Greek culture

Greek culture

Material Information

Greek culture
Fileraton, John
Caravasios, Peter
Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla. ;
Miami, Fla
[Federal writers' Project of Florida
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
177 p. : ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Greeks -- Florida ( lcsh )
Greek drama -- Translations into English ( lcsh )
Proverbs, Greek ( lcsh )


Contains multiple works on Greek culture. "Sacrifice" is a two act play adapted by John Fileraton from "an ancient Greek mythology of prehistoric times, from the book 'Vomoi' by Nicholaos Lambrenides." It is dated April 1941 and runs 10 pages, preceded by a letter John Fileraton wrote to Carita Doggett Corse, the state supervisor of the Federal Writers' Project in Florida. Pages 11-84 consists of material on Greeks in Florida. The next work is a list of 301 Greek proverbs translated into English, compiled by Mrs. Peter Caravasios of Miami and dated November 17, 1939. It is 20 pages. "A social-ethnic study of the Greeks in Tampa" is credited to Bryan & Fileraton and dated November 1939. It runs 72 pages.
General Note:
Collective title supplied by cataloger.
Original Version:
Works Progress Administration Tampa office records, 1917-1943 Box 15 Folders 16-17

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
W27-00339 ( USFLDC DOI )
w27.339 ( USFLDC Handle )

USFLDC Membership

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Tampa WPA Office Papers

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[Greek culture].
Tampa, Fla. ;
Miami, Fla. :
b [Federal writers' Project of Florida,
c 1939-1941].
177 p.
Collective title supplied by cataloger.
Contains multiple works on Greek culture. "Sacrifice" is a two act play adapted by John Fileraton from "an ancient Greek mythology of prehistoric times, from the book 'Vomoi' by Nicholaos Lambrenides." It is dated April 1941 and runs 10 pages, preceded by a letter John Fileraton wrote to Carita Doggett Corse, the state supervisor of the Federal Writers' Project in Florida. Pages 11-84 consists of material on Greeks in Florida. The next work is a list of 301 Greek proverbs translated into English, compiled by Mrs. Peter Caravasios of Miami and dated November 17, 1939. It is 20 pages. "A social-ethnic study of the Greeks in Tampa" is credited to Bryan & Fileraton and dated November 1939. It runs 72 pages.
z Florida.
Greek drama
v Translations into English.
Proverbs, Greek.
Fileraton, John.
Caravasios, Peter,
2 710
Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Florida.
t Tampa WPA Office Papers.
4 856


, ROY SCHRODER STA'JE .ADMINISTRATOR J'EDERAL WOBKS AGENCY-WORK PROJECTS .ADMINIS!'RATION OJ' J'LbRIDA ., \ 710-13 Wail.aee s. Bldg., Tampa, Florida. J.prn 4, 1941. Dr. carita Doggett Corse, state SUpervisor, WPA Writers' Project ot Florida, Work Projects Administration, .I 49 W. Duval St.; Jacksonville, Florida Dear Dr. Corse: GOing through many Greek school books, I ran across this little play, which I translated and zearranged to the best ot rq knowledge. I would l1ke to produce it somewhere, as it is instructive, and ehows the need ot many ae.cri t1ces today. with nice stage settings, light eftect, and good dramatic action, .this little play oould be shown at its best, any place. Please advise me as to what -we can e.dd to tit the patriotia ot .odern times, or is it allright as it is. .As soon as th81 are reacly we will aend other stories which we have troa m7 Greek school reeearoh work, an4 which appear to be Tery interesting and educa tional. (Signed) SincerelY TOurs, John Fileraton, John Fileraton, Wri tere' Project I


'I -l SACRIJ'ICE April l94l 1 obn lileraton Tu:pa, orr1ce A two act play in three scenes, arranged aDd translated by 1ohn Fileraton, an ancient Greek ll,ytholog or prehistoric ti.aes, trom the book WVCH>I" by Nicholaos Lallbrenides. The scene 1a on the wala or the Acropolis, and the city ot Goddess Athenaa, as the curtain rhea, BOMER, is seen standing on the top ot the hill, holding a J.7re, and racing the Acropolis. A tn listeners, all 1D Greoian.costuaes are grouped around hia holding water Tases, other setting down, while tour ot the listeners haTe upon which they pretend to play. ., Sort --o or flute aDd string 1Dstl"WWI8nts 11 heard trom the back or the stage and solo by either one or the girls, or Romer hiuelt. The lights gradually brighten aa the music continues and ballet dancers enter the stage, with a clauio dance, holding wreathes or ol1Te branches. At the end or the ballet, the lights are diaed, and all lee.Te exoept the tour girls who were hol41Dg the who are taking the part or the llngs daughters Xreouaa Prokria Or1th1a Prokrb) :&reouaa) Or1tb.1a Pl'Okr1a Orithia Well, tell. Orithia, what baTe you seen from the Walla? Yea, do, tell ua wbat you aaw. (going towards the wings, looking aroUD4 to aee it one is listening, and returns) 1ust one aiDnte, I want to it aother 1a -coming. .. ( 1Jrpatientl.7} Well 1 Mother 4oea DOt allow ua to go near the walls, and you know how strict she 1s it we disobey ? You are DOt going to tell on ? would 7ou ? No We will DOt, ooae and tell ua DOW It ws nch a beautitul. dq, thai I could not remain 1D4oora, and wished to cjoy tbe waraith or the SUn, I haTe .uoceeded in gett1128 out or the palace and little by little I got to the walla. I was JIOre anxious tcS see what going on at the other aide, ao I cliabed to the top o:t the ladder, looking troa one ot th8 openings. /


<., \ I I Prokris. Kreousa. Hthonia. Or1thia Prokr1s Prokria Orithia Xreousa PNkria} 'orithia.) Hthonia Prokris Hthonia Pl'okria Xreousa -2-sacrifice. (veey unous). .And what did JOU aee ?. Oh1 How can I e%press it to jou, l The field ns :tull ot tents, the enemy were lying on the grass, with their arrows and ahiel4s in :torm o:t pyramids, and were resting. A little :tarther was another group throwing the diaous, with .any around ntching the athletes, laugh!Dg and jokiDg. Others farther clown tormed a circle and were singiDg, and in the center aoae one -.. playillg the qre. I wish yeu could have seen how hapw they were Natural.J..7 they are happy; :tor many months now thq have surrounded us. (sadly). that we camlot mch longer hold out, and they are e%pecting at aey t D.e tor the ci t:r o:t Athenas 1io :tall 1 ... ,. .And they have r against ua ? What have we done? By the Gods, I don't Ullderatand 1lh:r they wish 1io hara us 1... Neither do I, understand tbe reason. I've oal.7 heard that the king o:t Eleusina, declared war., and took the oath in the JWI8 of the Goddess Deaetra, to conquer the Acropolis 1. .And if he does conquer it, then what will happen 1io us? Ah l in the name the Gods, ll Be will,.. then take us all as his slaves Slavery is bad, but not the worat ; they are going to kill us all 1 (frightened) "OH ttl I'd rather get killed, than becQ118 a slave t Doesn't aotber aa7 this al.Jra7a ? You are a 7et, aDd you don't underataild the_ ileaning o:t lite l. (saracastically) And You, who Ullderstand it, -get ready to beoOJU a alav' ot your country' 11 en8111es ( exidKedl7) -!Ill)" the Gods protect us t (to the other girla) What a bad and silly is Bthonia t (not considering lithonia) You. know her t. She never respects her el4ers ll. I .About thia tiM the queen approaches, kind and d1gn1t1 .ed, I


. Pre.n'thea -3-Sacritioe. aDd eo-aDdable 'rhe g1rla stand up very gracetulq and reiiJ)ectable as 'the;r see her.). ('the queen) You are all here ?. (to Prok:ria) Prokria, as you are the eldest you J18Y go imd watch the -ids who are grinding the wheat nth those hand ailla, and 70U Kreousa w1 th Ori th1a gathar all the unito:nu troa the linea, ftioh are now drJ (to Hthonia) and you Htholiia go out in the 7ard because ,-our dear :tather will oome 1n a little 11h1let" with the ottioera tor a council, 110 ran along (Hthonia kisses her mother, while the other sirla bowa graoetull:r and exit) (Aa she lett alone, sighilJg, loud cries and ahou:ts is I heard from back stage troa the hungry surrounded citizens) It s terrible l 'l'he city ot the Goddess Athena is 1n danger o:t into the hands o:t the enemies, and will not hold out 1111ch longer The sun ot Libvty will be ;. OTershadowed. (she walks :tew steps and decides)... But no lll this will never happen, the Goddess will.never let it be done We, are goimg to be saved. We (curtain). SECOND ACT The scene is at the. palAce of the ld.llg Erehtheus, in the reception ro011, (A cut drop showing columna in foreground, as the scene ot the first act 1n the liackground 18 showing) The kings' And warriors helllets, arrows, and shields are hang1ng on oae aide of the walls, and a few aeate are at the other aide. (Note. This 8all8 set can be used right after the ballet, closes the tirat act. And the g1rla setting there, while Or1 thia cam:t.Jig in ru.ning to tell her sisters what she _, at the walla } I Now :tor this aeoond act As the aurta1n rises Enter the king with the tour o:ttioera. The JdDg sits at his throne, with the ottioera eeated around hia. The Xing Gentloen. You have been invited here tonight, :tor the purpose of deciding the Deana of preservi.Dg the liberty o:t our city. Your age and experience are the of 7our ideas and suggestions. Each one ot you will suggest and the aajorit7 o:t ,.our expressions will save tb8 liberty o:t .Athena's eity.


' "" P1aaandroa. Ia gorea K athen11 Xritiaa -J..-Sacritioe / (tirat ott1oer) Your ajeaty and gentleaeD ot the 01 tJ' Of .Athenaa 1 ; The Ocmdi tioll 18 Tei7 tri tical ; OUr whee.t i about gone., There 1a jut enough tor ten .,re dqa, and we 111st be prortded with .,N, or, all ot us will die from hu:Ja6er. (2Dd Your idee. 1e e:xoell.ent, but, by what ane or 1 could we be proTided with wheat aa we &l"rrWldtd ? And T817 powrtul.l7 ll b.7 the en-.;y on all aid 1 ot our walla, and it abe it illpoesible to get u;yth1.1lg at all, troa tbe outside. ,. (3rd Ottioer) J'rom the lett aide of the high courts, ar the weaken portion ot the enurl a a=r, and it we will break that part ot their llnea 'l'he rtctory will be ourat (4th Ottio r) OUr uw:r 1a Tflr1 tired aDd 1101'!1 out tr tbe battle two 4aya_ ego, An4 bee idea, ., our, arrows aDd spears are gone. .All have lett is norda and bowa P181aDdrO ( lat) Well ll Then let. us toree thea w1 what n haTe lett.. I a the enor;ra' ar.;r better than ours ? A8 )"Ou know the Tiotol'.Y -alnya goes to the braTeU l ltritia (4th) I adJUre JOUr courage Pisau4roa 1, but, th1nsa are ach l*>re ditticult than JOUr words would 11'.. I dqeroua. U. Be tore we get oloae enoup, thq will batr07 us with their &rl"''WI and _,.ara\ ... Meethena.-. (31"4) Let a not get dhcour ged gentlemen. 'lbe nll.a ot the Aoropolia are strong and the CIIU!IIQ" will' ElVER conquer Iaaaaoraa. (24) The &l"'Q' are DOt 4iecCJQ.1"fl8e4, D.Or haTe the;r loat their .erre, they beeaae courageous a:rter the last battle.... !hey know that we are IUl'o rou.nded and oi.JUlot atand liDCh loJ16er. And they are reilltorood w1 th tood aDd 81"11.8 tro n81'J'Wh6re. (with eq>haaie to the reat ot the otticsra) : J"uat loOk 1 Take a look at them rl'OIIl the, (pointi.Dg outeide) And find out tor youreelTea See how happy and joytul they are lll. ltr1t1ae... (A,th) It il true that the ena;r ie_moh atro]l8er and outnuaber1ng our 81'111.. With their arrows they would eonr the am Pilludro.. ( So ECh t.he better, we will tight UDder ahadetU; \


Kritias Meathenis Iesagoras The All Pissandros Serrant King -5Saeritice (4th) B1 cuttill8 down the uount ot tood, we will be able to bold 011t longer, and our a:na;y can rest, and prepare .:>re spears and arrows. ( 3rd) ... The city ot the Goddess Athena, will not be saved, unless, a Jli.I'e.cle happened 1 1. (2nd).. Miracles happens only tran the Gods. Why' not send a messenger to the Delphi ? (the fortune teller) and act as advised by the augur. ? (They 'all think tor a moment and thvn decided) YES 1 YES/\ It ahall be so Gentlemen The Gods are certainly controlling our thoughts this Terr JIIOllent. A trusted messenger has been sent two weeks ago to Delphi, and today, I a awaiting his return. ,. (surprised) Was he sent ? (let) It 1s.Tery true your majesty, that the people are calling you the adopted son ot Athenas and deaerrel.y so (enter and saluting the king) Your majesty; t The messenger has arrived (All happy and excited at the hearing ot such news) (to the servant} Let him proceed (the servant bow and goes.) The (enters and Your majesty, your orders haTe been obeyed, and I am returning with the message ot the Gods : The king Messenger. .The king Let us hear 1tU (reading slowly with dignified expression) "The city ot the Goddess Athena,... will NOT be saved Unless, Xing Erehtheus will sacrifice one ot his daughters 1 (bows and ex1 t) (The king covers his tace with both hands, hee.Til.y, as it some one struck b.iJil on the head. The otticers a:change liords ot surprise and remain silent) ( al:ightl.y lltting his head and speaking sadly in low Toice) ARSl That such bitter decision should have been bestowed upon the generation of Kekropoall S (Detem1necl) Gentlaen U This will never happenU We sst decide other W8.7 to save our city I


""'' I .. Issagoras .-Pissandros Kritias The king The QUeen Iting czueen Xing I QUeen orricers nng \' -6Sacritice (2nd). It is indeed terrible and very bitter, that such rate should happen to no other, than you, your majesty But it is our country that we BllSt thin)t more ot at this time, and the sacrifice must be made. (lst) It is bitter your majesty BUt the sacrifice ot one, is better than to risk the satety or lii8IlY. (4th) 1'hese are the wishes ot the Gods and the advice ot Delphi l The Delphi, wishes im.posaible thinge. I will never accept such, as to sacrifice my child. (getting up, as the Jleeting were all OYer.) (enters with her m1Dd de up) STOPt t! (to the king who was about to go out or the room) Your majesty, I've overheard all the oonveration and also the message troa the The officers decision is correct The sacrifice must be 1 I (surprised) ., And YOU U.. You also wish your child's eacritioe 1 Have you no motherly love ?.ttl I am a mother. 1 -But, Mother to all or us is our country. We owe our liTes to her, and we must sacrifice everything tor her Her aona, the guards Guard her day-and nightt, Theydie on the battle tiel4s tor her liberty-, end honor And, it JOU had sons U .Would you not have sent them to the battle tields ?, to protect the honor and happiness or the rest or us ?. And itt they-were re-turned alive would not die some day-? There is no better and more honorable dea:t;h, than dy-ing tor your country. l You are talking, without considering the lives or others, Jq dee.r.t It the message or Delphi had wished me to aacritice my tor the liberty-and honor or the rest or the men, woliBn, and ch114ren ot our city.-. You would have been tree, and the battle woUd have been won b)" this time Instead a history ot a king, who would rather save his claughter,. at the coat or the people or Athepas' city- to bec0111e slues or the enem;r. \ -uurrah BDrrah",; (meldng up his llind, how that it ia illlpossible to save the lite or his c1aughter replies saclly.) You win -.:r dear BUt the aessage .does not say-which one or the girls mmstdietl / I


Queen Qp.een Prokris Queen Kreousa Queen Orithia Queen Bthon1a -7-Sacritice (about this tiM one ot the otticers tries to suggest that a ballotiDg tab place, But the queen notices.) NOt NOt ... Ho ballot will ever take place, it is the selt-aacritice that deserYes the wreath ot honor. (she step a by the aide ot the room and call s her daughters by their names}. (The girls enter trom different direotions and stand happily around their bowil1g to the king and the otticera, waiting to hear what mother called them tor ) M;r darling city depends upon you with all her hopes. It is the Mssage trom Delphi that all the victory and honor ot our eount17, will be at the aacritice ot one ot my daughters. which one ot JOU is willing to accept such a honorable death ?. (the three older ones are trightened and being scared begdn to tremble, while the )"0\Ulgest one atallda tirml:T and quietly. ) (1st daughter). tailing at her mothers teet, with cries) Oh \l mother dont kill .e. ll I want to live, Lite is ao sweet ... You, Kreouaa ? (2nd. trightened.) Oh l Oht I don't want to diet (covering her tao,, badly trightened). You O,ri thia T. ( 3l'Cl. Backing up gesturing with her bands, signitying no } NO 11 I don't want to (shaking her head desperately) Terrible l\t did not the message call upon me ?. ('l'o Hthonia the ,.-ouDgest girl.) Hthonia, Has the death trightened 7011 too 1 ? (adTsncing courageously} Ohl No 110ther, You ED7 ti.Jus told us "how sweet is the death tor our. country. I nwer torget that I am Praxitheas -daughter, Ul4 I am willing to die, tor the liberty and honor ot our oit.f"


01een.e. / 0 -8-Saerifice (hugs and kisses the l1 ttle girl) By daughter, 00118 let ae kiss TOU, (to the off1 cere who were happy also) Bring the wreath and let us proc ee4 with the ceremoDT (The little girl followed b7 the officers and 0 the grieTin8 king, who is supported b7 two ottioers. They walk towards the sacrificial altar, where the flames are seen 1n the distance) The stage is darkened soJiewbat, and lighting effects at the back seene are deemed, so the 0 altar be shown with the flallles. The queen kneels'wi th her hands up to the llkT, so the three girls, soft 1111s1c.) OUr Oountey, The eweetest 110ther of all, to ,-ou the sacrifice 4aughter is t.reely oftered, so that her death may bring I..IBERTY, and happiness to all (curtain ) *' .. I


.... c A S Sacritice The King Erehthws. Queen Praxi thea. 4 Daughters Procris l7 7ears Kreouasa l5 Orithia 14 Bthon1a l4 old 4 OFFICERS. Pissandros lBt Otticer Iasagpras 2Dd Mesthen1rd Kr1t1as One Messenger One SerTant For the tirst scene ., Bomer, an old type ot aDOient Greek philosopher. Two Girls w1 th water Tases. Ballet, classic dancers.! Grecian scene back drop, (sky and 1110untain, and hill, trees, The hill and the Parthenon, are attached to the back drop. For the second scene .. The interior ot the palace reception. room is showing, (and is a out drop, with the foreground, in col'WIIIl.s .o the tirst back scene can be seen, and used tor entrance and exit ot the cast. The sacrificial altar used tor the tast ecene.} In the reception 10om ot the palace, the throne is seen at the di1tance, and warriors helm.etu, arrows, spears and bows and shields hanging on the wall Two singers, Girl or ba,ys, tor the first act, and msical arrangements can be arrenged where eTer is shown. But sott Jllllsio alway through. t


. on tlle tlrst Greek aol-1Jl .r101'14a1 at Blr:2'u1 I reoelTed 'hi ; welt the 11la.dlo tram DJ',, carla Doggett coNe, atate w}:l9n1aar ft 8tnft14e Y%-Uen PnJeot fl' laokaoDrllle1 that ria ll'II, Oie tl11"8 lllle the CJreo18!! wlte of Dre J.JII1rew !llmlla.ll (the toudar ot the QZ'eek -t01CID7) aoo-.pllllle4 plaa1n aa4 ber tr18D4a K tbe1' woul4 rather 'I llr Jlel' ... 80 to a pi'Oteaalcmal OoBOIJ'te 8118 'ftl Ballo 1D .. --"""" ta 1'115'1 WheD abe Dr. !VD'bllll, a lftl t arried him .D4 110t'e4 to Ldcm, ID LODton ahe waa pretellted at oCJU't and wciD tnar with QllHD Qbarlotte, CJenllD wlte ot Gearge Ul ot Baglalll-npri11Dgli eCilgh, lleaaue 111"8, !Uillllll oODYerae 1Jl (bea14ea the otber three ol' tou 1aBgaage1 ltle apoke}, Bu llte ill Jl.orlc1a 11 ocwered la the 1'117 bstereating 'OOk bJ :nr. Gone trca whltll I reoelTe4 ch nluable 1Dto1'!8tlon aboUt Abe tiNt Greeb b JlorJda. ])Joe Oone 11lt0l'W84 al110 1atel7 that lhe wet to 1 ee her (Jiarb (ll'llola I !amlall'l) paTe 1Ja OblrleliCIIl1 Be Oe there 11 a lllte bea41tODe am!Dg lt e10h locka a .lt lt hac1 bee out JIOn ot 11ar1a tlraota ohi14rea were rri.t la Obarlen and tJae olllroh et a.. Jlbillpa reool'da tbere are Nl of blr ,_o8D4.-i; Dr 'Cone la a 1na t SND4cttU4 ot rta. Clrao1a ttm'ball eel we, .a!.. I OZ'eeka at tal])OB !pl'lag1, t feel pi'Cil4 other aJl4 her work about the (!reek oolg ot bl"DDI, nort4a, whioh oon ber oae;h .,Del an4 U to -----'


F1St aDd p1bliab 1a book, hoaorlJ!G eo pl1 the Greek gnarp aD4 J!'r1 lg Jlod&a, "' I ORO JJrAB!ASSIOl1e / J. ( / I I / '. \ .....


ltitora Mi!W !E l!! J'ltJUJZ 'w .. a Onek Oftbo4az Sai.,.. at the Kaowl u.a&rlal. ObQel at / 'ta\er Par, n.. te h abere of the etr. h ta Ctral J'l.GJ1.da IID4 fer the etu4eata u4 tanltr of Rolllu College. l'o11ow1D8 tbat Hl"'t'lcil Uoa t.e CllMa1e of AtdMrrtlle, ll. o,, wboao parat1 wr, \aorn 1n )U'ta1 tJUif,lft4 to tte e h11JtarJ ot 71ort4a' I!IIUftbale ONok .. "1 t1 Ta:rpc.l Llprlni:Jit u4 Ue b;lortellt la1uat.ry, Jw t put rear, una.r tho 4lrtla ot l'Jioteseor A,. z. Bsaaa, with th hett fit td-a. la l'vp

atll1bo I 11 la\emt'lt 1cwel1T ftre\), II!', .... 1 .. hu 1C111Umaed hi1 lftelopw1t u4 ..,...31't ll1a. Ol'ober 10, liM atter hla e wt \b t!J&)rpe UAI b' Wlb4J OMkalea _, brU .i.DM Ill 'he llu ..._ kttelt. Attar tn1nc 1n journall ehtoh t1el4 he hopoa liT luUr lDUul o r t e entf.Joe nhtn .. a or th1e .,., dent \be ttOMl et AHEPA tala a Mbolareh1p ot "" f:f& earl.J lU\ tall tol1CIH4 with u. e441ttmJ lmftWlt. MPH M eble to t t.aue a\ ao tUee .., tlat hi J HeetTe I. 4oge8 1a 1 It liM, -.d .. Jut bia eoll ICJU:r .. he ...... to ecaplete aleo h1 ,.._, h1Mo17 o r Creek nt la l'l.Grl4a Xorl.J 1a ,.....,, whUe elM'tlbere 1 a llor14a U. PJ winter .eaiiOil wae 1t laC aDre4 ln til aU b tluel U.ppbp et aaterlal pleenn, a*' o aulent e nll eratt-1 mleal la f!YerJ parUoul..u tit 'hOM ... la .. llal abM the tiM et OUiat-lq ebDNd 1a


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loha Geeoru, w,..., t tJt 1.80?' ft 0 t ,.ra. ITt ut 11 Ur. ,... frl -lblUtlcttt er th1 auoua ttnr ri Ur. uh ff1111 lDI ouUt j the dbt wlth the le"' ttl outfft for e !ll tatle t;o r 1 \he nee a d to Oret. Oooor1e t d1l'eol)-to 1lcnr York tale.nde to y wrh t :ut) 1ll with a e e eutrst, !.noludllas t b ful1ll b atr r.,. t se 1 or, h0M7 ateel he te -otoet hle b ... al. v Au o tor we:\ t pf'Oft til bo a IIVO!'I.!. e 1lllthtat1'f ln tar or Oult ot : e honor to 1 te


' -1ft' ot QJWk ..


(42) GREEKS OF 1 r 1940 L FLRIDA. Error in statement as to the Gr .eek language I There has pever been a news paper in the Greek languag e published in as the colony is too small to sup port one. I, the present writer and historian, publisher and editor of the Hellenic Messenger, a monthly Ahepa O:r;-gan devo.ted to Greek interests in Florida was P .rinted in English. Page Error in etaten:rnt a e to t -he Greek-American population. I According to the statemwt .of ltr. John Menae a Greek-American attorney here, and w l 1 o is now for the state of Florida under the deJE. .rtment of Comptroller Lee.'s office of Tallahassee: "There are no less than Greek business establishments scattered all. over the state of Florida and its counties today. By the Greek-AmericmJ population.must be over ?000 with their families; According to my OWn travelitg acquaintances and cor. r e .spondence with the Greek-Americans of liillsborou, Pinellas, Manatee, in these Sarasota, DeSoto,-Polk and as far south as Ft. Myers,jcounties w alone there,., over 3000 inhabitants of Greeks .and .Ameri catl-born Greeks, single and/with families. I < \.' ... (


. r .) t ., ,... .. 6 ... Page By the approximate figures given to us here by I poli ti qal campaign workers for some of the candida tea all the past electicms who ,. covered almost/the statet, they estimated about 3000 Greek-.Ameri can voters in .Florida. I am Teturning herewith the etorywith reference to Greeks of which I have read and enjoyed very much, and I wish to thank you I have found this for sending same. and very i nteresting and story to be correct, with the exception -9f the two errore which I have above it is complete. I hope it is not too late to have these corrections made before sending to Washington. I would like to have one of these copies if you should have any'to spare personal file if per.missable. Thanlcing you in I remain -. '. ... I I l .. riters' Project S. Bldg.


Florida's First Greek Explorer The first Greek known to have set toot on Florida soil arrived Just \ 36 years stter Columbus had stirred Europe with his newly continent end but 15 years later then Ponce De Leon. Only e tew words were written of this modern Jason. His tete wes Aperten--e true Greek to the end. He was e member or the expedition or Penfilo de Narvaez. In 1528 this group ot adventurers, having sent their boats on up the coast, set out to explore the interior or western Flor1de.'They soon found themselves in danger both from Indians end from ln order to escape, they set about building boats end, since.they carried no finished materiels or tools, they were forced to fashion them from nature. Of the ensuing process it is recorded th9t, in order to caulk the ems of the boats, "A Greek or the oompeny, nanied Theodore, extracted resin from the (1) pine." Having successfully built their boats, they embarked on Appalechee E8y on September .the 22nd, 1528, but aoon sgein were in danger--this time from thirst. Once egein the lone Greek of the essayed to help. It is recorded that: "Here they hed the misfortune losing the Greek ho had procured the resin the boats, he end e negro gone ott with some.Indisns of the place in search of water. At night the Indians returned with empty water vessels, but the Greek end the.negro_who had accompanied were not from again. Years afterwards De Soto, travelling in thet.region, ssw a dagger, a relic of the Greek. Some have f 2) supposed that Pensacola Bey wes the sc. ene or this incident." 56 ended Florida's first explorer. (1) Woodbury Lowery, The Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits of the United States, P 188. (2) Ibid. P 189.


New Smyrna, The Doubtless other adv .enturere from Greece came to the state in the I centuries that followed but little mention is made or them until 1767. On January 20th or that year James Grant, Governor of East Florida, wrote to the Earl or Shelbourne, one or the secretaries or state to Hie Majesty Xing George Third, concerning plan or a certain Dr. Turnbull to introduce Greek settlers'into the colony or Florida. Dr. Turnbull bed married Grecian woman, Gracia Dura Bin by name, end, having lived in Greece, he knew from first hand observation or the unrest or these people under Turkish rule. He felt that Florida, being similar to Greece in climate, would be en excellent refuge for among them wished to live in a freer atmosphere. -"'Tis to be hoped," wrote James Grant, "your Lordship will approve or the commencing when his Greek settlers err! ve from TUr. key; -. such encouragement would, no doubt, induce him to persevere in his plan, which will make this country flourish, it it succeeds, end or that I have ( 1) no doubt it the ureeks ere prevailed upon to emigrate." \ In epi te or some opposition from the 'l'Urkish GOVet:"nmen t, lJr. "Turn-bull's efforts were successful and he eventually secured 200 tribesmen trom the mountains in the part ot the Peloponnesus. 'l'hese people had rebelled against rule tor years. In the month ot August ,1768, Governor Grant W98 able to report: ( 2) ".Pour vessels have already erri. ved and other four expetted daily." (1) The Shelbourne Papers, Copies in Webb Memorial Library at Augustine, Florida. ( 2) Ibid. -..


&liiki 61 ]ibfi&B p-3 The well-rortitied city or St. Augustine with its pleasant homes end -busy streets was a happy sight to these already homesick people snd 1 though they were sent at once, sGme by water and some by land, ta (1) the Mosquettos," they remembered the_setety of its thick wells end city gates. Later, this memory was to play en part in their lives. The .New Smyrna Colony, so called whether as s result ot a predom inance of Greek immigrants or because of the naturally Hellenic bias or Dr. Turnbull end his Greek wire, was s .lmost immediatly involved in dirfi-. I oulties. in the first place the group was considerably larger then had been expected. James Grant, Governor or Florida, had written the I Earl or Shelbourne in 1767 that Turnbull to bring 500 Greek (2) Christians to in 10 or 12 months. Instead or this, eight TeaselS, carrying men, women, and children arrived at st. Augustine in the tall ot 1768 and were immedietly aent on to New Smyrna. In the second place this group was of miaed mstionelities end languages. There were Italians and Minorcans as well as Greeks and none of them were prepared tor the situation thet confronted them. .. A cargo of 500 negroes from Africa was to have arrived before the colonists in order to clear the lend but, unfortunately, their boat sank ( 3} ott the southern coest Florida end ell were lost. As e result, the colonists found the site of their homes in e priaeTel state. The metter of overseers also became e problem because, whi!e some were chosen from their own number, it was necessary use numbers or overseers also since they were acquainted with the soil. and its (1) Shelbourne Papers,Webb Memorial St. Augustine,.Florids. ( 2) Ibid. Schoepf, Johann Davidt TreTels in the Confederation PP 233y236.


