Material on Indians of North America

Material on Indians of North America

Material Information

Material on Indians of North America
London Yearly Meeting (Society of Friends) -- Meeting for Sufferings
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of Friends (Hicksite : 1827-1955) -- Indian Committee (1837-1850)
Baltimore Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends -- Committee Appointed for Indian Affairs
United States -- Work Projects Administration (Fla.)
Place of Publication:
[Jacksonville, Fla.?
Florida Work Projects Administration
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
115 p. : ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Indians of North America -- Government relations -- 1789-1869 ( lcsh )
Seminole Indians -- Government relations ( lcsh )


The first 37 pages represent a reprinting by the Florida WPA of the 1843 work "Further information respecting the aborigines : containing extracts from the proceedings of the Meeting for Sufferings in London, and of the Committees on Indian Affairs, of the Yearly Meetings of Philadelphia and Baltimore, together with some particulars relative to the Seminole War." Pages 38-115 are from an unidentified work on the Seminole Indians in Florida, beginning with p. 30 of the text.
General Note:
Collective title supplied by cataloger.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
W27-00635 ( USFLDC DOI )
w27.635 ( USFLDC Handle )

USFLDC Membership

Added automatically
Tampa WPA Office Papers

Postcard Information



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[Material on Indians of North America].
[Jacksonville, Fla.? :
b Florida Work Projects Administration,
c 1940?].
115 p.
Collective title supplied by cataloger.
The first 37 pages represent a reprinting by the Florida WPA of the 1843 work "Further information respecting the aborigines : containing extracts from the proceedings of the Meeting for Sufferings in London, and of the Committees on Indian Affairs, of the Yearly Meetings of Philadelphia and Baltimore, together with some particulars relative to the Seminole War." Pages 38-115 are from an unidentified work on the Seminole Indians in Florida, beginning with p. 30 of the text.
Indians of North America
x Government relations
y 1789-1869.
Seminole Indians
Government relations.
2 710
London Yearly Meeting (Society of Friends).
Meeting for Sufferings.
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of Friends (Hicksite : 1827-1955).
Indian Committee (1837-1850).
Baltimore Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends.
Committee Appointed for Indian Affairs.
United States.
Work Projects Administration (Fla.).
t Tampa WPA Office Papers.
4 856


. \ I' J l !!!!!A& !.!!.!.!..2.!!!! !!.! !!.9.!!2.1!!.! IAOXBONVILIZ PUBLIC LIBRARY !.!!!!!!.A!. RARI -----BOOI:S -------PR01J:C'1' --------State DlNO'CII' Protelou.l ad semo D1n81cm JLCml. WORJ.t PRO.TIJl'l'S AIIIIRIBTRATICII 1940 f


t!!i!!!!!i! !!! A!i!!2.!!!.! # hca !be Pl'ooMCUDS ot \be liiOC'tlON JOR SUJJDIJDS IN l.amoR 0 CIIUrr1DS 01 IRDIAK AJ'J'.AIRS ottu YMl'lT MMtiDP ot PhllAMlphla u4 Bal.\liiOI'f' Tosetber lith &elM Rela\S.ft '1'o !he IIDQ'W>tl UR PrinW Ia Panuaate 0t !be Dinnloa ot Tearl.T 1.,. S.ooa4 14ttica t 0. J) 0. ,.., liARD JW&i, 84, BCllHIBDrmB 114) (!:raot Nla'b \o \M Aboftslat, o. ,, I


Slaoe the pablioatloa ot the oa \he Akrlli 1uue4 bJ the liNt iDs trm 8Qt'taiJIP, at \he ea..DHnt ot the prent ,.ar, aa. tNah nepa .._,.. Mn \akn ill Rten.e to Wa ... Pl.J latea..u.aa aullJeot, u4 ia,ponat 1Dt01"JJat101l lau alao Men noelft4, aCil"' parUnlaJ'lt nla\b& \0 \he llonh Jrloa 1D41au. A 'brlet J"eport, or llU'ft\ln ot proeM4 I.JIIII, wu pnnted bJ \M MMtiDC tor 8u.tterllap \o \he Yearly VMtlDS, ad \hat IIMtlDI Unote4 that the natenta \henia ocataiae4 lhol:&l4 be publ1abec1, Wsethar with IWih ad41t1CD a1 Mtter oollD80ted UNwith u lllcb\ appear 8Ultable tor pna:ral elftulatlcm. !he toUOid.DI Ne han bHD prepua4 in p\U'IIUaDOe ot that 41not1cm, u4 the:r are aow oa..Dde4 \o \be atiientlft penual ot 111.enc1a PDiftllr, &114 IICIIN at \hOM who u:r haft an:r oppon\IDl tr ot ualatllll \o re-41" the --. 01' prc.oM .. wltuoe ot the pppreaaecl. 801'll:l Thia 1 em Mok ot tl tl.e pep, apue4 oatftllr. r


