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Importancia de la educacin ambiental y comparando el conocimiento de los grados 9-12 en Monteverde, Costa Rica y Middleton, Wisconsin, Estados Unidos
Importance of environmental education and knowledge comparing grades 9-12 in Monteverde, Costa Rica and Middleton, Wisconsin, USA
Environmental education is not always a part of school curricula, particularly in the developing world, where population growth and environmental degradation are increase most rapidly. This study takes place in Monteverde, Costa Rica where three local schools with varying levels of environmental education were surveyed. I compared them to a high school in Middleton, Wisconsin to see how Costa Rica and the United States compare. A 20-question survey was used to measure environmental knowledge of students at each school. I found that environmental education is important. Environmental education was an important determinant of environmental
awareness and knowledge. Environmental Education, as a curricular focus, boosted even poor to middle class Costa Ricans to levels beyond average Costa Rican students from the same community; to a level nearly equal to affluent expatriates and students in the suburban United States.
La educacin ambiental no es siempre parte de los planes de estudios, especialmente en el mundo de desarrollo, donde hay mucho crecimiento poblacional y degradacin ambiental. Este estudio se realiz en Monteverde Costa Rica donde hay tres escuelas locales con niveles diferentes. Compar las escuelas en Costa Rica a un colegio en Middleton Wisconsin. Us una encuesta de 20 preguntas para calcular el conocimiento ambiental entre los estudiantes de las escuelas. Encontr que la educacin ambiental es muy importante. La educacin ambiental es un determinante importante para el conocimiento ambiental. La educacin ambiental, como un plan de estudios, levant las clases pobres costarricense a un nivel ms alto del promedio de los estudiantes costarricenses de la misma comunidad; a un nivel de estudiantes en los Estados Unidos.
Text in English.
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde
Tropical Ecology Spring 2010
Ecologa Tropical Primavera 2010
t Monteverde Institute : Tropical Ecology
Importance of Environmental Education and Knowledge: Comparing Grades 9 12 in Monteverde, Costa Rica and Middleton, Wisconsin, USA Katie Wipfli Environmental Science, Policy and Management University of Minnesota Twin Cities Abstract Environmental ed ucation is not always a part of school curricula, particularly in the developing world, where population growth and environmental degradation are increase most rapidly. This study takes place in Monteverde, Costa Rica where three local schools with varying levels of environmental education were surveyed. I compared them to a high school in Middleton, Wisconsin to see how Costa Rica and the United States compare. A 20 question survey was used to measure environmental knowledge of students at each school. I f ound that environmental education is important. Environmental education was an important determinant of environmental awareness and knowledge. Environmental Education, as a curricular focus, boosted even poor to middle class Costa Ricans to levels beyond a verage Costa Rican students from the same community; to a level nearly equal to affluent expatriates and students in the suburban United States. Resumen La educaciÃ³n ambiental no es siempre parte de los planes de estudios, especialmente en el mundo des arrollo, donde hay mucho crecimiento poblacional y degradaciÃ³n ambiental. Este estudio se realizÃ³ en Monteverde Costa Rica donde hay tres escuelas locales con niveles diferentes. ComparÃ© las escuelas en Costa Rica a un colegio en Middleton Wisconsin. UsÃ© u n encuesta de 20 preguntas para calcular el conocimiento ambiental entre los estudiantes de las escuelas. EncontrÃ© que la educaciÃ³n ambiental es muy importante. La educaciÃ³n ambiental es un determinante importante para el conocimiento ambiental. La educac iÃ³n ambiental, como un plan de estudios, levantÃ³ las clases costarricense pobre a nivel mÃ¡s alto del promedio de los estudiantes costarricenses de la misma comunidad; a un nivel de estudiantes en los Estados Unidos. Introduction We are currently living in a human dominated planet that is causing enormous environmental change (Vitousek et al, 1997A). We are altering our environment to extremes that it may not ever be able to recover due to technology and advances such as industrial and green revolutions (Vitousek et al, 1997B). Not only are we increasing the frequency or intensity of disturbances, we are creating new ones that have never been seen before (Vitousek et al, 1997A). Land