. .................... L ...... IIIIIIIII....._.... possibilities. These English to understand the langueges or / the immigrants and were impatient at the half-hearted efforts of these I disillusioned people, Their arbitrary attitude increased the tension. For a time and clothing or so many people under such handicaps was only accomplished by a sort of regimentation. The garments, while warm and durable, were apt to be uniform end,"At meal time a dram (1) summoned the workers from the woods to line up for share of food." This way of life, though under the circumstances, wes incompatible with the Latin temperment as well the Greek--particularly since most or the Greeks, before joining up with Turnbull, had been mountain une .cquainted with farming and unused to routi_ne. Even so Governor Grant reported to the Earl of tiillsborough:##### the settlers were fixed upon before the lOth day or August; they were obedient to their overseers, seemed pleased with their situation, went regularly to work,and bed done for the time a great deal (2) inoleering and planting." Underneath, however, wes brewing but,because of the difficulty or their troubles in the language, the colonists were unable end perhaps even unwilling to bring forward their grievances. On August lgth 1768, at about eleven in the morning Uarlo Forni, an Italian overseer at the heed or 20 conspirators, brought the matter to e head in the public square. Turnbull was absent at the time but on his return the affair waseventually cleared up. The ring leaders ( were tried and much or the lame down in attsched to the Greeks of'the oolony. (1) Doggett The New Smytna volony or Florida, p.45. (2) Shelbourne Papers,.iebb Memorial Library, St. Augustine, Florida.


n wspep r correspondent, etter kin ill tb or nd 0 tho rough irlveatig tion or th early h1ator1oel reoorda, kept I bb mort 1 Library at St. uguattn deoler d 'that th names tin r b.o er tri d are, with on xo ption, Italian. "C rlo orni, Gu1aepp1 Paeaiadole, lies Brest 6, Clothe Corona, .Politis said. lie 41o1 r o rtainly Itelte n," On t other pend, he r ed thet or e St phenopoli, on or the d n, 88 Gr e .lrt thia tno1 d nt, th colonist t to ork in earnest. They burn d th brush end in tump trom th 1r 1 d, drained the we ps, built lla nd h rt or ooquin end oonatruoted th tr o ootteg s or p 1 toe. Tb 1r di t, ho v r, to t 1tb h at1ll l oking in green vegetebl s end this, used much aiokness. In a letter written on b tir t or Deo b r, Gov rnor Grant wrot : 00 Gr ek oolon 'ists have ( l) 1 4, hi rly old p opl nd ohildr n." I 7&g, the Br1t1ah Traaaury grant d 2000 pounds tor the support ot th Gr oolony t w B rna. Th xt 1 7 r b ought re rkebl pro r sa. Corn, auger, ootton, rio d indi o r produo d bundantly. rry trees tor silk worms r p nt d nd vtn out. Coobin e1 insects tor making aoarl t dy tn ort d nd to tb1 4 '1 tb ae 1D eots can b round, clinging in Whit to tb o otua plant in the wood about Smyrna. It 1 quit po a1ble th t tbi oolony ould e continued to thrive but tor wo re on he gliah overae re ere undoubt dly end 0 nd, in add it ton tbe oo&plioe ted pol1 t1 1 attua ton or that p riod aoon involved the aet'tle nt. Th gliah er overn1ng Eeat lorid but t S ntsh, t porar1ly out at po er, w r still behind the (l) Shelbourn P pera, ebb ori 1 Lib ry, st .lugustine, Florida.


.............. scenes anxious to regain' their earlier t war between the No*thern Colonies end England wee brewing; end always, in the background, the Indiana l;ured, reedy tor mischief. On June 1771, the Indians bed ectuelly reided the Greek settlement end, although little was (l) done, the colonists lEd been greatly trigbtened. Grant bed been supplant Tonyn ea governor end even in those days to the victor belonged the apoile. Governor 'l'onyn needed hardy, courageous men tor his Rangers end 1 t ta ta1rly evitent trom th letter tlE t it was with this in mind that h wrote to Turnbull asking about the num!>er ot melee in the .New Smyrna Colony. This 1a Turnbull' reply, cleerly Governor Tonyn'a previous .. requ st. Smyrne, 9th. of M8roh 1776, Sir: In answer to your excellency' letter or the 27th. or lest month, I have the honor to acquaint you, Sir, tbet there ere two hundred melee on this settlement trom the age o t sixteen to tit ty. I do not pretend to be 8 judge or their m111tery eb111iy, but I oen set ely vouoh tor their loyalty to JUs Me jesty tor their diligence end honest endeavor to tultill their eontrecta w1th me: end tor their effeoe \ tionete oare in supplying their tam1lies with tbe daily neoess1t1es or lite. And I think 1 t 8 duty incumbent on me 'to beg the t :tour l!:Joellency would please grant suoh a protection tor these industrious foreigners, e may prevent their be1ns disturbed trom agriculture w1 thout which they, with their tamili a, must surely starve. I am/with all due respect, Turnbull Papers, St. Augustine, Fla. (2) Ib1t. ( 2)


To Hie Excellency Petrick Tonyn Governor etc., etc I His Majesty's Province or _East Florida It seems evident, rrom the context or this le.tter, that Turnbull's one idea to gain "protection tor these industrious foreigners, sa may prewent their being disturbed trom egriculture." However, by giving the number or possible fighters in his colony, be probably played into ., hands tor, according to Mesaers Penman, Drayton, end Bisset, +Tonyn deliberet ly broke up the settlement to get recruits tor his Rangers, since there were more men ot fighting age in the colony t.hen in ( 1) the rest ot the province (ot Floride)." By 17761 it must be remembered, England end the Colonies were et This meant that Florida, still loyal to England, wee expected to defend her Geor gie border einoe Georgie had rebelled along with the other American Colonies. It was because or this that Tonyn needed add! t1onel Rangers end in 1777 it seems likely that he got them from the New Smyrna Colony. Early in Meroh, 1777, e group or Minorcene deserted the colony. In May, Henry Yonge Jr. Esq. to the governor enclosing e deposition trom a representative or the Greek colonists telling ot the cruelties intlicted Qy the overseers, Turnbull being in England at the time. By August the setrlement had moved to st. Augustine. In 1783 wee taken ot st. Augustine, e copy ot which ie available today. Now it 11 Tery ditticult et this date to discriminate Greek, Italian, end names in this 1783 census tor, after / the Spanish oeneua taker tinish.ed with them, they ell had a Spanish tlevoY.. (1) Lansdowne MBa. vol. 66, PP 725-727.


HoweTer ,this much is known. In 1776 Turnbull reported there were 200 melee among his colonists. Seven years le ter, during 19h ich t 1me these lett New in e body went to st.Auguetine, only 33 Greek, 1 Italian and Mlnorcen names eppeer in the 1783 census or the city. As M.J.Politie, investigating in 1939, "Whet had become or the rest?" ( l) -It seems probable that Messera. Penman, Drayton,and Bisset were oorreot when th f6 said that moe t or the young men or the New Smyrna Colony were sent out with the Rangers and lost their lives in the guerrilla warfare then going on between the hoe tile factions of the t period. The older men dying out left only the women and children to be absorbed into the Spanish population. Whether this is the real or not, the original Greeks or New Smyrne dis appeared after only e few years. An Early American from Greece Leaves Hie Mark There wee one ot these however, whose name, John Gienopolis, bee came down to ua, not because be wes as a termer ore soldier, but because ot his respect tor learning. mental ot the ancient Greeks set a standard tor succeeding generations. '!'his Greek-Amerioen carried on, as best he oould, their work. He is said to beve built e schoolhouse 'nd then he proceeded to teach the children ot St.Augustine the "three Ba" (1) James PenDl8n, an attorney in tlz province or East Florida at that time. William Drayton, Chief Justice or Florida. \ Alex. Bisset, a colonel in the army or Hil MaJesty George Third.


This achoolhouae atill atenda, eo well did be know hia art as builder. It hendhewn red cedar timbers ere ea stauach aa they were when he titted then together with wooden pegs. Today the atone floors ere worn with the footprints or generations who came to Juan's schoolhouse, both to learn ana to worship, tor tradition aeys that it was also used es s ohuroh,. Through the amll doore,.wtth their "L" hinges Spenieh keys, one oen still enter the garden end the shade or its ancient # tree The w1ndos, tlenked by solid wooden abutters held beck with aheilabep d, wrought-iron stops, look unchangt4, upon e world that h a ohenged Yery much indeed aince Juen end his pupils walked in the den. Countless other pupils have dron d through their lessons in this old building, tor tbe British sa well es tbe 8pen1ah BOd Americans used it. The atory or this Yenturesome Greek com s to ua serosa the years, e peredox, tor though tregmentery, it torms e a1ngulerly complete pic tur (1) He wea .born in Eacutary, though Ute 4ey, month,and year ere not known. By acme quirk or tortune, he cast his lot with those Greeks who came to New Smyrne 1d. th Turnbull. When in 1777 the dlaaetistied Colonists decided to leave New Smyrna tor st.Auguatine, they chose three men to lead them and one ot the three 1a aaid to be ve been John G1anopol1s. The next year, etter settling himaelt in his new home, he built his (2) t moue schoolhouse and thereafter taught in 1 t. John, or Juan Gianopoly as he as now celled by the" SJI' niah, we a '5 years. old when m decided to ( 3) I o .arry. Complying with the custom or the we tind him, 11 years (1) From photostatic copies ot licenses, St.Auguatine, Florida-1798-1800, Webb Memorial Library, (2) Dele Rogue itemized aep 11st,l788. (3) Photostatic copies ot marriage licenses, 1798-1800, 8t.Auguat1ne, Fla. Webb Memorial Library.


l tar in l78i, a1gn1ng the letter. The letter was apparently wri ttan by L on, "Saore tery to tbt governor" end aigned by John. By thi t1 John a n 4 b 00 an aora L8t1n1zed. I senor rnor end Capt in General: Juan Toannopoly na t1 ve or tb e o1ty ot aoutary, batore your Gr8oe ae beet corresponds, end 11 I pp er anA! d ol r : That I be v arranged to oontreot merrie ge with G ronime Paao d Bur o, daughter or Frenal oo P so de Burgo end or Maria Lu1a inhabit nta ot th1a Oity. In tO tar as in order to put it into ax out1on I n d to beTa the corresponding Judio1el l1oenae on account or tba baeno ot my rants in the aeid olty or l*outarJ, end because I $ beTa no other r let1 es trom whom I msy ask the nacaeaery oonsant in conrorm no ltb th diapoaltiona ot t Royal Regula tiona or Marriage. Bain oart in ot tb good qualities end oiro stances ot th bride-to-be: I r qu at tb t you ba k nd enough, atter the dilig noes that ere neces ry, b art ot d, to cono d to ma th lic na I aolicit, which grace I hope to reo 1 rrom you. (1) (sign d)--Juan Gianopoly." Ju n w s r qu1r d to prove both tb eba noa ot hie end th (2) ood qunlitias or h1a br1de-to-b Tb1a be pro ptly did. Thereupon the ( 3) 11o naa wee finally "conceded" and tha pr1 at rried them. or tb a bride we know only the t h r r ily, judging trom their name, w a Sp n1 sh and th t sh s oonaid r d e brid tor Juen. So t1 let r thia we record d or him: "J n Gi nopolia: Born 1n the Morae, religion c.A.R ties a wire. He accept' t terms of the mamor1.a 1 which he bsa 1gned. Oooupet1on (1) Photoat tic oopiaa or rriega lioenaaa. St.Augustine, 1798-1800, ebb amort 1 Libr ry, st.Auguatine, lorida. ( 2) Ibid. ( 3) Ibid.


Greeks ot Florida pwll oerpenter. Has three acres ot lend which he cultivates end for whiob he ( 1) pays to en Englishmen 72,i pesos. He has three slaves end two horses. I' He hee_one with adjoining or his own end lives in it. Tpe ( 2) house is si tueted beyond tm chapel of the Minoroens." Again: "Oct. 13, 1823, Juen Gienopo_ly presented his.memoriel to the board preying oonrirDtion ot.title to 500 sores or lend at the place west ot the heed or the'legoon ot Jt.Maroos, withe plat end certificate ot aur-ey or the aeme mede by Andres Burgevin ana dated 29th or Oot. 1819, also e oertified.oopy ot a concession to"'seid Gienopoly made by ( 3) Governor White end dated upon the sixth dey or July 1799." Again: "Juan Gienopoly presented his memorial preying conr1rnilt1on or t-itle to 15 ecre s ot lend lying wittJ.out the gates tfnd 1500 ye .rds with e ple t end certificate or sur-ey for said Gianopoly by C.Darling, end ( 4) dated Oct. aev,nth/.1823." The members board teemed these to be valid grants end "ttonrirmed them to Gienopoly end his heirs. And so Juan continued to acquire possessions. He was evidently e -person ot known pr.obity for in 1814, eating es executor or J.B.Ferreyra, .. -. he sold slaves 1n St.Augustine--probebly in tbe same gloomy, stone, slave (5) market the t still stands there today. Th-ere is no official record ot Juan having he, d sons, but it would seem the t he he d two tor in 1825 George Gie nopoly "ole ims 640 sores in the Twelve Mile Swamp which he bee occupied end cultivated for eight ( 6) y-ears. The tether ot present ple intirt he s land in the same swemp". (1) Copy indistinct. May be 42t pesos. (2) From photostatic copies or census or St.Augustine, 1783, Webb Memorial Library, (3) American State Papers, 1823, Memorial Library, ( 4) foed/ (5) ilorida Papers aDd Deed Books, Webb Memorial Library (6) American .State Papers, 1825, Webb Memorial Library, St.-Augustine.


Greeks or Florida p-1! In 1828! Eclmianuel Gienopoly, apparently another son, "registers claim tcr. 640 acres in the Twelve Mile swamp 1Vhioh he m s occupied end I cultivated: tbet the tether or present pleintirt bee lend in the same (l) swamp. It lies about 14 trom st.Augustine." The date or ,;rmn Gienopoly'e death cemmot be round but it is not aeceasary. The authentic picture ot. this men, who lett his home in Greece to seek his tortune in e aew aDd unknown world, thousands or miles sway, is painted in on tlines c .leer bold. His record as a leader, his active ., pert in the community lite or old st.Augustine, his position as e citizen ot a husband, rather., .end tr1end to be relied on, set him apart trom the crowd. He was a worthy forerunner or the many preeks who -'have tollowed him to these shores seeking their fortunes ern, having round them, have settled here to become a pert or this new c1 vilizstion--tllis oiv111zet1on based on the concentrated essence ot ell the cultures or the old world. The Greeks in St.Augustine Today The St.u'gust1ne ot Juan's was the well-tortitied em prosper ous "Olcl CitY" tm t can still be seen today almost es it stood then. Mention is repeetedly m de in the census ot 1783 as well as tm t or 1787 to tbe "Poble rion Griegs" or Greek dis triot as well es to the "Calle de loa Griegos"-Stree t or the Greeks Be tore long, however, these places were Greek: in name only. It 1 probable that o tber Greeks, urged on by the 1r ancient wander .. lust, came to St.Augustine as years went by, but there is no record ot I American State Pepers-1S2S-Webb Memoriel Library, St.Augustine, Fle.


_. I -them. In Mercopoulus, then 29 years old, came to the e1t At thet time, according to his account, only three Greeks. lived there, .:..o 'ne or whom he worked for. In 1939 Mr. Mercopoulus was there\ in point or continuedresidenoe, the oldest ureek in the city. \ A survey made 1939 end tinenced by a prosperous member or the community, showed 61 Greeks in including children. The men or this group ere; for the most pert, in business for themselves end ere prosperous. Those or ceme from such arious ple ces es Athens, Sparta, Leonidion,end Alexan dria besides smaller towns in the mainland of Greece. '!'heir occupations ere es In eddi tion to the usue 1 frui t-tends, 'esteurants : ahee shops, tailor shops,end confectioneries, seeral ere boat builders end many run shrimping boats. So .ter this group is too smell to support e Greek Orthodox church end, since the Greek church has always been-regarded by the1Churoh or England es an effilie tion, they attend Trinity Episcsopal church. The -younger members ot this group speak English almost entirely end, accordinG-... to the survey, ere ell receiving excell-ent educations. l'he Greek-American group in Ferns ndim is not outstanding numericallY. but historically .it can point to s countrymen es one of the original property owners on the Ilend A.melie. In s Spanish enuscr1pt, presented to the st.Augustine Historical Society end now in the Webb Memorial Library, is cpnteined the order or Govemor White to one George F. Clerk, surveyor general, to ley out end plan the town of Fernandina on the Island of Amelia. Also en order to prepare e list ot the property owners. rn tbis list.we find of the 9-reek, Nidloles Estetanopoly 1 n 18121 lot f!lO,


I .. In the later pert at the 19th century, as stories or the opportun ities to b round in the United States begen to spread over msny Greeks lett their homeland to auk this "Lend or Promise". It wes .netur el that Florida should attract many or these people tor, lying in the aeme letitade as Greece, its climte is aimiler ent it, like Gr6ece, is / '. also a land ot coestl1ne and islands. Pense cole. was one of the tirat cities to which they came. It m.ey be that this aity d been visited by transient Greeks before but in 1880 the three Apostol bro tbers trom the island o t Skopelos c eme there end stayed. Constantine Apostol came tiret to P} out the land, then he sent I


Greeks of Florida tor hie brother George and, after the were on their feet financially, they sent tor Nick. Nic aoon established a first class restaurant on I Palafox Street which became noted rar .,arooda. 1 Toder in old st.Michaels cemetery, the graves of vonatentine end Nick Apostol ere marked by worn tombstones. The lettering in Greek 1B too eroded bf the rain .to be easily reed but the names end dates of birth are plain. "C.Apostol Born 1845-Died 1909" "N.Apostol Born l863aD1ed 1913" In 1S83 Chris Tabares, having of Pensacola in his home in the seaport city of decided to i .nvestigete for himself. After en voyage he landed in New York end came from there by schooner to Pensacola. He soom established himself in e smell fruit business. Later he combined this with a reteurent end still later he branched out I into the grocery business. He became an American c 1t1zen end tor fifty years he lived. e useful end busy lit.e. In 1939, e n old men of 80 years, he recalled bis early experiences in Pensacola when sidewalks were of I planks bordered by wooden buildings interspersed with only s rww brick structures. He chuckled over the old street cars pulled by mules or horses up 'end down the deep sand streets. Be still remembered, too, the beauty or Greece but was content tor his last days to be spent in hie adopted lend. '!'he pattern or old Chris 'l'abere s' lite, his quest :tbr fortune in America; his even ual prosperity and contentment in Pense cole, he ve been repeated over end over by others of his countrymen. It took only e few 'fears tor letters1 telling of success in this nep country to fire the 4es1re of 'htse left behind to come end succeed too. 'l'hey came from Argos, the city founded in prehistoric days, from which tabled Jason and his set out to find the Golden Fleece. They came from Constantinople, from the Island or Crete, from Sparta, I


the leader ot the old Greek Confederacy, trom Meoedon1e, trom the grape clad hills ot Smyrne, end trom 'brace, but most or ell they came from I Skopeloa. Out ot 136 foreign-born living in Pensacola 1n 1939. over on -third were from this island which sets like en emerald in the blue waters or the Aegean S a. It is e fertile place planted with olive trees, tru1 t orchards, end It is dotted with old tortif'i ce tions end 1t ancient churches treasure famous icona.yet ell this beauty held no weight when bsllanoed against better ecoaomic conditions end greeter treedom. So the Greek-Amerioen colony in Pensaool8 grew, not with rapid mushroom growth that matures end dies but with a slow, steady development the t took deep root in the Florida soil. In 1903 these people, now more tl:lln 100 strong, organized under the nenx o f "Parthenon" principally to establish a Greek Orthodox church nd me inte1n it w1 th the dues of this new organization. In 1905 it became "The Hellenic Orthodox Coomun1ty" end tine lly it wes changed to "Anahen nesie"--regenerotion. The society then took out e state charter Nick Apostol, one of the original settlers or Pensacola, was e charter member I end was el ct d to be the first president of the body. It cantinues to tunction; the 10 members or ita executive board being elected every year in spprov d democratic fashion. The board administers the affairs of the Greek church aDd the afternoon parochial school. This chool, 1n mich the Greek language .in the principal subject, is attended in addition to the regule r grade achool. Although English 1s pok n almost without xception among the younger generation, the older Greeks nt children to know the more ancient leDguage too. There er about 400 Greei--ln ecole including men, women, end children nd eooording to .citizenship records in the office or the Clerk


, .. ot the United States Uourt, epproximetely 150 Greeks have become naturalized and applications fer citizenship trom this group continue to be made. An interesting article writ,en by Diog nee Adellis appeared intthe Pensacole we ot 8 ptember, 13, 1938. Under the title, "Citizens ot United States Enjoy Big Heritage trom Anci nt Greeks", Mr.Adallis draws attention to the similarity between the "nterpriaing spirit, the keen ness ot vision, the competition, end the love ot freedom" ot .ancient Gr ece end those same characteristics being menitested in this country today. be compar s Pericl s, "the tirat ot Athens" to George We bington, "first in the hearts ot his countrymen". It is en article well worth reeding. In 1Q06, when Tarpon Springs beaan to develop as a sponge market, e number ot thes people went there but soon, deciding that the he zerds tteched to sponge fishing were too numerous, they returned to Pensacola and mor oo m.tortabl e occupe tiona. Today the Gree k-Aip.erioans ot Pensacola ere e prosperru a end pe triotic section or the Besides being members ot their own Hellenic organizations, many or the men belong to such groups as the MesonB, the Elks, end 'the ts or Pi thias. Some have enlisted in the United States Army. A number belong to the Chamber or Commerce. The older people, it is tru t nd to limit their ociel lite to contacts with their own racial group but th Am riosn-born generations, the medium or the public chool ere losing their sense or setaretenees. The children ere tre-. qu ntly member ot Boy end Girl. Scout troupe em take part in social end I aohool activities. Greek homes in Pensacola ere scattered about ell over'the city. There is no egregetiob to any one clistriot. Meey or the wealthier Greek-Amer-. icens own handsome dwel;inga surrounded by well-kept grounds. The middle olaae frequently od4upies homes annexed to their places or business.


Greet. ot 7lor14t p-18 L1Yine atan4uh are .. ot tb a urw J01oan ot tbe aame t1neno111 roup. e o Greek aettler until 1887. In tbet 11ar .&.n tbooy Selle a, enotber uu .. or tb 1.81 d or lcopcloe oa to York Citr end I# H onab, Gor 1 BaYiQg pro1pared the ot e tru1t store in Ybor ht pe14 I YUH to Grc o tben rtturn 4 to Tempe. Two years lnu WIDt to btl a. t1Tt 111114 to rr.r o4 o back bom 1 Tin hie t tor bil wire a the 1nteot 110n wboa be bid not 1 t teen. A* bonr Se lla liTt4 in until hie deeth end to4 1 bh ob1ldrtn d r ndoblldr-eD H tb r Altluioaoa borD and br d. rro tbU emoll bes1nn1o tb, e bu bed ln 1910 tb re ere b onAl1o lJpn bun4r It tid tl:t 7 eu 1o li:SO ttl a1 ted St. tea o 1u.a In U!'l9, tbe r cor C r kr1oan colony srew 1u1d I people In 1920 there were approxiDB tewere 193, eooording to t or t pruidtnt or the !.11111'-loao-Bellenio 00111 nur ebo ap ro.11 UlJ t"wo hundred mbera, Tb ma-jorlt7 ot t people o Oreeoe end ori 1 1 tr aou tiLer a peo tneula or ben1a, Bervte, !.lie Minor, Tb.reoe, Sdonllal oe4on11 n4 1p oe. It n the t Z1J Ored: 1 1geou to the nortbun 8114 wu tern 11.7 lAborer on rau;oad ganga. fb11 not euer1ll7 tbe ooae in Jlor14t, howr in 1906 a orew 130 Or l.tborel'l brou bt tro tOD to .&.roecHe to wort on the Cberlo te H.rbor and tlortbertl rail 17, th, bein built rrom .&.roadie to 001 Orenda. So or tbtlt D le hr tUd ln Jlpl. Zxoept tor tbil roup, moet ot -nape' 1 Gr .. t--A.a to oftlz, o tbere einglf, e:rpec t-


Greeks of p-19 ing to aalce their tcr.twaa end then return to the homeland end there apend the rest ot their lh'ea at ease. However, when they bed esteQ(lhhed theuel'Yes in busineee, bed learned the lenguage end hSd become e pert ot the treer lite here, -they preferred to remein end become Americana-. Only two ceaes are recorded ot immigrants trom this community re turping to tl2ir 1111 tive lend to stay. None, according to the looel eoretery or baa been en object of public ctE _ri ty. A atudy1 recently made, ot the native born Tampa Greeks shows ttEt most ot thlae l!lln came here equipped with education equal to tbe t or the average Amerioen-born citizen. It wea diacovered from this study tbet ot them change their occupations when thtr" come to Amtice. Some -fit tbe first srri'f8la, be'fing enasged in the business, were able to ghe .their friends end rele tives employment when tl2y came over. Since it wes a lucrative occupation they seldom cblnged to any other. This circumstance 'accoWtts, eo it is said 1 fer the greet number or Greek Americana now employed in the resteurent business._in U'!l'lllpa. Many of the early immigrente worked ror, s while as dey laborers but since they bed some education end much ambition they soon found better work. Today, e I () the usual ocoupstiona, they beve entered the businesses of lum-bering, theatre managing, lew, motion picture operating, dealing in oottee, end one family is in 1111 nufacturing soft dz:_inks. Moat ot the 1toreign born--Greeks in Tempe speak l!!everel languages .French, Turkish, Albanian, Spanish, end Italian ere otten known besides _Greek end English. 'J.'he younger generation, though ua\Elly knowing tTreek, use almost e%clus1vely even in their homes and ell publice Uoas of local Hellenic societies ere in .ISnglisb. 'J.'he children ettend -' the public schools preoUcslly without uecption end many continue 'the 1r education in colleges end universities. "' .Utho""there is no Greek Orthodo% ohuroh in 'l'ampa, there are e ;._


. -.l' .lhepe _,. fOl"t 111 lQSIS. 1'he Deushhra ot Pelltlon, .. o_ a _terr rL .llttpa, -wu ana111zed in U2e. J!enileua Chephr Ro.l.M or sou or 7er1olea, aHe up rit aen of minor s, toun4ed 111 1;35 ani! in liSQ The N814a or .lthena, e Junior girla' aooiety. created. In li32, The Hellenlt Co11111unltT Boerd, ncmprot'lt argenizetion, waa fOrmed. In 1Q37 it ob8r-tere4 under ita pr .. ent DB lit, The Hellenic .CoiiiiiUnity or r Inc. 1111S. orgen1zetion built the .laeriaen .. Hellenie Center in Temp-a. completion, tbe AmerioanHtllenio e aoo1al organization, wee -Thla bu1l41ns, two ator:r atruoture or white limutone ena out-atone lrith 1h .columned JlorUco til .t:Ullaborough R1nr, 1a in "' Tempe towntown district. !t c011teina club room-s, e llbrery, e .hnoe hel1.9 and e full:r atege with ahower bathe in the rooms. A n reture .or the work ot tb! .llurioan-Hellenic olub a mueioel 1netruot1on tor oh111ren. unusual organization ia Tampe'a "Johns Club". Ita members ere the Greek mn ot tbe whose aurene ia John. It ia a aoctel on tech St.John's De:r1 Jen.aeventh, the club gives en ntertl!linment at which tbeu Johns" their "name clay" Eeoh -1111mber contributes "owerd. the eapenaea or tbe ettllir Which w ua>elly e banquet followed by a dance. The ennuel celebration in 1939 ettendel by "Johns", their temtl1ea, end gueata to the number of 250. The Jeolcaonville Settlement The growth or the GreelcAmerican settlement in Jeokaonville ooin Oidea with the growth or the Hellen1e Orthodox church in this oit:r. In H 1ee9 the nucleus tor the present Jaclcaonv1lle Hellenic group began to rorm. At tb!l t Ua Andreae Koroneos end Gtorge Zeprale a were in the fruit in thia oit:r. N01>1 ab! then e Till it ine-priest or the 'orthodox oburoh would 00111 .trom Sannnah and bold ae.rviocs in their hoaes. In 19m> e Greelc populetion bed 1noreeaed autricilntly to esteblilltl 8 church. Yiaited at intervale b7 8 tranl1ng prlut. At first, aervioes in aa1111 rrame building which bed temporarily oongregstion immtdie t17 ethr the dieaahrous tire i121 the completion o f the preatnt St.John 'a Episcopal church, the building wea loaned to the Congregation. tbe present Hellenic Orthodox church editi oe on Leurs Street j' Fin ueara lettr,tbt local chapter or Abepa financed end