I !be Aborlginea -=---r 'the Yearlr Meeti.Aa haTing in 1837 retU'l"ed \he oirouzutanoea ot the Aborigine a ot \he Bri thh Oolonial Poaaeaaiona an4 putloularly ot the ID.d1au 1n Upper Ouac1a, w \he oloae attention ot \he Meeting 'for 8utteriD4',1 a large OaaaJ.ttee aa forthwith appointed tor the purpose, an4 the wbjeot hu trca time to tiM obtained the oonaideration ot that tins. -y The following ia an utraot trom their report to the Yearly !'!Ht-1Dg 1n 18)8, thietlr nlatins \0: ..:3 fte Canadian InUana "Whillt n han to resret that eo l1 ttl haa been done ln propo!'ltion to the IU.8D1tude and Saportanoe ot the oonoern, 1t Html proper to atate that little tor the 1ntormat1on ot the Sooiety, 1n the hope that lt aar oontr1bute to promote the 1ntereat aD4 eo-operation ot lr1enda pnerally. The Oaaa.1 ttee ot the BouM ot OOalonl haTing preaentecl a Report on the pneral eubjeot ot t.he Aborigine in the Britllh Ooloniea, a oopioua abatraot ot that J(eport, with ICIIU ad ditional 1ntormat1on and notea, aa prepared b7 the Ooaa1 ttu ot thll JDHt1ng an4 printed aa a a:ull pephlet tor eeneral o1roulat1on throughout the Sooi,ty. 'the taot1 whioh are deta1le4 1n that )report, and tully aubatantlated lt, lhow the creat lmportanoe ot the aubjeot, and the need ot pran p t ;; energetlo aeaaure1 beizaa adopt.d lt the Aborigine& are to be prnery.-Ut-tram utter ennihllation. \11 \h retereaoe to \he eue ot the Worth Amerioaa Indiana 1n ar, \110 member ot thll Keetiq !:= by appointment on Lor4