transformation is increasing due to agriculture, urbanization and defore station (Vitousek et al, 1997A). Land transformation is contributes to about 20% of the current CO 2 being released into the atmosphere (Vitouset et al, 1997A). A lot of the worlds population (60%) can be found within 100 km of the oceans, this is contribut ing to the damages being seen in the ocean ecosystem (Vitousek et al, 1997A). There is an increased urbanization especially in developing nations (Torrey BB, 2004). This shift to the cities is leading to urban sprawl, pollution and over exploitation of res ources, and many people are unaware the consequences. Environmental education attempts to teach skills and acquire attitudes that are important to understand and appreciating the interrelatedness between humans and their biophysical surrounds (Palmer JA, 1998). It looks at the effects that humans play on our environment as well as functions of the biosystems. Environmental education should be a priority now more than ever, to educate the future generations on how to combat the environmental problems curre ntly facing our environment as stated above. With all of these problems that we are either facing now, or will be in the next 40 years, it is important to make environmental education more prevalent in school curriculums (Blumstein DT, Saylan C, 2007). The re is not data about environmental literacy and the understanding of the current environmental education system (Blumstein DT, Saylan C, 2007). There should be an assessment to better understand the knowledge of our global community before the environmenta l problems rise to a level where it will not matter if people are well educated on environmental science. It is important to find out what people do not know so we can plan a curriculum around it.8334910 Environmental education focuses on understanding e cological systesms and functions on local, regional and global scales. Humans have a hard time knowing the consequences our actions have on ecosystems or the biosphere (Orr DW, 2004). Therefore, environmental education is critical in learning from past mis takes. Often cited examples are our use of DDT, the industrial revolution, The Green Revolution and others that resulted in unforeseen and sometimes extreme environmental harm (Bowers C, 2001). Industrialization of developing countries is exacerbating such problems and making them global. Moveover, developing nations have less urban planning, fewer regulations and more limited economic resources to avoid or react to human caused degradation to the environment (Hardoy JE et al, 1997). We are now a global s ociety and problems are felt worldwide, from the tundra to tropics with everything in between. This is why environmental education needs to be universal. This study looks at how well environmental education is preparing students in our global society not o nly in industrialized countries, like the United States, but also developing economies, like Costa Rica. Developng countries cannot lag in their understand of the environment; they are large shareholders in both the extent of human impact and our collectiv e response to it. Thus, why it is important to implement some sort of environmental assessment to determine the environmental literacy of citizens all around the world. METHODS AND MATERIALS To measure environmental knowledge I constructed a survey of 20 questions that I thought
covered not only some basic education knowledge, but also environmental problems that all should know (see appendix A and B). Questions look at how much students know about the environment, focusing on problems on a global scale . The survey was administered at three schools in Monteverde, Costa Rica and one in Middleton, Wisconsin, USA. The survey was given to high school students in grades 9 12 at all schools. Expect at the Cloud Forest School, where the highest grade level is 1 1 th . The three schools in Monteverde were given a paper version of the survey, and to collect data from the United States I used an online service called Surveymonkey to make and send the surveys. The three schools that I looked at in Monteverde were two p rivate bilingual schools: the Cloud Forest School (locally known as the Centro de EducatioÃ³n Creativa), the Monteverde Friends School, and the public high school: Colegio TÃ©cnico Profesional de Santa Elena. The United States school was Middleton High Schoo l, a public school in Middleton, Wisconsin. School Profiles: The Monteverde Friends School (MFS) is located in Monteverde, Costa Rica. It is a wealthy school by local standards, with very well educated parents and large percentage of foreign expatriates from industrialized countries, primarily the United States. The Friends School is a private school that was created by the Quakers nearly 60 years ago when they came to Costa Rica (mfschool.org). This school is a bilingual school that accepts study abroad students from the United States to its high school. MFS was the smallest of the high schools surveyed with only about 21 high school students. There is no environmental emphasis, however, environmental education is part of their science curriculum. Further , many parents are either biologists, tour guides or leaders in the ecotourism based economy. The Cloud Forest School (CFS), known locally as the Centro de EducaciÃ³n Creativa (CFS) is in Cerro Plano, Costa Rica. The school has mostly middle class to poor Costa Rican families. It is also a bilingual school and was founded in 1991 to increase education opportunities and environmental education for the growing community of Monteverde. This is the only school in the area that has an environmental focus. From t he CFS, 40 high school students were surveyed. They have more of a creative way of looking at education with an emphasis on environmental education. CFS is the only of the schools surveyed that does not have a 12 th grade, simply 9 11. The public high scho ol is the Colegio TÃ©cnico Profesional de Santa Elena (CP) which is located in Santa Elena, Costa Rica. It was started in 1977. This school has similar demographics to the CFS, however the difference is between the schools is that CP does not have any envir onmental education program. Its focus is on agriculture and ecotourism, two popular activities of the area. Here 144 students were surveyed from grades 9 12. The school that I used in the United States to compare with the schools in Costa Rica was Middle ton High School in Middleton, Wisconsin (US). Middleton is a large, affluent high school located just outside of Madison. It was established in 1879 and has grown immensely since then. Middleton has a strong environmental science program with two classes, environmental science and AP Environmental Science. From both classes 61 students were surveyed grades 10 12. There was no time restriction for the survey, however; most students took between 10 to 20 minutes. For the schools in Costa Rica I went to the classroom to administer the test. Students
