Database of the Macrofungi of the Monteverde Reserve Corey Rogers Department of Biology, University of Mississippi ABSTRACT Fungi serve important roles in natural systems and have strong economic and social consequences for human populations. A datab ase of the macrofungi of the Monteverde Reserve was created to ease identification and facilitate research on local macrofungi. The database includes 30 species, with 18 families and 22 genera represented. The database was organized in a system of nested folders, providing both morphological and taxonomic keys. Information files were created for each species, including digital photographs of specimens and spore prints (when applicable), and taxonomic, microhabitat, growth, and morphological data. This d atabase provides a structure for future cataloguing and identification, with the goal of spurring fungal research in the area. RESUMEN Los hongos tienen funciones importantes en los sistemas naturales y tienen consecuencias econÃ³micas y sociales de importancia para las poblaciones humanas. Un banco de datos de los macrohongos de la reserva de Monteverde fue creado para facilitar la identificaciÃ³n y la investigaciÃ³n de la fauna local de hongos. El banco de datos incluye treinta especies, con dieci ocho familias y veintidÃ³s gÃ©neros representados; los datos fueron organizados en un sistema de archivos jerarquizados, proporcionando claves morfolÃ³gicas y taxonÃ³micas. Los archivos de informaciÃ³n creados para cada especie incluyen las fotografÃas digitale s de los especÃmenes y las esporadas (cuando fue posible); asÃ como tambiÃ©n los datos morfolÃ³gicos, taxonÃ³micos, de microhÃ¡bitat y la forma de crecimiento. Este banco de datos proporciona una base para la identificaciÃ³n y el ordenamiento sistemÃ¡tico con la meta de estimular la investigaciÃ³n de hongos en el Ã¡rea. INTRODUCTION The Kingdom Fungi represents the most diverse group of eukaryotic organisms in existence (Rossman et al 1998). Fungi differ from both plants and animals. Fungi lack chlorophyll, and are therefore unable to create their own food through photosynthesis, like plants. Fungi obtain nutrients by feeding on other organisms, but differ from animals because they lack capability of movement, nervous systems, and specialized organs (Arora 1986 ). Fungi are essential for the functioning of ecosystems in multiple ways. Saprophytic fungi play a vital role in the breakdown and recycling of organic matter in ecosystems (Mata et al. 2003). Fungi also form symbiotic relationships with many other or ganisms; for instance, mycorrhizal fungi live in symbiosis with the roots of plants. Mycorrhizal fungi provide nutrients for their host plants, and in exchange receive carbohydrates from the host (Arora 1986). Fungi serve important ecological roles as pa rasites as well, feeding on the tissue of other living organisms. These fungi help regulate population growth of certain plant and animal species (Mata 1999).
Fungi have economic and social effects on human populations. Some parasitic fungi have delete rious effects on crops, leading to economic losses. Parasitic fungal infections can also threaten human health (Mata 1999). Fungi have many positive effects for humans as well. Many fungi are edible, providing food sources and economic benefits; other f ungi can be utilized in industry. Fungi are used in the making of foodstuffs such as beer and wine and in the production of medicines such as penicillin (Mata 1999). Fungi are understudied in general despite their biological, economic, and social import ance. Only around 2,000 of an estimated 40,000 to 70,000 species of fungi in Costa Rica have been described (Mata 1999). Field guides for Costa Rican fungi do exist, but are limited to common species at the country level. No catalogue of fungal diversit y existed for the Monteverde region prior to this study. The purpose of this project was to produce a database of macrofungi in the Monteverde Reserve. This database will be helpful to naturalists, students, and biologists working in the reserve and surr ounding areas. It will be particularly useful for students, because it facilitates identification of species. This is important for student projects, which are often strictly limited by time constraints. The database will facilitate research on fungi, w hich could lead to a better understanding of ecosystem functioning and produce useful social or economic effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Site The study was performed in the Monteverde Reserve, focusing on the established trail system behind the Est aciÃ³n BiolÃ³gica de Monteverde (Fig. 1). Sampling was non random, and was restricted to an area within ten meters of either side of the trail. Initial sampling focused on sections of trails closest to the station. Particular attention was given to areas with abundant decomposing organic matter and high moisture levels. Surveying was not restricted to these areas however. Many sampling sites and individual specimens were included based on field observations provided by students and biologists working in the study site. Specimens were collected between October 22 and November 13, 2005. Collection Methods Each species was photographed in situ with a digital camera, and field data were recorded prior to collection. Microhabitat conditions including r elative humidity, light availability, percent of canopy coverage, and elevation were recorded using a moisture meter, light meter, spherical densiometer, and altimeter respectively. Substrate type, weather conditions, collection date, abundance, growth ha bit, and surrounding vegetation were also recorded. Samples were collected using a trowel. Cuts were made several centimeters below the base of the specimen, according to the technique described by Mata 1999. A portion of the substrate was included with the specimen when possible. Several specimens of each species, including different sizes, were collected when