lights or our re4 hllow-eul>jeota, and tor urging t.he abandoaent or \he pro p osed aauure ot thea tu.rt.her to the nortli=!Jat, IIHtina thought lt rl&ht to a44reaa the following MmOrial:to h1m oil the aubjen, c....---'fo the larl ot Dvhaa, OoYernor.LOaneral or the lrltieh Colonial poiMSI1ona 1n Korth Aaertoa, the "-orlal or a J!eetln& or the Rellcloua 8ociety or lr11Jl41 1 repraaent1Dg that l>oty 1n Great Britain. Aaollgst the obJeot.e or p-eat and preaa.!Jlg laport.anoe whioh 11'8 ll.Dly to ooouw th7 attention at OoTernortOeD8Z'al, 1n the pertarmanoe ot the 1peolal a1a81on to whiob thou haet. been appointed at nent.tul Junot.ure, the atate or the 1D418IUI within the llmite ot the Britiah terr1tor1ee, h cme whlch, tram motina ot pneral huaanl tr, aD4 al1o trca a regard to the cheraoter or our eountrr tar uprightnaaa or deal ins and 8011lp aaa1on toward I the oppre .. ed. baa. .. would eubmit, a ltrons claim on t.hT eertoul consideration. It 1181 hardly be IIH4tul, u a plea tor our thus ocaiDg tol'WU'4 to oall tbJ attention to th11 interelting wbJect, to aention, that the Soo1lt.7 f#lrien4e, nar 1lnce thlir tirlt 11ttlent ln Melioa, telt a lPelr intuoeat 1n the o1T1.l, aoral aDA nllgiou welfare or the In41ana. !he oonduot. ot Villia Penn, 1n towading t.hl m".91'1ue ot PeJmqlYanla, u4 hb OU'I tor t.he rights aD4 lnter11t1 ot Ge e Ja41au wi t.h whoa b.e ha4 lnteroourae. are ee.rlr aD4 -tnown wuat-=-....-r:::rationa ot t.hla t.ot.. The ..Uer ot t.hia Sooi1t.7 1n haTe eo-operated with their brethren in Aaerioa, 1n to protect an4 to prcaote the oiYiliu.tlon ot t.hoae Indiana who are bludiatel7 brought into oontaot. Jdth our tallow-llabera 1n the l1DJ.te4 fhq are not, howner, unmin4tul. ot thoae trlHI who ree1cle 1n the British lilorth Aaenoan pos-r Haaions !heir attuUon hal ot late 'been more p111'tloul.arl7 arrested. to _!a b7 the aeaeun1 wb.ioh la&Ye Hln adopted with re&arcl to thea, iD4 by the to cllapOIIell th b7 treatJ ot their 110et Yal:.Jable naenatiou 1n Vwer Canada IIZL4 to eWe tha upon the I'OCQ lalanda ot l.ab Buron1 the eo11 aD4 ltuat.lon ot whioh, lt 11 apprehended, w1ll nD4er lt iapraot.loable tor th to n1H by oult1nt1on an adequate auppl.J' ot prov1aicm tor the wanta ot llte, c la1t anzmel MltlDI of the Soolet.7 ot hlends ot Great. lrlt.aiJl cllrected u, at 1\1 ltentUng\le to keep the .ubjeot UDder our oaretul attention, Ve tMl that although we Jia.Te oaaaunioatld w1 th Lord Qlenel.c on tu 1Nbjeot.1 n lhould not be cllaobarsiD& tu ctutr entru.W to ua1 were n to allow the ,._ponant and taYoU!'dle opponuni tr now presented, by thy apec1alll1aa1on to the lana41an prartnoe1, 'o paaa without also a4clreaDI thee on their behalt, Ve will aot att1111pt a "pet1 tlon or the ll8ll7 ltronc tecta an oppretliTe and lnjurlout oharaoter whloh h e Te oame to our mowl hall pubUo and pli Yate aouroe11 aD4 which we beUne to haTe baa al reac!7 laid before thH, tNt WOill.4 expres oar ell'Uat d111rl that t h ou .Ut be pleaae4 to IQlor the extensiYe power with whloh thou hut been entrusted, 1n eeouriq to the original. poaseaaora ot the 10U ot Canada, thOH lishtl whloh 'belODS to the, not ODly U .-bert Of the SNat hUDWJ. f..U7, but 1Jl Tirt.Ue Of their just and &DClent title, 1114 wtdoh___,!' lrltona u Chrlst.lana are Hwl4 to aclmcnrlecl&e an4 napeot. Ia f --t,; 1cu1ar, .. wov.l.d molt urgentl1 wt. napeottul17 .allolt, that tbe t.o whloh ... haft alluded, an4 whioh haft tor their obJen t.M nr-ual. expulllon ot 2