were told that if they did not know the answer to make their best educated guess. Once the surveys were completed I compiled all the surveys on to a spreadsheet. RESULTS The students were also asked to list the occupation of both of their parents. Of the responses that I collected I found that the occupations of the students at the MFS and US were similar with many computer programmers and administrators. Where as CFS and CP were similar in the occupations with the majority being stay at home mothers, cooks, drivers and more hands on work. To find out if there was a statistical difference between the relative number of correct answers obtained from the schools compared proportion of correct answers using a Krus kall Wallis test. Figure 1 looks at all of the results found. FIGURE 1: Average rank for the 20 questions for each of the four schools that were surveyed. Figure 1 is looking at Kruskall Wallis Test and there is a difference between the four studied s chools (H=8.79, DF=3, P=.03). The difference is found between CP and US school (t=2.743, p=.006). Each of the bars represents the four schools, Monteverde Friends School (MFS), Cloud Forest School (CFS), Public High School (CP) and Middleton High School ( US). I took the percent correct for each of the questions and ranked them 1 4, accordingly. 1 is the top score and the United States school had the lowest mean rank for the 20 questions indicating they were
correct more of the time. I selected question s that had unusual trends, counter to the general trend from Figure 1. For these, I used Chi Square tests to compare the relative proportions of correct answers. Every test includes all of the students in high school at each school (n=266). Figure 2 lo oks at 220 students who wrote the correct response to the question. FIGURE 2: Question 13: Global climate change is due to an increase in greenhouse gases found in the atmosphere. Which of the following is the most common greenhouse gas? Figure 2 i llustrates that between all of the schools there was a not a difference (X 2 =.8494, p<. 05, df=3). All schools had the highest average percentage for the correct answer of Carbon Dioxide. Figure 3 looks at one of the questions that I thought was most imp ortant on the survey. This are anthropogenic in origin (Vitousek et al. 1997A). This question I thought was important because it looks to see if high school stu dents are learning about the rapid increase of humans and our impacts on the environment. The total number of students that answered correct for figure 3 was 149 or 56% of the 266 surveyed.
FIGURE 3: Question 14, What is the approximate world populat ion at the current time rounded to the nearest billion? Figure 3 shows there is a difference between the schools knowledge (X 2 =26.35, p<.05, df=3). The correct answer for question 14 was that there are currently approximately seven billion people in the wo rld. Which for Schools especially CP was extremely over estimated . Figure 4 is a question that was included because it is a good example of one that the students in Monteverde as a whole all knew, whereas the United States did not score as well. This co uld be because in the United States many people do not need to worry about if their water is potable. It is generally not looked at in environmental education curriculums in the United States or used often outside of the scientific community. Of all of the students surveyed, 235 answered the question correctly.
FIGURE 4: Question 15: Potable water refers to what kind of water? Showed that there was a not difference between the schools (X 2 =2.809, p< .05, df=3) Majority of the students knew that potable w ater means drinkable. Figure 5 looks at a question that is more important to the schools in Monteverde. It is about the was to see if the students knew about what was happening in their backyards because at one point in time this toad was prevalent. Total that answered correct was 235.
FIGURE 5: Question 21: What is believed to be the major cause of the extinction of the Golden Toad in Monteverde Costa Ri ca? Figure 5 shows that there is a difference in the data (X 2 =18.507, p<.05, df=3). There was a large variation between the schools in knowledge on the extinction of the Golden Toad and MVF and CFS for the most part knew that it was due to Climate Change. Figure 6 is an example of all the schools answering the question incorrectly. These are the statistics for the correct answer and no one scored higher than 35%. The correct answer to this question was paper, however plastic was the most commonly chosen. Of the total 266 students that took the survey only 46 of them answered the question correctly.
