Begin this activity by discussing the specific role arthr opods play in their ha bitats, in terms of their food webs, natural history and behavior; emphasize their signi ficant role in decomposition and pollinization. Divide the students into smalle r groups and have them create a small skit about these unique characteristics. Suggest themes about how arthropods can be so cial insects, how they create their living spaces, etc. You may want to focus on similar taxonomic groups such as ants (army ants versus leaf cutter ants). Use paper and coloring materials to create pictures to use as props. Have the students present their skits to the cla ss, then discuss the behaviors they presented. Guidelines: Write scripts and stories based on persona l experiences with heritage and culture. Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Assume a variety of roles and act. 31

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Theme 5: Protecting the Soil Visual Art *For this theme focus on analyzing pieces, both their own and others Materials: Paper Crayons, markers, colored pencils, etc. Glue Pieces of earth that can be found just outside the classroom. Methods: Begin this activity by talking about what healthy soil looks lik e, possibly show pictures as visual aids. Ask the students to create one picture of what health soil looks like. This picture can include anything from underground scenes, to how heal thy soil makes ecosystems look. Use drawing materials and pieces of earth from outside to glue on to make it a little more interactive. Next, ask the students to create one picture of what unhealthy soil looks like. Use the same materials to emphasize the differences. At the end, lead a brief discussion on what th e differences are and how they may the ecosystem look different. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus music activities on critically evaluating music and performers. Materials: Paper and pencils Possibly a recording of a co mmon song known by the students Methods: Have the students choose a favorite song or melody that is well known by all of the kids. If there isnt one, choose a song most people know and spend some time teaching the class the rhythms and melodies. Have the students spend some time creating thei r own small verse to the simple melody. If at all possible, have the ends of the lines rhyme. Create verses that surround the major soil themes that have been discussed in class. Have students demonstrate their verse for the cl ass. Put them all together and youll have a new song! Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Theater Materials: Any small props that might be good to use from around the classroom. 32

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Methods: Discuss why it is important to have clean soil. Break the students into small groups. Have the students create a small skit about how they could do something to make the soil healthier, such as throw a piece of trash away, ha ve a garden that fixes nitrogen or has lots of insects to help decompose. Use any small props around the classroom that might help the students explain their skit. Present the skits to the class at the end of your time, and talk about more ways people can help respect the soil and make it healthier. Guidelines: Work cooperatively in producti ons; plan and carry out a production including designing sets and researching characters, elements and how to incorporate other arts disciplines. Theme 6: Talking Trash: Deco mposition/Recycling/Garbage Visual Art *For this theme focus on analyzing pieces, both their own and others Materials: Paper scraps Water Buckets Wax paper Scraps of trash (such as pieces of plastic, boxes, etc) Glue -Scissors Colored pencils, markers, crayons. Materials may vary depending on the recipe chosen for creating recycled paper. Methods: Create recycled paper For this activity, look online to find an easy an d quick recipe for making recycled paper, and follow it! After the paper has dried, use scraps of trash and have students glue them on to their piece of paper, and add some color to create a collage of garbage. Talk about if they think the garbage looks nice, or if it seems ugly. Ta lk about the affect humans have on creating garbage and what that means for the Earth. Ask questions about what types of trash will decompose the fastest and which ones will take the longest. Guidelines: Create pieces combining media, and working with art vocabulary and techniques such as lines, color, shape, texture, form and space. Music *For this theme, focus musi c activities on understanding the relationship between music and other disciples of art. 33

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34 Materials: Paper and pencils Possibly a recording of a co mmon song known by the students Methods: Have the students choose a favorite song or melody that is well known by all of the kids. If there isnt one, choose a song most people know and spend some time teaching the class the rhythms and melodies. Have the students spend some time creating thei r own small verse to the simple melody. If at all possible, have the ends of the lines rhyme. Create verses that surround the garbage theme, such as encouraging people to re duce, reuse and recycle, or a vers e about an animal that might be affected by litter on the ground. Have students demonstrate their verse for the cl ass. Put them all together and youll have a new song! Guidelines: Sing and play instruments alone and in groups, be able to improvise melodies and rhythms. Theater Materials: No materials are necessary for this activity ; however, pictures of human impacts on the environment might be useful. Methods: This activity is designed to be an improve activity. Write down various scenarios about how humans impact the environment by producing lots of garbage, or pollution. Have stude nts pick them out of a hat. Ask students to act out how the scenario make s them feel, or to demonstrate a human action that may have caused that scenario. Guidelines: Assume a variety of roles and act


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La integracin del arte y la educacin ambiental: el Centro de Educacin Creativa en Monteverde, Costa Rica
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Integration of art and environmental education: the Centro de Educacin Creativa in Monteverde, Costa Rica
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Population growth and deforestation are negatively affecting biodiversity in the Tropics, necessitating environmental education for local populations. Arts education increases the ability to comprehend complex information, enhance creativity and provide problem solving skills (Longley 1999, Siegesmund 1998). Together, environmental education and Arts education can enhance ecological processes and conservation themes in students minds so they are retained well into their adulthood. This increases the likelihood that these individuals will make environmentally informed decisions throughout their lives (Gurevitz 2000). In this project, I incorporate current Arts curriculum guidelines from the United States into the Costa Rican environmental curriculum used at the Centro de Educatin Creativa in Monteverde, Costa Rica. I create sample activities incorporating visual arts, music and theater into each of 12 curriculum themes. Evaluations by Amy Cherwin, the Curriculum Director at the CEC, and the first and second grade teachers there suggested the updated curriculum guidelines I extended were both useful and relevant to their classroom activities. According to evaluations, the sample activities I created were generally easy to understand and useful.
El crecimiento demogrfico y la deforestacin afectan negativamente a la biodiversidad en los trpicos, por lo que se necesitan programas de educacin ambiental para las poblaciones locales. La educacin de las artes aumenta la habilidad de comprender la informacin compleja, aumenta la creatividad y proporciona habilidades en la resolucin de problemas (Longley 1999, Siegesmund 1998). La educacin ambiental en conjunto con la de las Artes puede aumentar los temas ecolgicos y los temas de conservacin en la mente de los estudiantes para que sea retenido a lo largo de su edad adulta. Esto aumenta la probabilidad de que estas personas estn informadas para que tomen decisiones ambientales durante toda su vida (Gurevitz 2000). En este proyecto, yo he incorporado las pautas actuales del plan de Artes de los Estados Unidos al plan de estudios ambientales de Costa Rica utilizndolos en el Centro de Educacion Creativa en Monteverde, Costa Rica.
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