the Indiano f'rotl their rer:;enations, may be torthwith abandoned, end the steps which have as yet been taken 1n reterence to thee sent the apperont recular1ty ot the treaties, in which en advantage has manifestly been taken ot the too diopos1t1on ot the Indians, we trus t thet a regard tor the net1onal character, and aboTe ell tor the dictates ot Christian morality, as regulotin[ the conduct or c1Ti l1zed tovzards uncivUized. man, will lead not only to the pemnnent con firmation ot the title or the lndiuns, to these valuable tracts ot land, but also to the or laws which shall etteetually prevent their alienation under any pretext. As an ot these m e asurer:;, and without which their benetits cannot be tully obtained, we would claim on behalf ot the Indians an immediate and entire participation in the riehts ot British subjects, and in all the privileges and protection ot which that term can be understood to tcply the possession. We that the have suffered gre8t disadvant8bea, and that their improvetl.ent has been much retarded by t eir existing as a separate nation in the midst ot n civilized subject to a reeular government, and we are persuaded thr.t it they could, by the opportunity attorded tham ot poasessine all the advantages ot British citizens, be ind u ced to e.malgar.ate with the subjects ot the Cana.dian and to torm a part of the coloey, their protection and improvonont as well as the and wolfare ot their white neighbours would be pronated. And wo would suegest, whether thy powertul influence and mediation might not be adv n ntageously in ind u cine by kind and Christian persuasion, to lay aside some ot t .eir national prejudices, and to co-operate in aeasures tor the ot the object to which we havo adverted. As the poasession or civil rights 1111st hcr.rnor be oan parat1vely a dead letter, when the parties poal!IOseing them are irlpertectly intormed or their Talue, 1t is greatly to be desired that thou wouldst exorcise tho 1ntluenoe ot thy authority and exoaple, to pronote the more active e.nd extendod o peration or those 1:1easures which haTe hi t!1erto preTed the most suocesatul in introducing Christianity and c1zot1on amongst the Indians. The principles of tho Society ot lriends with respect to the anti character or war, have been ltten brought before the attention ot their c o untrymen, but we teU that on the present occasion we be lenving an import.nt duty unportormed it we did not (besidee .ling our 1'e1"\l'orit desire--that tey leboura ) establhbl!lent or peace in the Oanf'l.das) otrer also a special remonstranSe against the employment ot the In6ians in military aorv1ee by which they ere likely to aggravate the horrors inseparable tram all war, and greatly to retard their own emancipation tram the savage state. In conclusion, we wish to express our sincere desire thet thou m.eyst, through Divine favour, witness preservation by sea and land, and that in tultillinb tb7 trust, it may be thy ohiet concern to act 1n the teer ot Ood, e.nd that his blessing may rest upon thy labours. Signed, 1n and on behalf ot the aforesaid, held this 24th. day ot the )rd. Month, 1838 ___ George Stecey Clerk The reluctance ot the Canadian Indiana to remOTe trail t.eir reoit-)


L ia -)F tu tollowbg -not h

pana ot tM Vn1\e4 stawa a4 the 8paniah poauaslo:u 80Uth ot M1aaouJ'1 Rtnr. A.l.thonp ..,DC., Otm utlon, I 414 not tMl eo moh at hcae when w1 th rou. the h41eu ue exu.el.r JOOr J I 4Nr Slr J'OUI' triad. !he-M ends wtao han 'iaa4 Ebjen ot wer ( their apeoial a\tatiou, ILan 'been .UODgl7 Sapnue4 with the Millet r"" 1 that Lord Glenelg not cml7 J&tliD\17 Uataned to the ot CJIU1" aoo1et7 a'D4 ot the Welle )'1m Mtaa1oDAr1ea on behalt or the Indiau, llat that he baa l"Hll.y parttatpated 1J1 \heir tntereat 1J1 tbe eubJeot. the t:reatr ma4e by Sir hanob S.a4 hal DOt been aDnulle4 ..,. Mttl-.nta or oonnned ID41au are l1bl7 to han 1an4 11oureA to than, will be IHJl by the following extract trcm t.he ChriiUu ..... !oron\Q, Vpper o.naaa, Aua 1, 1839 It will attor4 great edlltaottcm to the tr1en41 ot a1aa1ou, an4 eapeotallr to thoee who Mke a 4eep intereet ln the progreu ot aortp'UNl. Ohzotat1u1 tr -D88t the red JIIR ot the wet, to leam that a Uehaa becm a4dreaae4 b7 tort Olenelg to the pNact exoel.lent Lieu -L enanttQonnor \o Upper Cende, on the abject of In41an MOUN to the eftD.P11ze4 Indteu 111&4 poeHrt t7 the ln ]MII'petuitJ ot the land oil whtah they are 1ooate4, &D4 whloh ther ban to IOIU extent f.mproftct u4 .uit1n.te4. 'l'M NtUe-UJlt ot thil queatlon 11 ot a41'Diltage to the Idtau, an4 the anllOUDO .. Ilt ot l' to \hem wlll oontrtbute to bind ths attU JDOre oloeelr to the a obJeot ot sreat utlonal. imponanoe ln the preHnt ori ttoal. etate ot the Oana4a8. It 11 a rearkable tao IID4 one Wh1oh aet greatly eolltribut.e to DOO\ll'a88 the tl'1a41 or .s. .. 1110nl t.o per...,.n ill \hltlr ettorte to utta .. the Jmowledp a4 lllnuenoe ot tiLe 101pel ..OJLSft the ot .Aiul'ioa, that 'lihUe 4111'f.ll& the tour r'an tu.\ bmecliatelr preoeded the en&bli..._\ et \U /"'' V.alOPII 111U101l a\ \be JFiftl' 8\, Gl.alr1 "' ual :-(-" &eathl tozotrMftn, 8114 OJ1l.J twelft ot \lloH tl'cD D&t reat h&Tilll ben ohietlr ooou1one4 1t7 4l'Wlkm qual'l'lla an4 aoot-a.ta epei'UlOe, the &'f'U'a&e nnual ot 41&\ba 4ur1q the tour ,_,.. that elapae4 ainoe their OODnzoaioll \0 Oh1"18\11Altf w 1teen \h!'!e tJICIIl aa\val eauaa, u4 tram othe _,.., .DD\ Ollie Ill o\her INI1beN ot th aame JOUI'Ilal lt la mtea, \bat botk Lor4 DuJ'ham lll14 001"e1"110r Aftbll1' Jaan NHi n4 upu\a\lou tl'cla 110111a ot the Ia41u M\tl.unta liL a "feFt tr1a4lr an4 tawurable manne, 8114 tha\ the In4iau an pl.h11DC thauelftl wl\ll -the 14ea \Ia&' the uterDal kln4uu ot the Qta 1 0oftftllleJd wU1 produoe a happ7 obup ill th817 attalra. It la Nlate4 ot a bo47 ot Ill41ana, 1lbo Gbrlntani\7 oDl.y about tour ,.&1'1 aao, that \her haft wll eleared maD7 acrea ot woU4 111114, whioh \her haft acsloH4 &ll4 brought lllto eul.Un.t1cm, ..a4 that the1 ban beocaa ttmperate an4 01'4er1r ill \heir ooncluo\. !he Illdiu J'Oilthl who han bHI1 a&U ttecl into the VPJR Oencla