FIGURE 6: Question 24: What is the most common waste product found in landfills? Figure 6 shows that the schools are different (X 2 =12.97, p<.05, df=3). However, most of the students chose the incorrect answer. This is why the percent of correct answers is low. This is an example of one of the questions that all four schools failed to answer correctly. However an interesting point is that this is one of t he questions that CP did better than the other high schools in Monteverde. Figure 7 looks was to look at the public school in that they did better than the other schools in Monteverde. It was also another question that majority of students at all four s chools answered incorrectly, so that is the reason that the percentage of correct answers is so low. The number of students that answered this question correctly was 108.
FIGURE 7: Question 25: What is the major cause of death for infants worldwide? I t showed that there was no difference in the schools (X 2 =1.79, p<.05, df=3). The results for this are so low because many students believed that the correct answer was mal nutrition when actual it was water borne illness. DISCUSSION Human populatio n is a large problem when it comes to the environment. This is because humans, for the most part, are the accelerators of most of the environmental problems we see in the world today (Vitousek, 1997B). With the recent increase in human population, global e nvironmental problems are increasing. Currently we are at seven billion people, which only about 56 percent of students knew. In the past 50 years we have raised in population by 5 billion people, which is the largest population growth in centuries (US Cen sus Bureau, 2008). This question showed that people in the developing world are not aware of population, even though they are the largest contributors (United Nations Population Division, 2008). A reason for the increased population growth in developing na tions because in more developed nations birth control is more common and promoted ( Critchlow DT, 1999). Figure 4 is looking at an environmental vocabulary word, which is the meaning of the word potable. It is just a word but it could mean life and death . This also ties in with figure 7 because figure 7 is important because the main cause of death for infants around the world is water borne illnesses. The United States has laws to make sure there is clean water. The Environmental Protection Agency enacted the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1976 to make sure that the public
does not drink contaminated water, unfortunately that is not the case for all countries around t he world (United States General Accounting Offices. 2000). All the schools answered this question correctly and it also had the highest percentage of correct answers than any other question. It shows that even schools without formal environmental educatio n program are picking up some environmental knowledge that is found around them and retaining it. Figures 6 and 7 looked at questions that all the schools answered incorrectly. Figure 6 is looking at the make up of landfills, which is where majority of t he trash around the world ends up. The majority of students, 74%, stated that plastic was the largest source of waste found in landfills when in fact it is paper. The percentage of students that thought it was paper was only at 40%. Figure 7 was an example again of a question that the majority of students did not answer correctly. This question shows that there was not much difference in between the schools, except the United States school in figure 6, but that this could be where environmental education is falling through. This shows that the students did not ever learn or retain this information. Figures 2 and 5 are looking at Climate Change and some factors that accelerate it as well as a consequence of the increased temperatures. Figure 2 was to see if students are learning the reasons behind climate change on a basic chemical level. Carbon dioxide and water vapor are the two larges contributors to the increased climate temperature. Because of the increased temperatures due to Global Warming extinctions are becoming more common. Figure 5 was to look at the reason behind the disappearance of the Golden Toad to Monteverde. This event was taking place in the community of the students in Monteverde. Climate Change may also have its skeptics but the changes t o the environment are evident in some places and it is important to at least teach both sides of the story to Global Warming. Looking at all the schools as a whole, however; students did not score as well as I would have hoped. Even if all the students k new the answers and the percentage of correct answers was high it would generally be from 60 to 85 percent. There was never a question that everyone answered correctly. There were a couple of pockets of 90 96 percent but never consistent across schools, wh ich is why I feel that environmental education has a long way to go. The data did show that environmental education is important to the development of environmental literate people. This is because CP has no sort of environmental education program put in p lace at the current time and through out the question they generally had the lowest percent of correct answers. Although there was only statistical difference between CP and US (Figure 1), the US, MFS and CFS were all very similar in the results found, sho wing that even a little bit of environmental education is beneficial to the increased environmental literacy. From the data I found that MFS shows that affluence makes up for the weakness found in environmental education, because although they do not have an environmental education curriculum in place they should not have done as well as they did. However, their parents are more educated, which in this case must carry into their children and they want to make sure they are informed of environmental problem s. CFS and CP show that environmental education can make a big difference in less affluent situations and helps to balance everything. So environmental education focus in developing economies can help over come differences in affluence and has the potentia l to teach everyone a valuable lesson.