Greeks of Florid a built e school building on the lot adjoining this church. Here eYery erternoon, after public aohool oleaaea are oYer, the Greek children ae .. mble to learn their pernete native langua_ge. The teeober 1a J!Bid by the pe ran ta. There ere a tew Greeks liYing in Jeckaonville who ere communicants or the ldeloh1te Rite ot the Roman Cethol1o ohu.roh. These people worahip1 regularly in the local Catholic churches end fit intervals a visiting priest or their homeland holds e aerYice for them in tbdr rite which i!S eaaentially no different trom the reguler Catholic Maaa. There ia one GrukAmerioan citizen or Jeckaonvillt who baa msde history in the diving industry at Tarpon Springs. tiie life story reeds like e tele ot ad Tan ture. This men is John Cocoris be we a e ne ti ve of Leonid ion, Arced38 t in Greece. He aeye that as a oh1ld he bed heard stories or America end wanted to come here. At last on his letb birthday, etter prom1aios hie "girl .... to come beck for her come dey, he se1led on one or the boets or the French Une. "I soon got me e job withe sponge oom-peny in New York," he said reminiscently. "I just showed them my passport end ther put me right to work." John 1 a uncle he d been 1n the ap onge n dling busine 88 1 n the Medi ter reneen end, working under him, John bed learned hia job 1u11. "In e little while," be oontinued10 "I wee IIBking the biggest salary the t I ner thoo gbt or They peid me tbt big ee lsry of tlo soon erter I got to work end then in a little while they were J!Sying me den more. I ooold .an en1 ben encugb 1D eat end clothes 1ll weer out or toot end teel like million dollars. I later started diY1ng end helping men $be tiahing boeta. 'l'be7 raised me to e better aelery. on the I didn't melee t30 e week. I m111eged to ean out pt ttet f.5,000 in \ -eight rears. 147 hope wea to sen enwgh to get m;y siatera married end to then get flf'/ w1 te tr011 tbe old oou n try." Be finally eooumuleted tbl neousery -sumend went beok to Greece end we a rri ed but be did not atey there "I wanted to get beck to .America end go to 1c wor nCJIV tor more money," he aetd, "I bl d got new dream end the t we a to own e business ror myeelt but 1 dir.iln't hll anybody about H. I -,uat it to myself." So, UJ)on hie return to Amerloe wit .. his b ride, be went be ole to work tor tbe eeme oompe ny tn New_ York. Pre a en t,-. erter be bed told them or


bh dreem, they sent him to Tarpon Springs to work tor John X:. Cheyney, John Cocoria peraueded Cheyner to import tor be knew that the dher's method ot bernaUng apongea wea tar auperior to the "hooker boat'' method then in u 1t Tarpon Springe. Soon, t1ading the hauls eicellent, bought more end more boate end brought from Greece until he and the whole industrr were boomiDg Presently this proaperity began to irk the apone tiahera ot Ker West and ther began playing tricks on their I ri.ela. On one oooasion, John haYing put into Key West tor sup-pliea, his boat with ell it contained wes burned. thia time John owned a pleeaure yeoht. In order to show these miachiet makers that be intended to have no more or their nonsense, he bought a amell 81Dlon end mounted it on the bow or hie yacht. ,... Recalling this incident, he said, "I thought it might be a good idM to show them tbet I could th them up it ther didn't leave me alone," Then he added, "0! course I dido t really mean to do anything with it, but it added e little tun to my lite on the we ter. Now end the.n I would liQ to shoot it just once. It 1111 de plenty or nohe em added prestige to my yacht," The priest ot the Orthodo% Greek present et the time 1 (i aeid, "The coming to America in those wes guidance trom God. It wes tore told in the Old Testament that ell the people wwluidsnce end eo did .John end ell the people that came here in those ders .tte might tell you that he came with e certein idea in his mind about doing something, but 1r be bad not hid tb!lt idee he would bed the de sire to come here anyhow." In 1Q39, there were approiiiiE tel7 three hundred end titty Greekuerioens in Jolost or the men or this group ere engaged in buaineaa rca-themaelYes em ere prosperous. Many or them ere Mesons, Elks and woodmen and practically all belong to the locel c.lll pter ot Ahepa. In Julr 1939, a three-day connntion or delegates trom chapters or 1n the southeastern states was held in Jacksonville, .Between Three end tour hundred me ders ettended ane 8octatu Che pter or .Teokaonville played host with headquarters et the Roosevelt Hotel. ;;-" .... '-or-


c J..lllericens The homes ot the local Greeb ere ecsttered ell about the oity. lt at t1rat tbey are amll and unJ)rt ttnt1oua, u t1n&o1el auotusa comes, are replaced with more 8Ubstential dwellings usually at brick. The grounds tre well kept sod the lhing oondit ions or the remily ere on e per 11i tb bose or tbe other reeiden ts in tbe neighborhood. One temily ot eh: he s just moved into their recently completed, eight-room, brick home ln It la newly furnished througpoot. To eohien tbis the tether he a 11orked tor years, the tem1ly living aeenwhile in e modest frame house. Jeckaonvllle'a oitizena enjoy e aoclel lite ohereo terized by e blend1D8 or Greek with Amcric en oua tome. The weddiog cere monies end receptions or tbe 11ellto-do ere reported in the columna or tbe local pe per e. One wedding, lately aolemnized, wee particularly impressive. It wes distinguished by the presence or Archbishop Athenegores, heed or the Greek Orthodox ohrohee or North end Sc:u th America end ,wee the first such ceremony thet be bed performed in Jeoksonville. interior or the Greek church or St.John the Divine wee decorated with out flow-era end greenery end et the alter oetbedrel candles burned in seven branched Behind the alter, is e panel besring e -picture in oils or Jesus carrying the Cross. At the entrance or the bridal party this panel slid alowly to one side revealing e corridor lined with gold and bung with icons. Lighted white tepera in autglese oendlebre set the From this splendid retreat, issued the tell figure or the Archbishop breesed entirely in ble ck. Through inquiry, 1t 11ea found that this cor ridor 1a only tor the use or .ligni tery. While the vested eboU bummed the "Wedding l!erch" from "Lohengrin" accompanied b7 the organ, the Archbhhop slowly advencet to the t'roat or the alter where be was met by the paator ot the ohuroh.ei)d the bridal party. The bride' n attendenta 11ere dressed in While the 8111!1ll tl veri-colored gowns ower girl and rin b bridol g g eerer were in White. The bride own or hi te aeun With lo wore The Uahera A ng trailing Veil or ill i ea ... groomam11n were ua on end leoe. in black. The eerv1oe waa reed in the ing sdmonition on th e sacredness the ohoir-leeder. An interesting b wedding tdeoked crowns u pon the hesda GruJr l:en guoge beginning with the open-or merriege. Responses were obsnted by cue tom waa th e Placing or the bride end grelm etter White flower they bed


otaata a t #Io ri o td tb 1r YO a. or at. u ribb 1 .rl4 rooca'a tl b r fro el.d t 4 to oro '" ttr h ., t tQ tl. 1 port no in th11 uni rl ro WD b1 op no o t 4 10 1rol 14, otb bol in U in t ir 4, n Uf Y l'f IUIJ) iOU ly, I h Jl '1 1'0 JOU 0 H rtf 4 Uf 1 4trlc ol.ouda, ro t t ia ro to b r 1 tb t bll ldYlO r1 Aooordin t o r e rtl tetb r r o t h nor-ho 14 te t a, hh Ut\ It tbt JtOlc OYll 0 rtty tied to tb r leoed o b7 t hn t altar. o d tbco rro o tou ar oh of bua nd". 0 t l 4 b7 a ueb r t 11 t 1 tlo t aroo a r tb r n oy d 1rl o a truolc or1 n 1 oeltton, tb Archot pla o 1 b r 1 r1 D UJ)OO tb 1 tor lon tod .... b eor but I wtnt -not to r rh 4 l1 te b I bu b Dd. d, tt r 1 a 11 the to tb tron rld to p ch r- Clu toll td. Tb AXobb1tbop 1 to t 'brld table. t r. At hie b rt r br1 tb ooa, -pr1 or br14ea r t1 ea. br1hroo robb or' r1 h o tl eolo 1c by 1otrolt r cot'dt or Ortol b lo o t d nee tl lin lntttad or bol41o uau 117 Cbo e ot tb aeo. J'irtt t aeoono p o tb br1cS led. l tl ro bl.t wtr nd a ert, t 4 on tb tb bride d roo led rele U d 10 4 or b odic rohte 4 t b took yin rob 1o 4/4


r ----------------.......... .... Greclca at l"lori&e witb no pertiouler rtguree except a weeing, aerpentine effect beok and forth, ea the line tnt around the room. The little children attached .. a to the end or the Une where they woul4 not be in tbe wey end followed elders tbe 4enoe. After thia, the orcbeatra played dance IJUaic and from then on the denoea were altum ted--n01f Greelc DOll made:tn! Later in the enning the four-tier wedding cake .sa out end 400' guests were aernd; 'hen, sner tossing her boquet to the brideemeids, tb"' bride e ad groom left on their honeJ'lllOOn. we ere ao seid the bride's aister, "oo so hap y that tl'2 11arriege wee solemnized by the Archbishop or North end America. It ls the first time it bee enr teken place in Jeckaonille. I, myeelt'1 sa American. In ftl ot, all c:L us children were born' in the United Stetee end, since the apeeke the oleesicel language or old Greece, I didn't understand ell be eeid7 but it wee ell ery wondrefuU" The rather came into the aeoreterye office, if she could ohsnge a titty dollar bill. H e needed some smell cbengel "I em 'fery hsppy," be said, "to see everyone hsving such e time. It ill a memrsble dey in my lite, end I em glad to do tbie tbr my ter. She has been s good dsugbter end n011 she he s e good husband end goes to a home her own. ia twentyaeven end her husband ie forty. "Xou see, tre Greek!! do not 1111rry until "e have a.,eourity. Whu: this on oeme to 11!! em aid be would like to have my tbr hls trite, he laid all hie oerda on tht' table--h1a family, health his 11ealth, end hie ambitiona. Firat, I went to his parents. They were agreeable, tte bed e 11rettr good benK aecoant end be 1e ao industrioua acd smbit1oue tbet I bed tull confidence in him end gave my consent. All this, mind 7ou. before my daughter knows e thing ebout it. Then I apoke to her, re-IOIIl!lle Dding the fOUI:E n, end he aterted calling on her. Theyheve been keepP1g OCCf8n7 for the pa at yeer end ere wellaui ted to lech other. The)' lean tonight t'or their honey.-aoon!tn Cube, When they get beck, they be .. their own nicely rurniabed home wei ting tor them. "Thia i the aecond to have e big "edding end reception et the Woman' Club end I have one more, my baby daughter. I will do the eme fu her." Upon being eeked if he wished this daughter to merry e n ot Greek blood too. the tether replied, "ies, It 1e better the t we merry among ourselves beoeuae we understand our customs end requirements." "And whet about your two good looking eons?" he wee asked. "Well, they will Juat ben to sit. We muat teke oere or the girls


Greeks or Florida p-26 tirat el'l4 thtm aettled in lire." The brothers reaction to thia attitude is perl:l!pa ahown by en inci .. dent ocouring et the end ot the evening. At 11:30, the crowd began to dwindle. As one or til! brothers escorted a perty ot guuta to the door, he wea beard to sey, "This is the h!ppiest ni@nt or my lite." Hia ree ebone end his face wee wreathed in lllll1lu but, whetherthis jOJ wee purely unaeltiab or mixed with heppiness thet hie own chence to wsa drawing neerer, it would be impossible to aey. It !a turll ilo wonder bow the rounger Greek girls feel about such Ueee Ill thou e::rpreased by this ObY10U8lf generoua but strict fsther. Born em t up in ice, they:tend tbe local schools where they are by oe t1ve J.mer!cena during six ho.ura ot the dey, rtve days or the week, approximately thirtr eight weeks or the year. They hear every you thtul phe ee ot opinion--every wind or llociel doctrlae. Whet ere these girls' idees about "dates", courtship, mt:red err!. !ige, ottice work, end the 11m nc!pe tion women in general'? Arrangements were made to attend e meeting ot e Greek girls' club in Jeckeonv!lle end, with the members' consent, these idees were discuss ed. The answers seem sign1f1cent. Eleven girls were present end most or them seemed eager to express themselves. To e question re&erding lone "dates" with men, they replied the t their r,erenta objected to this Amer!oen C\Btom but permitted the11 to have men escorts when 8 group went out together. On euch occes1ona, no older chaperon wee necessary. The girls agreed thet this seemed wise to them. Asked it men Yis 1t them in their home a soy tbrmally ezpreaseO idee ot marriage e1mply to become better acquainted, they aeid that thia was dome although aomet1mes rather bed to be won over first. Mothers, it aeemed, were uauslly on the side or the girls in quest tor greater freedom. J.s one sprightly, aemi-blonde, aenior high school girl put 1t: "If I meet e boJ 1n school or et a convention end we ere ettrecteO to eech o'lltl", be IIBY come to aee me et home in order to find out it we really ll !.o':'.. e u:::b :1 th E r like eeoh other. But 1t we go out together, we must go 1n e crowd." "And do you go with Amer1cen lloys et ell'?" they were esk:ed. The answer wee e Yigeroua chorus or ,"No&" Than they were aaked why they felt this wey about it. The room was a moment end thin 8 l'OUDg woae n, who eeemed to be e leader, ae1d: "I'll tell you why l-&t go with American boys. It I should go with.


.. Oiiiki 61 Fldrldi p-27 e p rtlculer boy it would be beoeuae I tetl I ight learn to like him a lot--and--" She did oot tiohl tbe tanoa bot lett the inference tbst there would b nouuiJllllcins boyiJ lot .tnce 1twQll.dnever end 1 ahe mie;bt w1eh it to. Another 1rl added to the eenteoce tbua: "You tee we ere members or the or .. lc oburob eod otbere ouldo't jo1 it, 10-- Thh re rlc shea riu to 'Cbe epeoulation tba t 1r the Orthodox Greek ohurob could unite with tbe !piacopelieo cburcb,wbicb union hea been con eidered tor eral year., 1t ould po a1bly encourage a freer rele tionebip b tween Greek end ucricen e1nce the barrier ot blood would no longer b trengtben 4 by the barr! r or rec1el religion. When eak d or the boya went with American girls, they aeid, "Tee," n4 th ir teoea e:rpreeaed "It 1 Yell us without boy tri nde," oz. e%1)lained, "but the boya aey tb y oen telce ..lmtrioen irla to the pioturu alone ana they can't us. They don't lik oh arona. hen you bri your ta iliea, w t libertiee do you e7pect to all your de bttre," tb! y were eek'ed nut. It 11 notebl tb5 t not oz. repudie ted the idee or be a tam1ly. "Well, when I beve e daughter," one epo up, "I intend to aee if I can b ooot1denoe in ber by g1Y1o ber liberty, a little at o time. If ebe'e orthy or my oon.1'1denoe, I'll sie ber a little more liberty end lo eb e tote abe eboul.d, I' 11 ep on be con.t'idence in ber end iYin ber mort li rty. It euma probeblt thet the boy end irl 11 tue t1on will straighten itult out eht rure so by. LoYe, it 1a eeid, leugha at more th1nss tb n loclc .emitlll. On tbc eubject or women in the bulin ae orld, their op1n1ona were t1rm, Tboae, who were out or b1 b eohool, worked when end where they lilced. Their renta bone Company tor tbret r .. ra. Another worked in the ott1ce ot a lite insurance com pahy. They .aid they enJoyed tbt popular fiction ot the dey, getting it trom tbt public Uhrary ae moat J>eople do. They ntioned "Rebecca" end "All Th1e end Htnen Too". Oz. girl ae.ntfone4 bcr a:egszine, e #I ... nera 11 y wulcly wbiab H 111H pol)Ul.Jir. Another u ber or the local


J LHUe Tb .. tre and .. id 8be bed been e llllmber or "Book ot the Month Club" lest yeer. The sirlll srud tbet they ,,, -.114 often .went, in IS ltowling group wit b uoorta, to one ot the looel\\lllle ys. It ia tbet the opinion by these girls would not be tf'Pioel ot tho .. held by all Greek girla because the aothe perticipetion in this club will, or itaelt', teta4 Jto enlerge the viewpoint ot' this 'J)Srtiouler group. However,t 1111nt1oned by their elders 9s representative ot' the Grui-Amerioen ycu th of Jeokeonville. 'l'be 'l'erpon Springe aettlemeot According to V.I.Chebithee, Supreme President, Order or Ahepe in 19:57, "It' there 1a oce place in the Western hemisphere where the Hellenic customs, hebits,ena traditions ere lived end pre'otised, even more closely ( 1) then in Helle e Iteelt, the t ple ce is 'l 'erpon ,:;,prings, .!!'lorida." This most Grecian oi ty wee rounded in the tell o 1es2 by Anson P.K srtord. In lS90 Kovbeyney, havir.g beOome interested in the ot sponge lite in the waters thereabout, sent out e hooker boat to gather these urine creatures. As time went on he be gan to realize that this method sponge collecting, in which e three pronged book et the end ot' e light pole is used to twist the sponges t'rom their beds, wee injurious to the l erge s ponges end destructive to the emell ones. Besides) such e method could not be used in deep weter. In 1e99 when John Socoris came to Tarpon Springs end began working in Cheyney's pecking bouse, he described to hie employer the better method ot' sponge gathering used among hie net1ve 1el8Ilde em persueded Cheyney to try it in Terpon Springe. In 1905 Greek divers were brcught in from the islands or Aegine, elk:i, Cslymnos, ancl Symi ea well se the or Greece. George Hill Cocoria, e brother ot John, osme wit b the first group. They brought w1 th them their own equ1JIIIIent diving suits end plene ot' the' bosh uaed in the Mediterranean end trom thet time the Tarpon Springs eponge thbing indU& trr tlc:uriebed. At t1rat tb e nemea ot the boats were Greek end ri tten in the ohereoters or the Greek Alpbebet. Today however, even though the life of these people, their ouetoma, IDI dreee remain esaentislly Greet, it is perhaps aignit1oent or an inner obenge tiJ! t almost or theee boeta (1) From booklet-Thirty-second Anniversary of tbe Greek Community or Tarpon S pringe Florida. p.44.--Yeer 1937.


bear auob o Gtor e laabin to Cirl, Dixie, Century ot Pro rue, iberty, Prtaident BooatYtU, and eJflower. Tb nb to tbl ooura e eond endurance or t eat Grecian rhhera, tor apon e tillh 1 ia both d n roue a d erduoua work d no other people 1111 ri a baa beco tbe largest apoo to undertake 1t, Terpoa in tbe orl4. In 19:5? t annual aalt record e:roeeded tl,ooo,ooo. s lea tor t tire t belt 0 1939 as H untortune h tbet 1D a atren e bU bt be en to dutroy apo u in b Behl eod Xt7 aat bed a. B7 la tt 1939 1t bed apreed beda bt1n n: ad by tb apo ra or T rpon pringe end wea 4o1n d eent Dr. '.L'ba United Stltu ot 1"1aber1u 1m.medie tly ltaotr to etudy tbia diataat and tbru m1oroaoop1o e:re 1ntt1ona h concluded t t a tun el lot ctton, talnd only 1n tbe dia-tu d IJ)On a, u tbt cou1 or t de truouo or t l1 nns tissues or th a or atur a. Hia c olua1on a oontlr d b7 Br1 tiab 1 ntieta. rmen How v r, the r at et d ao tar be b n do to tbe deep sea nd anum whi ac.hnca 1a at work a in to eredioete tbie t1ah ra or Terpon w rin a cont1nu to work tbe abellow beda poo ea re at1ll e 1lebh. It 1a to be bop d t t not hi trill n to dlaturb tb1a Grecian colony tor 1t h a, durin t laat year aed an unique contribution to tb colorful program of a aoth lU :leoh rear on Jenuar,. ai%th th m ra at th Gu Orthodox o urab at St. 1obolaa obaerve bept1am ot Juu a, tb Ot oniea auob unuauel beauty tb t t enot b beoo oetionally reaoua. '1'h oere ony in waa oerr1 4 out ooly on a uell aoele end # no \)ublio ntion it wu de 1o e peragropb in tb Tarpon lpr1n a Newa. It bea be n h ld 7 r11 Doe t t ti e yeerlt bee 1ncreeaed 1n r.ndeur and atten4eooe. o4 1 tb t ot th1e event, one or th o t r r aoe4 d tb o l b t one at ek Orthodox cburcb 1a world wlde. In 1940, appro%1 ttly twent,r tb aao4 opl to th1a oity to w1tne t eeremony. Atob 7 er tbc proc dur ia tb! ae though the crowd row a la rs r. tthe., .. o}lle 11 e atreet to aee tbe prooeesion bead d b 1 41e:n1 teriee o t t oburcb 1t1 l4 enoruattd end jeweled robea. They orowd about th berou where t J..robbhbop Neda tbe Goe el story ot t b peitm ot Juua, his eo orClla words a1QS,llng with the tinkle or the tiny bella tbo't or oent hie et at. D re54a the orde, "Th


Oreeka or Plor141 p-SO Sp1r1 de water 4 d like a white 4oe, unloo1ed tluttera o r 14 c oroaa ia thru the air and alnka Inatantl1 eoorea ot rcung epongere apring from the d1Y1n b t t o retrie oae bo h aeen aar -be tropbJ l' 1a en ecene. La hz in the clef, the ocremonr ot bleae1ng the end ett r tbte tbt lit-tering apongera feel that no htortune lfill t e w h e n tb17 go out once ore 1n their boata. Dur rtod bene Cbria K}ltpb or, thef ben ten no t1eh becauae durin unbluaed. The Jaater celeb t1on, held on a dat compute d tro tb dat or e Jnhb Peaaour, 1a carried out with equal l'l dor but ie n o t publicized. On Beater aorn1ng the greeting, cbriato a ia r1aen,"--1a tbc 1 bould one ot er. aa friend aeeta friend and h e r. e n eaie e a et, 1a 1 t worda, old difterencee are tar ott n torIt 11 e day t at1ng end in nur home a lbe8J'. etutted ltb rice end eca c eta. tlaor d itb tb)'l!ie end .. eet beaU. ia roaat d 1 olie oil end aerYed. .lt little church ot St. icbolaa, p. tron of aellora, ta tilled each worabi er hold1o a lone. unlit taper while tb 7 liate to ehantera tell the atorr ot the Meaurreetion. At t b e end tbc cbuzob ligbta are cxtin labed and the prieat1 holding e lighted tbreebr nob d candlestick, c ea d n trom the altar. From t h e lighted candle the r1a e apreeda, tap r to \eper, and pre1entl7 the ohurob 1erd lo a 11 a garden eli with tire!liaa. Thi a balD! oer, t h e wo end children burr1 bo cwerd btl th t L aet ott rtrecreckera and 4en o e and a1ns along tbe waterfront to the ate or tlutea, zUhera.and Mndol1na. 'l'bru the n1 ht. whU tb lr wia and chlldz aleep peacefully, the men feeat o bon e r ce and aelty Greek chetat bed 4own with thick black oottee or attoba n d clear reo1an wine. W i the r1a1ng aun they climb their bo t d ck an4 u1l into the Oulr. At plena are under UJ tor the erection or en 1 poain oburcb wbich will replace the little cburob ot St. icbolea. To pz tbia celebre tto which 1a Preaident, Order ot Ahep in l 9S? ; stnce onl1 one or its kind in Am rica, to etber a baa e co ( l} rro Hell enic lite in Spri a. baa b oo little w oo de n oburoh c St. to olea th r (l ot worabi'P" r e ot a national abrin th n a m re 1ooal pl c ry booklet-rear l037p.46


Greeks of Florida In the .. me arUcl.e he urged thE> t e fitting atructure, one which ould exemplify the grace, dignity,aad strength ot Hellenic Orthodoxy in !merice, ahould be built there. Through the eftorte ot Hie Excelltooy, Demetrioa Sioilienoa, Minister Plenipotentiary of Greece, the Greek Government furnished the corner atone toe the nn oliurch. Tbias marble 1a trom l.!ount Pentely trom tallll the aerble used in building that perfect atruoture or antiquity, the Parthenon. Ot approximately tbouaend tive hundred inhebitente of Tarpon Springe in aore then two thousand were of Grecian origin. A major( J i ty of the men are Amer ioen ci tizena encl nearly ell own their homes. More then five hundred ere registered voters end they ere represented in the city council and cbomber ot commerce. According to criminal court records, they ere unusually lew abiding. Their nemea aeldom eppeer in court pro secutions. The Greek community is controlled bye board q.r directors whose picture might be mistaken tor the picture or any group of Americana Two or the tour c 'ommi of the city ot' Tarpon Springs ere Greek Americana. C: Grecian children attend the parochial school housed in e substantial brick building end the extre-ourriculer et'feirs ot the school ere looked etter by the Greek P.T.A.. The older women are members of the ledhe Philoptool!os society.The young men end women have their local "Little Theatre" known ae the Players or the Greek CommunitY" In 1924 Professor George !naatasaiou organized the Choir. Since then it bee grown# both 1n aize an4 tame. Today,under the name of "Stylianoa Hourmouzioa", it ia known to who Tlait Tarpon Springs 1br the Epiphany aeeson. Its organizer and lr u eleo tb! author ot "Masters ot BJzentine llueic" end la the OOI!Ipoaer of "Major and lnor Byzantine L1 turgy" H is also the principal or tbe Greek parochial school or Tarpon Springs. Tbe ot thie eity holds e teng or tb! Near !set, partic ulerly when tbe 11ponge fleet 18 in port. The gayly J)einted ships, squat end broad in tbt beam, lie moored et the dooka, their rigging hung with etrenge aea oreeturea, coral and strings or sponges. Bronze diving belmeta, diver's suits end gear pile the decks end,elort,the blue and white of Greek pennants tlutter at the lllfJat beads while Ule Stan end Stripes wave at the stern posta. sunbr011ned1 weather beaten men, often beretoot, with Jlanteloons rolled UJl end corded necks open \be wind, work at their teaks of stroll into the co(tee hops to alp black eot'tee, play


Greeks ot Flor14e .. rda, reed the J!! Jler or talk. Stores handle imported Greecien roods restaurants serve neti ve diahea. That diatinctively Greet institution, the oorree shop, ie round in the dock district. Ita habitues amoke nargUas,or water pipes, lounging at teblea on tb e sidewalk. The 1ponge e:rohange Tefpon SpriDs, tb e only one in Aller ice, 1a a large red briolc truoture with iron grilled 1torsge cella built ereund a JlltTed ccurt. H 11 a ooope111t1Te 1natitut1on oontrolled by the Greeks and, oontrary tc usual auction J)rooeldure, tbl aeller 1a not obliged to ao 'oept 1 bid orrered 1t he conaidera it too lc. but 118Y bold bia wares ( ) tor tuture ulea. The ldw mi GreekJ.aerioena 'l'be uoond lergest grou p or Greek-Americans in the state 1a in Miami. According to the secretary or the ll.ja mi order or Ahepe, were only six Greeks in Dade County in 1905, tive men and one women; in 1939, it wee eatime ted the t between ai :r end seven hundred were yeer round residents with many more there during the winter. From recorda or Aheps it 1a trund tbet probably ninety percent ot the reaident Greek-Americana purvey tood in one t'orm or another. Most or them ere aking a oomt'artable living. Some live in comparative luxury. They ere the ooneervetive citizen type interested in aeme pursuits that interest the nerege American. lome or children attend the JUbliC aohoola while otbera so to prh'ete ineUtutiona but pracUcslly ell go etter hours to the J)8rooh1al 1obool where th11 ere inatruoted in the Greek language From the ranka ot Greet-AIIeriosn yruth, two young women end ai:r J'OUng 11110 are attending the Uninraity or M mi. one or the yrung women ia active iD athletioa. One young men Jlleys football and beaebello J.nother playa tenn1a end a third playa football sod ia interested in lo:l'i ns. Tbe Greet Orthodox ohurcb or Bt.Sophie ia 11ell attended. The men belong to nrioua traternel ordera, particularly the Hellenic Club, the Order ot AheJle,and Greek Democratic Club. At their dencee both modern ana Grecian tbrma ot the dance are enjoyed. Tbe Greek-J.IDerican girls or Miami ere permitted to work if they w1ah to. One rather "I want you to meet my ter. She' a going to be aooa. Sbe "orka iii en office nc. bUt aoa. day aile won't worf."


Another tamily seemed proud e daughter who, although married, rune beauty llbop ot which llhe ie belt owner. Still another olerked in nde;h borhood dime a tore to meke Chrie tmee money. One Greek:hviosn woman or duoeUon end independent mens telkel tr .. ly ot tbl aociel aha ngu p;oicg on among tb e Gruke in ooamopoli ten Jliemi. Her oh1ldren were grown, Bv elder 4eugbter hed elreedy g redueted I trom the Unieraity or Kiemi end e 10unger daughter wee still e atudent there. This girl expeotltd to get her lteehr' degree aoon. The elder hr lU'Iterred uerioen me to Greek-Amer icen which H ( psuud her mot her eome ooncern. On one occasion en eligible 1oung men or Greek bloOd eaked the parents tor permiaeion to :teY owrt to the girl. This J>rocedure infuriated her. "He ebruld eak me first," she decleired. N ow, I don't went him." Her mot her reminded her tm t abe should not wei t too long to pick e buabend. ..... "Before a girl 1e 25 it is,'Who will she merry?' But after 25 it is, her 'Who will erry her?'" warned fffl.#l mother. Nioe Greek girls are e beys chaperoned end the average nice Greek boy who he s ts sted the freedom or America does not cere to f!P with chaperoned girls so he goes with en American lirl--end marries her," the mother comple in ed. "Then, erietocretio Greek girls ere disappointed in not having hue bents. '!hey wait et nome end have to gel married to the olj a:en end this 1a not I hll the Greek tarente we llUSt become es Americans now end p;i 'fe our girle so1111 treedom." She amiled end went on, "Jly husband 1e set in bill ways end I have cuob trouble to meK8 him ee But I on my knees end eo now he lets the ebildren It aeemed that, on one oooellion, tbe went ed to ettend a 4ence ginn in hooor Of e Visiting tootbell teemo Slle enme to her mo ther end, after upleining tbl etfeir eod ealcing permission to go t:> i t1 eaid, "I'n told yau. about u, now rou tell peps about it." Permiuion wea finally grented end ahe went 111 th, however, e parting ecmonition conoerning the hour at 11hich ahe ahould return. The mother added, "She wsa beok on time." In epealcing other reeling for America, thi.s women asid, "When I bade my beloved native lend goodbye end turned weatwerd to llllke my home I in America, I wondered it I ould not aooa be longing tor the beauty end culture of Greece. But during my 20 yers eojourn in the United Stetee I


Greeks ot Florida have been content." This woman 1a a mellber or eeYersl clubs and orders end epeek:e frequently before tbem U one club meeting abe epok:e on the subject, "The Greek Woman' Place in tbe United Statea" She deacribed e trip made aeversl Jeers before to her homeland. "I em blessed, thank God, by tbe Patriercb or Jerusalem," abe said, "end ao ere m, two daughters. In li27 we went to the Holy Lend to have beetowed upon me the erose end crown or the Order or the Orthodox Crusaders or the Holy Sepulchre. In the lioly Land we brught our shrouds end they were illllleraed in the waters or the Jorden River end bleued by the patriarch. They ere plein white cotton robes end ere worn only in deeth. Any kind of ge rment be 'Placed over them. We he ve no one color to be buried in but the bleaaed ehrrud must be next to"'our body, The poor 'Who cannot buy e shroud ere given one by oherity cr e piece or l9h1 te cloth ie blessed by the priest enCI wounCI ebout the body. We could not bring shrouds ..:. !rom the lioly Lend tor my buabend end son tor they 'Were 'not w1 th us there end the shroud must be blessed to the person ho is to lleer it. We keep ours in the veul t in the be nk:." She diaplB yed s gold cross end cbe in end e paper certiticate which reed, in pert, .having awarded the Crose with the Crown or the Order ot the Orthodox Cruaeaers ot the Holy Sepulchre, wherein hea been placed a genuine portion or the Sacred Crose, upon which, having been the Son or GoeS bes worked the miracle or our salvation. "This, with our blessing, abe is entitled to beer upon her breast, to her aanot1ticat1on, succour, and against every adverse "In witness whereof end conviction, the present pe trierobel letter end d1plolll'J he a been issued, signed end eealedo In tbe Holy City ot Jerusalem, 25, 1927." women in the world,are honored wi1h this cross," she se1d, "and it lllllcta me 'YU'f humble and YU'f proud the t this honor he e been given to me b)' my people." The oroas was or gold with e green palm wreath around it. On e>ne aide in the center ot the croaa is s smll picture or the Nativity in natural colora; on tbe other side, tia heed or Cbrist. At he end is e etem like that on a smell watch. It unscrews end the cross opens like e locket. A sliver ot oleer glees 1a fitted into the inside or tbe cross end inside tbe glass 1a a _aplinter asid to be trom the True 4rosa.


