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Macro fungi species richness between two oak tree species (Quercus insignis and Quercus corrugata)

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Title:
Macro fungi species richness between two oak tree species (Quercus insignis and Quercus corrugata)
Translated Title:
Riqueza de especies de Macro hongos entre dos especies de árboles de roble (Quercus insignis y Quercus corrugata) ( )
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Language:
English
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La Rocca, Victoria
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Subjects / Keywords:
Forest fungi   ( lcsh )
Fungi--Variation   ( lcsh )
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone   ( lcsh )
Hongos del bosque
Hongos--Variación
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde
Tropical Ecology Summer 2010
Ecología Tropical Verano 2010
Genre:
Reports   ( lcsh )
Reports

Notes

Abstract:
Oak tree species (Quercus spp.) have been known to host a variety of fungi on several different substrates. This study compared the macro fungi species richness between the oak tree species, Quercus corrugata and Quercus insignis. These species are found at different elevations ranging below1 700m, as well as different substrates; including acorns, soil, roots, and leaf litter. A total of 30 trees were surveyed along the ridges and peaks on the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Costa Rica. Each tree contained several different species of fungi, some overlapping, some repetitive, and some unique. The fungi were identified using photographs, written descriptions, and substrate identities. A total of 31 species were observed on Q. insignis, 33 on Q. corrugata. Of the 64 species, 20 were known to have oak affiliations, indicating the spectrum of fungal species on Quercus spp. Overall, the data displayed no direct correlation with substrate association; soil and tree substrates were most common. This equilibrated frequency trend is very different than previous studies noting that Q. corrugata, at higher altitudes, is just as rich as the lower altitudinal Q. insignis. This could be an indicator of climate change effects in an area that was once too cold to support large quantities of fungi, but has now warmed and dried enough to establish a higher frequency.
Abstract:
Las especies de árboles de roble (Quercus spp.) Han sido conocidos por albergar una gran variedad de hongos en varios sustratos diferentes. Este estudio comparó la riqueza de especies de hongos macro entre las especies de roble, Quercus corrugata y Quercus insignis. Estas especies se encuentran a diferentes alturas que van continuación1 700m, así como los diferentes sustratos, como las bellotas, el suelo, las raíces y la hojarasca. Un total de 30 árboles fueron encuestados a lo largo de las cordilleras y picos en la Reserva Forestal de Monteverde en Costa Rica. Cada árbol contiene varias especies diferentes de hongos, algunas superpuestas, algunos repetitivos y exclusivo, parte. Los hongos fueron identificados mediante fotografías, descripciones escritas, y las identidades del sustrato. Un total de 31 especies se observaron en P. insignis, de 33 años de P. corrugata. De las 64 especies, 20 se sabe que tienen afiliaciones de roble, lo que indica el espectro de especies de hongos de Quercus spp. En general, los datos muestran una correlación directa con la asociación de sustrato, sustratos del suelo y los árboles fueron los más comunes. Esta tendencia de frecuencia equilibrada es muy diferente de los estudios previos señalaron que P. corrugata, en altitudes más altas, es tan rica como la menor altura Q. insignis. Esto podría ser un indicador de los efectos del cambio climático en un área que alguna vez fue demasiado frío para apoyar a grandes cantidades de hongos, pero ahora se ha calentado y se secó lo suficiente como para establecer una frecuencia más alta.
Language:
Text in English.
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Born Digital