AKNOWLEDGEMENTS First off I would like to thank JosÃ© Carlos CalderÃ³n a thousand times for his patience which translating surveys, helping me with the same statistics more than once and going to the schools with me to talk to classes. I would also like to thank my advisor Alan Masters for all his help with my surveys and then analyzing the data to make this paper. A special thanks to Jenny for saving my statistics when I thought that I had done everything completely wrong and thought I was going to have to start over. Thank you also to Chunches and CafÃ© Monteverde in Monteverde for letting me sit and use the internet for 8 hours at a time. An unbelievable amount of thanks to every school that volunteered to help me w ith my research, and Amy Workman for all of her help setting things up and reading surveys. I felt welcomed at every school and it was great to that everyone was so kind and willing to participate. Thank you also to my friends for always helping me when I had random questions or playing disc golf when I needed a writing break. LITERATURE CITED Blumstein DT, Saylan C. 2007. The Failure of Environmental Education (and How Can We Fix It). 5(5): e120 Bowers, C. 2001. How Language Limits Our Understanding of Environmental Education. 7:2. 146. Critchlow DT. 1999. Intended Consequences: Birth Control, Abortion, and the Federal Government. 7. Hardoy, JE. Et al. 1997. Environmental Problems in Third World Cities. 16 17. National Environmental Education Founda tion. 2000. Test Your Environmental Knowledge. The National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, Roper Starch Worldwide. 2001. Lessons from the Environmental, Why 95% of Adult Americans Endorse Environmental Education. 1:7 Orr, David. 2004. Ea rth in mind: on education, environment, and the human prospect. Palmer, JA. 1998. Environmental education in the 21 st century: theory, practice, progress and promise. Torrey BB. 2004. Urbanization: An Environmental Force to Be Reckoned With. Population R eference Bureau. United Nations Population Division. 2008. World Population Growth, 1950 2050. US General Accounting Office. 2000. DRINKING WATER, Spending Constraints Could Affect US Census B ureau, International Data Base. 2008. World Population:1950 2050. 496. Vitousek et al. 1997B. Introduced Species: A Significant Component of Human Caused Global Change. New Ze aland Journal of Ecology 21:1 16.
APPENDIX A Survey in English Grade: Gender: School: 1. Carbon monoxide is a major contributor to air pollution in cities around the world. Which of the following is the bi ggest source of carbon monoxide in cities? a. Factories and businesses b. People breathing c. Motor vehicles** d. Trees 2. What is the most common cause of pollution in streams, rivers, and oceans? a. Dumping of garbage by cities b. Surface water runnin g off yards, city streets, paved lots, and farm fields** c. Trash washed into the ocean from beaches d. Waste dumped by factories 3. Ozone forms a protective layer in the earth's upper atmosphere. What does ozone protect us from? a. Acid rain in precipi tation b. Global warming in the atmosphere c. Sudden changes in temperature d. Ultraviolet rays in sunlight** This type of question is unbalanced: the rule when guessing is to go with the longest answer. I would balance the different choices. 4. Where does most of the garbage in the world end up? a. Oceans b. Incinerators c. Recycling centers d. Landfills** 5. What is the most common reason that an animal species becomes extinct today? a. Pesticides are killing them b. Their habitats are being destro yed by humans** c. There is too much hunting d. There are climate changes that affect them 6. Scientists have not determined the best solution for disposing of nuclear waste. In