.I dreek a o r f iori4e Tbe talllily alter ocoupiu one oorner of thie aother'a bedroom end round tbie alter tbe teaily getbere tbru tl a daily tor prayers. Tbe 1 aotber .. td tbet,when be r obilclren wue attending t:t. tfn1Yerai ty or au .. mt, tbe7were unable bOM tor tbe noon eerYice; bownertbey pauud, wberenr tbl7 were et tbet U and ae14 a allen t prayer. A enoutcl in a Old t1ligree bolder, debora tely atudded witb '18ri-oolored atonu, t.nga ebou tbt eltar. Behind it 1a en leon or Qhrist wbiob, it 1a eeid, bee b .. n banded down 1n \b1a tamlly a1noe 1453. Grulc-.&.merioana in norida TodaJ The growth ot Greek immigration to Yloricle ia abown by the following table. It muat be remembud,hoeYer, tbet tigurea ere tor foreign born Greelas only end therefore do not give e true picture of the Gruk-Ameriosn population in the state s loe tt. t'sm111es these men eo-quire etter coming to J.merioe ere lett out. ...:. census-164 1910-u.s. oeneue--839 J ceneue--l40 e 19215-aS census l930.!>W a oensus-!152 19315--stete ceneus--1673 J.n unot'tioiel oenaue at tbe Greek-Amer1oen or a1I the o1tila or l"lorlde, taken in 1939 by tbt aeoreterlea or tbe local orders ot J.hepo, gina ter1al tbr tbe tollc.1ng hble. It gives a truer idee ot the nu her ot Greek!meriosns in the atete today. Tbe .. figures 1noluda the temllhh Jaolcionville Ilia mi 700 Pan .. oole fOO Tempe -200 St.Auguetine 61 Tarpon Springa-2000 ToUl-:1711 This 1a only II pert or tt. Grulc-J..Dericen population of Floride todey, hoever tben a1I c1t1es beve el1teys been the centers or Greek settlement. J.ooord1ng to tba atete census or 1935, out or tbe 1,67:1 foreign born Greeks then in Florida, 1,179 lived in, Dede, Eaoembie and P1nellea counties. The re 1nill5 494 were scattered over the rest or the


dreeka o r f 1or14a atete. Three aountiea oontein&d only three Greeke eeob, nine oonteined only two, tour bed only ODI and 20 orunUu bad no toreignborn Greeks in their bordera. In oontrut to the early .Inglish and F_renoh, who oeme to Americe in rob ot religioue liberty, well tbe people who flee here todey tor the retaon, Greek imm1graDta were otivated principally by e hair tor better eoono111.1o oond1 t ion. oOd em aoney were aoeroe in 1the bomel nd. Barter wa a more oo11111on then buy!Dg. Speakine of those tillu, Greek o1Uun or lliem.i aeid, "One year I went onr to 'fUrk:eJ to worlc through tb wheat barnet. For my wegea, they eve ma e buehel o t wheat 1 dey. Tba t wa e good gea and we needed the wheat at home, but I never went beck to that pleoe again beoeuse I did not like the oobree, 'fbere were lote or the t.b ue. "When I wu reed)' to go bo my brother came etter me in e boat end we pe 1d our re re w1 t h aome or the wheat." priuta eome timea reoei v d an otter 1ng o t produce ine teed of ooina. Deaorib 1og one sue h Lenten or teri e wo1111 n eeid, "Everyone took two r d 1 nd two white egge and gave them to the pr1eet. The red eg!a wer ooolce d while t hi white ones ere re eo tb ot be oru ld sell those it ht ot too meny. We'd b ke our n brud t bon end ten soma or the nioeet lo vee to him too 1.11t7, W1 th ite well tn n "rllie Island" "ee tbe port ot entry tor ny at theee people though ao e be'fe o e by way or Havens end l!iami. "It would be herd tor to underetand bow amazed I wee when I eaw tba St tu. e or Liberty end th ekJline ot Ne York," one men said. "Y it waa indud Nn world. o CD but a torlign .. born 1111n oen tryly UDderatand wlle t I mean when I aey t t. It a ao ditrerent trom Europe. The people here look tree--the)' reell7 (Ol--and unstre1d." Many Ore lc boya were "tae:sed" through to rel.ati'f already eatebl1ahecl here. tag bearing the bo7 ne end d t1oa t1on lieu ld be pleoed on b 1e ooe t nd friendly people elong the wa1 helped to steer him 1n the right 41reot1on. proeperoua or .. reaident o! eoksonv1lle oallll! to New Yorlt tegged 1n thie t8 abion. "I lett my netin land when I waa only nine )'e.are old," be aeid. brother ot 1g wee in New Yorlc, eerT1ng ea e waiter in a lerge hotel, an<'l be thought 1 t would be better tor to oo over to America where be




0 they wei ted tweln hrurs, thinking ao1111one wwld tell them which to get on. Finally e station employu noticed their long wait end questioned them in English. Although they bed no idee whet he asked them, eagerly gen the only answer they knew for ell tustions, "Tempe, Florida" '.rbe ateUon un thtn ahOIJ ed them his we tch end by aigns made them understand t their train wruld leave et aix ocUtck. Another aigh or I relief, end then back inttl egs1n, tor they didn't know whither aix o'clock maent A.M. or P.M. 51 tting tor weery hours on the bard -!Inches in the wei ting room, they became ravenoual7 hungry. They asw their fellow ai tters go out end oome beck with sandwiches end truit, but, although they bed money, they were etreid train migbt le6ve wi tha.t t them it they ventured out to look fer aolll! thing to est. tinell:y, etter tning to sleep thra.tgh the night on their uncomfort able bench, the gad hour or ei:r o'clock in the morning ,came, and someone put thllll on a train brund tor Norfolk, 'J'irginie, the tirat stop on their journey. Cbenging at Nortold tor TsmJS, they had several hours to wait tor another train, so mustered courage to go out end forage tor food. Locating they cornered a wei ter and patted their gaunt atoiD8cbs and pointed to their mru the until their wants were understood. The:y ate the waiter brought 1hem, whether they liked it or not. One aew others eating oysters on tbe lt-shell and some drinking bottled drinks, and decided be wanted solD! or each. But hie sign-making only brought him a bottle or Coca-Cole. By IIIUOh gesticulating end pointing they finally got 8 baste t or rood pecked to take with them, end by going sbrut the station saying "Tamps, Florida" to eerybody, they were at lest en a train heeded tbr .reclcaonvill.e enroute to Tempe. lfhen they got ott at Jacksonville tor last chAnge on .their journe:y, the bOys beard s sound that tilled them with joy. It was s voice apeaking tbl good Greek language. 'l'he welcome voice came trom a Greek bootblack who bed a stand in the station. 'l'hey rushed to him end almost hugged him. 1'hrough the help ot this countryman, the boys bed no trouble 1Jl$etting more rood in -eckaonville, and he elso undertook to get a lunch pecked to last thea on their way to their tinal destination. But bootblack himaelt be 4 been but a short time in coubtty end he bed the idee that Tampa wee perhaps a thousand miles from Jacksonville.


...................... ly, be bc:ught them enc:ugh food to lest them e week-end el though they bed only about two hundred miles farther to go. To their happy surprise, their train reached 'l'empe within the net twelve hours, end they were soon among fri.enle of their own race end language. They era prominent buainass men end naturalized citizens today but they still leugb over this experience .A.nother Greek lllan said of biB first impressions of Americs, "I can still remember how big the Statue of Liberty looked end hOIII high the buildings in New xork City seemed to me. We went straight to Chicago end I will never forget the red velvet seats in the train." After err1Ting in America, it wee usuel fer tbe Greek immigrant to move about tor e time until he fc:und desirable W'ork though aome already hed e job waiting for them, thanks to relatives or friends already here. But it seldom took long !br them to settle down end begin to eccumule te their They were willing to begin et the bottom and work up. JSnntuelly most or thsn want into business tor themselves. It wee not UDoommln tor men with long names to shorten them. ror example lJionysaiua lJennis end Kaliekondes turned to Kellis. Very rew families came along lihen the trree k fe ther tire t sought his fortune in this country. In fact,most or the first immigrants were un ID8rried end remHned ao until they lJI d eatebli.shed them;elves finenoielly. Only then did tbey shoulder tbe serious responsibilities ore benedict. They usually returned to the homeland end married their early sweethearts. Some, however, married in this country, usually girls or European birth. Thia custom or deleying their wedded life until they ere eoonomioelJ.: independent, bas resulted in two things. First, Greek husbends ere often much older then tbeir wives end second, there is e lerge proportfon or bachelors among Greek men. A cenSle or the Greek edul t males living in Pensacola, tebn in 193) bf the secretary or the Order ot Abepe re, showed 61 Dllrried men end 76 single. In the or Greek immigration to America, the immigrants frequently l1Ted in crowded qoo rtera em UDder poor oondit ions. A des cription or li'ring oonditions in those early de;rs wee given bye Greek American who is, tods;r, well-known in the business world in J6cksonville. "When I got to New York," this Dlln eeid, "my brother, Jemea, met me end took me to hie home--en with abrut twenty five other Greek


L Gr .. ks o t Florida p-40 aen. e .. they did not melae much money ror most at them worked in restaurants as waitera, or in the kitchen ea cooke, rood-handlers, or dish washers. From morning to night, or tro night morning, they were on their r .. t end the salary tor tb1a work wee about eighteen dollars s 11onth. That wa8 the reeaon eo many or them went together in a tive or six room 8prtmeat, wh1oh they turn1abed themselves, doing their own work end laundry end oooldng when ott duty. "In this day ot aborter hours en(! pay tbr. overtime, it 1a herd to picture the oondi t1on or the ae n with whom I we s thrown in those early day8. They would come in ,their lege aching, their teet numb trom such long atendtng, end throw themselves on a eunlcen oat tar what rest they could get, with the elented thundering by on ita regular aohedulea, the lir a titling thick with 111110ke when the windows open." However, ea aoon ea their oiroumatanoea warranted, tbe.y improved their mode ot lite. This relll!line true ttdey. Thill ability to content themselves with wl:llt ia at band, nen though their testes run to better things, 1e 8hown by tla tollowin g "Moat Greelas prefer l8 mb em chicken to any other meet but they eet Whet their pooket-boolc will afford them," aeid this Greek-.Amerioen. One erple as tion ginn tbr the willingness or the eerly Greek immi grant to work O't'ertime is the teet tbtt any ot them were unable to 8peek or understand Engliah well. Tb1a ditticulty acted es s restraint to eoohlinterocuree end,a1noe there wee nothing elae to do,they did not mind on at their work. But tod.ey Greelc-A.merioan employers pay regular wegee end work their employees regular hour8, In Pensacola, e Greelc-.Amerioen beera the dis-tinction ot being the tirat local rohant to with the N R A and be r1dgedly adhered to the rulee throughout the time the ln wee enforced. The local newspaper commented on tbia tact. In the tield ot education, tbe Greek-Americans ot Florida heve not been outstripped.The goal ot Grecian parents, or whate't'er section ot the state, a eme to be to eduoete and u .. ioanize their children. One baa only io gring up tba eubjeot or education to leern thie .1 Greek merchant or #aokaon't'ille, who came or1gibally trom Kalavryta, 88id: "!!duoat1on 1e e&8ent1al tor the reoe end we muet be diligent in Si't'int out children e't'ery opportunity. We Greeks teel that children oen be educated until 1n time orime will practically diaeppeer." In s Greek-American widow, apeakiDg in broken English, told


, Greeks Florida p-41 with evident pride or the RAmerioen Legion Certificate of Scholarship Award" and the two r .. arda or merit from the Gregg Publishing Company which her older da1J8hter bed received while in high school. Thie aoUler, though abe t. d lacked certain advantages be raelt, was happy onr the better opportunities which her chiltren were receiTiDgo Speaking ot the dark days that came after her health broke from over_ work, aha aaid, wve moTe here. Me went to courthouse. Tol' dem had ohillen an' only tiT. cent. Me beck aeek en' must have help. wsome say, 'She can't apick an write Engliahl' 0 "Some say, 'She need help, it abe widow ve t ree ch1lle1l. Her husban' aeetizan. Her chillena 'Mericens.' "Some aey, 'She Greek. She get ew help l!!lle need. Rich Greeks vill help be r.' wnen I aey, 'Yes, Greeks help me TUn dey, two dey, but not ew dime. RThen, oh 'Mericel Good 'Mericel Dey gif ma $20 e month--not tr me, but oauu I have ohillens. Dq 'Merioenal Dey can go school! Die woner-tul Miami aohoola I Me cbillens ao sa btl Oh, so t'anktull "I laic learn English, rut no dime: York six dey, Too tired to go night school. Love 'Merioel Love tbe seetizen, but no oent. Too herdl Too muchl Must keep chillene in achooll" In co 'ntrest to this mother's limited situation wee the intellectual environment end excellent education or a mother of st .twguatine but the burden o t her aong was the aa rm. "I oredi t my bua iness auccesa to two a--education en d mine tion 1 aeid IItle. Educated 1n the schools or Athena end later gradue ted from the American School at Smyrna 1 tbia Greek woDI!n came to the United States to atudy Amerio an teaching me thode expecting to return to Athena end put this inform tion to use es a teacher there. She entered Mount Hoiyoke college tor a post-graduate course after which abe taught in the 'Greek Hfl 8 HHfll in Boaton tor aneral years, Then, desiring to eee the. United States before returning to Greece, l!!lle took a position with a trevel agency where her lcnowlege or ai:J: languages (inoluding TUrkish) wee invaluable. She wsa sent to Floride epecting to atey three deys in It, Augustine. She hes been there 20 yeera. Her eldest on, a grad1.11 te or Annepolis, ie no11 an ensign in the United\States Nayy. eoond son, still in high is interested n navigation. Her daughter goes e girls' school in Boston Maeeechu-


0 Greeks of Florida p-42 sette. "l'es," aeye this mother, "education end determ1netion ere necessary." In 1939 e former editor 9f e Florida language newspe _per, col labors ting e1 tb o thera, 11!1 de e study of the Greeks in 'l'emps He says the t advanced education end achool ethletica ere in high favor with Am6rican born young people of Greek parentage in Tempe, end they ere strongly I encou rage d ::.n tl. e se e cti vi ties by their ps rente .! number of eons end 4eughters or Greek-A.mericene beve graduated with honors from the city's high schools and ere attending the University cL Tempe. Some have 41atinguiehed themselves in local ethletica. Thill men, e native of the Island or Skp.oelos1 gredueted from e high acbool in Cairo, Egypt, end ther he also studied art. Coming to this country ee a youth, he got such work as he coo ld end meanwhile continued his education. tte studied voice end i$ an easciete producer of locAl operee end Greek plays in addition to his :regulBr wcrk. His continued pursuit of higher education is perelleled by a prominent citizen of M:!s m1 who, after coming to this country, went to the University or !tissmri and took s two-year egricul tural course expecting to help his uncle who bed bmgbt e term in Wisconsin. The or 1914 interrupted his studies end be enlisted with the 1#1#11 Thirty-second Infantry in the Kigbty-first Division end sew active service in !'renee. Tbe t being over, he came beck: to th United States en a decided to study public accounting which he did 1br two years in Chicago. But he bed been gassed in the war end the severe climate or Chicago wee too much 1b r him. Finelly be came to Miami end entered tb! real estate business where he mede e comfortable living; however he wee still not content end for three years, after the dey's work was over, he spent his eveninga atudying lew. Yes--inrvI'l' pert of the state, Florida Greek-Americans ere interested in education. They point with pride 11:1 the history at education in their ne ti ve lend. The extent or tbe learning o t' the ancient Greeks is well known. The remnants or thl!ir ert end architecture ere still models 1br imitation. ArchimeAes'lew is aemonetrsted in the science class today. Greek poetry and drllll8 still influence our own. Suoh illus tret1ons of Greek influence on modern thought couLd be continued indefinitely. Perhaps leas well lcnown 1e the teet the t, efen the dark end Greek learning end education were outstanding.


7 Gree!QI ot Florida p-43 "In tbe put two tbooaand ar two tbrueand tive hundred years, there baa not been any century in 1lh ich the Greeks h eve not been the aost in telligent aDd beat instructed race or South-eastern Europe," aeys Lewis (l) Sergeant. He continues by "ln every era, the Greeks hs ve he d the con viction the greatest kind or power end the most 8coeasible wee (2) Jcnowl edge. In 1830, instruction or the Greeks wea on a ver.v amell acele e8 the power or Turke7 bed deveateted the schools or Greece. "For rears," 88f8 this author, "the land hsd been OYersbadowed by (3) intellectual darkness." However, with release rrom Turkish daninetion, the Greek school system began to reviVe em in 1893 there were 281 Hellenic gremmer ,.) with 18,240 aohole ra besides private schools. Sergeant aeya tte\ edspite the teet that Turkey almost destroyed the civilization or Hellenism, Greece bas restored the culture. Luckily, according to him, "His tory be s preserved ror us 8 record at the contin(5) uity or Greek civilization." He adds the t aeouler leerning baa been encruraged by the persis tence or the Eeatern church. Today it 1e eeid tbl t the public schools or Gre ace ere on e per with the American public school. one mn, who today bea oherge or one or the Greek echools in Florida, atill lc.eepe, aa a aoovenir, a text-book that be studied sa e boy in CJprua. It ia an English gremmer a:rpla ining the perta or speech end sen tence .eonatruc t1on, and ccnteina go pe gee. The t1 tle page reeds as The Prillll ry Grammer All Elementary Grammer ot the Englilh Language For uae or pupils in Primary schools. R.R.SmitMrd (l) From,Greeoe in tbe Nineteenth Century. Lewis Sergeant. p. 350. (2) Ibed. P.35l. (3) !bed. p. 352. (4) Ibed. p. 354. (5) Ibed. p. 357.


0 &liikk Sf JfdP&8 On one page the following veraea appear among many maxims end pro"He stood alone by the windc. 111thin Por he felt thet hie soul 11es_steined with sin .A.Ild his mot her could hear him eo b end cry Because he bad told her tl:!l t wicked lie. "And kindness cheered hie drooping soul And slowly down his languid cheek, The big round tears were seen to roll; They told the things he oc:u ld not speak." This men spoke ot the morel quelitioetions demanded or e teacher in the schools ot Greece. I "We to signs paper thet 11e dido t denoe, didn't drink, or smoke. We couldn't heve stayed therel it we didn't live olean lives. It 11e didn't the children wc:uld reed it on us." The extent or e educetion cannot el11eys be judged by his present 11ork. ODe mn, 11ho mekes his living from e shoeshine end t cleaning rlor, described his early education thus. "I started to school 11hen six end graduated from high when 1 wee fifteen. I bed to walk e long 11ey--it took an hour to go and OODB--but didn't .. "In high school I studied geometry, algebra, calculus, Homer, Cicero, end the Greek olessios. langue gee we took let in, Spenis h, Prench, Germen, and ancient Greek. Ancient Greek, you know,is different from the Greek we speak today. "l love Homer. But best or ell I like estroaomy. You know, in Greece ere such lovely blue skies. At night, tbe aters ere so close ,you could almost reach out end touch the. It is like thet here, sometimes-.!.when there is no tog. But I oen1t go on here. I find nobody interested to teach me about the stars. have my books, yes, but one gets tired trying to tl;cure things out by hi1118elf I have e very good tield glass, end some .. times I meke 1111 charta end 11atoh the ohenaes in the evening end morning stars, the rising end constellations. It is wonderful--a never enling study." There is e certain eppe rently metter-at-teat fruit dealer, too, 11bo reeds the English classics et night. my ot Englifh literature," be remrked, "I wee eaton-


Greeks of Florida p-45 ished to find, in the works of outstanding writers such as Shakespeare, Ben Johnson, end Francis Bacon, the finest thoughts expressed by Greek philosophers." i Most of the Greek children in Florida go to afternoon classes at e Greek parochial school etter their regul8r grade school is closed. The aim of these parochial schools, according to the 'jleecher of one, is: "!o teach the pupils to read end write the Greek langue ge as discipline, to .!113ke it easier for them to learn other foreign languages in high school, to aid then to secure posit ions where interpreters ere needed end to Kl!ep the children interested in the Greek church through their ability to understand the services." In his book, "Greece in the Nineteenth Century", *'ewis Sergeent reminds us that Greek has never been e deed langue ge for purists he ve spoken it in every age. It be s been taught in the universities from ( 1) superior text. books l This language is not, however, thst spoken by the Greeks today. During the ages, the original tongue bB s been debased by the H growth 1 ot ooloquielis ms. end the incorporating ot words from the langue ges of other lledeterrene en peoples. But Sergeant states the t a peculiar che nge hes been ocouJ7J71ng in the Greek modem language f'o r some time. l 'he regen eration of the Hellenic lpeech be s begun. 'l'h e Greeks h eve at tempted to deliberately rebuild their ancestral greiimlr end vocabulary em within a couple of generet ions h eve dis carded the oorrup tions of speece which he d ( 2) been used for centuries. Nevertheless modern Greek is used less and less as a medium of con-versetion in Florida G .reek ho!ll!s. 1-Greece in the Nineteenth Century. by Lewis Gergeant. p. 361. 2-!bed.


Greeks or Florida P:46 -"I always English exoept to oldre Greks," said one young metron, "and my little boy six years old will not speak any Greek though I aent him every dey to Greek school. He would not learn so my mother; in-lew said she would teach him the Greek end he could tell her the English, When she speaks to him in Greek he can understand her ell rieht but he always answers her in English. He says he is en American." One tether who spoke with an accent said or his children, "They all speak the English better tlli n their 1113mB end reps They don't talk like our people any more. I em gle d tls t they cen speak good Englim." American newspapers ere more widely read then Greek language papers though many of the older felt still enjoy a paper written in the speech of their childhood. One men said, "I reed the Greek National Herald to keep in touch with the Greek language, but I like American repe:-s best for I think in '\ American. The tunnies I so not reed. They ere not for intelligent adults. This II!3n's opinion American comic strips is not shared by ell Greeks. On the contrary e comt:etriot seid, "I like to read English papers .. I read ell the runn ie s. I seldom reed Greek p:s per s." Another Greek agrees with this letter opinion. "My husband reeds the runnis first, then the war news," said his wife. "Both of us like best the Miami Herald end Mie mi Deily News. I always reed the stock ue rket first, then the war news but never the society page. We get the New xord Greek Herald every dey end I reed it some just to keep in practice with my Greek blt I like the American newspapers best." "I often 'reed the New York Herald down at the store,". another GreekAmerican said, "But I reed ric en pap e:s mostly .l reed fer eiign news, news of different places that I know, em war news.-J. reed ell I cen about the doings of the GoverJUJent. Of course, I em interested in that." Idees differ concerning the limitations which should be set upon l'


Gl I !KS Dl 1' I O I I U B p -41 the freedom of Greek girls. While some parents ere still dubious of the wisdom shown in giving young girls complete a:>ciel freedom others advocate. this very 12ling as a meena ot Americanizing their children. The same di v-' 1sion or opinion is apparent in their towerd the subject or young women in bus ine se world. One tether who hes retired from business himself seid, "One of my daughters is not so well. She he d to quit her work. I also have another little daughter who works." Other parents limit their deugh ter 's business e:xper ience to working in the tether's ce of business. Many ot the girls themselves, particularly in Jacksonville where a group Of them were interviewed concerning the tter, the t they e:x peot to work when they finish school if they wish to. A number ere already working in various offices. As to the question of greeter soc is 1 freedom, some or the girls ere not yet sure whether they wculd be happier with more liberty. To s rerm rk concerning her future marriage on girl returned, "Bv,t when will the t ever be? I cannot even be ve a boy. frind for a long time yet. that I have two sisters older tl'En I must get married We Greek girls have s difficult time in finding any eligible men of you own reoe here and some of the boys of our race ere going with American girls. This m-akes it herder than ever for us to find husbands." After e pause she continued, "We girls have to find our pleasure in out club. Our run must always be in e religious line. We ere used to it however, but we get to thinking we must miss a lot of.pleesure the t the American girls hs ve and then we comfort oursel vee with the 'bought that perhaps we also miss a lot of the troubles too. OUr families take care of us eo the t we do not be ve the trials tte t some or the other races hs ve. "Wi tb suoh thoughts occupying your mini, do you plan to give your


&iiiii 8 $!8F&8 p-48 children any more freedom then tbet which you have bed?" she wes asked. To this she answered thoughtfully, "Well, the t is a herd question to answer. The restriotions pla oed upon us ere so old the t our race doeliJ not I know much el!se. It he s only been for the lest ten years thB t there hee been any departure whatever from those customs end even then there has been much ori tic ism. Per hep s as time go ee on we aha 11 become more and more Amer icen1zed. The older people the t ceme from the old country ere stricter then wl might be with our children. Sometimes we think thet it must be wonderful to have the freedom whi dl American girls enjoy but we ere happy most ot the time with our ovm families. From met I oen see, you people do not keep thet .t'emily tie end feeling of responsibility for l eeoh other that we do. We do not only feel the t for our.own family but for cousins em even distent relatives. We young people, though, ere beo. oming inclined to went to drift away from tmt." Another Greek girl was even more outspoken end, which is unusual, she talked in the presence or her mother. "There ere not tm ny eligible Greek boys in town end I em not going to marry acme old Im n the t I do not love. Mama tells me I should let some Greek men come to see me but I tell her I would rother not. I should mucil prefer to remain e single girl ell iny life then to DErry some old I do not love. I would be unhappy with e men that had no education. We would hsve nothing in common, don't you understand? Daddy, he seems to understand how I feel about it." This girl be s bed en academy education end training in one or the arts. At present she is giving private lessons end during the tion she de ole ired the t she would rather continue to teach then to merry beneath herself intellectually. Afterward, es is usual, refreshments were served end while the young women wee busy et this duty the mother spoke her mind. "I want to make her smert so she oen 1m lee e good wife to a ri oh man


Greeke of Flori de p-49 it he oomes to her. But none oomee that ehe will have. mey not get .. merri ed it she dCD 't be ceretul." _, "But Mother, I oon't bsve to get married it I don't find someone that I love do I?" The mother shook her heed end A Greek busine as men r:L Jacksonville, 1fhile di ecussiog this subject, eeid tbet marriages between Greeks end Americans ere not as unusual ee one is sometimes led to believe. He pointed out tm t himself is rrl3rriej_ to en American 1fOrm n end ao, he seid, ere two cfther Greek-American men 1fbo work neer him. He added that hie people abhor the idee or 4i vorce end seldom r eeort to 1 t. The Orthodox church permits divorce and remer-riege only under the 9ost extreme conditions. According to Dr.Samuel Koenig of Connecticut, "An outstanding char-eoteristio of preotioelly ell imndgrents is the tendency to live in com{1) pe ct o oloni es or -, e ttl erne n ta." The Greeks in Florida ere an to this rule. 'l'hey seem to have no penobent for huddling together in "querters". They live scattered about in var,ous aeighborhoods in the cities of their. choice end,-except tor their brunette good looks, they ere not noticeeble.Even in Tarpon Springe, tb! most Grecian spot 1n Florida sod probably in America, the Gre k residents spread out into the residentiel suburbs sa soon es they ere able to afford the increased expense. The older Greeks do not yet mingle socially with their American neighbors but the younger generation shows e tendency to do eo end as time goes on 1 t seems probable that they will. The children ere interested in the seme sports anc games sa their American achoolaates. One yoong high school girl named Penelope, who insisted vigeroosly on being celled Penny, l Immigrant Settlements in Connecticut, by Samuel roenig. P.25.


Greeks of Florida p-50 said thet abe played dodge-ball, tennis, end badminton. Basket-bell, she said, was no longer played in her group. At Greek denoes the evening usually starts with the younger people enjoying the modern steps to popular musio but 1e ter either records or Greek music ere plgyed on a victrola or a Greek orchestra comes in with end flutes togatltar with either e zither or a oymbello. This lest is an instrument composed or 80 wire strings strung on e frame two feet wide end possibly rwr feet long. It sets on tour legs ebout three feet high. During the Aheps o onvention in Jacksonville in 1939, tbe visiting Ahepsns were entertained withe dance given et the Hyde Perk Country Club .. At 11:30 p.m. after mode2Il dances bed been enjoyed, the Americen orchestra left end a Greek orchestra came in. Greoien dance music wee pleyed at HI once end, eccording to en American guest, this music bed e distinctly oriental tone. At intervals the musicians es well as the dancers burst into song. In the Greek dances, thE men danced elone em old as well as yrung took pert. Many steps ere sy!llbolical. For example, ilb en the men .!'all flet on the floor or suddenly walk out of the dence, this the action or the Greek men who threw themselves over the cliffs to escape capture by the Turks. In like manner when the 'WOIIl! n, dancing among them-selves, jump hieJl in the sir end come down with a heavy thud on the rlor or stop dancing abruptly end sit down, they ere representing the fete of the mot hers end children or Sruliotisss who leaped over the cliffs when ,, the Turks invaded their lend. This dence is celled the "Denoe ofzelongo. Many ot the native sone s end poems of the Greeks center' ab out oon-flicts with their tra dit 1 onsl enemies, the Turks. Others commemors te wic tories. Some heroes ere sectional. Theodore Koloootronis is popular among the Peloponnesiens. Athanessios Diekos is we11 known in Lamie. Tarpon Springs is tbe scene of many celebrations during which


GF&&RA bf Flbfld! p-51 Greoien girls end men in costumes of ane ient design sing t 1 1 e old songs e i denS these symbolical dances. Greek Independence Day, I celebrated Uaroh 25th, commemorates the final winning of freedom by their ancestors efter neerly 400 years of war against the Turks. On this d!ff, men in tustanela dance with maidens in long full skirts inset with lace, waists and coats heavily embroidered, end heeds covered by filmy aoewls. The tustenel-a :Is considered the Greek netional costume. It consists of a short white skirt five or six yards wide end gathered toe wide weist band. The materiel may be of stiffened cot-ton or linen or it may even be of finer 1lJ3 terie 1. In one such co imported bY e Greek mother for her smell boy to weer on special days, the skirt was of white setin. The vest-like jacket was royal blue velvet elebotately embroidered with non-tarnishable silver thread and beads. The sleeves, lined with white satin, were open from armhole to wristband wrere they were festened together. Red mooce sins with big pompoms am a red fez trimlll!d w 1 th long black teased completed the costume. The entire t cost $30 American money the mother said. The cost, however, depends on the degree of ele genoe. A mans costume like this would be about $45 em a woman's,_since it contains more cloth and is usually more richly ornamented, ney run up to $200. In some of the more elaborate, colored stones ere set in the embroidery. In Tarpon Springs en added note can be detected in their celebrations. With 'tbe 1r pe gentry, given in memory or the winning of indepen csnoe by Greece, they now combine en element of Americanism. For exemple, on November 11th, 1g35, an Armistice Day celebration was held which Greek-American girls, costumed as America, Hellas, and Liberty, took part In July or that same year, the 15th district annual convention ot was held in Tarpon Springs em rt orthe enterteinment oonsi sted of a similar pageant. Three girls, costumed to represent America, Liberty, end Belles, were assisted by two others representing Hestia, ancient Greek


p-52 goddess or the hearth ar home. These occasions, on which American end Greek ideals of liberty are depicted with ole ssi c dances end songs now teke ple oe ennue lly. The first historical record of eny attempt to connect music with mathemet1ca wee msde by e Greek. Pythagoras determined the value or the intervals of the Long before his time, however, the early Greeks had their musical instruments both of wood end Tode y in Terpon Springs the Byzantine choir composed ot members of the Greek-American coiiiDuni ty has become famous t)lrrugh their pert in the eaauel Ephipheny celebration in that city. The leader of this organization says the t the essential distinction between Byzantine choral music end other types lies in its quality of tone. This quality is echieved by thus the group singing in unison blending the voioes rather than individualizing them. Western choirs, on# the contrary, use four p!lrt harmony formed by the blending r: bess, tenor, elto, and soprano voices. How.ever the Hellenic Orthodox church has embodied four p3rt harmony in some ot modern sacred music. At sociel end patriotic gatherings, the old Grecian balleds ere sung, sometimes by individuals, sometimes by the whole assembly. "Louloudi Tis onovesies", translated "Flower of Monovesiss" is apt to be heard et wedding receptions. It is a belled lauding the beautiful girls of this Grecian city. At dances end celebrations or Greek patriotic holidays, one will probably hear "Gero Dimos"--sn old song rele ting the valorous deeds and hardships of en aged soldier-hero end calling on the younger Greeks to emulate him by up the .fight against the Turks. Superstition plays about the same pert in the life of the' average ther Florida Greek-Americas thet it plays Some Greeks, like some Americans, ere hihly superstitious. Others ere not. Many omens end signs ere known, b.! ving been handed down as ours ere, but the attitude


Greeks of Florida p-53 towerd them is one of good hus;ored derision among the younger Greeks. The older people relate these beliefs, etten laughing somewhat shame facedly, though some genuinely believe in them. It is bed luck to break a mirror among tb em as it is supposed to be with Americans everywhere. If a picture fells without cause it is unlucky--another idee that finds supporters among us. If the olive oil or the mestike spills it 1s a bad omen. With us it is sel* But their most prevalent supers tit ion, end e very ancient one too, is one not subscribed to by en everege American. The Greeks, .elong with most Medi terreneeD peoples, believe widely in the evil eye. "The GreekB heve a lot of superstitions in the old country," said one young woiOOn, "but even there I noticed, on my lastvisit, people ere becoming more sensible; however they still believe in the evil eye. Every blueH eyed pe.rson does not he ve the evil eye, but the evil eye is always blue; not a dark blue but a ktnd of greeniSh blue. Evil eyed persons ere always jealous others have good fortune so maybe that's the reason for the espression 'green eyed with jealousy. "I had a pretty little sister ana died from evil eye in the old country. TOOt, r do not remember, but my mother said so." According to another Greek-American women, e turquoise should be worn as protection against the evil eye. During a conversation about superstitions, e men related this story: "I never believe4 in signs, but lit en I opened e restaurant in Bisbee Arizona, I just m ppened to have everything reedy on Friday, the 13th: \ I didn't even think of it until I sew e piece in the same this remark, 'Here is e Greek who is not eupersti tioue 1 He is opening his restaurant on Friday, the 13th.' "Well, I lost that restaurant in six months. I d1 dn't believe in Friday, the 13th but I sew this he ppen t o me the t *ime." As the !l'Bn said,_ F'ridey is not considered unlucky by the Greeks.