available to aid in identification (Arora 1986). Samples were wrapped in paper and transported in plastic baskets. In the lab, additional dig ital photographs were made using a photo mat background. Micrographs of fertile surface characteristics were taken for many species using a dissecting microscope, a camera adapter, and a digital camera. Morphological characteristics were measured and rec orded (Appendix A). Spore prints were attempted for each species by placing the pileus (Fig. 2) of the specimen on white paper and covering it with a glass or container (Mata 1999). Data for each specimen were recorded manually, then transferred to the c omputer as Word files (Database CD, enclosed). Identification Identification of species was accomplished by two methods. Species were identified on site using available literature (Mata 1999; Mata et al. 2003) when possible. Digital photos of remaini ng specimens and spore prints were sent to Milagro Mata Hidalgo and Loengrin UmaÃ±a Tenorio at INBio for identification. Database Construction The database was constructed using a format of nested folders similar to the pollen database created by Maria Jo st (Jost 2004). Separate folder systems were established to allow species to be identified based on both taxonomic and morphological information. Taxonomic divisions were made beginning with families and continuing to species names. Morphological divisi ons were made first on basic form, then size, and then color. An example picture of the particular folder characteristic was provided to aid in searching. A file was created for each species including digital photographs of samples, a digital photograph of the spore print (when applicable), taxonomic information, and morphological, habitat, and growth data. RESULTS A total of thirty species were included in the database (Appendix B). Eighteen families, including 22 genera, were represented. Thirteen specimens were definitively identified to species name. An information file was created for each species (Fig. 3), and the final database was stored on a compact disc (Database CD, enclosed). Database organization and use The database is organized in to separate keys for identification based on taxonomic information and morphological characteristics. The taxonomic key is straightforward, beginning with folders for each family and continuing down to individual species name. The individual folder for e ach species includes the final PowerPoint information file (Figure 3), a folder of full size digital photos, and the raw data sheet for the specimen. The final PowerPoint information file for each species includes all microhabitat, growth, and morphologic al data recorded for the species, as well as digital photos of the species and its spore print (when applicable).
The morphological key is designed so that each folder division creates limiting characteristics, eventually ending at the species name. Eac h folder includes a photographic example of the folder characteristic. The first division is based on basic form (mushroom, earth tongue, ear shaped, cup, shelf, hanging bell/cup, forms, since the practicality of characteristics varies among forms. An example of the morphological key, using Lactarius indigo (Russulales: Russulaceae) is as follows: 1. 2. 3. Identify basic form (using example photos from each basic form folder if necessary) 4. mushroom 5. Note the next division characteristic, large vs. small (determined by diameter of mature pileus) 6. 7. 8. Lactarius indigo 9. Open Lactarius indigo PowerPoint file; compare photos, microhabitat, growth, and morphologi cal data 10. Refer to full Lactarius indigo raw specimen data sheet if desired Observed trends Some general trends were apparent in collection. Visible abundance and species richness of fungi tended to b e higher according to collection site characteristics. Higher variety of species and higher numbers of individuals were found in sites with decomposing wood and high moisture. Twenty two of the 30 species were observed to be growing in a substrate of dec omposing wood, and 24 of the 28 microhabitats for which the variable was measured had relative humidity of greater than 80%. An increase in visible species richness also occurred just after extended periods of heavy rain. Drastic increases in abundance w ere observed for Coprinus disseminatus (Agaricales: Coprinaceae) and the Genus Mycena (Agaricales: Tricholomataceae) after long periods of rain. DISCUSSION Explanation of Trends The observed trends of high abundance and high diversity in sites contai ning decomposing wood and high moisture levels are consistent with general fungal biology. Decomposing wood provides an abundant and easily accessible nutrient source, which fungi require. Also, all fungi need free water to carry out metabolic processes and prevent dessication of hyphae (Alexopoulos et al. 1996).
Suggestions for Future Research The database produced through this project represents only a very small fraction of the fungal diversity in the Monteverde Reserve. This work should ser ve as a base on which future researchers can build with the goal of eventually including as many of the species of macrofungi in the reserve as possible. Specifically, collection and cataloguing should be carried out in the dry season, since species compo sition most likely differs significantly with various levels of water availability. Also, research should be devoted to the natural history of individual species, to gain a better understanding of the factors governing the growth of these species, and the effects of these species on surrounding species and ecosystem functioning. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like first like to thank Javier MÃ©ndez for serving as my advisor on this project. He has provided continual support and encouragement for my research, as well as essential advice on logistical aspects of the project. Milagro Mata Hidalgo and Loengrin UmaÃ±a Tenorio of the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio) provided vital help with identification of specimens, without which the project would not have been possible. Oliver Hyman and Maria Jost answered numerous questions, provided equipment, and helped with many technical aspects of the project. Thanks to Erica Hoaglund and Meghan Tsupros for their help with digital photography. Finally, I woul d like to thank Alan and Karen Masters for their encouragement and enthusiasm throughout the course of the project. LITERATURE CITED Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims, and M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory Mycology: Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, In c., New York, New York. Arora, D. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy Fungi. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California, U.S.A. Jost, Maria. 2004. A Pollen Library of Monteverde Flowering Plants. CIEE, Monteverde, Costa Rica . Mata, M. 1999. Macrohongos de Costa Rica, Vol. 1. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), San Jose, Costa Rica. Mata, M., R. Halling, and G.M. Mueller. 2003. Macrohongos de Costa Rica, Vol. 2. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), S an Jose, Costa Rica. 1998. Protocols for an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Fungi In a Costa Rican Conservation Area. Parkway Publishers, Boone, North Carolina, U.S.A.