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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usfldc doi - M39-00221
usfldc handle - m39.221
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Macro Fungi Species Richness Between Two Oak Tree Species ( Quercus insignis and Quercus corrugata ) Victoria La Rocca, University of San Francisco, Department of Environmental Science ABSTRACT Oak tree species ( Quercus spp.) have been known to host a var iety of fungi on several different substrates. This study compared the macro fungi species richness between the oak tree species, Quercus corrugata and Quercus insignis These species are found at different elevations ranging below1 700m, as well as diff erent substrates; including acorns, soil, roots, and leaf litter. A total of 30 trees were surveyed along the ridges and peaks on the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Costa Rica. Each tree contained several different species of fungi, some overlapping, some repetitive, and some unique. The fungi were identified using photographs, written descriptions, and substrate identities. A total of 31 species were observed on Q. insignis 33 on Q. corrugata Of the 64 species, 20 were known to have oak affiliation s, indicating the spectrum of fungal species on Quercus spp Overall, the data displayed no direct correlation with substrate association; soil and tree substrates were most common. This equilibrated frequency trend is very different than previous studie s noting that Q. corrugata at higher altitudes is just as rich as the lower altitudinal Q. insignis This could be an indicator of climate change effects in an area that was once too cold to support large quantities of fungi, has now warmed and dried eno ugh to establish a higher frequency. ______________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION Kingdom Fungi (including boletes, mushrooms, brackets, puff balls, yeasts, etc.) constitutes one of the largest groups of orga nisms in the world. Found in virtually every ecological niche, fungi acts as one of the Earths most crucial agents of decay (Alexopoulos 1996). Fungi recycle large quantities of organic matter, breaking it down into substances available for plants and an imals to utilize (Mata 2003). Unlike plants, root fungi (mycorrhizae) cannot produce their own food. Instead, they associate with tree root(s), and absorb essential nutrients. In return, the fungi supply plants with water and certain chemical elements, su ch as nitrogen and phosphorus (Mata 2003). As these mycorrhizal species cannot grow without their host, many trees deprived of their mycorrhizal partners may not compete successfully, mostly in poor soils where nutrient absorption is limited. Many mycorrhi zal species can be host specific, only growing in conjunction with one specific host, while the tree can establish several different associates among the mycorrhiza (Arora 1986). The tree species Quercus is a common plant host for mycorrhizae. However, a comparison of the fungi species associated with Q. corrugata and Q. insignis species has never been made, even though they are prominent members of the Monteverde cloud forest. Quercus corrugata is a common oak canopy tree (20 35m) found on the ridges an d peaks of cloud forest locations at elevations between 1550 1800m, and Quercus insignis is found at lower elevations with large (3 4cm) acorns (Haber 2000). Acorns accumulate under the tree, creating one of the many substrates for mycorrhizae. Other substrates include roots, leaf litter, and soil.. Fungi reproduction occurs frequently throughout the wet seasons and their fruiting bodies become most visible. This study explored the fungi fruiting bodies growing below Q. corrugata and Q. insignis at t he Monteverde Biological Station. Quercus corrugata is located at higher elevations, where there is higher rainfall, and cooler temperatures, while the Q, insignis is found at lower elevations where it is drier and warmer. The conditions may favor differe nt kinds of fungi below