Greeks or Florida Their traditional dey or ill omen is Tuesday because it was on that dey or the week that their ancient city or Con stan tiDople rell to the Turks. "I didn't believe in ghosts either," he "because I never sew any, but if I bad to go bye cemetery et night, I'd run as fest es I could end never look tiE t way fer tear of seeing one." But while DB t i ve tred it ions and beliefs a till he ve a ple oe in the hearts em minds of the older people t bey h eve little bee ring on the lives of the younger folk, with exception or beliefs of e religious neture. In the matter or religion the ceremonies EJn.d tred1t ions of the Greek Orthodox church ere strictly followed, perticule rly in merri ages, baptisms e Ill funerals. On one occasion,the child of Greek-American was to be christ ened at home, no Orthodox church in the t city. Several Ameri can friends were invited to the event which is looked upon es e time or feasting em rejoicing. The heroes of the occasion were the baby and the godfather. The parents basked in reflected glory. The priest, in flowing robe of pink, eccompsnied by e laymen to chant the responses of the serYieeH, appeared at the appointed boor. '!'be neighbors end friends gathered about. the beptis m 1 ton t--s sm 11 new beth tub in this oa se. It we s ne oessary for the vessel used to be absolutely new and efterwsrd it wee given to the church. The water used during the service wee poured on the grounl at the end because it wes considered sacred. The ceremony wee about en hour in length. All during the tbe child wee held by the godfather the only standing by. Atthe beginning or the service the priest blew his breath crosswise u 'pon the water# three times then J:B seed his hand thrice through the water in the form or the cross while be invoked the blessings of the Holy Trinity upon the water. The baby wee then btougbt in by the mother end given to the godfather who held it while be was placed under e solemn obligation by


............ Greeks of Florida p-55 the priest to cherish the child, do his best to protect it from evil through lite, end to see tbe t ie was raised e Chris.tien in the fei th of the Orthodox Greek Church. He also obligated himself to adopt the child I end cere for him es his own in ce se of the parents' deeth. He affirmed these promises by three puffs of his breeth, symbolizing the blowing ewey of ell evil from the child. The priest thea sprinkled olive oil on the water in the form or the cross e fter which e pint or oil was poo red into the water and on the child who was then inmersed in the oily water. after this the priest touched ver.., .. s places on the naked body with holy oil end also dreri the s1g n or the cross upon hie beck, bree st, feet, and ears. The ceremony wee accompanied by resdings from the.Bible end-oha nting by the priest end his es sis tent. The e ir was fragrant from the spicy smoke that poured from the burning oense2. At lest, the baby we s toweled em returned to his mot her Find this concluded the ceremony. Then ell the guests coogratule ted the beaming o> godfather am parents with the Greek words "Na ses zissi", a wish for a long life end then "Ne te h111essis", wishing the godfather a thousand christenings to his honor. The godfather received the privileie of one dey being permitted to be best ImO at the wedding Of his godchild. After the service the gatherirg was turneQ. into e celebration of a social end festive nature. Greek girls ssed treys of little oakes fol lowed by eperi tifs or mastiche, e fiery Greek liquer flavored W1 th anise. at which Afterward e buffet they ;JI/# served barbecued l.e mb, minis ture egg-plant stuffed with e spiced mixture of vegetables, s number of salads, meoeroneds, end little oakes such as koorembiedes end beoleve, fruits, end claret wine. Feasting end games ccntinued until after midnight. The Greek Orthodox ervioe for the deed is carried out with deep solemnity. A special funeral mess, a1ng by the choir, is interspersed


with reedings or scriptural passages by the priest end the reeding of the life record of the deceased es written in the church record book. As the coffin is carried into the church, pa 11 bearers accompany the body. l'he J girls ere dressed in white end the boys ere in dark suits if the deceased is e young person. l'he priest, swinging en incense burner, slowly precedes the body toward the el tar to the rigb t of the baptismal font. l he mourner-S end close friends ere see ted to one side of the coffin while pe 11 bearers ere seated in e semi-corcle in front ar the alter on which many candles burn. Flowers ere benked to one side so that e qleer apace is eveileble for the lest look end paying of final respect the deed. As the services ere begun, the choir, in two groups on opposite sideS of the neve, sing the mess. Mourners end others bold lighted tapers while the services ere being conducted, fresh candles being passed from one to enother as soon as t hey burn too low for The body, placed to race the alter, is adorned with a wreath around the yeed, if the deceased was a young person end unmarried. '!'hi$ wreath symbolizes victory, thE youn g person having completed his journey through this world vic toriou.sly free from earthly pessions. Forty days le ter, another mess end special pre,er is said for the deceased. Priests of the Greek Orthodox church may either vow celebecy, as do .!:tvv the ar they mey !lll rry. Different customs ere found too in different churches in connection with the musit used during services. Soae churches be ve no pipe organ or other instrumental music while others have pipe organ to the singirg of tlE choir. have only a few benches agound the wall of the neve for theuse of the very old, the mjority or the congregation standing. Other churches have the regula t j on church pews for the comfort of their congreget ion. It is said that ell c n!!lllbers of the O rtLcC.c:x C-leek church have e shrine in their home, however simple it e.y bet end in it they keep e


Greeks Florida candle or lamp burning before en icon of Christ. Here and there interesting bits of thrift ere seen. In home the mother made her own oedele or prayer light. A heavy glees wes half filled l with water end e querter of en incil of olive oil was poured on the water. A bit or cotton from e cotton blossom in yard was twisted into e thin wiok end caught in a he irpirh This pin was bent and ple ced in the glass. At nigJ.t the old mother lighted this before her icon of Jesus end seid beT prayers. Religious tradition permeates Greek life even in the choice of ple nt s end herbs. The basilica plen t, sometimes celled sweet basil, is seen in every hoiiE. They cherish it because of the legend concerning it. According to 'tale legend, St.Helene, mother of St.Constentine, wee told in e dream to find e spot similar to the one of which she dreemed. She would recogpize the spot by en aromatic plant growing there end would find, under this plant, the True Cross on which Jesus die4. Obeytng there instructions she found the plant end, underneath, the Cross. According to the legend it was the miracles worked by the presence of this Cross that converted St.Helene's son Constantine to Christianity Some Greek families enjoy the flavor or e sprig of this plant ia their roasts end stews. Others sey they do not cere tor the :flevor but en joy the plant's fre grence. Much fruit, olive.oil, lamb end many herbs ere used in native Greek cookery. Smell eggplents ere stuffed with vegetables end spices and beked. This dish is called melizenekie. Lamb em chicken is rca sted in olive oil end :fl.s vored with sage or celery, parsley, mint, or origanum Lemon juice is used in the be sting. Pita may be either a cheese end egg dish or a custard desert. To make either form one starts by mixing e douf11 of flour end olive oil end leaving it to ripen for several hours in the 1oe-bo:x. It is then taken out end rolled thin--very thin. For the egg and cheese dish, heve reedy#


..................................... llb ot i:rtur or olen o 0 t' 1 u t r b -p n no pu to ub tb do h ith m lt bu t r nd h n n 1 Th k1 o1 tod of a o 11 ood. ley r or dou h ur u t 1 tour ley r t 1 v ry rich. 0 tu n d 1 to d 8 r ot d r d op d b n 1 Th t kin or uoh qui o !" b a 1d, 1 V 1DO 8 T 0 1 thick t 1 IJl t 1 1 0 1 0 0 qui o 0 1 0 u 1 l d d 000 h M U 11 th 0 0 y t oil y out h 0 nd m 1 11 ov 8 000 1 b t d b k d 1 t ir tor t o mil 8 d r ted ch e d fro r y r 6r dough on th bot th b h g end oh e8 J lt 0 butter u o. Th be dine e coo o cue-d ob end then r o 11 d this ory ru1t8 ot Gr o lik lonsl 8 t d them h ee 11 di o d-s p d 0 dy. 0 0 k th ilk-breed in ed, 1 c1ou e? Tb odor lll" Co o r P h 1 tin or orlc, 1d d1tr t b r ou8 ot1on o G t I oo b bl y v 1 ouri I no on in c r t ll y r ion pr otto r t d in Gr c b o ork but pl nty or t in -08 r, 1 t 1 mor nt in lthy lone b r T t n t ODO d ori o toll e by net! o o ork l in .. r. us d. 111 t e Uft d You ould ro-co d r, ork 18 tbod or e.


GICEK8 Ill l'LOIIUB The hems end shoulders ere pickled in brine tor a few days then hung up to drain. A tire or e combination or various aromatic woods is built and the meet is smoked over this. After being well smoked, it is in wine end when tender is put into huge crookery jars end covered with the residue or tet end wine. It is taken out and eaten as needed. Dolmades, a dish mucb enjoyed in Greek homes, is composed of ground meat, rice, and egg combined into bells, wrapped in cabbage or grape-vine leaves end cooked. Gourverlekia might be translated as soup. It is made thus. 1'0 Form bells or ground meet, uncooked rice, chopped onion, sele, pepper, and beaten egg. Drop these meetbells into e pot ot boiling water which has been salted end enriched liberally with butter. 30 minutes or until the meet-bells ere well oone. Take this from the tire. In e separate bowl beat egg whites end add slowly. Squeeze a table-spoon of lemon juice into this then beat one cup or hot liquid slowly into the egg mixture. Add this to the soup end meet bells end stir. The hot soup cooks the egg. Greek dinners are u E.llB lly preceded by n:s s tioha an anise tla yo red ot' liquor, end ecoo.panied by wine. Favorite vintages ere retsina, e Grecian white wine, and evrodephne, a red is strong end usually drank ble ck. Our American fCii 1, the turkey, is not known e s in Greece. In connection with this fact, the following incident ocoured. A Greek worm nil who from Tene dos, en isle 00. at one time under Turkish rule, was telling other arrival in America. "We got to New York Thanksgiving Dey. I thought 1 t was :tUMy that all the stores were closed. We cwldn 't anything '!'hey said, 'The stores ere closed to eet turkey today.' I .didn't understend. Turkey wes my ooun try once. My isle nd belonged to Turkey sometime a e Dd to Greece time a.


Greeks ot Zloride In contrast, the creed of is introduced w1 t h these words: "To promote end encourage loyalty to the United States of America, allegiance to its fleg, support its constitution, obedience to its laws, including the laws ot the States, of the Union, em the ordinances of ell legally constituted subdivisions thereof, end reverence tor its history end treditions".(l) Undoubtedly much credit for the average Florida Greek-American's respect for lew end good citizenship should be given to the teaching of the order of Ahepe. This same spirit of' loyalty is shown in the naming of Greek clubs. For exemple,the"Americen-Hellenic Center"in Tempe end its H llen1c Club" again accent America. Their appreciation for the opportunities offered by their eddopted country takes more precticel end materiel forms too when such become neoessery. In the Third Liberty Loan, the Greeks in America subscribed $6,638,?00. At tb3t time, the Greek pop(2) uletion in America was 130,379--e per oepite of 50.80. The purpose or the Ahe pens is : "To instruct its members in tenets and fundamental princi plea or poli t ice 1 lite in the Oni ted Ste tea, end respect of' the inelieneble rights of mankind. "Instill in every one of its m! mber s a sincere love for their e dopted country end due appreciation or the privilege of citizenship end the ( 3) eaored duties attendant therewith." The order stresses the t Greek-Americans ere Aericens by choice ra-ther then by accident or birth. In short the object of the order, to quote on or its secreter1 s, i s, "To bridge the gap the Americans end the Greeks". 1-Ahepe Creel. 2 Aspects or Bierstedt,Edwerd Hale. p.237. 3Ahepe Creed.


Greeks or Florida p-s2 This organization maintains e sanitarium in Albuquerque N.M. where any Ahepen, or tor the t zm tter eny needy Greek, may go end receive treatment tree. There are tew illnesses among Florida Greeks however, propably because Ule cliete or this state so closely approximates that or Greece. As so om as e foreign born Greek becomes settled in this cruntry he is urged to take out citizenship papers end "become en American". The following true incident illustrates their viewpoint. A citizen or Florida, originally from e Bleck Sea port. engeged e streqger in conversation inquiring among other things where he wes from. "Georgia," answered the stranger. "Well now, the first thing you must do is take out citizenship papers," urged this pctriotic Greek-Ame.rice.i.,l The Grecian people or Florida ere interested in politics and govern-aeat. "The old capitalistic system 1s passing," said the Greek CJPlner of e hat establishment. nit once owned the leborirg men end the meoh anios, but no more. The working liJ3 n--the forgotten men--is now into his own. Every liJ3 n shruld be honored for what he can do. It he ts e hat man like myself, if he is expert, he shculd be honored the same as e doctor ar lawyer. The same with a resteurant nan, a shoe-maker like Demetrio, ar a ditch-cigger." He speke at the ancient Spartan law which sanctioned the destruction or week intents. lew?" he mused, "Perhaps, but we have always bad bed laws; we have not ctenged much when it comes to cruelty. Now we buil'd planes that drop bombs end guns that shoot ##I## 200 miles, not to kill pests or oerry on commerce, but to kill people, in no cent people, end nice young men !n the world'B, who never bermed s tbillS' larger then e flee.,,


p-63 or lews 118de by the liB jor1ty or the people." Still another spoke earnestly or such community ectivi ties es Red Cross work, the Chamber or Commerce end the looe 1 work of the Army. "In order to appreciate these institutions," he remarked, "one ahou l d have e little first hs nd knowlege of European condi tiona. My importing departmant brings me in close touch with European affairs. I supply m"st of the Greek steamers that come to this port end after they ere g'ne end the ship leaves for the old country we always 1h ink how # thankful we ere that we live in the country of lii'erty where we ell have one president end do not fear to express our opinions." Since the first knc:mn democracy we s founded in Greece and since the Greeks he ve be en forced to fight, through lof periods of their history, for their freedom, it ie natural thet they should value demo cracy end freedom highly. It was lone and sanguinary experience which inspired words of their national anthem,"Hymn to Liberty" The first verse is translated thus: "From thy fearful sword I know thee With its sharpened edge end bright; From its gleam which sa the lightening SIDns the earth in length end height. From the eecred bones thou canest Ot ttJ.e breve the t ere no more; Liberty, we hail, oh, heil thee, Ever vel i.e nt as of yorel" This hymn is known end sung by every Greek in America end throughout (l) the world, sccorcUng to Thomes Burgess. From Alpha to Omega people loved end will love libet.ty. 1Greeke 1n America. Burgess,Thomes. p90.


Gr loride p-64 T n elogy ot th modern Gre b be ucb discus ed.On tb1Et aubj ot th oyolope die Br1 ten nice I 1 30 allm reyer, in bi 1 tory or tb !ore Duri the dd Ag s, I in ei ed tbet, 'The Gree ot mod rn t1 r e in t ct Buz nt1n1zed Slev. This th ory es ub ot d o xheuet v or1t1o1 m by Roes, Ho t, 1 ley end oth r m ny or llm r er e ol 1o r mein unshek n the vie 1 n el1y h ld t t t h bes e or t o lation, both in the mein(1) 1 nd tb r n 11 1o, not Aooo to .L 1 s ent, p t o e or t if' e o n 1 th od rn Gr it t, f y int:lu oee,th t t el he ve been ex-p ot d to t r troy 1t. 'J.'b y r e or 1 e1 d cUstinct race. H 11 y a t o t H oonolud A h 1qu their o to t1fy 1x:1 ir o the 1r 1 e u e t 1 r b e b 1 t s of {2) r t 1 v r1 t y r rk o is sub c t b s oyint: "'fh Greek or to-O y th r reotio 1ly d o nd nte of e Gr or antiquity. The rm no 0 type 1 at 11 h d n 1 h 1 t, e rig of inb r1tenoe. r nooi nt go v n rth r in b d t no or Greek rec1el rm o 8 H 1 nio R o r p a r .t8 e motive power in Otto n mptr 22 o nturi s .o, it r p ae t d it in Persian J. 1 It r nt th e m motive po er e in t b 1 m a Ru s 1e n t.o whiob it 1v nits f itb, ts civ111zet1o aoo its erts; morel s th r he b n ret er e kind or trenstormet1on 0 t 1 tl J ( 4) or Sl v nto Gr Tbi e to d1 o ot e theory tbet tb 'Gr e ar 't Gr no v n thou en tn re J o Om1 t tedly s s1Jerb t sdl1l1zture rore1gn bloods Br1tenoe. Volume 11-121 P 429. h Ni te tb Century. er en Le is. ?7 eo. 59.


Greeks of Florida p-65 in the present descends nt s of the re ce they still he ve every right to regert the philoso'jhy end politics or enc1ent GreEce\s their's by right of birth. From ell the toregoir..g feots end figures the picture greduelly emerges or the average GreekAmerioen of Florida es e person of sub-e patriotic, lew-abiding, Amerioen, home owning, the duontion or his children, loyel to the ob'ltroh, fraternal end sociable, neither olenni b nor prejudiced, e lover of good living yet temperate end selt-controled, eager to te ke his place in municipel end cberi table work, righ ttully prood or hie old world her i tege but more intent on Amerioen1z1ng himself end his family. A good end tether, a good business men in three words, e good citizen.




, ., 1 p I Pet.r C 103 1. .. t.aa ., lat c\1 I \U'al. 4 1 17 \eP wl illlMaa 1 accue t I" I '" l tlre t u \1l1 a loot teet AI 4, epr ou ow ri 'r ,. .. A let 10. lpl ., r, 1. 0\ re4 a 1a ., ot b trle dat aU 1. ela.U


,. I 11. s ... a ewalloY' \one- I 16. !o aach '-lt Ia pe111117 18. All a .. prophet are aa .,...., 21. Wbere 70U ar \here are plut7 et ehe.-r1ea1 alwqa a%*17 a na1l -.att\e 18. selt 4Hel t Ia raw ea44eat 11. -. to ll aact ,. wiU 11 wen. 11. ftaa ._.., a alllloa tU l\ ,__,----.


I a3. Llttle eaue peat ttr M. tbe lae Peach elr patle e. s. ew ot 'he doa \hat 4oea ot as. lot tb dog t t -art ut ellent e bltea. 37. The at, the wanton aDd the pollee tYer lUke good trlende. 38. ':Nth la bl tter. .. 39. ot totl!' 'but 7our eae-r will t. 11 who J'OU aN. o&o. !he l.az7 ae ctoea aot eat the ta ror be la too las7 to rack '-bea. 41. !he plow \ t worta le a1weq8 42. A loYer aeYer pral la.e. 43. 'lh braye bla a1a. 44. The Ylaltor -4 t tla'll, ,ahAr t.Jle t.hil"d da7 begin to ell. llt tlah gina w t'roa \ ad.

IOe Wbln J'OU p \o W1 \h a OlA 1lea41 70U w111 aenr arlee w1 \h a MacSaehe. 82. J!ve17 t{n4 ot, work la hoaorable. \ 63 Beu b7 bean ftU \he aaoke Me !o ellab \o \be top ot the ladder 7ft Jaaye tc) bepa b-oll "\he IN\\oa 66. Baate abe waate. 16. WJaat eaa be 4ou clon'\ pat ott tor f/1. I41e banda wltbera ld11 bralna ret. 18. Idle t.a \he Mther of lie fell .. 7011P fltleada ud I will \eU 70u no 70U &PI tl. fbe toDgUe laaa ao ltonea bat' l t k-eata lton I a. Wbea J"01l .... aothlec u aq, ,. p14 ... 4 I


. M. DOD'\ pat 7our aoae where lt eaa't eoneei'D ,.,u. ee. lYeil t wallA Yt ea.Ne fll. Do IOo4 Me! eaa t 1\ 1ft to tiM a. 18. It 70 alt with the bllnd, 700 wf.U aocm look 19. J.t JIU eaaaot eateh flab t1o aot aae -the ,o. 't'hlll the kt le elear there l ao fear et thunder. 12. An old ahoe f!'Oa 7ou.r aelcJ:&'borlloo4 le ltet.ter \baa a aew oae troa a eltt 1 ne aatlatect ,aner bell one. ?1. tour wlte a4 J'OGr lleftt are r \o 1oaae4 n-e 78. FI'OJI a 'f'la1 wal.a1lt V.e, onv nl.laJta 7011 wlU '- I I I ..


to. t1te '1oo4 eYer t.uru I a. onor 1 prlcl.a 1aaae4 1a Who IUOh a VIUDN 84e l'htn J'OU a!"t 1nmgrr1 lpl 4 7oa.r lut dollar I the 4q att.tre aa. 70ar wlne eut la r.u .-., tJ-laada fll be --" ,J 4e. as. tn at.tnj' aad dr11lkina Ulere are II8.D hltnda to be toun41 Ia daager 'nt l 19 A w1ekt4 1J'OIIIll' la alaaJ'pt r Uwl a ulte oo. ftt brldt aa4 Qe n44lna' wu_ .,.er. 11. Pol-tune aatee al.Uaaoe w1 t.b t. elr .... ... 11. fhe la I \a p aa4 Ult awr4 1a 1 U a1Mat eyer eaue ft de. I I


a Aora atcmaeb la like a wer, tt. I too11ab te tr.J '.tlll lt. a. t t\erf11 t Ut u _eport aroucl Uae ta.p-w1U burn her wJ.nga. t?. A .ria ta. !he 1t alwqa eat.a fro t eoatecl ep. 89. the wolt wtU ver eat th h ep Dear hie lalr. 100. You e ot aq t t eat ot a fl7 I 101. W'hst la a crab a.ftd w t la JlJ.a 10 Who uu 4lttt 1 tbe riU tiad It Ia aalt. 103. He keep Lent becaue he haa aothiq t.o eat. .. 104. From a broken Ylolin don't expect tine .uelc. "106. Don't be11eye ln f'at word&. 108. From a .outh what do 70u Zptct \o hear? ., 107. The rooater \bat crows t.oo .u.eb, Jda own throat. tlrea. 108. Do DOt Jadge t.111 1ou' heard the ator;r ot both I aide a. 109. A woman' 1 ftckle like the autuan k7 110 0pon water rou.., writ. a woaan oath. I


lU. fl "4 aot.h1Jaa1 it briap t. 112. Do ot. 11' trO t-ea D poVIrt1 t1 10 11 Virtue ad aftt. ev r aleep er :root. \ 1 Th 70 1' bed, J"'U rill altiP ett r a alap a 17. A. reS word br.l.rta 110 lalow. 1 000 apo11 tb ooklfta 11 0 4 diat.vb t. aleep. -ao. From a d 70ur 1o rrea 1a ba7 121. teb Jour' atep lt7o do lab w taU. .. 4. Tb tblet la re&47 w1t.b h1 t eaea, h lot wl t.b ber \4tara. .. 3. To t. 4 drlY r, ar tob boev r CU. a will. Uc t re 5. T apple 'WIU alaJ t apple AoooNLna IV t ao le r d 1J7. T a p lt. taw awrq n.oc wlU Ht. a I ...


... a. lU. Wlaoaener la Jra.n&17 d.Naaa ot kker1ea ud bread. 1 130. Meaaure 70ur 1\epae' I 131. The aoo4 4q eu be dt\ec\ed 'b7 lta break. roul ou\h, toul brea\b. -\ 133. Do not add oil \o a burning tire. 134. The 11ar torget.a. 135. The neighbor 1 'la the 'beat. 136. An 'oneat .aaa word 1 aa good aa anr contract. I 138. Chooae TOur dog good breed and 7our wite troa -a deceat taall.J A wo.&na aentt.enta are tlfing or lallda '140. A new tace a aew t&aCJ 141. A ctrcnming \akea hold ot lala cnm hair. 142. Soaaone was eonav.ltlhg bla eaae. \ -\


' I \"' / lwA ne be 4oea aot alwqa l&agh of Joy. ot. a1waJ8 a alp t pplaeaa. I 143. The 1 aword ill 1 ta oabbar41 the \ongae ln 1 ta place wlll nrter oauae t.he ahed41ng ot t.ear&. 149. G od lavea )eat. \h_. han4a th t ilYt and the lipa \ t pl'&1e 160. Qoaalp will eyer bake \he wead. ( 1Sl. Do ot. nar rour nelibbor' ,.,..inga. 112. Don't aak 1n ald-wlnter. 163. Tour dog d ehlld .aa rou teach th 164. Do aot true\ in wlae. I 150. 'l'o don't otter rad1ahea tor the appet.lta. 1&7. 11th r be a 1P4 or .D antaa11 aot. a b at. 168. He aa14 l t aa4 a 414 1 t.. lO. I


112. A erew aeyer plcka out aaother crow' e7ea. / I 163 !'o loat a b1tDd aake hill a loan 164. 4 poor aane t-ruth 1 worth lees a J'lch llaft'l Ue. 166. A poor aa1At la worshipped Yer'7 Uttle. 16tl. &Yen Go4 tired et too JIU.Ch llal.lelllJall. I 1&7. the t.biet &Ad "the Uar the tlrat da," -reJoice. 168. Re pralaea to be pralaed. the JOUftB tol.U eat the -.;>plea wt. the old tolka \as t.e their aournaaa. 1?0. To t.he &lYe alma I 4on' t lhow hia t.bere t.o go t.o baa 171. Jtow the bird baa tlOWD ''l'la too late. u. ... 172. When a tree l'aUa pte. hia auppl7 ot woo4. 173. Five dracbau 1a the hud are lMtter &en ctraebaa.a 1D Uae paper. t'he 4ol that. at.a aeat at tbt lNt.cher ahop aot. watcll the 11ar4e I /


i. 11. be poor Yentaftr loaea aoJ' plna. 0 178. W l.tJl ,.our Nlat.J.Ye a eat aDd dPlnk bat 11aYe ao other 4ealli'Jgae 1?9. A oat with g]:l)ves aeve J' eat.ebea lllee. 180. hea tilt oat i& abaent. rata 4aace. I 181. Don't .ate Jroalaea oh114rea aad eld tolk f 183. fha weean ad '.W11 were bon -the aaae boll!'. 184. A WOMD1a tongue la a 4eY111a pl'ODge 186. You oaanot hide behind toar -186. A t the .proper tllle t.he bHa 187. The tox iml t.ed t11e ehioten to dluer, the elllctea -0 deellnecl. 188. A U t.hinge 1n t.l 18g. reu 701l ...... beat.ea aad I "will tell 70U how ere a 'beatifta TO 1w1. 190. Anpl lD appe...-ce1 c11Yl1 at Mark I


\ lOa. 4eY11 hla aeat lD.the eburcb. 193. Zlth 'l' ?J-1 JOll.l'W or bn011e a aoat. I 195. lfear tbl' c1r7 tiM green wood :r bun, \oo. / 196. fbe big tiah awallow the little OJllle 197. t 1M a ltlg or ao Ullet at alle 198. It JOU blow how to hlde t.hen 7011 know how \o atea1 .. 19g. B e haa a larger t.ban a !00. The 4o not ate the priest, nor tbc eaaaoct the aont. 101. It rou aieep wl th a dog ,-ou rlll tull of neaa. 202. 70u .are a hlend et wlne rou 11uat uptct aome .. 203. t11e Ylc to17 don't crow lite a coot 104. rrom laer ,ou eaa tell nere a un la7 aos. fhl dog barb w'bere be la te4 .. 206. tlll aw!Be wlU. alwara tlnd alre. to roll ln. t07. A eoag'h la DOt a1wa,.a a .elgn ot eol4e ..

PAGE 100

ta oe wlU etiaea to. 1111 \old ln a 41tttNilt wq. 221. CrootedlJ' 7011 wa.lk1 Tt rabl I rill aee 7oa r d estination. u. 129. T he f'ool &d the peaaaat &rl' woM"png ewer .other people a affa1h. 130. to incense-\he !Jllnd, \o the bell tor the 4eat ud to dP1nb tbr the draftk&N b lAbor 1 t. 231. Don't e'P7 antr the plteher la broken. I aa2. en 70n aYe coo d eb11dren J"OU llte4 no clothe and wben 70U hare 4 eb11dren ood tbe good elotbea? 133. Don't 10&4 t c1cmke7 a 1o.a4. 234. no a' t oYer1oa d tlle o at. 836. Dcmt eat or 70\1 u 41geat. 236. T eat afier 'tiag tin trlea to Ude 1t.

PAGE 101

PAGE 102

, 17. as?. ne apaaialae4 ne MYtr learaa. I aaa. De aot. rear :tr1eD4a rr. \be aov.nt t.bl7 eaa adYaace J 181. the \a. eat doea htb \he f'aGl act ad \he aereaaiq. I 163. rrleacbhlp l aot a f'ralt tor ul;r, bat alao an epportu1 \7 f'or a en lea. 164. LoY' a aacr Ia tala ._.a. If J'OUJI 1Ma4 .lt.ehea aeratoh lt with J'OV "D tlqer aa.lla. 186. Who ao dlga a pl \ tor aaot.her to tall la, talla \ la ... ,s. .. 111 fbe .aataS:u aner ... 188. Doa't. at.S.ot tour a ap ldgh tor aa7 \o ra11 u4 .... 1 170.; fire aad k7 ahoa14 -. kept. .,.n. / I

PAGE 103

PAGE 104

. -ns. ro -n \lle7 ettere4 u .... ter a dt\ aa4 looked \etUa" \o aaotl't.a1D all. l'1sJ _-a p14eft rtC.t M4 a aaddle U ua? .. llea4. \ u. I ..;-I A wiae ttllow will ao\ err \riot oYer \be Iaiii \blq. 2i2. Pa\1eact eaagllt tht alablt Jaare. 2i3. Bate, waat et ehar1t7 2N. The a11er -1 IYtr baute4 b7 tM poaia ot auaplc1on aad tear. tiS Dea\h, \lle 4octor et &11 bearable llla -n'!. LoYe, \ \ I .-.