ro v A4&4tiiJ 1 haft made 'ft'rT Mtilltaotol')' pr 8ft&l, aD4 two of v '-"' '#I acx:a. ot t1rn prinl at ezmtnatlcm. anzothelaN, it 11 m4at that zwne'n to be clout t.he bteNRI u4 n. \118 nlltnae of thoM ID41au wbo han aot 7-' .._ 'raM& clarinlu.Ur, e \hell" uratio !IU1ta1 f.-.m4 Sllu41ate a4 ooutut attat1oa, 1A oftel' to ecnmteraot tb.e kutul btluc .. of loll of Hftito17 aD4 4tmSJlhhe4 IINAI ot abalatenoe of tbe::t. 1D cot1cm of aplJIUa, uu u4 annnt Uon, of Ule ecmtelllnatlon of --lpw aaaple, u4 of u.. "'' Ml'k1n1J f.ea\Netin prooe ot tu-tra4e u at preHilt oarrb4 on. !\left le OD8 ftrl Ml'i0\11 nil, the l'WM4J tor llhiah 11 altopthft lJl \he power or t.M CloftrJIID,, u4 aicht bm1Hia\el7 Qplle4, ... 1,, .. II04a of 41atJtlbutlq u:mdtlel an4 pNIItlllta, crante4 b7 Britlah Qoyaw\. lbla arlaYanoa, wbJ.ah \OOt Ua orisSA in S1l' r. llea4'a JOlliJ, !au a1Na4J Me alluded w 1D the utraot fl'cla Jleah-t.oa-a-qta.U'a leUera ita open.tloa wlU lta ... tzaR tbe followilia JMlftlftph take trca tU au-lnlu Gu1"4lu. A. latter trca a W.aleJU aiaa10DU71 4ate4 Hwmeloolla %alu4, 1\alJ, 18)8, eoataiu toUowJ.Jaa Nlal"U. V. fowa4 bi'Oth8r BerG!aan an4 hia fa1l71A 1004 Ual.tJl, kt Ahl'lr alou, the h4lau haTing eou to !tanna4ooUA Ialu4. theM people 4aaarn snct orectl\ tor their 1a4uat.JTt their eom .a potato-tlal4a Htu&tlf'ul appearauea tbe7 are, auenl17 apaekiaa, wU boa4t. / I 4o 110\ rtm8Dber to laaft nc tiMr aopa, C4 tMrlaan ontatljf .,, tba f.n, notwi thltoD41Da their DDI'tbel"tlJ.. looatlon, ear1r 1n the MUOn. It la w M hope& that W peop1er-ttith thell' U.thren el.anhare, will r. .. 1.,. ec:ae MO\ll'i '' u to tulr ri&tlt of poaaeaaiDa an4 oooup71Jag thoH l.u4a. t'Ae land. la noel.l.nt, \he tlata partloulal'lr ao. fte ln41aD.t wra M&r1J aU abHPt, laa'filaa aou \o the Munu4ool1Jl lal.ea4a Wa 111011tb 01' tin ...U' abHllOe, lrftltll171 h the height ot lltJ!!IMZ", 11ha thelr oorn ua4 popatoea .,.t aM4 thelr atte.ut1cm, ta ot 110re iaUlo 80041 whiah the7 :reoein a:re benot1o1al. / l wt 1D41al a !lope that b11 Jzoelltllor, 811' O.OZ.p Al'thu, wbo e1'14entl1 !Lu the pel of the 1D41au at Marte wUl. aAeaYOV, 1n oarr,1.Da a.t the sraolou .. ,1" of !lor l"ajestr' to i(llln \he II1D4a of the b41uar;fll 4o people, allb with tl101r Wethra1 1JL to a JIIMDeJlt VhO, % aak1 be .JIIIIt a crea\or calalat '-' laaw DOt Ute other -vt.bea, ao14 pOa..son tar a nlp&al.ate4 ._ ammU r, but uw llntftl' awU1Uc17 aurreDdueA aU \he lu4....,_tat 11 po ... Htaa, butlqlnpllol'-lJ to t.hl llbenl.ltJ of \he lrttllh Ooftrlllet. A Sboul4 \he taa.pul.1l ft aau!.-aa4o to Sir I. I Be&4 \e ftl.l4 at 1111lloh% aa aoarHl.J' ooaoe1ft pOUi'ble, atkl' ti. craetou PI'Ofuaiou ot !Art Gleals' 4oapateea, w, peola11J, I ..__ ::, = 4t1Pfltoll to Ill IJ:Mllaor, au 0eor11 U\hur, taa. IMI', tlda people ue uaou a "' tt eauo\ H a the b.aDouJo a4 Upit1a4 ellaftetol' of the !PJlre w1U ...,. .. M Mmllllecl b7 aJ)proYiq of a:t 41ahcmOU'ab1t UuiaotlOJL, lftZl tol' a ecmtlJumt, .aaoll leN tor a tn thouldA aena of 11114 l.u4 in AMI'laa, *ith la 4eu \0 the In41au, u tM IOUM of nba1ataoe tor \hall" t.UUu. 6