APPENDIX A: Specimen Data Sheet Date: _________________ Time:__________________ Weather Conditions:______________________________________________________ Microhabitat Conditions: Type of sub strate: ______________________________________________________ Relative humidity: ________________ Light availability____________________ Canopy cover (%):_________________ _ Elevation: _________________________ Surrounding vegetation:_________________ ______________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Abundance: ________________________________________________________________ Observed growth habit: ________________________________________ _______________ Morphological Characteristics: Basic form: ________________________________________________________________ Shape of pileus: _____________________________________________________________ Diameter of pileus: ______________________ Prese nce of stipe:_________________________ Shape of stipe: ___________________________ If no stipe, length and width of pileus:____________________________________________ Color of mature sample: _____________________ Color of young specimen:______________ ______ Shape of margin (using longitudinal section): ______________________________________ Texture of margin: ___________________________________________________________ Surface texture of pileus: ______________________________________________________ Color of context: ____________________________________________________________
Hymenium or fertile surface characteristics: o Color: _______________________ o Texture:_____________________ o Type of juncture with stipe (for those with lamellae): ___________ _____________________ o Space between gills: _________________________________________________________ o Presence of lamellulae:_______________________________________________________ Stipe characteristics: o Shape: ____________________________ o Size: ______ ________________________ o Color:______________________________ o Position____________________________ Presence of annulus: ____________________________________ Location of annulus: _____________________________________ Color of annulus: _________________ _______________________ Presence of volva:_______________________________________ Shape of volva:_________________________________________ Color of volva: _________________________________________ Texture of volva: _____________________________________ __ Color of spore print: ____________________________________ Color of bruising: ______________________________________
APPENDIX B: Families and Species of Fungi Included in Database Auricularia auricula Auricularia auricula Auricular ia delicate Coprinaceae Coprinus disseminates Coriolaceae Coriolopsis polyzona Trametes sp. Tricchaptum sector Cortinariaceae Cortinarius sp. (?) Gymnopilus sp. Exidiaceae Pseudohydnum gelatinosum Ganodermataceae Ganoderma sp. Ganoderma sp. (? ) Hygrophoraceae Hygrocybe cantharellus Hygrocybe miniata Hygrocybe sp. Marasmiaceae Campanella sp (?) Meripilaceae Rigidoporus sp. Nidulariaceae Cyathus striatus Polyporaceae Polyporus tenuiculus Russulaceae Lactarius indigo Russula sp. Russ ula sp. Sarcoscyphaceae Cookeina (venezuelae?) Sclerotiniaceae Sp. Strophariaceae Hypholoma sp. Tricholomataceae Mycena sp. Mycena sp. Xylariaceae Entonaema liquescens Xylaria sp. Xylaria sp. Xerocomaceae Boletellus ananas
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Base de datos de los macrohongos de la Reserva de Monteverde
Database of the macrofungi of the Monteverde Reserve
Digitized by MVI
Fungi serve important roles in natural systems and have strong economic and social consequences for human populations. A database of the macrofungi of the Monteverde Reserve was created to ease identification and facilitate research on local macrofungi. The database includes 30 species, with 18 families and 22 genera represented. The database was organized in a system of nested folders, providing both morphological and taxonomic keys. Information files were created for each species, including digital photographs of specimens and spore prints (when applicable), and taxonomic, microhabitat, growth, and morphological data. This database provides a structure for future cataloguing and identification, with the goal of spurring fungal research in the area.
Los hongos tienen funciones importantes en los sistemas naturales y tienen consecuencias econmicas y sociales de importancia para las poblaciones humanas. Una base de datos de los macrohongos de la reserva de Monteverde fue creado para facilitar la identificacin y la investigacin de la fauna local de hongos. La base de datos incluye treinta especies, con dieciocho familias y veintids gneros representados; los datos fueron organizados en un sistema de archivos jerarquizados, proporcionando claves morfolgicas y taxonmicas. Los archivos de informacin creados para cada especie incluyen las fotografas digitales de los especmenes y las esporadas (cuando fue posible); as como tambin los datos morfolgicos, taxonmicos, de microhbitat y la forma de crecimiento. Esta base de datos proporciona una base para la identificacin y el ordenamiento sistemtico con la meta de estimular la investigacin de hongos en el rea.
Text in English.
Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve (Costa Rica)
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone--Montever
Reserva Bosque Nuboso de Monteverde (Costa Rica)
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde--Monteverde
Tropical Ecology Fall 2005
Ecologa Tropical Otoo 2005
t Monteverde Institute : Tropical Ecology