PAGE 105

10 1 wlaJaaa \o -aoo. tt 7oa are a prlta\ M a prleat.1 aad t.t 70u are a .. plonaa 301. fht tez t, tor tiM ehleteaa w t&l.l et't belr pere1l1n& ,1 41 et Jluger. .. .\

PAGE 106


PAGE 107

_, anember, 1 14 writer oJeot o 16,250 Wanta 1 J'lc:rida ,...,ra11"1 A :rtlare top I A OCIAM-trntlllC :DY tim D UJIP4 lleglnnl wt th 188?1 'When th Hk H\tle4 ln Tani]Jt., th1a el nt t he et '7' popalatlon -iuoreaMd eo loWly thAt 193i it oonitttuted 1 than halt of on per oent of Or1g1nall.y an Indi&Jr ni.lap, aettlecl f1rat 117 whitea in 1.823, Tampa srn at 11 s-oe Ul the fir at ratlrond o in 1884. 'the r ln elerated 1n 1886 and 11Uooeec11ng ,..ara l eato.bll n\ fit !gar taotoriea which 'brou r b ln1 C1l and 7 Yeat. lnarea d '\0 82e8S7t &Jill in liZO V. s. Ceft8QI Wal 101;1a1. Of t a at 10,000 wre ot Spaa1ah1 ban1 and Italian ateok. ApprvAol..-el7 ao,ooo were sroe1 and the r 1n4er ADr.l 1 a tn arop ot other raoial1 lno1ud1ag .. ka. ltuatet! ol te 1 I at ot lt peo ple ea. \hat raoe. n l4a, lib "oe, Uea a:denln , u lal&n4 at U.a Waftl 'rtae &-e lU elt.te wu & 1\r taotar Ill attraotlag

PAGE 108

.. -a-I otalRihnio s 47 et eeb ta pa ll'r7Ul Hlaretoa ...... i I rlor1da err 1039 I .. -u th ..... tok J .. k, 1ftal4eat et. \ .r P&t a loo&l taoparate ar .. k pnlatlaa, eatllate4 were ln lAI aoo tat bola
PAGE 109

t e 1 D A .. tJ d t r tr 1 ep t II Sl D fa t&Jd n \17 \ fro tal.and re !a I on o rl &l

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t'ampa, nerl4a cwember, lVSt -aoo1al.ft1mto Ghc17 ot OI"MD 1Jl .1 1 :BeyaD A 7llaret GDe ldnctr.ba81neaa p2l"tnd te. same bad been ..,...n, eo 41 and a tn ha4 rked In GrHoe a llloeale'a or 1D \he bu11dtnB vades. Oae bD4 been a tailor aDd a 1aaJ'ber. Jlew tt arq nat1Ye oocu tS.oaa .. after 111"1'11'1Da Generally n.w ..;. ftorta wer to learn 'tlb.e reataurant ar hotel lna1neaa, u aoat ot thoee who c earlier !MuS engage d 1n tho pareulta ud were able to oftffr newoooera por&r7 JfaQ7 have oon tt.nued 1n th1a llne, e1 ther orting for Othei-e or oonduoUng eatlns place a ot their ama. Other tab11ebed a tore fru1 tt, otgar _,d r etrenhment, and Yeget atanda, and a tn ngag4 tn tana1J8 One sr'OUP ot rel.at1Yes !au eatabllebe4 a'IY1ng buelneaa 1n the manufacture ecitt drlnka. 1'here are one or tvo aaah engaged 1n I the bllrbor, tlhH'IIIU8rt bat oleaner, eADd,J' peddler, \&llar, olgarmaker, oott J'oaattng ud gr1D41ng, aovtna picture peratol', ..uager, 1.1BbenBD, an4 laWJW In the 11De fit blaq labOr, ear]7 ta.tsrt worke4 tor .. t!me .. labarera on rallroalta, farme, and at *&1111111 aD4 ihe. pbate ldne ... Probabl7 baa Qu taper MDt ... re .-pto7ed aa / rdlro d labor_... to'oa1 Gl'eeu ohange l'r aut ooaapatlcm tbwy here aoep& to adn.noe rrea a1aar to executln poaS ..

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T.-;a,lorlda aar ber, B ntud7 at or eka ln !' pa. A J'llareton. -eda alton aa4 plent7 ef ubltlon, n sot bettfJJI .1oba or tin alneaa tor th .nterea loo4-oattrrl Unea lUl their ecapatr1ota 1D Oenerall7 .. be lfe an4 lder ob114r D help rarel7 o the 114rn work t the aubaequ nt 'to lubia aiaeea, but bn.. w1 th Ma -rcr.ragea a bm!granta were that a1 were ta88ed thro lT/ their parenta, to 1e paraera and train ecmductora forwar4 the I 7ounsater1 to their 4eatlnotlan. Aa a rUle all the earlteat tthew at aon, MOH\&1'7 t the Jl UeD1 c nit7,-who a Mde a etud7 ot the 1ooal eolOIQ'e -.;,a Vlat regar4laaa or what pazot ot Oreeoe t.he7 are trO., \.he lr .... ara ln t oaaea tlft'erent tr ihelr ratt-re .-plo ate He aa14 lbat abo t to r nt are enpgect in reaharaDta ud \hC' food e7fng linea, pro 'bl.t an per nt are tar.ra 1111'11 laborera, uc! \he reat .-ploJWd In lllacellane ou;-tt "far7 tn wh tr a Oreeoe to pa ll1gr ted al.anhera. -.Jor1t7. ot thoee 11ho ctl4 b fit tter .-pl.OJ'IIIftt but a a retunae4 1a ter Oa.l7 two eaaea are rac .. 4act GrHk

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-, -. r '" t ............. t .. -. .... ,_ .. .. ; r I 1 -. Y&llll*t norlda nem'bel', g S001alEthn1c Stlad7. fd -. -oreeb In Tampa. 1 ._.: .Jir7u 1c Pllaretoa.. :0. .. j ,oung au who went klok '0 ... "*884 relat1Tee Ia GrHoe. I Be became _agen' 'here tar an oonoern and hae ,' 'pioepere4. the repatriated for anct uelneaa reaaou. A tflw who Springw and 4 tar a U lB the ponge; lDduetry there. 1 I 0 they eort]Jr retumect to !'azQ&. .'D. ensace in 1eee hazaraou work. -. .... In --s e the .t.nlsnmte re. .;.en neraging 20 .. 7ear .Ot age. Yeey ffiW la"oueb' faa1Uea _ar .reiat'1e wtth t!W -atter they bad made_ .acmq engagb. AD1 1ho e o to taY here w nted flr.t h eatabl1sh themselTea, hame and ave money w1 tb hich to pe:s their relAt1n 'R\V to !cBPII Bo tam!Uee .oame ae group. I eh11dr-. I .. wu 11tUe nrlatlcm t.D_ .the elase at .tmmigrant, all VbilJalli n b Greeka1de4 in ... York C1t.7 7:' y \ -; .-. .,. .. etbmah1pa :.: ; b7 rdl. Kan7 lad 'ben 117 letter' rr. or "' --.... -. who fit the oit.te: imd oppartud1t.1ea here. ..., I ; 'the 'ouftlq aj,pra:dwte Tl tal tat.1at1oa ot tl'ltt 'I' Greek ... ... > -' I 1 _.1 to a 1 to s I .. ... .J j

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I. I I 1 .. .. -. ,.. tloal17 aU Mult teh epnt e ..S41U no:rtaa '" r, 1939 ,_ oo1al thft1o S tuc17 ot eeb In t r 8rJaD Uarn. ka here are ablAt to Qeat, read, the e14ere ai Ueh are epoken Ill n oaly elctera ot the I prefer 'tO ODTVH in lleh, tha language Sa sed 111len era are at .... DoUkas eta\ect tai \be 0rMka hve a -point r:.t I at Aaerioa, and all 11terat1ire ot tbel:r eoc1et1 1 pinte4 in 7rCII \he ginning, na-, t e areek 1 ansuaee lae been taught thetr. eh1ldzen at h an! t h e language a!14 euiture ot the aothn' aot111t17 te al80 taU4;ht Ola oee \ 1 11otable result et the bitt fit c. ped&ftt lit 1nduatr1al and lnialneea Ute has been better UTti,g oolliittona, 1ft linea ad an1JI11at' 1on into the Allerloan '1'he fn laborer .-re ohtefl7. ot the peuaDt lan. In l90S a _. .. fill UO k laborwa wu broag:ht tr Boatou to .AI'oad1.., l'lor14a, bf u., 1lft ot 'fPI' to 't the Cbarlette 1Mir ortbera .. &Uroa4, then tns baUt I' I U.e4 tn e pa an4 aome tD he laborer at

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. .. 1' pa, nl&ta ned)er 1 lVIV oalal timlo taq of llrtteka tn 1* 1 Bz7an .\ filar eton. ts-or a T wlth p eterrlas t 'belr oaah I leleur ln la)W'm lr Jmowletp et attatre an4 ..... Allaost tr 1Dg oa];llctf.t7 JfaJl7 tu41 artnmd Uut later att.eD4e4 atgbt aehool. a1ngle4 lou ure : '!'heir homea are ture4 aaorsg Data!ltlal l'est4em1al dlatrteta et tbe cl t71 lwr the_,.-ar reputed to be goo4 aelghbara. A large tbef.l" atandaz4 tJr 11Y1ng full7 equalll that of o\ber el .nta tn the lnoo aroa-. Jlost 0t on and 11 In t are neat, adam, llftd well. turntllhe4 .. aiata of toar peaoa.a. BY the poore.t are aa14 to lin ln e t1Ye eomtart at t.he thrlft7, tad trlouet ad t ,.rate habtt 11 the no !'Jwre Ia a tt"ns aptrlt fill l p oag eeb In tt Ia aeaerte4 that aoae Creek Ol:a!JBU:ll\7 1a en aq _\bat the eooncmd.a elt ticm ot oee bPe te bttter thaft the7 were aoouet 1ft it ta d te belr a atirumoe tr esa.aelft

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. ;, ,, .. ., I ... .. I .. ." .. .. I .. .. "I o"., 1 ... -. -. '-\ I o I .,. pa, narlda er, 1;s9 stild7 ef or ka tn t'&r!lpa. J 0 lc Pilal"etcm. 1 '. t aDd anoe4 let at autr 1 l'halr-allaeDta are o .. 4ltferent from tbQee of equal llT1Dg ltand&r41, v o ,. I o I anc! t r are no peolal eonditiaa lliDoDt them oo!l4ua1ve to 111 ... .: I I. As .'l1e aoolal d ea1 ral Ute t U1e Greeka Ot all. eeotlonal ., 11 \h eame, the da't tor those ot or1g1na cwmot ( I be paratede All belcmB 'o She ooletlee aDd abare alike ln a tiT! tle ot the 11hol l V .. .;_, Koa't o! the Gr s.dgranta here ttqU1pped lJi th eduoa-.. -1 of the average ottlzea. John 7llareton : r .. .. excellent public obool fl)'ate aYnilable io all youth, compr.eielns I '. ".. ':t : free rade and high, eohoola, and wlthlft .llnanoial reoQb Of \hoe ln moderate eire tRno I # I I A ma,Jor!\Y ot aa wiU as adulta n readooth eek an4 Jew r ad lD ther 'Vlrtuall.7 &11 :' : ot Gr ek po.rentase \bit pabUo aohoola. Jlan7 haTe ,I t ,. f Uad ted tro 'Pl'bllc b1&h .chool and maber have reee1Ted I :. ; I ,edYanoed e4uoat!o' n at ot pa d other inatitutlons j \ ', high r ;tear!llnge there are ao eahool.Jt of the Greek .. ; \ obdreh here. ; : I _.. .... ... 12le toUCRring bave .'etabl1bed -. (01' &D4''1ra'emal e4nn lit the race an4 ... .. '' 1'7 larpa .. :' .:, .. _. at, .. bare ill taa.:: oneu t I .. r :_ .. ., \. "...... .... .' ... ..__ -.

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' i ., I la a q re 1n aabJ ton, c. It la of tin tural1ze4 Gre 1r de oe!Xlant r1onn }WJ local r1oan 1 or ctracUan. 2' pa acUn ln ctrlc atfo1r tr 1 u p 120 exo ded l ct any r e1 t tlbap\ara 1n n ida. fiaoroughly pa\r1ot1o, the 4er eveeaaa t Or tan era de rionna r ath than aooiclant 1D ita oonetlt it tat le to P" omot and enooura,ee l.o7a1 to 1n.BU'uot ita --ra 1D e t eta 0 te. into Un aerYlo f h a oblan true ell.eni !be De'lollet n aax111111"7 or JJJe I t D1 i 1Ga8. Z\a pol an4 pur 8 aN thos pa apeeial. ti ottns o!al &0\ITltl one Perlolla, co poe ta !'be aid a1M ... 1939 acme, aught ..

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t l 1 J 7 f

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.. 12 O'fldea q tera tor the Order of pa, Ita auxiliarlea, and the rloan11 o club, ybg a tins plao tor nr loua la7 A feature 1 11 al svuotlGD t talent eh114roDe fbere ner a paper In Greek languace pub-, llahed In r pa, the oloft7 1 too to pport one. How nr \ha t o l.lah lanauace 4a1llee both publlahe4 tor a:r1y t1tty y lira, ara l'ea4 b7 the llellen1o l'ealdenta. and I are ore41'te d wi exert1n a a pron e4 lnfiunoe toward their rloaniz tlon. y aleo read eet nen per published in Jrn Y k1 'chtcnao, d other r108Zl ol tlea1 but the ln!l noe of th Journ la here Ia 14 o be al18ht l \lye tradition et{ll a firm place In the art nd a1n4a ot r o bere1 the7 haw Uttle bearing on lr }ll'elent ll'fta1 exoeptiJas \hoH ot a rellglo6. ture. !'he rell l6u traditl 1 \rlo\17 followed, partloular17 In l'iaselt ptl d obaerT&Doe at oelebratlona of e o Ol'thodoz urah. !bet'o are o1aahea th other tradl tlo the kl bere are ered.l'-4 With elDg tolerant9 taottul, P ble lJ' D\e ooal lle a o 1 to tr ent aaioable ntaot In alneee, eo 1&1, d o1Ylo aotlltlea with rlo .n4 otblr tl ale, and ber te "with ether el te ot-the populatl I t 1 GDl7 wt b reapeot to realonal her n that there aN parate tr 1 t1 .....

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... n lda oTemlaer 1 oe1al:itihn1c Stud7 ot Oraen in Tompa. y tlareton. 'he Tarloua eectiooal II'011P8e I t tile 41tternoea are elight, then heroea are )lon ed ttonall7 .aa well eeotlonalq. The s:reateat heroes of all the l"aoe are \hoae Who 4Jd 110at 'o torwar4 ... the Gr.eek 1denla ot d oaroo,., Whi h lglnated 1n Ornoe1 aDd to tree the nation tra opprear tho e ah1ttrl7 ooa-aro.ted 'aeot1onall7 area theodore Xolocotron.ia, by the loponneelanaa Atbanaaaloa by thoae of LamiaJ ereoua by the Theaaalon1anaJ and Rleftherioa Venizeloe by nat1Tea of crete. .... M T1rtuall.7 all Clreeb here are traditionallY born and bre4 ln the tat th of the :&aatern e:r Orthodox Wreet Church, and are firmly srounded in their 'beUet tbere have been no oonTeralone to any other religion or oult JIWeTer a they baTe neither chur-ch edifice nor prieat here _. nearp than tarpon Spring&, Sl atlee away, a of them attend the St. Andr .. a Church 1D Tampa, ao the ;Bp1aco 1 e41M'ioe 1a ea14 to 'be llke cnm than that ot an7 'her re1.1g1oa. Other dzt!Te to their ohJroh, St. toholu, at Tarpon. 1&"1nga1 J'lor14a. According to Greet laad.era bere lmlligratio to Tuapa were not oauaed 'by any tartioular ebuggle with the taroee of ture tn Greece, 'but eh1-et]7 'he 4ea .1re tor greater e onGIIlc lfare con, tr1but1D8 OBuaea were 4 to !.Ye been the Mtura1 Oreotan loTe \ravel and lldventute 111 an laada, the oqenSal eitmte here, an4 the inbred hunaar ot -\be ra t tnare 4 launr1e4ge. Owing to their narap poa4e O:f e4aoa\t beias a 'What ope, \here te TarT 11_ttle

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-!' .. lc!a lg!t. octal to Sta4J' et OJ"Mka.!D .. 7 I aperetl'ten a1 nee retain atpe each ae I t rel.7 art ld _u.t ,. llda:r la 1lll1 cl:f ._,.,. em which er kine. a lief orreapcmding o rl n peretitlon about J'rlclq.' !'he eek1 regard Tueedq &a a 4q dt 111 II a 1\ WU 011 that 4q at \be k tha' their anolent elt7 at Coaatantlnople tell to the hate4 I A fa lte dan e Ia an aU.gorloal Dl oal.led the -nance at zalongo o 'OIIIItemorat1JSB Che tate of the w n of souUotl who 4anoe4 1n a dy to the edge of a h16b litt' an4 urle4 them-eel to 4oath the roob ltelow rather than fall into the h&D4a. or the a4't'ano1ng t'llrk!eh eo141era. !'h1a csanoe hall ben \' 4 ill !be lc1 .ODOYUi a ( l.ewtrr .t. Ot'aliu)t & laudiJSB \he &Utlful lrla a ecla ottn baUa4 relating \be 't'alor 1 4Hde all4 har41bJpa f an age4 aol41er-haro, 4 lU .tbe npr arn:a t te hiD b7 taking ap fl .ftl'U. .. there ta a .1ocnala:r told .wer 1oan1ze4 eeb abcat eoaple 1r eouatr7MD who t17 a\14 t. a rallr It relate that e q ,k111e4, b41 an4 ate a

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7 0 1 I 1 to ln 1 r n t I ., t Q 1 5 -1 r pale r lie t r1 m k le, tit G r at 11 It t1 7 11 4 1r\h4q

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at CrHk Ute lef torte ot o e4. Ae 0 h !r grt1 are etorl re \ hl orlaD t o t\la ln tt a1 tore Jere4

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.. .: ... J'l ida onllbar, 1939 locial-:i::thllic S tuc1y fit Creeka in Tampa. I 'I -. 1a h1a -frui, t 'buaiae \he !. ouplect. &ncl lattrr -a44 .e4 groceriee to 'bie une. .He made a rlelt to or"" 1D 190d, warr1ed a hametOWD girl .... J "' .... tu're,. an4 in 190? retwnei w1 \h her '0 where they an .. .. '\ 'l'e lde wl th their Ghll-dren. JJaiuaa oont'lmaect ao good. <# that the aallor retired 1D cCUifG!'table 1rcmaatancea aeYval 7eara .So. Jle ia a D&turallzect eitlzea; 4)lepa and member et tile ael.lan1c \7 ioa. '. attar 11Ying in (ktorgia two er 7ea:r haYing braigrated there fl'OJil oalaxld1. Atter .;orking for a. 'ti;me llotela and reetauranta and \eccming prottclent 1n \he ED.gltah lan4'1age he 'bought the .Abterla Jlotel at J'l'aaklln and washington Streets. he eon-. / du"at&et 11ntil hi tn It waa 1D a rooa in Me hotel that I the 11 'P,ouJi of Hell nea who lT ool.ony t tn lgll &lld organized the f1'l'at local t a chapter ot-tbe PanhelliDloa uitic Panhellenio United organization. -.lii'Y1Yed 7 two. aoil and a file elaeet j o I on 'l.earned the prlat1q trade an'd in 1939 wae president ot J!lriatlaa C}all7 a auooea.tu1 '1' IB eonoera. He ta ... -. talent o dian, taking a leading part la II&D7 lliliatrel aDd hu liD long a Valoa _ere.- .. a, Ytlltaa. .bee a aotlon picture 1ae .' .. ;., .. .. .. "1., 0 : .J 't -' I t -.. .. ...

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tturpa, l'ltda OYeab .. 1Q39 ootal.:itthn1c Study of Oreeb tn !'lUll&. J1r7an J'llar eton. r laulaoe tabe, who AftSllolse4 hie pa b 1900 d la etlll re. He tbaD aft7 ether uk Jaer When a h11 othar placed a tag ., hie eulag hie Bame am deatlnat ion and hipped h1JI w hi tat birr who lad ea\abllahed a grooeey n York, waa apprent1 leaned g118h, aD4 to the zoeataurat qu1ok1J a aataraluect ol ttze. SiDoe 19C>e he oonduotecl a llaq reetaurldlt 1ft the do \GWD ah pplns %Jl 1919 lttck Zaok _,.ne4 a Dat1Te American strle they ow haTe a 4augh'er Aaigda1 ap4 101 who le college, and a eon, orge, .1?1 who ... pa4uate4 bam Plat 111gb Sahool In 19391 aDd a :Ueu,eaant-col 1 ln the RO'f'C. He 11 now a atud t a' Ulli'ferel '7 .r hapa ad rtoe Jl'elldent of the looa.l c pter ot of Pertole !be fat r waa the Tioo poealderat of the Lycursua Claaptar fit Ahlf&t and bu erred two ter u Ita prea14ent1 and tera u Dlnrtot OcrYeraor, and BW 18 P'ealdent of the Jlelleto of !.spa. hi _..,1 llla oowztr;rm .Taok tU.I &D aottn ll&l't Sa ._. PMZ"al lTll lite .t !Urpae Sparta. llefore

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atter.l'eacthing fterlc!a cw er, Sooial-lttlmio Sta4y et Greeb la ltr7aa & J'llal'etoa. Soon atut 4 hia 011!1 eating plan. Ite ,aeoeeaar at1U !lourlahea ln the -.unen dleU'lot. Ill 1912 when Gre lmolTed 1n war wlth ltb \he and oluntar1ly ret\IZ'Ded to Greeoe,Wilh tok .raat,where they Joined their oountrye J13 and eerTed t11 the war encle4 with I r Yiotary tor' areeoe 1n 1914. Saldda theft returned to 1'a.mta, briJW-tng with him Orecla lde. ru .on. lok, .. a atudent ot \he UD1Tera1t,-of Tampa, and b 110retar7 f1l the looo.l Ahepa obapt_.. ADdronikoa CleoteUa, 11 ho a topped 1n TamPA ln 1906 on h1a \o Arcadia with a e:rn at Greek laborera, ali Pl"eTloual7 came back to Tampa ltt-1938, hia home her -.rrled a girl ot .. tlUne, Oreaoe, he lanlled ftrat ln !In Yark tn th a went fa0\01'7 He lai a knGWledp of lril. engtn .. rtq, aD4 after I and hie labarera had tlniebed tbe1r railroad work at Aro.U. he took of hie n wat to work at a pboaphate lllae at l'lorlda. 'l'tiere he eo promote4 to for and oon tlnue4 ln that wC:rk tmtU 1914, en he left Pleroe 1114 J lne4 hi.l brotbft, stne1 ln a neral uaine at Cleanatel', J'lorlc!a., eatab1111he4 a 4eUoat eaen an4 h11 ther. abo. aJTle4 Greo1&D

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./ / -2:0-t pa, J'lorlda OYembtrl"t li;5V Soo1alMhn1c stud7 Greeka ln !' pa. llrJUl & Jlllaretoftt h&Ye &114 Jimmy is a eabe!' .f \he Ahepa_ and the Greek c 1t7 orse Jtallaltoad&a, mo hu rimpufte4 h1a laat ='o -xallla,.l a anou.r fll the earlJ rea1deta et Greek birth. A Mt1Ye fit .Argoe, t-4 e14 Cl" of loponneaeua, touDded 1'750 B.c., he eame to t'DliPA ln 1.106 ltf' wrq ot the ., YOJ'k satesy. He lat r1oan o1tl.z .en b7 naturallzatton and engaged with Solm ollaa a earlier reaident from or eoe, ill the retail t_rult and O&ftd7 hare. Jlr; ltAllla la reported to take a 11Ye17 tntereat 1ft both Greek and Mer ican atfalra ln hie adopted o1 V !he Je&r 190'1 brought two Spiro Paathaa, and hla brother .Ti.Day, frca their ba.t1T skopeloa. Lla 110at the!' 1mm161'&nta th117 hBd to aooep.t what \he7 oouid set tD the ay .of aplq I nt 11Dt11 "tbq oould learn the ot their adopted oountr7, ao the7 vent to llooatee. J'lar14 and beo-laborer a.-In a few aontha, howner, the7 adept at \heir erk and wre /' I a4Yance4 to poa1t1ona u In tbia tilq were able tO lrO'flde 811}l10,.Dt far tnlTe 01' 110ft ot tho1r OompaV1ot who hU troia Oreeae 4 wee aent to th \7 friend lD Tampa. !be aawmill ooiaP-n7 ei-rated 80 nai'7 ror 'be parpoH euppl.y tna pooerlea, ed Rber ea11110dlttea to their Pl'1 ... .. to tneure 'that their orbril aoat. WN811r1th the -th y 1814 thta lD 80r1pt IDtltead r1t oallh, although tbe:r would gin the Ml"1pt hqueetect. ot kncr.1Dg thla, -aent al.Jao.t _aonth' 1D the eoapaJ"a

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" '-' ... "'t .... 1 w I. --- 1 2 I l'a.mta J'larida Wcrntmber, 193 g .: 8oo1al tlmic stud y of -I Gro ei:a ln Tampa. .. llr7&D t: r \ \ ecr1pt o l"elatlna 1n Green, onl7 to' leara latC' that lt was worthleas ther.. 16 poup are_ aaw AJDerioani zecl reaiden b of' 'T pa, am tbe7 laugh ll Uly aa tbey tell ot \ho1r I 111e1r 11Ting quarter. at th8 of rough ( t I late4 b7 one ot the gro p,-eDJo,-e4 their work, an4 ee1e'brate4 Gree k and Amor1.oan Jaol14qa. 414 bomft1ck., u Grl7:..U . John Fllaretoa. Dt10De4 ear11 la thl.a tu47 aa a pre8811t 112:'1\er and h1u.t.or1an ot h1a 1n wad b_.n em the Ialan4 of skopelOII 1n an4 oame to clt7 1ft 19l0 &a bo7 iaaigrant 41.r after hia ttrat Job here waa aa a clerk in hi aDole'e l'OOe1'7 ataree A -. -. -. sraduate of high aebool ..1ft Cairo, lfe7t where be alao etudie4 I I t I # art, tbl BDaltm languag 8114 was ploye4 I a8 ll&n&6er ot-Y-arloue l'P& eluba ancl hcrtl.a Dar1DS Wa ,,._ he .. lltu41.e4 Toloa, arrd s n aaaoolate Jll'ocluoer Of local operaa in : j 11blch he ana He duced Qrtek a::r opcmsored b7 the baa worke4 reoant17 ... a wr1tezo .aDd. cteociratlT e aD4 t -. -.rr1e4 tt a tiTe 811'1 of Spallilb edi'aoti !haF 'hav e tbr" ol4h1 u. .In 1 912 Peter Araert .-4 oHrae J'OUft8 Greek.. o '\ogother to tr fhe8ealanit1 After at

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r1oan narlda .cnree .. 193g q fd Qreeka in 'rm:1pa I 1111'1 11Ar e tcm. rled to 1111 a baa .. emain 4 atngle. oUl JIU"\1o1 \e in aeral o act1Y1tiea an4 are ember et the Abepa and tile el.ltaJ.c C W11lD1 v ., 1ck Cbalalla, t'r Salonlka, 4aT1ate4 tram the aten oocu;a\1onal path, when Htabllabad a bat clean1nc ahop Ia 1 );a H e firat 081111 here in 1012, but sot hie ftrat Job 1n the phoppbate nee at returning to tampa at to ae\ up ill the hat cleaning bue1ne .. wh1ob he at1ll operate !DCrn ukas; prime JIO'Ier tr aurer or the Hellenic rnrmtr two thrlYiDC cigar atarea, ame here in 1g13 from hegr Pelol'ODfteaeue Yi un York. lata-engaged 1n -tho fttail otp.r buatneaa in whicll be hno lU"Oapered, .. and aarried an American wom.n. Ke loat llO time in eoom1 a 11ah language. ot the Ahepa uc! the cott1ah Bite Jl&lon, aD4 la tteacr1be4 lt7 hie. ompatrlota aa a Uberal ntr1batar, a and rd workinc lft4er bl n' tar wlf w prea14ent haptcr, he la aleo ..... .u ot tM'.tno .. pta>ated Jldlenle ef that aoc1at)" w1 tb be ehlefi)t ttl lateat achtrr ate, the o plation 1ft ..