Ot IJLUua lltuWd -' lorterlnc Jhon \he VD.l te4 at It la naw, in too..ata :preHilMI DM \1M ala .. the a.r1ou Ooqreaa \bat \llere ue \hlnr Uttann\ trlka wat ot \he !U.ulaalppl, u4 eonuoMcl '' treatr wlth.\he ftatea1 their IDDHr la a\ 156,l07. tbil'\J-Dlu Vibea azoe .. nuoua wlth wham the u.n ..a. M treatleaa tu .... be ot theM IncJt aaa la atatecl at 1", 300 A\ the time \hat eat1matea wre ma4e, l t wu nokoDect that 47,000 I!l41au JMehl4 to be nmoft4 trca jta\ea to \he wat 1 II8Jd.D.8 u aarqate h4lan populatlOD ot about ,50,000. ID 18)4 the aaber ot ID41aa 1'81&1DlDC lA \U Vnl\e4 lu\ea, ea4 wbo ba4 t oonaente4 to .U-II'flM wu eat111a\e4 at r A\ a neat perlot, the D!lMr ot t.he SbawneN vlbe aa enlW at 1,250t Dotlt OM lla1.t ot Wa ViM baa a\ 41ttera\ pe-1'1o4a M4m u4er \he' tare ot J'J'len4s. I'ICIIl \heN 4&\a 11h10h the Jl&-lt\M baa 4erlft4 tzoon j.:pen, turn11he4 by tu eorreapoa4elloe ot aome ot tu .Aaer1 oan Year11 J.D&a, it appeua \hat tile IUlana U48r \he eare ot J'l1.a48, ns1 the p!'Opor\S.on ot tile Shaaeile u4er the tare or BaltlJIOre, Ohio, Ill. ID41ana Yearlr fteetlDas, u4 aom.e ot tile IWmflllta ot the alx Batton 11D4er the noUee ot tbe PuuJ1't'8Jl1& YearlJ Pfeettng, oonatltu\e a ft1'1 lnoonal4eable pol"\1on ot VJl1 \84 Sta\ea ID41au. !her haft, howanr, tor IIIID1 Jean tcmu4 the nbjeot or eorreeponctenoe MtWHD the 1'em"1J IIMtlac or rrla4a 1Jl a4 or aerloa. At iatel'ftl.a a 11 nlr lJltereat baa Men exot te4 1Jl \belr behalf u4 haft Ma. ra1M4, 1Jl a14 or tu ttul4 4e'f0te4 to their ..m.oe. the tollow1ng n:traota ti'CIIl tha lateat fO'!WJnloatlou ot the Amorlou ooneapondenoe tn relatlcm ot t.heH \rlbea, _,. \heretozoe properlJ oaanenoe the 6bapter relating to the t7Dlte4 1\a\ea ID41au. !be toUowtna la -nprlllte4 trca the npon ot the Oc:adttM tol' the Olnllaatlcm ot tt. In4lua. ,Ul11he4 1 &Ueot.1cm ot the TearlJ !fHtlng held lD Phlla4el _LlD the tAt.jto'8:Ath-._1 ___ ---: Jo !be 1'tarlJ fteetlnc De Ooald\w oharpt .S.t!l the andual el T111aaUOi IDA Sa-PJ'O'NIUJlt ot the ID41u ttwa. -J bpw\S .... I that the hllll4a who WAt, lD the tall ot 18361 \0 oa tua at tuea .. lah1 ntll eOAtlmle then, u4 haft neeln4 dlarb& \U paat fMZ' ettlolat al4 flocm ov frieDA Robel'\ lootta, who apent aenralaont.ha at the reael"fttlOJl. VD4er tuper1Dta4eaoe ll'1at u.4 aav-: atUa haft 7