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the oaks, or the conditions may lead to different substrate preferences for the fungi. This is because the abiotic factors, such as humidity, temperature, and nutrient availability, can create a spectrum of niches for the fungi, an d thereby support different fungal communities. The Q. corrugata was predicted to have higher species richness because is at higher altitudes, with more humidity, which are generally conducive to fungal growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Site The stud y was conducted during the wet season. The study site included ridges and peaks between 1450 m 1700 m, fifteen of each Quercus species was assessed, with the Q. corrugata at the higher elevations, 1500 1700m. The fifteen Q. insignis species were assess ed at and below 1500m. The surveyed areas included the following substrates; soil, base of the tree, acorns, tree/root, and oak leaf litter. The assessed soil surrounding the tree was limited to 2 ft from the base, and 6 inches from visible roots, buttre ss roots included. Organic matter found near the tree, including leaves and wood, which could not be identified, were not surveyed. Furthermore, any fungi on the tree were assessed up to 2 meters. Experiment A total of 30 Quercus species were found in c onjunction with two main trailheads, beginning at the Estacion Biologia de Monteverde. Each macrofungi body found within the range was photographed, using a Casio ZX1080 at standard settings with the flash on. Images collected evaluated size, color, textu re, gills/pores, annulus, stipe, and substrate location. All fungal species observed were described in a notebook for further identification purposes. Each tree was only counted once for the appearance of fungi specie aside from the number of reoccurrence s within the area. Many Quercus species environment includes steep slopes, decaying matter, and thick underbrush. Therefore, the collection of mushrooms was limited at times; certain parts of the tree could not be reached due to cliffs or steep slopes. RESULTS Fifteen Q. corrugata and fifteen Q. insignis species were surveyed. Fungi fruiting bodies were observed and photographed as well as indications of the immediate environment soil, base of tree, root, acorn, leaf litter etc. Among the Q. corruga ta a total of 63 fungi fruiting bodies were found between 33 different species, 12 of which contain known associations among oaks. The Q. insignis was a host to 52 fruiting bodies among 31 different species, 8 of which have a known oak association (Table 1). The most abundant genus was Marasmius with 21 observations between the two oaks. Contingency Table Comparing the two oak species, of the 64 total fungi species, 10 contained identical genus and species ; resulting in a 15.6% species overlap. Of the 115 fungi species collected, 62 genera occurred in both trees, resulting in a 54% genus overlap. _____________________________________________________________________________ Table 1: Frequency of fungi species observed on Q. insignis and Q. corrugata Species with (*) indicates a repeated genus between both oak trees, and species with (^) indicates repeated species among the Quercus species. Species with ( ) indicates a known oak tree affiliation. Note: There were three unidentifiable fungi species, labeled Unknown A D. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

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INSIGNIS NUMBER CORRUGATA NUMBER Amanita spp.* 1 Amanita flavoconia var. Inquinata* 1 Boletus* 1 Amanita spp.* 1 Clavulinopsis fusiformis 2 Boletus auriporus* 1 Colybia cirrhata 4 Boletus pulverulentus* 4 Coprinus disseminatus*^ 3 Calistoma cinnabarina 5 Coprinus spp.* 1 Clauvulinopsis fusiformis 1 Coprinus spp.* 1 Clavulinopsis fusiformis 2 Cotylidia aurantiaca*^ 2 Collybia omphalodes 2 Cyathus striatus 2 Coprinus disseminatus*^ 4 Entonaema liquescens 1 Cotylidia aurantiaca*^ 1 F. Sclerotiniaceae*^ 2 F. Sclerotiniaceae*^ 1 Ganoderma applanatum 1 Gymnopus dryophilus*^ 2 Gymnopus dryophilus*^ 4 Hygrocybe miniata*^ 5 Hebeloma radico sum 1 Lacterius indigo 1 Hygrocybe conica* 1 Lacterius rufulus 1 Hygrocybe miniata*^ 2 Leucocoprinus birnbaumii* 1 Inocybe spp. 1 Leucocoprinus cepaestipes*^ 1 Leucocoprinus cepaestipes*^ 2 Lycoperdon perlatum*^ 1 Lycoperdon perlatum*^ 1 Marasmiellus spp.* 3 Marasimus rotula*^ 1 Marasmius androsaceus*^ 4 Marasmius androsaceus*^ 1 Marasmius bresadola* 1 Marasmius spp.* 1 Marasmius oreades/bresadolae* 4 Mycena galopus 2 Marasmius ramealis* 1 Nolanea murraii 1 Marasmius rotula*^ 2 Plyporus frondosus 2 Marasmius spp.* 1 Polyporus spp. 1 Mycena margarita 1 Ramaria 1 Pholiota mutabilis 1 Russula aurata 2 Tetrapyrgos nigripes 3 Russula lepida 2 Tremela fusiformis 1 Stropharia umbonatescens 3 Tremellodendrom schweinitzii 1 Unknown B 1 Trichloma vir gatum 1 Unknown C 1 Unknown A 1 Unknown A 2 Unknown D 1