the U.S., what do we do with it now? a. Use it as nuclear fuel b. Sell it to other countries c. Dump it in landfills d. Store and monitor the waste** 7. What is the primary benefit of wetlands? a. Promote flooding to renew the watershed b. Help clean the water before it enters lakes, streams, rivers, or oceans** c. Help keep the number of undesirable plants and animals low d. Provide good sites for landfills This question is also a bit unbalanced. 8. Global climate change is due to an increase in greenhouse gases found in the atmosphere. Which of the following is the most com mon greenhouse gas? a. Sulfur dioxide b. Carbon dioxide** c. Nitrogen 4. Hydrogen 9. What is the approximate world population at the current time rounded to the nearest billion? a. 1 billion b. 3 billion c. 7 billion** d. 10 billion 10. Potable water ref ers to what kind of water? a. Drinkable water** b. Brackish water c. Salty Water d. Undrinkable water 11. What is the estimated global human population to the nearest billion in the year 2050? a. 4 billion b. 9 billion** c. 20 billion d. 80 billion 12. Seafood is an important primary source of protein for many people around the world. What percent of fishing areas are overexploited (more fish are taken out than
are being replaced)? a. 100% b. 50% c. 25%** d. 45% 13. Where major rivers meet the ocean, se diment is causing problems by suffocating the coral and other wildlife that in the ocean nearby. What is the name of this impacted area near mouths of rivers? a. Dead Zone** b. Area of Sediment c. Region of Degradation d. Land of Barren 14. Sub Saharan Af rica is experiencing drying that is in part due to increased agricultural use. This causes already dry habitats to become so dry they no longer support crops. This problem is called a. Deforestation b. Desertification** c. Desert Magnification d. Exploita tion 15. Top predators are keystone species; an example of a top predator would be the Grey Wolf or Jaguar. What normally happens to an ecosystem if the top predator is removed? a. Nothing happens and the ecosystem generally stays the same b. Without lar ge predators to remove sick individuals, disease takes over c. Some change is seen but another predator takes over the top predator position d. Plant eaters (prey) become more common and reduce plant species diversity** 16. What is believed to be the majo r cause of the extinction of the Golden Toad in Monteverde Costa Rica? a. Climate Change** b. Habitat Destruction c. Drying up of streams d. Pollution 17. Which ONE of the following statistics is correct? a. 50% of Tropical Rainforest is still left** b. 50% of Prairie is still left c. 50% of Coniferous Forest is still left d. 50% of Desert is still left 18. When is oil expected to run out at its current rate of use (considering all known
and reliable places to extract it)? a. 4 years b. 40 years** c. 400 years d. 4000 years 19. What is the most common waste product found in landfills WORLDWIDE? a. Paper** b. Aluminum c. Glass d. Plastic 20. What is the major cause of death for infants worldwide? a. Malnutrition b. Air Pollution c. AIDS d. Water Borne Disease** APPENDIX B Spanish Survey SecciÃ³n: Sexo: Colegio: OcupaciÃ³n de la madre:
OcupaciÃ³n del padre: 1. El monÃ³xido de carbon es el mayor contribuyente a la contaminaciÃ³n del aire alrededor del mundo. CuÃ¡l de los sigui entes es la mayor fuente de monÃ³xido de carbono en las ciudades? a. Fabricas y Negocios b. RespiraciÃ³n de las personas c. VehÃculos de motor** d. Ãrboles 2. CuÃ¡l es la mayor causa de contaminaciÃ³n en quebradas, rÃos y ocÃ©anos? a. Desperdicios de basura de las ciudades b. Agua superficial que corre de las casas, calles de la ciudad, lotes pavimentados y granjas** c. Basura en las playas que llega al ocÃ©ano d. Desperdicios de fabricas 3. El Ozono forma una capa protectora en la parte superior de la atmÃ³ sfera de la tierra. De quÃ© nos protege el ozono? a. PrecipitaciÃ³n de lluvia Ã¡cida b. Calentamiento global en la atmÃ³sfera c. Cambios repentinos en la temperatura d. Rayos ultravioleta en la luz solar** 4. Donde termina la mayorÃa de la basura en el mundo? a. OcÃ©anos b. Incineradores c. Centros de reciclaje d. Botaderos de basura** 5. CuÃ¡l es la razÃ³n mÃ¡s comÃºn, hoy en dÃa, por la cual