undrsone a oor..plete repair. we haft also through their meana reoe1n4 JDON trequent intozmatlon respeoting the oondi \ton of the %A41ana ftaUing 1n the noinity or that pl.aoe, than w han Hen aoouat.aclecl tor 80!!l8 r-are before to obtain. r In our l'eport last J8&r w lnto:m.d the Tearl.J MH\Sllg that OWing to the failure or the orop1, alz hundred dol lara haS bean upen4ed l)y direction of the eomdttee, 121 the purohue or oom m4 potatoes, tor the nller or wah ot the natlns u had not othaniM the meana of .apport. t.hat aeeti;ng a Ol)TC1!an!eat1on w.a J'eOe1ft4 han tour -=--..... t i0h1ere on the .Allegb.anr zaeaenation, tJoal 11h1oh the tol.l.o1r1ng 11 an. extract. na. WWe, the obi eta ot the 1"8eenat1on, \0 our brot.UN the Qllakers 1n Phll.adelphla. Robct Saotten, BOW 1"8sic11nc hezoe, has an4 faithtull7 41T1ded .xmget u, pons1on tor us and OU1' oh114ren, 11h1ah has beem a ;ree.t help to u; tor whtoh we ue ftr7 M-11enns the Great Spirit has eent our brothfrs to help ua, Row w trill apeak on the aubjeot ot aohools, aohool has been opene4 at oomplantere ttlecent, which has bean attended b,-fran tnntr-t1n to thirty ohildraD. V. are ftr7 4es11'0118 he.t our oh114ren ahmsld ,_ '<> and get learning; but the \eaoher 11 lmat.ady. Ve, the Ohier1, are enoouraged to ban Olll' ahtldren aohOOled, an4 llltend to Wll4 a aohool houee D8'%t Mer Ool4 Spring, "Brother, ezcuee us tor alow; ws haft not strength to set alons as tut as w ought; bartngt:iost our proT1s10Jt, amr ot our people have besn from hme All wtnter hunting to pt pron11cm. Ve hope J10U will !lOt gi Ttl UP 10\l!' tiJldne-81 to Ul A letter tran the Pria4e at 'nm81ah btecl 8th, alet, 1831, hal the following pa1'8.g!'8.,tl. tllfhe improTement of the nat1n _in agr1oul.ture 4oea !lot bear a nrr ta'fOUI'able appe'll"enat at pre1N111t, u llllmr or \hem han beaD nduoed ponrty b7 thelD88 of' their orop1 aD4 ha,.ft aol4 their oxu ad boraea pi'OOU1"e bNa4, and let their land out \o 111h1te people tofUL 8uoh Indiana u had oxen or boraea to work, put 1n their apr1Jlg oropa tolerabl.J' wUJ their eorn OJ"'pl are moatl.r prettr wU crowa. but the 1pr1Da bel.D& oold end baokwar4, w ue feartul tbat trollt will ecDe MtoN U ripens. !heir aropa ot apr1ng wheat, oat, bQokllheat IIJl4 pota\oea wu. !be Jla\1 n1 haft DOt often .. t w1 th Ul in a _.,ins oapao1 tr, 'but we ban had trequet opportun1t1ea with thin on nl1gtoue eubJeata \o .,oa aat1ataot1on. !her ataDA hear u on thoM wbj..U, an4 haft teeUnslr approbated what h&8 Men offered, 11 another letter, dated 12th .o-. 3>thl w are Womed that the Hhool at Old 'l'oc, taught b7 Pew Oroua, a halt-breed India) w bHI1 in operation abOQt tov welaiJ it 11 IIDal.l, not uoeedl.Jlg ten aoholer1 at ur time l probablJ the llUIIber JDa7 be oone14erably 1Doreue4 800!1." The proapeot of a IIObool at Oonplan\el'' aettleme!lt 11 at Jlftlat DOwiee fl&tter1na, mon ot the Jl&t1Tel ot that pl.aae appear to H 4ee1roul tor lt. Ill attn41Jl& to the mbJen b7 our trlnd1 IDook Ln11 aJl4 Zoph nti!lton, ot uoerk1n1Jll malHtr ot aheep that the utin1 wllh to Pli'Oh&M, aon ot wbo are o1rOU!II\a!loe4 ., u to aep \h appeared 41s poM4 to Itt tum u IOOJl u they are 1n olrwmatuoe1 to P&7 tor \h Seftnl 4eoll!le4 lllblor1bI.Jlg tor tor wut of t\mda, 11shtH!l lD41T14uall 1Dior1'be4 tor D11ln7-n1Jle lheep, whloh wlU H proourecl u 100A u the fwlda are turJl18hed to P87 tor th li'OII 111bat 1 han Men able to 41eooftl' 1Jl eobg about aoJl& the Jlatlnl. 1 bel.ien :aon or them han cndd 8DOU8tl w tarrJ them pntt7 ocatonulr Uae wlnter, there are c tw ao an ent1Nlr tenttuw, a4 8CIIM otun 8