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% pa, nortda OTember 1939 Soc1al-X \hD1c 1tudy et Gr e k a in & 71lareton. I 1Q3Q er llen1c Center building, preTioualy described. In 1Ql4 John Kan1k11 c to Tam fiom J'regra, Peloponua, and later beo e a ith 3ohn Sakk1a, pioneer re1taurateur whoso career bas been preTiouly lketched. Kanikia 11 a aember of th Shrine, Xnighta or Py'thiaa, Order of Ahepa, b 11<1e b 1ng dir ctor ot th liel.lenic c organization. 31mmy nnikia, a couain ., arr1Te4 here in 1916 port t ed tor itl naval heroes who fought far Grecian .:. ind pondence from Turka in 1821. He is connected ?ith his coua1na. lohn H. an John o.kld in tl c reataurant business. ,In 1917 t e loca1 colony was oin d by Athanassios Haralaabou, ho aeon a1 ortened hi a name to rom Lambos. He came to 7 ampa aa an 1mmigrant Tia Jiew York, .from D'ionero, !brace. Later'. he aet ap a ci ar atcr nd eo4a fountain hich a till .BUpports him colllf ortabl.7. Thre 70ara at'ter t he Tbracian cayte .A. lfan1k1a, another cousin or John Yanikia, previouoly aketched. John A. trom Fregra to Jiew Yark and from there c e to Tampa. in 1920. H re he came o.aeocit1ted with h11 oouain and John Sakld1 1n their .-well established cate. nd baa prosp red th them. He i single, ember of the Tampa LoclJ e or 1. and was esident of the local Ah pa chapter tour years, ond ver7 ac\iTe in all Hellenic aooial act1v1t1ea. .. Jam a Pap;Pat1 no a' rettaurant lJl"Oprie'ar 1n Tampa, reached here tn a roun4al:nnat wa;r &tteJa Tariev et experience 1 itterent parts of t aatr7. Be l&Dded 1n n York in 1908 B Greeoe1 .&D4 fr re

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I !' pa, nor1c1a nesber, 1939 OOlalStluUc SWc!7 of C1" e I 1n Tampa "Br,an & F1laret0Jl. I to et him raU!n to ttnd them, he Journeyed to Alabama and enga c e4 1n tarlll!Dg ior thr I par Lea.,1t:l8 there he spent I time ln YB!'loua the restaurant 'buaineoa, : Snc1ucUnc obllel Jlaohrtlle aDd st. Petersburg. In .. t1 lAtter city he 1n the re taurant buatneoa wl th 'html.oa Tr n nu s 1921, en he a Tam_ n.nd eet up hll own eo.ting pl oe wb1ah tlll a a 11 Jre 1 a a charter ber or Ahetb nnd the H llen1o C ommunity pt Tampa. I Another o cront1nue4 his onutltmd trndt .ln Tam.ID was 1i1ok koe, w h o reach d nnr York 1n.1913 a :!grant trom Kn.lymnoa, an 1o1on d 'that wao then or clan 'but le now Ita11Gil terri ft' '. n York htt went to U'd o tntl.a%-. In 1918 be ovcd tO Tam .nd opened hie ,.ovm tlar in under his e1gn or th r lar. Jilrkol ia a turo.11zed Aaer1ean o1t1zen and 11 married to an He u a ber or I "od ern ood.Jicm Xnl Btl t of th Oolc! n and the Hellenic I ext, in 1021, 1ae xotouf' e raaahed !' by wayot New Tart from Tr1c 1a; tn rileeanl1a. He 1 now seneral.l y Jmcmn ae .x.out _A., on atter oam1na to Amer1o&. o liY .M h1 .lJl'Ot!&oea-.or. t09t ap the food 11ne I I M4 la now P.l'oprte\car a ataarant ln the etnsa 411U1et. Oou t ,. direotor or Jtellmlo Co UD1 t7 fit 'l'aii111Ja1 and !e aot!ft in tTto arratr Jl ..rrled a 'TanJlXlborn Greciar. I

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................ ...... ...... .......... ...................... I I wl an-ltel.lenl' .whloh II tal'7 let loa Enllb 411 ... othet 7 t..tgrant 11bo olan lalaD4 et AictDa Y k 1D 1 OS, but 414 t tll 1i2'1. k to !'arpan 1n nortcSa, !-' w Cll' ...,eral \btl In he ep obanpct I\ ln41 1oap1 elUn cr ek. nt o 1 aarrrUle, n lda,. Lib ....... xa trarrsfer Aftes1aarD1 .e..,.L1naa1neaa 4 n4 operatect a van ar14 hla PIID1' 1 ple,.ct 117 lbl 1te4 sbtea gOYern-nt ln bu1141 p l obon, a train! troopa. Later be cUapoaed ot th1a entu 1 and eetabllehed a 1au rr a!IIS llDen auppl7 bueineee in 3aokeon.llle 17 in 192'7 ok Oree Tiel t, returning t rJea nd om ,.ar. Here be 11DIII1 llaains first the OlD o Sa ol theat.r .,. ,. aD4 114 thD aU Sn a qDdl uJ.rect be ., et whioh er1oan 1t1zen, ., o' ener Ahepa, a lreotor ot tlTe ln 1al d fraternal Cemlllllll t7, 4 Ia otl rl ta loan drl, l I t 1 11 a !Ut71 landed SB n 'f k tn lGU tr (santa), t 414 t ttl 916. f!rat tDt b ... Y k ta

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. I .. n .. u. r, 19S9 -27. octal tlm1o Stud7 ot ... u tn r pa Bi11111 rUare\on. atmah, 0e ala, 4 'Wtll'b4 t bia ethel" 1n the nataurant I aln \here tot about 12 7eara. tar ed a re taurant, Wh1 he eper 'ed t tn a. ID I pa to tan .. t !lot tltng u ea or to hie o had 41e4. !'h1a'ltottl1ng b elne had en bllah 4 ne ot tbe f-.117 1 J 1S oalta, aer&ll7 known u 1 Dglo a tura11 .. 4 o1 tlzon of th11 otmtr7. ber ot 'bl Ahepa, a charter iber ot the C n er. A.n ooupatlon. 80!1Wnltl'la Qreoka in Tamp !a that I cwe4 rr tlw aemral trend pel0111 who arr1Yed 1n n 'fork tn 190g rrcm Karlat ID Wn Tart he eDP8e4 111 the hardlraro bual for IIO!'e than twnQ' 7eara, then o to T pa tn 10S8 and tnbllabd 'be oat BtU tat cabAna arlh tM o1t7 o 4 .ado rrer-.1 Ylat b to r pa Bn Tort and 11te4 ce ro. Be ta ..rrlod to a w ot PoUah-Hungazote 4eaoent, and the7 haYo a P'MrD the ter lH 4 tllrltt flf the T.... the7 are Xanael th la their earl.T t ''" of tcholaa poato4 ta Jn Tort o brpon Sprlnp troa Leon141on, .klq ID l*IB fl lea '11 1911, he went

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JWII 0 Oal.ltu, PhillJt Cleote11a, o.o. Cleotella, .Toha Cleotella, .r ... a Cleotella, Aftclr tkoa c tl, Blok COma t 11 llelen ( Jliaa) Daatla, z_.e n-ln.a, George Drtn.a, aun II.-1TU1 Tt Daniel, nael Dm!lel, .r- Douma, Andrn x..r, Peter Demitratopouloa, O Joba Da11ae, Peter "'rmt, Barr7 ftlaretoa, Jolm :Galetzt, Harr7 Gerogaloa, Chat" le7 Gout, J.oula Barltopoulo, Zaba Harrle, .Toha, 11cak z. .Jaok, llok Jaok, Oeorp Zuk, .Aae&da Jraroala, oeer .. Xoal.CNr Ia, .r- Xcnalowrle, Gaat b111a, ae .... .. .,. ... c. lAaoa, .Tcaba lAkee, Oeer .. Uabo1 0Tea JIIIZ"tlnoa, Peter JI&D\on1e1 JlltobeU, Lo111a 0 oatoa, Geol'p 0-.utoa, XU le wtek .. ,he n. .. thn Jfall1k1e, Zehll .&. Uda, l L anltla, .r t.. pa, ,.lerlda an.-er, usg aoclal-thalo staq af Ol'eelal Sa !'pa J[Jdra, ilaretoa. 0 1 lllDe, Jtrt111 .. lr;Jtllllle, .AMrl Greelaa oroclaa le&ll 1 4 0 a -'-.rl 0 1Peroa, Rehea, Reba&, .. Aaerloa Jl)"tlUae, Alltla, Tbraoe, Jr7tlUt Skopeloa, .11YU&D, Alb&B1a Skope 1 areu-.-.rtoaa oAmerloaa I tal laD Aller loa SpanlahAIMI'lOUl AlH.DlaD Trloal&, Greek-"-1"1._ hoareat, Roaaanla a 1 1 a I Jr;Jtlllne, oruoe Mlrleaa .. Sbpelea t 0 a ,_rl .-.rloa Upa, Ar808t oreoiaa a part&, 0 oreolaa .-.,r .. 0 Aala L Amerl-!r leal&, aro Jrloaeo, Al.banl& D.rpealaal, Oa'xlcll, 0 oAl7JIII08 (ItaUaa) sa.r or X..pebapoa. I.aa})OI:aapea' 0 Bldl'-. aroelaa .sputm-...-1 1 Greol

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.. t.-pa, nmda V..,.l' t 1&1. 0 tlld7 t b 1D 'l'alrqa. Jl11areton. 1 xalata, Or JebD Jrat pada,u1a L t k creta, or utakla, -.nael creta, alaoar1a, JOhn anl tbilllt Ph111pa, Up oa, wa, J'ruk ere-., ppa1, J apU dkrropouloa, apel ParakeYopouloa, o. Skopel .. ParaekeYopouloa, z. opelea, Petrout Z ebla, tropoulo-aeo. Pirgoe, Kllu, ter, Charlea ll)'t111Qe1 lira. J r1oa laYe4a, tok .Toha kkia, John Rehea, kld.a, tok J. .Dirl kkla, AnBl a tanopouloa, ebla, Stala, Georp STr st.. loa, ohn Earlat St Ole G rae SalonJ p on x1 tohiU bp lea, ellal, llrle An'\h Sbpel .. ella a, lolDI Ae Skepelea, llaa, t Ae Mkor o1aa Aaerl Aaer1011D Greo1aa r1 (w1dcnr) rloaa ellaa, \er A. 11&1, Cbarl.ea A. r 1aa tan1 J'olm atel la -'-rl llah) OIIJ'allla, tbtatea, 8}1U'ta, -.t1114ea, Geo. lu, Taporl4cna, C&llepe, ttaa) C&l7aDoa, (Ital.lan) lo berta, Allth0ft7 J'ar1atoa, eeoe reo! 1 lUI t11J.7 fellned llr a fetln eel.ebrat lOJle A I 1 1 2 1 & 8 1 1 ., 1 1 1 1 1& orate er ant t er lhl ktad re att aenral .._rio sat it wu a awel

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., be. eh1l4' It a a al 7 AMJ-1 a ., on a ao o alt d, t ut' r 11 4 be er, aarrl &r pareata, a ouple 1 11" \lea, rl4ear a

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1 r

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-. ,.._., Jlerlda .-.ea'ber, lGS g aoolalBth!dc tt Greeka In !aJIPih llt7aD A Pllareton. aocs.ta\bel' 1lh belcl it while lae plaoet 18le a aolaa obllgatSon )7 tbe prleet to eheriah eh114t Co bie )eat to protect l:t troa I .. nll through 11fe1 aDd te lbat it &1884 a CbrSetian ln tbl fal th fit the thodoa Greek Be &leo blip ted hiaaelt to adopt the and eare ffJI! .hia hi a on ot the death. He attlr th proal \7 three putt ot h11 breath, I1Jibollaing the blowins awa7 ot all nll troJi the eh114. ..,;. -. the prteet then epriakle4 eltYe 11 en water 1ft the font et 'tbt eroee, atter whioh a pln\ ot oll wu poare4 Into \he an4 Oil the oh!ld and 1\ waa t:hen t.Mrae4 In the water the P"lea\ then \ouohed, Yar1ou plaoee en the \od7 with hol7 ollt nd al1o dre11 the a1sn ot the UPDft lt ltrea1t, teet, and eAI' ) : !broupout, the .oerlll7 wu aooc)pule4 ll7 1he Bible ... an4 th ritual book, :Ghantlnc. b7 prleat aa4 hta aae1et1111t, aD4 the .,ins et a eeue tllle4 With lnenilll taoenH1 1M :arlent&l ector ot blah tllle4 'her-. After .._rl \he trlghtent4 aD4 wu towele4 an4 returo4 to ite aotber, whioh eoaolu4a4 the rCil7 !beD .u the cuet e0naz-atulate4. the a o4tathar an4 :s:arnt1 with the Greel' wce4 lla eou 11111, .. a wleh for a loDS llte tor u4 Ba ,. ehJ.U-te, W18blq the so4father thouluad. hrilteninp tO hll ODW A pr!Yllep eonterre4 pon tbe ao4ta\htr ia the eereaoQJ wu_ .I he 'M lloawe4 '-eias belt 1!1&11 at the we44taa ot bie

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,, at+ eYeaber, 1939 Soola1hnio study of Gz>eeb ln !'&Ill& r Br7an Jlllare\on. S04oh114. !'hla p&rtteular ehr1a\c11aa !aa4 a44e4!oanoe ta that .tt ooourre4 oa ..... 4-.Y lht o4fathet.t'a ciftn aame wu z- and \he eele'"\laa waa 1D honor hla u well aa tile hl'tatnltaa. 1'ha ab7 u auae4 oonatantlna. At'er 'he lcm J'neeat -.J)tl-.1 enloe the ptber1J11 \UPnec! into a ot a oolal am tea\lTe nature, lldllnft Greek aa14ena aaae4 'rqa ot 11\\l.e eakea, followed lt7 apert1ta of a tter7 ar.u Uqueur tlaTare4 with aniae. -Afterwar'de eame buttet aupper at 11t'hloh 1rere aene4 the Tlanda and Tln\agea ao talll))tingl)-4laplqe4 prnloua}7 ln the. t1\oben. The eat lag; 4r1Dldftg, and aoclal pa.atlme went en until attar Jdnlsht I In the earl7 4-.,ya at Olouaan4a ot 1'ore1sn-c era were u!Dg poured tnto .-erlea waekll" through the 1'\anftel, ot Bl.Ua talan4, creaka bouad tor 1'amx:a had lliaDT ed4 expel'lenHa Clue to their 1nab_1llt7 to apeak or Ullduabud lansuaB anct .,. ., th1e atzoange, new o UD\17 bpelenoel that were ihen Uaglo to the bn114el"e4 aewoomera are now ., .. alli.d tha. aa eoaloal Here la op stuoa hla eouai.Ja, Jetezo .vpriou, h o bual7 MD fl'ca Salonica, Ol'eeoa, fb'at tl'o4 -rlean ao11 ell the7 -. lad ott Ule llhi at allla Jalaa4 In 1111, llaYlna ea. topthaa .. tr tbeb oreolu .... t!le the' P 1rS th tlcl'aata ::... to paa1 the e81 and u.r lnapeet10Da aaar7 the7. eaald leaTa the ialaa4 trr Tr ,.. ._.. 1'M7 aUU l'e..U \lleb' JJR nllat tht J.aa\ bapaoter I

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. pa, J'l .. l.d& Ofeaber, 1Q3g octal-\hnic stud7 et eella ln tamp&. aryan Jllaretoa. I lr1e4 .,... o the ..... of n Y t aat all rl their relief llhort-Un4, tor were aoon to nootmte.r 1111h thq w waa raapa, Jler14a, loh the7 had. Ill n Tort ottlalw l 4 at their 'tse ta u4 sul4e4 tbla to the pro atat I.OD I tralae !here the7 wa1 te4 twelYI oure, .\hi king th in 0 141& aekecl \h tha7 e Ye the ell17 anner tlw7 r pa, J'lortta. a then ahowed t all queetiona, Another al&b fit reltef u4 then k into trouble apia. p.a. tnllle t wear)' houra he har4 benolwa ln wa1t1 thq raYenou 11 h 7 !hq aaw tl&eil' fellow 8i tte wt &Del o ot aan4w1ohea an4 n, a1\haagb thq ha4 0De7t tr trab al&bt la&Ye w1 thout th U the7 Yen\ ec1 .at .te 1 k tor thing te 117t after 17i to eleep p 1M 1l11ht n their Olaf rtablt nGh, \he a1a4 our et alx 'el. k I.D tb:-arntns .. an4 aoMoae \ a 1to 4 t ortolkt YU lint a, the tl.rat. ebJeoti.Ye en their .-,. ahaud at tlk I taapa, to walt tor ua

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t ... .-, 71 ida ereaber, 193G I 58 I lal \hnic tudy et eella ln t' Jl& an a: J'llaretoa. I t aa4 all 1 t r1e4 e.u ut ahort-Un41 tor theJ ore aoon to en o ter 17 Ullh thq w na pa1 J'lor1da1 lOb In York ottia1ala 1 4 at their 1e '' an4 u14e4 baa t the pro t\atlon t tbelr tralae !here 1 wa1 te4 twel.,e -.. ........ tralD to _., em ra, .thl ld 17 ODO W 14 toll t 7 DOtloed t lt an4 quot1oae4 ln 11 To r pa, 71 rt t all a, otatl ft \hon anowod cleretand. t t olr train u1d lane at olx oolook. k into r l..e ., \be7 414n t know whe k at.... tntaa t 'I houe he b&r4 en walt! ro thq ok wl'b wl hoe 4 f'hl t, a1 t.hwgh the7 W mODIJt 1 Woro .traS4 lr a Ill t laaYe wl out th U Ule7 ont o4 aat te J1 117, after 171 to aleop &t1 / n0h1 M a1a4 CJi\.11' et lz and 00 ODO t t tr' Je ti.,o a aill ou IWJ towatt tor u Ding O&Mt t 1kt Ttralnla, tho at tlk tor Tapa, a, o thq aton4

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'I ,. :rlor!t!a -19!9 ooial ftJo tudJ et Cb'Mka ln tampa A Jilare lh eiU'ap to so out u4 fOI' ... t i'oede Looa\tag a lunoh ro, C'Dere4 a walter, an4 Ja\ttag their punt at oh1 an4 I ,.1nttna to their thil, t their wanta !he1 ate .,.erJthtftl the watt ""oqbt thea, whether tbe7 liked 11: or not. st 01 .. ttbtre eattas .,..,.r. n \he haltlhell and utntt bottle4 d.J'takl, and Cto14e4 1-. waded Me atgn-malt1ns nlj rou&ht hl a bottle ot OooaCola. :!,. BUOh t1oulattna and poln\tna, \beJ 'lnal17 t a 1ket of too4 packed to take .wtth \hem1 and 1 '1otnc ab t the a\attcm aqlq pa, :rlo.rtda1 to' e9fii'Jbod7t theJ were aoon ea a tra!ra heade4 t,. lack om 1111 enrou t e to tampa. .: Getting ott at. J'aekeorrrSU.. for the last ohanse on thelr wq t tampa, the 'bo71 beard a eoUDd that f111e4 them w!\h Jo7 Jt wao the sood old Qreek language. The lcame otoe oame from a Greek 'bootblack Who bad etaftd 1n the e\ii tton. fht1 rulhed him and almon hugced him. 'tbrough the help ot thia ountr1XD&Jl, the imrdp-ante bad Do 41tt1oult7 1n aetttns aore food ta I&O'kl01rf1l.le1 and be 'alae un4ertoel: to aet a 1111lch paoked to 1&1\ Oil tholr ..,. to their f1D&l 4alttnatioc. But the hluelt bad laeen lnat a hort t1Ju 1D lhl ooantry, an4 he had the l4ea that pa waa perbapa a thouaan4 le1 from laokaon't11le, the \071 so\ on the train tor the 1aat ( lap t 'heb a aat'' ot o tr1en4 handed I I ...

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I taapa, J'lortda nea'bel', 1e3e S\1all7 ot aka tn TamJae anan J'ilaratoa. I told \ham the oat fhq a1a4 to 1 '' tor .. too tilo ht the had a l.Gna 4oU1'D87 ahaa4 .tbea. To \heu happ)' a\IZ'prt ... theil' train weaehed 'l'am;a 1th1n the ext alTa bova, paliins into e al4 aboard A1i-Line etat10B at Wanklin and 011\1 .Stl'leta. there the7 fcnmd a oab aan O't -that par1o4, man with a borae arad fT 4f'he7 .. bowed h1 actdreaa \hey had ot Tam tr ienda 11Ti!IG t th oornor fit llnoomb (now oaaa) treat nn 1 an4 to k the there, where the tro\&'blee ot their trip er en4e4 trienth ot the!:' 'Own l'aoe and lanauaa Tampa hna a! no been their ha., and the7 ar ncnr well known l:lualneaa en and naturalized olt1zme. Six yeare atter their rriTal, however, in a CI1'1ea of turUler traTeltroublea and a4Tenturae were to gin tor Ul1e In li18 J:ut enUatect 1n \ataa earYl!Je ill the 14 ar and aerYe4 1D Jranoe aa an with the Twent7-tba\ DiTiaton. Jll retune4 .to t011pa t the oloee fill the Wal't and 1111 d hie reat vant e1-. u a par\n r with hl ooueln, Peter Arerf In the p:r1q et the Abepa snn1zation &rl'anged I I tol' 1ta amsual exo'LD'aion a to the lan4, wtth an 1t1Der&r7 1no1ud1q Baplea, %'&17 and 7 o1t1 ot Greece. All na. baue 1 fill olher H lltnee who 'ook adYat at thia .Uuz-e1cm to 't'lllt theil' nati.a 'ona 1a the o14 ouat17 the pa rea\aurau

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.. PRe norttta OYellber, 8oo1alBthn1o stu47 at oreekll in Bryan a J'ilar et Cll te ahip Conte pi aanU 1 Jrarab 1,, After. a atop .ot a \ fn oura at Waplea the tlhtp H4e4 to Jiraella, Clreaoe, Where the tourist re e1ft4 7 weloOII1111 atiori flit goTerl'lllftt tlttotala. stamoa then weDt lt7 rail to Baln1oa, aolng tram there to la al'b7 Dative ., At!WtGIIt aN he Y1a1tfi4 hla parenta an4 relative whom be laa4 aot ... D alDOe & t4 fpa a? ,.are Mfore. &ea aeuect ita ezplrat1on the war olouda_..,., .. rat8a4 'b7 Germ&JJ7 were preadtas r all et aurops, amt st oa I dao14ect he b ,,., aetk-the aatet7 ot tbt state .nd hame. OOing baok to Salon1o to have bie put 1D order 1 \h Amar!oan ooneulate, be told that nl7 poaa1bl8 tor h1m to r turn to Aaerioo. wae through 8er'Tia1 eo he went to YupalaTia. there toun4 h8 .an 8o tllrougb sw:.ttacland an4 0erman7 to JTanoe to atoh a ah:.lp, u \be Wd waa n 1D earneat, ancl the afoat way to (an an Amerioan -reaael fl'oa a J'renoh part. -' in P&r:.ta 11 u_ra, than went to cleaux where be remained eight dqa re wa1 ttns for the atet7 ot a ahip o.arr71ag the tara an4 str:.lpea. y t.h1a tt. Yeaaela ..,. be1q 8unk 1 Oel'ID&Il ault-11111'1Dea, and ea aa 4anpJ"CN8 &M dlftiwl:,t. -. .. A1rr aid tll' 1U were iDS ..... Mld 1D PW la trhile tamoa 'If ,. ........ k wbieh be. oanle4 ., all ,1.... ea14 that after .. al aounde4 -rremod7 w.l.d wlthlllU lliDUtea. tn

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nwtda oTeaber 1 c ial:&thnlo tuey fill OJ' a ka bl !amra &7an a: J'tlaraton. f 11D&117 a\ecl for P1r a, then te Athena en I two three weeka YlattlD& re1at!Tea d ... 1118. the a1pu.' llhip, the cr .. k .s. !heaiatoolea, was to t Pil'u em '" r 20, ao I n rne4 to that ott7 trca barked ea that 1 ge, tift To el as a D4olaaa paaHager. ll.lllg w.ith ae were tnz -.B ftce hae t01r11, who "re going to u third-claaa paaaensera. CD O&rd We d -tagether except at alght and at ealtla tah a big help to ..,.aelt and tour tellcnr-1ft wn Tort ctt7, aa lt a&Yed ua .ach loh hand! pped at 1panta. Arr!Tlng the waterfront ta the big ott7, Mt a poli an4 I ukect hi 1a lah t dtreattcna u t hGW te re the acldreaa ot trttmda of .:y 1lh re the7 were eto He at
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/ t !'hea M aa1cl JdD417t 'I an, ware 7ou here lie J I o, I aai4t 'tilt i rq t1rat t1 tn He laughed, pat\e4 U OD t llhou14c aa4 aaJ4a 'But JOU apeak En611ah YUJ well.' 'Yea, I anawerecl h1Jae 'I went to .. Gbool in XQpt._ IX1 learn 4 how to apeo.t 1\ there. He a1 'Tee, I nottoe you lave abM kind of .a different aeoent, but I underat&D4 J'OU all riaht. ne was a good-atured policeman, and ftlbt4 to me tor tlae, while my tao.% budcliea leeke4 on alii wa1 'eel, af'rald or too excited to eYen put clon their beaq baPP In tact he wu ao lntereeted tn that he re1lalled wt th ... a atart thnt he wa n lectin& b1a official dutle.. lSut he gave aa tull d1reot1one and even pat u on the -right atreet ar to reach tm trl nda ot -.y eompan1cma. I thanked him with renl srati tade; an4 b&Ye 1 1 r embere4 hie k1n4u XY c pantona ere SJ'&tetul to to% belplns thea throagh \ the!Jt 'landing csttt1oult tea, aDd atter we a-eaoh.ed t bome of their trlendl 1n ew York Cit71 t 117 1ne1atecl Oil -.11 etq1ng 1th thea a fn ye, which I dld1 and took e1pta ot tile oi '7 t 'b7 \l'atn tr Jrn Tort to tampa wl\hou' aD7 tro ble1 arrtriac at 'be ald seaboard a\atlen fbCIJ'e I toot tile aaal llarae--"F DYI7Ail t o the a44resa ot .,-tmole 1 1D wboae poooar7 a tore I etartecl to wort. Had 1\ not been knawle4p ot I probabl7 14 ,.,.. Mt' w1t.h w.ll7 c!ttt1oulttea ut 'bu\ ae St wae I ha4 ao trouble em \he entire trip. I ;A r:r o14 aDd fillar quo\a\1 Whan --'. ;

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r. ']JS, 7l tlr Jd. crtam"oa, oc: tali:thnic study okB 1n TaJ!l U7an 1'1lareton -. I the tug ot war A 70 eek, then th mod rn-. S.a, \l'hen Qree 1\1 Qra k, then CQH81 a &ndoea baa1n AlthoUGh a 'gr at IIBJari '7 ot the Oreea who oace to Tampa .... a4op c1 the oea1c bueinea ot teediDG (he hungry at popular Priced urant n :ber Of them departed fr "COUTQJ'l ti nnl llnea of l od pun 71n& OJ' Tan\ur d into oocu:pat1ona o what unu1ual tar mber1 at their raoe. One ot thea bold p1r1ta wao Gua\ BoUnmct, o a&.iltcl 1n 1911 !r ithra go.rldoa, Greece, tor ew Ym"k, an d after in ., 1 oua hotela and reetau%'a'ltts \here tar 7ears he eama to 'l'ampa in 0011 a.i'terr.ard h Joined th Royal sho a, a large o n1Tal or Mlzntlon hlcb han per nent winter qunrtera 1n Tampa \ v T le \bro hout the United statee and Caruld a during the 1 or. lunohettuld With thia ehow, hLlo tr To led wl tb t t tor than ten 78nl" Anothu to T&ry trom beat n th a atnth1ol Gecrg1a4ea, nerally known ln '1' ta Geor p, the popcorn until h11 de \h in 1g39, He o e re tram e1r Tark about 1929, wt wno orig1rmll,y ram Voloa, or He later eatnbltlhed b1maelt as a t popoarll and p ah art etand, oearce went odem and bought toroycle on which ha inet Ue4 hie roa1\e:r, J'ar ten Jtnl'tl be 1 a familiar tipre a ball, and foot I ltall ea, Whl%'8 be aonaeasicma. 1hltarttmr1tel7 he wu f.DT 1Te4 In an aut oblle eok 1ft 1039 and auffered J.nJurf.ea Which naalte4

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a, nartda Iowmber, 1939 80C1alnlm1o Study at Grooka 1n Tnmm. JtJaft & I 1a b1s de th aoon atterwarda. and Charla,-Bellaa, ona ot t'nmpa'a tirat settler, b rn1lrond employees as aoan as the7 were old enough. 3obn worked far many 78tlr8 oa a oar inspector tar tho Air Llne r 1lroa.d, h1lo Charley bD.o lons held pos1t1on rospona1b1lit7 tn 'he local troisht ottioea or the aaaD road. A Greek, who ohltngtd h1a 01" 1pn&.l name to Oscar Adame, eernd t Cll' a yetlra ae e. oar inspector at Port Tnmpa tor Atlantic can s t Line ra1lrand1 and returded 'to live 'tn h1a nnt1ve c ountey. An unuaual line or 8
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pa are u.t. iifJ'lorld Sovembar 1939 Soc1alEthnlc Stud7 et Grnka 1n ta::mpa. lleybn &. I ao&aewhat ou\ of RdJ.DaZ')' aa. a TOcation a
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-&61 !'ampa, 1'1or1da nembert 19!9 t Gl"eek:B 1D 'ampa. \ & f prle#t wfth h1a 1oug hair an4 ,eard., dresae-d 1D the lack robe of 110urn1ng w1th Ule p1;u Ye.tmenta worn at the christen (-. btg, wu es!a. tet! ln the ritual b7 a young 1ajmaft who read imd chanted resp anAea ae the l)r1est an4 reo.4 the burial llorvice. At t.,terTalu t!urtng tbe ceremony the \all, broad-shouldered cleric d hta aenser w!th Sta burntng tacen .In one band he carrie4 a gold cross. ifbere watt llO !net ns Pl' mue!c any kind except the At the end Of the erv!oe last trag nearl7 a."'1 hour, the O'Il!'!lell riled by petl casket, and etsatcnll \hat each the fnce -or hand the OJ' the geld erose which the porte t hnd laid on the breast. !be oas'k&t .as then placed 1n the hearee and taksn to the aemeter:y ae !a done at Amer iean tunernls, follewed 'by tae uemblage 1n autamob1lea. OD arr!'!al of' the .. unval ocnotege at the cemetery, the Pan \earere bore ths oott'!n to t!le grnns1d&1 .tl11e the pt-1est ahante4 and.wa.,e4 hla burning eeneer until tho 'bier wae placed bon the -!here a ehort e*'Y1oe was hel.d, and 'the ho1y mtm placed a ..,._ small wax oroaa upcm the oath f!t the Wlth chtmtillg the priest_ t:> ok a thr ... 7Ucl p1eoe or white oloth, and with ooisaore aut a oro11a t.t me! p:J.aoed !t the body. t'hla ,no .,.mbollo ot t aettan ot zoaeph, :mo took the ltotty er Jeeue tram the c:roa an4 appe4 lt. la a white tilnh. I li'ext the olerlo ,..reel u -eroanlH QOil the 'o .,_bo11ze true 11114 peaoe. ae then took a :ahwelt1ll at looae earth llft4

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A let 1 y tne J'D t I 1 t Ult 0 t I 1 ftl11 ?1 repl7 1 I !' rl n h11 l 1 tr lz I ta rrre. th Into re t! er 1 t a how f'1Jtml7 10 ee.n 011 wh t 70\11' ft.lltUI'al et ft'e are ,,.