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Further data were collected on the kind of substrate inhabited by each fungus. The soil and tree environment was the dominant substrate, followed by the base of the tree, and acorns. Ther e was a total of 18 fungi species growing directly on soil. Soil up to 1 meter from the base of the tree and 6 inches from roots was surveyed. ______________________________________________________________________________ Table 2: Substrate of each fun gi including soil, base of tree, acorns, tree/root, and leaf litter. Soil and tree/root substrates were most abundant. Note: Some species are categorized in several substrates. Contingency Table and Chi 2 A contingency table was made to assess the different substrate frequencies between the two Quercus species. A Chi Square Test, (X2), was run and the values were less than the critical value ( Q.insignis = 4.48, Q. corrugat a = 3.38; df=4; X crit = 9.49). I found that the use of substrates by fungi und er the two oak trees is random. They use fungi substrates in proportions by chance alone. ______________________________________________________________________________

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Figure 1. Use of substrates by fungi on Q. corrugata and Q. insignis Quercus corrugata had a higher frequency of fungi on tree roots and soil; Q. insignis on base of the tree and oak leaf litter. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ DISCUSSION Initial ly it was thought the Quercus corrugata would harbor greater species richness in comparison to Quercus insignis However, the Q. corrugata had only two additional species, and only eleven more individual species ( Q.insignis 52; Q. corrugata 63). Accord ing to a previous study done by Ciocca (2000), elevation on the Pacific slope is positively correlated with fungal species richness. However, the study was during the dry season, when elevation and moisture gradients are more pronounced. Moreover, as a s tudy conducted ten years later, it is possible to experience effects from climate change. According to Pounds et al. (1999) the Monteverde cloud forest is experiencing increase dry days and a decline in mist frequency via the lifting cloud base hypothesis. Another study in the same region concluded that there is fewer species richness in higher altitude (West 1996). She concluded that the higher elevations were too cold for optimal fungal growth (West 1996). This further observes the effects of climate ch ange, stating that as the Tilaran mountain range is experiencing effects of global warming, as the cloud formations decrease, and temperature that was once too cold to support sufficient fungal growth, is changing towards warmer night temperatures, allowin g for more fungus establishment at higher altitudes (Pounds et al.) Throughout all the data collection, the most abundant genus was Marasmius found at varying altitudes and substrates from 1500 1700m. An important trait in the genus is its unique revivin g ability (Arora 1986). If dried up specimens are placed in water, they will swell up and resume their original shape and dimension (Arora 1986). This can be applied to the Monteverde area with its increased dry days and reduced mist. Many fungi will no t be able to survive the harsh climate, but the Marasmius genus has a high resilience for climactic changes such as those. This could be a reason for its higher frequency. Each tree species hosted a unique fungus. On the Q. corrugata the Red Slimy Stalke d Puffball, Calistoma cinnabarina was found on the roots and soil at 5 of the 33 locations, at altitudes from 1500 1700m. The thick gelatinous layer surrounding the fruiting body, possibly linked to a universal veil, is extremely susceptible to dryness (Ar ora 1986). As a result the Calistoma cinnabarina would thrive in cooler, wetter, climates, on substrates higher than 1500m. On the Q. insignis the Noleana murraii an oak associated mushroom that is only found in very

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damp/wet climates, was found at the lower altitude of 1500m. This shows that both altitudes proved suitable habitats for fungi growth. Beyond habitat, The Monteverde Cloud Forest hosts several species of fungus to help maintain plant growth, balance soil toxicity, and regulate nutrients. In conclusion, suitable habitats for fungi ranged from 1500 1750m, all with varying richness and morphologies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge Karen Masters for helping me find oak trees in the Monteverde Could Forest Reserve, for her enthusia sm in every aspect of fungi. A lovely thank you to Daniel Whonsetler for being my machete and clearing underbrush for access to the oak trees. Thank you to Raquel Martinez for helping m e with my data analysis and write up. Lastly, a thank you to the Bio logical Station of Monteverde and everyone apart of this beautiful gathering. LITERATURE CITED Alexopoulos, C.J. Mims, Balckwell. 2000. Introductory Mycology Jon Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY. Arora, D. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified Ten Speed Press Berkeley, CA. Gehring, C.A., Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community Structure of Pinyon Pine Growing in two Environmental Extremes 1998. Haber, W.A, Zuchowski, W., Bell, E., An Introduction to Cloud Forest Trees. La Nacion, San Jose, Costa Rica Janos, D.P ., Mycorrhizae influence Tropical Sucession. Biotropica Vol. 12, 1980 Mata, M. 2003. Costa Rica Mushrooms Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad. Santo Domingo de Heredia Pounds, A., et. al.1999. Biological Response to Climate Change on a Tropical Mount ain .MacMillan Magazines Ltd., Boston, MA. 398 :611 12 West, K. 1996. Fungal Species Diversity on an Altitudinal Gradient. CIEE, Fall