se extinguen especies de animales? a. Pesticidas las estÃ¡n matando b. DestrucciÃ³n de su hÃ¡bitat por parte de humanos** c. Hay mucha cacerÃa d. El cambio climÃ¡tico las estÃ¡ afectando 6. Los cientÃficos no han determinado aÃºn la mejor soluciÃ³n para la eliminaciÃ³n de los desechos nucleares. En Estados Unidos, que se hace en estos momentos? a. Usarlo como combustible nuclear b. Venderlo a otros paÃses c. Depositarlo en botaderos de basura d. Almacenarlo y monitorear los desechos** 7. CuÃ¡l es el beneficio principal de los humedales? a. Promueve inundaciones para renovar la cuenca b. Ayuda a purificar el agua antes de llegar a lagos, quebradas, rÃos y ocÃ©anos** c. Ayuda a mantener bajas las poblaciones de plantas y animales indeseados
d. Provee buenos sitios para botaderos de basura 8. El cambio climÃ¡tico a nivel global se debe a un aumento en los gases de invernadero encont rados en la atmosfera. CuÃ¡l de los siguientes es el mÃ¡s comÃºn de estos gases? a. DiÃ³xido de sulfuro b. DiÃ³xido de carbono** c. NitrÃ³geno d. HidrÃ³geno 9. CuÃ¡l es la poblaciÃ³n mundial aproximada (redondeada a los mil millones mÃ¡s cercanos) en este mo mento? a. Mil millones b. 3 mil millones c. 7 mil millones** d. 10 mil millones 10. Agua potable se refiere a quÃ© tipo de agua? a. Agua que se puede tomar** b. Agua salobre c. Agua salada d. Agua que no se debe tomar 11. CuÃ¡l es la poblaciÃ³n mundial esti mada (a los mil millones mÃ¡s cercano) para el aÃ±o 2050? a. 4 mil millones b. 9 mil millones** c. 20 mil millones d. 80 mil millones 12. Los mariscos y peces son una fuente importante de proteÃna para muchas personas alrededor del mundo. QuÃ© porcentaje de las aÃ©reas de pesca son sobreexplotadas (mÃ¡s peces son capturados de los que se sustituyen) a. 100% b. 50% c. 25%** d. 5% 13. Donde los rÃos principales se unen al ocÃ©ano, los sedimentos estÃ¡n causando un problema sofocando el coral y otra fauna cerca na. CuÃ¡l es el nombre de estÃ¡ Ã¡rea impactada cerca de la desembocadura de los rÃos? a. Zona Muerta** b. Ãrea de SedimentaciÃ³n c. RegiÃ³n de DegradaciÃ³n
d. RegiÃ³n Esteril 14. La regiÃ³n al sur del sahara en Africa estÃ¡ experimentando una sequÃa que es en pa rte debido al aumento en la agricultura. Esto causa que Ã¡reas con problemas de sequÃa se vuelvan aÃºn mÃ¡s secas que no pueden soportar mÃ¡s cultivos. Este problema se denomina: a. DeforestaciÃ³n b. DesertificaciÃ³n** c. AmpliaciÃ³n del desierto d. ExplotaciÃ³n 15. Los depredadores en lo alto de la cadena alimenticia son especies claves; un ejemplo de estos depredadores son el Lobo Gris o el Jaguar. QuÃ© pasa normalmente en un ecosistema si estos depredadores son eliminados? a. No pasa nada y el ecosistema gen eralmente se mantiene igual. b. Sin estos depredadores, que eliminan los individuos enfermos, las enfermedades toman parte del ecosistema. c. Se nota algÃºn cambio, pero otro depredador toma la posiciÃ³n y funciÃ³n del depredador eliminado. d. Animales herbÃ voros (presas) se vuelven mÃ¡s comunes y abundantes y reducen la diversidad de plantas** 16. CuÃ¡l se cree es la principal causa de la extinciÃ³n del sapo dorado en Monteverde, Costa Rica? a. Cambio climÃ¡tico (calentamiento global)** b. DestrucciÃ³n del hÃ¡bit at c. SequÃa de los rÃos d. ContaminaciÃ³n 17. CuÃ¡l de las siguientes estadÃsticas es correcta?: a.TodavÃa existe un 50% del Bosque Lluvioso Tropical** b.TodavÃa existe un 50% de Praderas c. TodavÃa existe un 50% de bosques de conÃferas d. TodavÃa exis te un 50% de los desiertos 18. Para cuando se espera se acaben las reservas de petrÃ³leo actuales (considerando todas las fuentes conocidas y confiables para extraerlo) a. 4aÃ±os b.40 aÃ±os c. 400 aÃ±os d.4000 aÃ±os
19. CuÃ¡l es el desecho mÃ¡s comÃºnmente enco ntrado en botaderos o rellenos de basura alrededor del mundo? a. Papel** b. Aluminio c. Vidrio d. PlÃ¡stico 20. CuÃ¡l es la mayor causa de muerte infantil alrededor del mundo? a. Mala nutriciÃ³n b. ContaminaciÃ³n del aire c. Sida d. Enfermedades transmitidas por agua contaminada