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, T 11.or!da ovember, octnl thnlc stuq ot Qreeb 1n Twax:a. 1 !ryan Fllareton. I' tbar to ObiiC'YI their 11111\ual namet.q. Ifts d elebrat1n, their 1 malft other otal to, the 01'11k1 fb,..... 4q thdr tnt. Aftl 1n plaae et aob .robn -.k1114 er-q ... taro.tely on st. John' ey g t toaetber tor a 1s 3olnt ft1t1fa 1'h1a adda to the enJoyment, peerlaU7 for alngle !m.T1ng no au1 table home ln 1ch to entertat n trienda, ldght ps.aa lon ly d.ay. h m'bera et la a4TaDce ot the da7 and pl.nn the 1 1oh oa 117 take -the form or a banquet mt dance at a 'hall Io 4\11!1 are required, but membrr hia t wo.rd dl fhe oelebr tion, and the moro nftluent dbJ.p 1n tor mv ho art UMb1e to PD3 their pctrtton. !larr.tod aembera Wlllll their t lio and 1trr1ted gunte, bzt no ni oan be membar tmlea h1u t1r t nome te John. At 1ihe olub' 1 oeltbtta.t1on h 1939 the bcmquet andfianoe ttonde4 by inaludiq ibera, the11' faldliea suosta, aDJ. tbe meft'.-.,mnk1ng lasted wtU e 13 llm'D11J& rhia .-rolm'a Club ta 14 to \hi oJil3 one of tta 1n Advanced e4uontl01l ad aobool 'bletlce are 1n h1g'h tavor r1o&n-born :young ople ot areelt l)arent ar enaoUJ"ag ln the" act1T1t1tl b7 thab' parenta. A I DUmber at ona and 4aughter.a -Of -HeJlernea n ad.uated w1tll .. ; oaara bam the el '7' MP .. oh il tampa. b1J wlth the are tt-lq 1 trniTerdt7 fit a lest athletn b tbo1r
PAGE 157

oo1, plaJe4 auch ood to tball thnt S.t wn a aoh01arlhl t ftorida OT t 1&1.-E\lmi t 'uC7 ka 1n ta !r,Jan J1lareton. r lde OD the Plat re be 111 plaJ with the ..ra1t7 t oeorc J k, now nar atudent at the 1 Un1T81'a1Qr, waa aditnted tram l" t tU4l hool 1n 1'all1 ere pla,Jed a atroq t on th ool lenn. A r et the ft o ': a t the high ho oted to the rank ot 11eutenant-oolODel. te Yioe-prea14eat \ .. :.. t the locnl chnptsr ot SOIUI ot Perlolelt Jllftior atflll tct ot tbl mber alq. the looal order the 1t,-!am}a tudent who exnela career, he 11 takinS 1t1on tor a o plet bua1ne our 11o baa been htmored election to U. att1oe at aretar7 ot the famPL o lot l!Grrla Sa a tutl at ntUabaro f#l aCfhool and aergeant til 0 t c re, and Se pnold m ot the local chapter ot sou et rlol I 1da a tu4ent of t p-.Ue. -' eld plqecl o 1 at Ddtng tbl / aoqUai ntaDOea the 7CJath ot Greeb .... u the 7cnma pnple

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1 It I dt Sr eld tt baz dOUI a Ul 0 11 4eear1 a b7 Zohn tt Ble4 11 d1tloJtl ot the a et hi l'aoe, who1 t orr he 1 ad1 II t a 11 nt handful ot SO 1n t ....... ..... horde t !'lD" eth or r t the tro 11 ro b at tbt It aun Sn tea y prl t1Te tatn clltta. In rt relat 11araton, oreek o.y, ln hta to 1Yal. ont a ppoa1 a:r tt t rn one ot the ttle lare ot ot u ,.. ot an en In our fln ad nd o o to a doc r Y r l. boy oth 11 e '!h rlotarlo rlee 0 nc the 4eear1 tasa e w I aa would ., 'b7 ttlea by throwing putt rout. x n leader eel In nrtare with ut Wblppe4 ., nee oat, but cS to teh 1IP rat IIUAlt7' 1t!U 4 o1boa4 ere, are ..

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' na light 'tampa, J'lorlda ov ber Soc i 1thnic study. t Gre ka in Tampa. Bryan I oun d Df e rUt aom what llke a ,goltera tee, and on the atone each plqer pl.D. 1 a -eo in, the ount ot the agreed ante. !han, from a of 12 to 15 r _eet, the in turn toea a -u diak r t ablet or atone (\he 1ama4a ), ln -an atte pt to knock dOWD the pile ot ooln1. 1'he pla7er '1rho1e amada \Oppleli the co ina fran aata wina the all. o it one la akil.ltul enough to ke a direct I hit, the oonteetant whoae t 11 oomea cloaeat to the baetaka wine the pot. 1! touche the baataka witheut the cotna {t ia not counted &I the cloaeat. ln other the obJect 1 to either topple the oo!na ott the baataka ar to land the amada to the mark 1thout touching 1\. A game to the one Just 4eacr1be4 11 played in eome parta t Greec by clriT'ing a et1ck into he gro11nd and placing 'the ooina on top of 1 t tnat,ad of a r ok Walnut a are toa1ed to .. hi t the atiek all! I brittg do n the ool11a. _AI in the other game, in case of failure ot any player to atrilc.t the atick bard to topple off tha-coin1, one h1 to11 uareat the Ja\ick thout touching it win1 all the lillie other \door a=e, allgh\17 1iaflar to golt.or hocke7 la la7d 1 tollnaa 11h one end formed bear de tr llab1 of the ol.1Te or 1'jg tree, a or angl.e uu a golf ar hookey clul. t'hia 11 4one b7 heatiag I? ateaming at1 k, the end., an I keeplnc tt lD the e t a1tl D ntil St eta. %Jletead Of a ,Olr 11 a plJle e I 11 lid. aJl4 til gue OODil\1 .. .. ookl g '' into de Ia -the poo ct. be eppnlag t-fit arrr

PAGE 160

j Ylor ida Xovember 1939 oc1althnic ot Greeks 1n Tampa. & auaber of players each are tor .u 1D hocke7 ne ,at the ball to the the other. t?at\lea t o thea. U\er one aide euoceeda 1n 4Z'iT1ng ar manlpal.ating the cone 1nto. 'the le, 'he team poal tloaa are rneraed 'far the Mxt round. Anoth e r typical Greo1an gme 1a Tizlrle, 11h1ch Tery allghtq reeembles jacke or jaoketonee as playe4 Aaariaan children. Yor Tiz1r1e the all Joint-bone fou. nd only in the knee of a sheep or 1 b 1 th chlet piece ot equiJ:IDent. _It 1e ail -obl.eng bone wi-th one e14a conoaTe and the other oonTex. One at the broad sides is called Tiz1rte and the ather king. fhe other two aides of the bone haTe a 'fairly fiat BUl'faCJ ODe fit these is the loe1ng eide and the other 1ne pointe. In playing \he game the one 1 toeeed into the air, nith the hope that one at vinnlng aidea will be uppermost Uhen it ... lalla em th ground. lt 1 t falla with the Tizl.ria aide up the plaTft" "' wiaa. n cme of the ll&rrcnre.r aides ia P he ga1_ n a certat n number : I ot points, 1t th oPPosite aurtace 1 ppermoet he loees. sklavakin, meaning alaTea, 1e aa played b7 eh114ren in Greece. A8 4ecr1bed, t 1 played aometh1ng like base all except that be1ther ba11 nor bat 1 The7 have men on and the el .,., a run trora one to another, touching them with their handle It la aiel to 'be a e with ehildren OJl ..... aocount ot the Ylgoroua exercise 1nTolTe4. and Tear &l'e b"7 1he Oreeka in Tampa n YU...7 ueh the -w.,- the holidqe ara obai!rTed b;r Amer1 cana t lu a011e... erloan 1tte :Ylng a l.arge eek\1on, old-1r0 .are fo.llne4

PAGE 161

PAGE 162

, e .3One pon t1 a oor ahoe k r a arne4 h11 living b.7 o 1c1t1n ho 1 rk dlt! r nt p ouee to hou e, ather! t d and 1 em to hie th en dellT r the to hi custom re, collect eceee y t inga tor h1a t 1ly d. Tery 1 t tter Ti nice .upp at hie 1!t ti !or 1 nd a1tt1nc njo h1 a lt d h1 t ily, and re PY 1ng 1 d oid d 1 e tour around hi a op tt ow they w r e dG1ng. e e d 1 th poor shoet o or hr n1 t1 1n euoce s1on, bel he 1 to go y t tr t 1ng tour ot hie city. niGht he has heard in nd Ulio, th n decided o nt r d find out What o1n o \ "lfe oc d t th door, l e oe r t once o ned the door and t 1ng enter d. R w leo d the ng, bo he did not know, and 1nT1t d m o ait 1\h them at the table tre ted hJm to aome 1ne, nd h t t lk th hi e die 1 c1 ou ao PPT'' !hen he ann or 1a don 1 hioh 1a abo re. 1r1 olJci 1n 0 ou nd 11Ttr and with t on bu 11 1 p1ly asked the h oemaker, Tery day att r a work h Clll au pporta l.Ua fa.a11T1 at Y ad little llt nd t D d tdr hie rea t and 1 rt. On hie way to hie 1 to tlfe t a kl po laborer tki 14e4 '0 ppln

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!ampa, 7lar 1da ove b er, 1939 soot al-Bthntc study et Qreeka 1n 'l'Qmp&. Br1Ul & :i'ilaret
PAGE 164

I .. t !ampa, :rlorida IoTember 1.g39 Stud7 at Oreeka 1D l'ampa. -Jntyan 1: 7 .1lar et 4Ter;y dla ppointe4 again thhldag hcnr he waa going to hi a fUL117 It !nee tile king Gl'd.ered not peddling f4 uy kind of merchandise, on hie wa.y to the -.rket he paaae4 b7 the tavern he a blJ3'ing h1' wine, and explained to b1a friend his trouble the king a order an4 not knowing what to do anything he is trytng to clo something tuna out and foroea h1a to auoh 4iaappointaenta. well, the ta.Tern owner ukBd h1a to wor:t tor being alone and be could not stay at the tavft'll all day and 1Dlt!l closing ,1.1me, he suggested to h1a that he oould the hours so the owner oould haTe som e rest. 1-he poor shoemaker aooepted lt and worked that day until tile later hours, giving aballoe to the cnmer to rest some. -went home his work, again with supplies of food as usual I and ainging after his meals. De k1ng9 auioaa, Jlllsaed b7 hie houae, I heard the unal Joy taaily' with the11" eorags, entered and aa alwaya welood treated. !'he ehoemaker uplalned agaift that the lnSliTed and Godbleaaed ldng has toroecl him with hie ardu.a to 'work these later hours at the 'tavern eo to 4HU"n his dall.7 ltread an4 support hie family. .aqing !he king after a Uttle and on his wa;r to the hlmaelf 'Hcnr oan I .. till a 11a11 11DhapP7'f' !he next 4&7 he sent two aoldlers to h1a Jlouae e4 asked for h1a to appear 1D the x-.lace. !he ahoaabr aot I"eoogn1zed tha king heard b.1Ji 'aqing that \ he was ordered to beoo a eo141er. Jle obe,.41 an&! the. oldiers taking h1a and 4reaaiq llim tn tM ultora. laf! then s ordered to lMI placed the enb'&DP the pala e aa par4, and P'esent ann to all who Y1al t d the JBlaoe 4urilac h1a tq. AJI4 al.M 1he killg. gave _.dera I that he ahoalcl wtq aU A.;, .t Uleat all4 1a the eTeniDg to leave

PAGE 165

I .. I Tampa, )'lorida OTemb l93V Soc1allUhn1c Stlld7 Oreeka in Tampa. Bryan 1: J'llareton I ilia 10. th8re and ao home, returning tile aext orn1ng to repGr't to btl dllt7 !he poor Jumar7 all 4ay u4 thinking what eould he do tood for ldllaelt and "the n h1ti way home In the nenlng, :rasaing b7 a blaokmltil 8hop, dedcled to enter, he a1ked tile ''blaok aml th. to aut off the bla"de ot hie bayonet and g1Te hla ttl'worth In cash. 1'be 'bl.ackndth who aleo making kn1Tel, he t f a1 be could. make a knife and aelltt ao t o hie Boney back, and paid the shoemaker. On hie 'ffq !ome agabt he got food and prOT1ded with ame 307 aonga a1 ual.-: '!!he d1isgu11ed ldng &Baln pe.aaed b7 the houae agai.ft heard the aaual happy nelling. 11e entere. 4 uct weloomede treated ( with the aame Jdndtseaa, ancl the 8hoemall:er after waa aakecl what had to him today- he replied_ that the leitg-li:ved king hal h11ll a eoldler and plaoed. hi all 4a;r at the palaoe without llhop ud exchanged the }lU't ot hie for aome eaah and earned enough to proTide for h1e TJae king laughed eome aDl ...... W*t1t eu' :-. anti the ahoemaller replaced ri a wooden blade and luck together the handle flf h1a ud the next aorning -. ome one of Pte crt !Dale to be b7 haT1Bg h11 head cut ott. ,. At the tt.e the execattener wu aettlilg 1'1&47 .rw hia the klq / r er4erect to hill the ahoeaker ud ere4 hi to _, / pr i BOmtr t I bead .oft Ynl" .. aal4 t 11aTe T a erS.

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. !' n .. tda OTeaber1 1939 oolal\hn1c 8 4.7 or eb in Tam A 71lareton. 1 ot 1 ind in fhe kl tte, and I cto not 1 to eta h ad .rt.' n replied that theee dere, aDc1 lf ot o yect I o1ng to a k the xeeuttcmer o heJad tt. c 4 ln 1 aha Yt lh lc e4 flnal.l.71 am .. aalt, 1t a pray :r 1 In th t God and g, U thie prleon 11 tnnco nt, flqb yon t turJl to wood b11 llre alght be Teet. t tf 1 gutlt7, it r in .yon t wtt ltl arp lade &I 1 te, ao to be IX lOUt d. "' !h y all et t d o laugh, d gt .xpla 1ne c1 to all thoe ea nt hnt haT a and a t hi oe er ubi tlon 1n if for pportin hJef and t ld the 1hoe aker that 41d not T wort any 110:r a 1 he wlll reoe!Te a l'egular be t hi ltr thll eto 7 11 t t Ten t e k1 o n ot force the people to o hun y, but only 004. 7ollaw1 11 anot r b tl ator,r 1e 1 told 7 Greek oth r to their ahildl'ena on o old tnt r a prl at w c ll! d a 1 otanoe fi'CI!I hie to 1n1t tbe la 't rl tea t tha ob to a who waa aick and de th. lth oot the old o ion p or the ohur in order to g1 Ye the la t to the,f;rlng On h1 hOJB troa hie err pOD by thi lit o b at hi teok It t hie el thee. D he I' OOYirld IODIOl enell to n 4, hiob bad n14ent17 l.een let't ra 111' e ,., h of the gol wae .. ITer oat l7iag imt or t 14,

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.. 1 ,, t h o t o eep S.t until k efOl'l T t rr1f1 d to 7lor1da be, 19:59 oei 1 3thnic Study or Cree 1n T pa. J'ilaretan. I n h1 'behind But Peering dine lao h lac r e 17 d k groum. t quickly ond r d 1t the7 0 ack to look far tlut 1 .ft. 011 o e d t lt atronger, de 11 y 1 17 ck to hie h 1 di t 17Pre ed .for b d, o n out and ore. In 1 th ro 1'1 o ercoat notto d t Ter d ard th c11 or oDt:1' as coat drop cl to tb .flo e 1c d lt p r1 11n1 o n, and was hap p117 d to .find it ld a 1oh rd ar r 1are. so, soon aa 1 1n c1 th 1 0 0 w clothe an4 n1 c P and ea laf't to g1Tt to poor. o er f'olk r b 7 T1dentl7 0 0 1r nta tr Jt a ohammedan 0 0 d. 001' ou d in; ter onor :bl7 nt Wh by ta' tor each Df 1 0 eo oald 0 ot er ot1 4 te aT T7 ture n I w teo r t ad 41118 w1 1n&Do1 Dlt d

PAGE 168

0 0 l c 0 1 or I 1 0 0 ao n 10

PAGE 169

. ao .. pa, Ylor1da OTeJib er 1939 study of oreelal in tampa.. Br7a11 1: 71lare' on Wh1oh, 1n that eountry ant that 11God helpl thoae who help \heuelTee. crushed an4 oreettallea with the 4!aappo1atmeat ef f!Bding ao poet t101l oftere4 hill, poar tu4emt wet ea4ly ome. nere he aeked his. to.ther, who ua a humble Ju!lk de ler, to take him to the place ed hhl aa a llaTe, and to aae tlae one7 as a JD&rrlage dower tor h1 11Btera. ., f tber, be1ag poor, and also anxious to IH h11 4 ugb.t ra married, finally agreed reluctantly. youth asked 'hat "be be offered tor 1ale as a deaf nte. .. Arriving at the marbt, the ycnlth was placed on the block ale aa o. dent nd mute I lave, and waa quickly sold far a good p:rtoe to th po.ohn ot o. proTince. e1ng n. official, tbe buyer doubtlees hnd man:r .political and other secreta to prooteot and he kne tho deaf nd mute ooul.d not hear Ol' tell them. Proud ot b1B pal"ohaee, he took the young man home and 1D.Btal.led him as a aerTant 1n hia PAlace. !he father, with the at losing Jlia eon tempere4 I eomewhllt w1 th Joy at h&v1ng 'the price ot hie age inc t!a.ugbtera dowriea 1n hie pocket, returned to them with the good Soon came the 11ontb ot Rnmaz:an, .,_ch 1rU obaerred b,. the eople aa aonth ot oelebrat1one relating to the Xohammedan religion. One ot tho vents "' a a ng1Dg con teet, tn 1rh1ch Tar! ous pashas flf the rea1on entered beat "hotzu (eiugera). A liberal :rrb:e and presU.ce went to the pasha whoae entr,' n.a adjudged the beat ,t.nse. !hie con\eat, lasting aeveral eTaninga, was held in the epeJI ., -.o.r the palace ot the etudentalaTe aaeter. O wight, daring an 1nterm1aa.1on, the aaaemblecl audience was u:rpr!1ed and 4el.ighte4 to lutar a eala To1oe ot e:draor41n&r7 beau'T eoldD 1D. h"oa the

PAGE 170

\ !ampa, J'lorida JTovember. 1939 Soc ialRthni c Stucl7 d Greeks in Tampa. Bryan 1: l'ilaretc:a. I nearby 'ot the paaba a paJ.aoe. llext morning many prominent hearers to congratulate pasha on hie singer. !he pasha ht. d been absent at the time at the singing, and of oouree was a stonished at they eaid1 knowing ot no singer 1n hie establishment. However, the others urged him to listen ith the aud1enc that night, eaying that })erhaps the vocalist would again perform from \ower-. Skeptical, but with hie curiosity arous&d1 the paaha agreed to .. their request a n d waa present in the audience that night. Soon he .... also ne delighted. to hear the melodioua voice com1r16 .from hia cwn tower in a captivating ballad. Hurrying to hia palace before the eong was completed, he entered the tower, where he was doubly aston iehed to eee that the wonderful singer w a s hie awn slave whom he I .apposed was deaf and dumb. J'or a mament hie anger at being deceivecl a.ecame his delight at being master of auch a ainger t --as he I roared at the yough. "Ungr ateful slavel 1cru have dece1Ted me. Tell me, can you well as sing? .Yes, he annered. Since three 48.71 ago, w hen I a \he an:gel, )(ichael. He gave ae ill aU golden book, and asked me to .. which I dld. Immediately BY peeoh and hearing were restored and made perteot, zeceived the beavenaent gitt of aong whioh you have amazed paaba, u oea he heard thie1 uemblect aDd tell to h11 lm el beforit the elave., an4. w
PAGE 171

!'h ntwe ot t % pa, n 1"1da oveaber1 lQ3g 8oc1al thn1c et oreeu 1D Tampa Br7aD 71lareton. I iraole qu!okly reached the ultan, and be at enot tent herald and 1nT1 ted the clor1tlect one to o to h1 ace. But t he 1up p o d 1aint eDt word t t would not unleee the I' yal rrlage were ent tar hia. 1'hi t B ltan d iet, alo aending an e oort ot old1erl. Whe the a1nger wae va.aght efare the ro)'al pre nc th Sult w a a zed to recognize In hJ the tudent who had applied to him tor ployaent He etendecl to rebu the young aan by 1 roughly to hi t DDp o t er I e 7ou not a ed to cteoe1Ye t h publ1o you ho-re d.on Th q i c k itted student, knowing that he a ow grea t hero to th o ple. a w e ed hilu sire," it w yauraelf who told '!hi world Is bat a wheel, nd 1 r1f1e4 be he who turn ft. Yell, I han .ao eeded In tuna1na 1t, nd t h r e for loritiecl aooorct1ng to 70ur ..n word Look out.the w1ndcnr n d eee tor youraelt what la takbag pl.aee. U p from t h e laoe gr net OM the roar ot 11ft approaohlll8 1n1l t1 tucle, and t h re were out t or7 ._o 1he Ill Dt. SUlt !l look d eut and waw a t ult ou crrow4, hout1ag aoolal net honor to the xlaTe. Jle rD 4 In tear ancl 1 keel again 0 t the ,-oun g man, who \h n b ldly ea14e "Your Jt7.al7ou know what would ppen to you 1f I eh 1.d tell that sreat o looae thn t you retue4 n e r e o a ah t ot applauae tor their bel'o tr the 1 t1 t cte. !he s ltan treblet an4 J'&1tt. !'hell hi a art releate4

PAGE 172

. !' pa, n rida Iov b 13soci -.1 io Stu47 ot r Ike iD 'I'D pa. JIZ7an 1: J'il.&r kD I ... 4 o h a11eablage he w 14 appoint the OWer at 8 Greek p>OTerbe &Te reoalla4 .,. %aJ)e. re ef the race li lD their' aatiTe land, aa4 are .till frequentl.7 ote4 7 elders re. larl7 pepdar are the f ellold.nga A r of art 11 a a Do not m u anak tor 1t ill bite 7ou. w ot the riTer. o caata dirt the 11a will find. it in hia a lt. nt expeot fiDe .ueio fi'Oa a rokell Tieli.a.l o not udg until you have heard both id a of a story." .A we a:rt 11 u fiokle an Aut .q. th r ia' a oke there i fir The Gre k:s here have an act1T aenae of humor, but for aome re aon t 1 e aaema to be a dearth of old falliliar Jokes and humor 1 atori a th euoh aa are eo on ong oat raoee. Jlo ver, one Jo 1o told. \',hich lllu t.rates th .uppoaedly evailing belief' b7 ar ly immigro.nt that oney was overl3 :plent11"u1 and eaay to be bact in rioa. A r 1 ted, two Greek J.mmigran,ta ha4 Just a.rriTe4 in ew York olty atter in t Xllia Ialanci teat e. On the r y uptown tr the f ry-, one of th a pied a t n-dollar gold pi ce lying an the H waa in the ct ot re ching for it when tile other stopped h1 Leave it y, he aa14. fiDi plenty 4f th 11 grpwing n 'reea in thie ountry. On o! the ttempt1 of humor b7 ar ka is this story, ea1ill8 with the iffioultiee woo .. ra t 1nB \h aelT

PAGE 173

haila. nertda .JrGVember, 1939 c1al-Ethn1c ot Greeks 1n Br7an &; )W1l&reton. .!hree Greek 1Jnll1grants or recent arr!Tal 1n Jrew York t a taar\h ho had ben there eTeral weeks and could apeak a few wor4a ot BDG11ah. Proud of his, he undertook to act aa guide and interpreter tor others on a aightseeing tour ot lower KanhattaD. Coming to the woolworth ba!ldtng, n'wcomers adm1*-ed tte great height, and asked their guide who owned 1t. Jris limited knowledge was stumped tor an anner, eo he asked a J)o11ceman, in a mixture of broken :Kngli,G and whole creek. J'ail!ng UDderstaiid bluecoat. shrugged x dunno. the officer had giTen him the owner a name, the pseudo-guide turned to hi'S P"1en4a 'B.n:d .a'1d1 The building is cmned by JIE'. X. Dtttmo. A lit'tle further on they eaw an el.eTated ra11road with ita roaring something bad neTer seen before, and they aakecl him who G\'med that. Again he was mmpelled to ask a policeman, and I thia one, puzzled by the queer l.1ngual mea a, gave him a duplicate ot the other oopa anner, dunno, and he to1d them xr. I. Dtmno also owned the ra11r.oad. A little later they came to one the c1t)r'a larger dcnmtcnrn '"' parka, and the. guid a xrotegea wanted to know who was the owner of the handsome apot. once more a brave effort to obtain tb!l information from a Jrerel7 guessing at what the CVJesUcm eant, the officer gaTe tile nJ)l.7 h1a predceaaora, I dmmo, and the anner was pasaed on t the ew tmm1granta that ur. I nunno wnecl the park. JIUoh tbe7 all oo entad on what a Tery rioh n the gentleman JIUSt lte 1o ftll eo Jnloh }lropert7. While they are' at& 'be" a geat fuaera1 prouaaion o--'

PAGE 174

{ --If pa., J'lor14a OTemb t 1939 soo1al-3thn1c et oroelr:s in rami&. alone, i\h a pifioerit .uarae an4 oa4a ot tlo era, indi ti.Dg the oort ge ot a wealU17 peraoa. Iapreaaod ,.., the grandeur, the reoka asked ihe1r eraole whoae funeral it Jle 1n turn inquired of a IIi oftioer, who, puzzled aa hia predooeaaora, grunted the a x channo, and the pld.e aadl..J intarM4 hia friends \hat 11; wu funeral at tho sreat I. ])uno. !hey all looked doleful and I1JlJILUa.t1o u one ot th remarbd. with gr. t, 'fbat a plt.J that ch a rich man to hie funeral. # I I ILIOGRA.l:Jfi'Ya Jrellen1o esee cere fra tern.p.l Journal, 4he R llenio Commun1\y, Inc., J'ebi'uary 193!), pp. 1-4J lUck Jack, Dietrict GOYernor at Ahep and pre id.ent ot Hellenic Communi-ty of 1' Iat IDCJ 1ohn 71lareton, tor er editar Hellenic e enger ( zine) and local h!etorlan of Greek colony; Andrew Douka ir surer and dirootor Hellenic c unity ot Tampa, Ino.J Xatthew Jlatheeon, 1eor tar:;r and director Hellenic Community ot Tampa, Ino. 1 Jolul Sellae, on ot tirt Greek e1;1;ler 1D. tampaJ George vo toa, early Greet aettler 1n Tampar Cleotel1e, etudent ot aro k folkla.r ; '.

PAGE 175

I October-December 193-4 THE AHEPA MAGAZINE AHEPA MAGAZINE-Official Organ of the Order of Ahepa VOL. VIII NOS. 10 == OCTOBER-DECEMBER, 1934 CONTENTS Page Mee&age of Ambassador Simopoulos to the Aheparu.. .. . 2 Editorials..................................................... 3 Speech of Governor George C. Peery. . .. .. .. 4 The Eleventh National Convention, bv Constantine G. Economou. 5 Whv Ahepa? bv N.D. Vellis.................................... 12 Fraternity News ..................... 16-29 Auxiliary News ............................................... 30 Greek Text: Convention Comment&, bv Mn. Mary Pofanti ... 33 What Hat Taken Place in Greece; bv Her Sons Residing in Other Countries....................................... 36 CONSTANTINE G. ECONOMOU, Editor Published quarterly by THE AHEPA MAGAZINE PUBLISHING CO., Incorporated INVESTMENT 8UILOIHG, WASHINGTON, 0. C. ,.....,_, _,_4 Otrrcu.1 or '1'10 AlrDA Pu.a.rsHJHo Co. JMcolJ'Ouno : ACHILLES CATSO NJS Praideat aDd Cbalrmac E J-. Co01taoUoe G Ecooomou, P W X.tsal...,, Goorp Ellldeo, Sublaipll01 to mtmbm of tM Ordtr of Ahepl $1.00 per )'Ut i11 advuee. To DODmemben $1.00 per year 1a .ctva oce Sublcri pd o a to Cauda ud Fc.nip couolria S.S.OO per Jar la SublcribuJ must Aadf7 at ooce of uy thaqe of attctr. afvlq both 11ew aDd old Copyriabt, 1932, by Tbe Ahep& )(aaa&loe Pobllablnc Co., Joe. Advenhl., Rates Fun>bloed 00 a..- &utrtd u 1IQMII clu1 -.Jier I lAc Ptm tJ Wu.w,.,,.,. D C Mer JM Acto/ Mell J 1179 Speech of Honorable G. NichollS Lely FII!ST SECRETARY, GREEK LEGATION Dlivred at th Ahpa Banqut, Hotl Princess Anne, Fredericksburg, V o October 21, 1934 J FIRST wioh to convey, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Govern o r Your Gra ce. Ladie s and G e ntle men th e greetings of Hi s Ex c ell e n c y the Min itter of Greece, who, due to illness, regrets that be i a unable to attend this picturesque aathering honored by the pretenc e of His Excellency the Governor of V.irginia and Hi s Grac e th e Greek Orthodox Arch bioh o p of America, the Honorabl e Mayor of Fredericksburg ond the Supreme President of the Ab epL I contid e r it a real privilege to address you tonight and represent His the Min ister, of Greece and 1 wish to point out how glad I feel in participating in the c e remonies that have taken place today in thi s famous and ari s tocratic center the City of Fredericksburg, one of the national shrines of Ameri c an patrio t i.un-the patrio ti1m moat cherished by Gree k hearts. I have b ee n i n tlfe United State s only three year& and highly appreciate the great achieve menll of the American people I loved Amer ica-aa every Gre ek before com ing to thi a country ; however Iinc e I came my admiration hu increued espec i ally be. of the clauical spi rit with which almos t everyoae in thi s country i s imbued. and be. cauae of the love for liberty which in s pires the American people. This i a 10 true that one can feel Libe rty in the air 1 might 1ay-even too much Liberty I But these featureo, the clusical apirit and the apirit of Liberty, were fint cradled in Greece and I believe that the ties of an un ohahble friendship and allection and under atanding, bindi.i:Jg reece to the United S""tatea of ue due to these feature a which both countries have in common. My observa tion i1 fully confirmed by the ma.rveloua speech jtllt made by His Excellency, the Governor of Virginia which is impregnated with just auch spirit I congratulate him wholeheartedly. We Greek. foe! vateful to the United Stotes because no matter what the occasion might bo-were it our War o{ Independence or the more recent evente--we have found America on our aide. The reasons mentioned to you and the per feet undentanding account for the aucceas with which any Greek American organization m...., u iA the caoe with the Ahep111 our di .. t.inpiahed boat.. whom I ....Uh to thank very much. in the peraoDJ of ita Supreme President and the local Chapter Pr .. ident, for the cor dial reception &iven to ua. I upreu to you, gentlemen of the Ahepa my ciDcere admiration for your activities. They impart much honor to your organization Let ua raiae the glus for the prosperily of the United Statet and Greece, u well aa for the profP'OII of the Ahepa

PAGE 176

2 THE AHEPA MAGAZINE OctoberDecember 1934 ITpos Tovs 'AycrnT)Tovs 'Axrnavs, II Qo tij<; J.lOll bttthJJ.t& va Wtu&Uvoo 1CQO<; UJ.lcit; eyxO.Qihov X Boo. E.lQ ltaA!a;. rPA'l'ATE MAl: d!A &POMOAOriON oill986 TA:::EIH Y IA T E lll' E/\1\ALIA KAI tiiEPETE ron: nrrENEil: IAI MHQ TOY "q,APOY" 0 elvm it J.lOVTJ 'EJJ.l']'0Qy6.vroat<;, oii d 1\ o u <; tl]<; :rtoU ExEL fQa
PAGE 177

. X..p, ;nuan 601 O!'olJu at. Irar J'lor11Sa interTiawed about eponse induetrr. Brotherin-law ot I. J', Ar&pian.Will aand tacta to AJH Ar&Jian, Anaon G. 101 Stnat Georgia I Son ot :1. J', .Uap1an, .Umen1an who waa prominent in aponge induatry in Key West


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