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Riqueza de especies de Macro hongos entre dos especies de rboles de roble (Quercus insignis y Quercus corrugata)
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Macro fungi species richness between two oak tree species (Quercus insignis and Quercus corrugata)
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Oak tree species (Quercus spp.) have been known to host a variety of fungi on several different substrates. This study compared the macro fungi species richness between the oak tree species, Quercus corrugata and Quercus insignis. These species are found at different elevations ranging below1 700m, as well as different substrates; including acorns, soil, roots, and leaf litter. A total of 30 trees were surveyed along the ridges and peaks on the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Costa Rica. Each tree contained several different species of fungi, some overlapping, some repetitive, and some unique. The fungi were identified using photographs, written descriptions,
and substrate identities. A total of 31 species were observed on Q. insignis, 33 on Q. corrugata. Of the 64 species, 20 were known to have oak affiliations, indicating the spectrum of fungal species on Quercus spp. Overall, the data displayed no direct correlation with substrate association; soil and tree substrates were most common. This
equilibrated frequency trend is very different than previous studies noting that Q. corrugata, at higher altitudes, is
just as rich as the lower altitudinal Q. insignis. This could be an indicator of climate change effects in an area that
was once too cold to support large quantities of fungi, but has now warmed and dried enough to establish a higher
frequency.
Las especies de rboles de roble (Quercus spp.) Han sido conocidos por albergar una gran variedad de hongos en varios sustratos diferentes. Este estudio compar la riqueza de especies de hongos macro entre las especies de roble, Quercus corrugata y Quercus insignis. Estas especies se encuentran a diferentes alturas que van continuacin1 700m, as como los diferentes sustratos, como las bellotas, el suelo, las races y la hojarasca. Un total de 30 rboles fueron encuestados a lo largo de las cordilleras y picos en la Reserva Forestal de Monteverde en Costa Rica. Cada rbol contiene varias especies diferentes de hongos, algunas superpuestas, algunos repetitivos y exclusivo, parte. Los hongos fueron identificados mediante fotografas, descripciones escritas, y las identidades del sustrato. Un total de 31 especies se observaron en P. insignis, de 33 aos de P. corrugata. De las 64 especies, 20 se sabe que tienen afiliaciones de roble, lo que indica el espectro de especies de hongos de Quercus spp. En general, los datos muestran una correlacin directa con la asociacin de sustrato, sustratos del suelo y los rboles fueron los ms comunes. Esta tendencia de frecuencia equilibrada es muy diferente de los estudios previos sealaron que P. corrugata, en altitudes ms altas, es tan rica como la menor altura Q. insignis. Esto podra ser un indicador de los efectos del cambio climtico en un rea que alguna vez fue demasiado fro para apoyar a grandes cantidades de hongos, pero ahora se ha calentado y se sec lo suficiente como para establecer una frecuencia ms alta.
546
Text in English.
650
Forest fungi
Fungi--Variation
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
4
Hongos del bosque
Hongos--Variacin
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde
653
Tropical Ecology Summer 2010
Ecologa Tropical Verano 2010
655
Reports
720
CIEE
773
t Monteverde Institute : Tropical Ecology
856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?m39.221