BM!'lJ eoa bu\ wlt.h reaeona'blt eanloa oa \btlr ,.n, \UJ MJ proaure a eomtor\ablt .uba11\att tor \heir fudllta. !hia u\lolpat.loa .. aot. Nl.r real1H4, aa4 lt. 'btlq apprehen4t4 \ha\ ... tamillta W1114 .tftr tor .a\ ot u dtqua\t l'Pir of t6o4, ._. al4 aa ..a..a \M&, \M hiel nal41Ja& oa the nnaUon aa aut.b.orlse4 \0 apa4 \hrM lum4re4 tollara 1A paJ'Ohut of eom, tor 41atributlon _,ns auOh of tM natlft u Wl"' lA aD.t. A re .. 1ft4 rr-1WI, taW Jr4 110. ahh lut, ..,., "% punbue4 two lmll4rt4 im4 t1-alx lluMl.a ot eon, D4 haft baDUd ORt \o \U aatlfta a}x)u\ ou hundre4 bulhela, u4 DMrlJ \he .._ ..out of JOt.* 11hioh baft Hell t.hanktul.l7 noel ft4 'by t.hlm. I WDk \bert lau ROt MD oh IIOrt 811ftaiD iaDD.a \he turs.q \he put wlnter, tor wut. ot Pl'O'rialou, ta or4ilw'7 A 1use allllber or \ha haft 'bMn 1n auttlng u4 haulllll 1oct to \ha 'buk of \he 1"1ftr1 wh1oh tul'll1ahe4 tha w1 th \be meau \0 procrun a IU'balnaoe tor \hHlftaJ u4 tn 1lho ha4 plc\7 ot t.htlr own rda1Da, ua1ate4 \bote who Wl"' uablj \0 pron4t tor \bamHlfta. lat preMDt. woul.4 pro'ba'bl.J baft 'bleD a ,. of 11\ltttriDa wl t.h a eoaa14erablt Jl1Dbno1 had there llOt. been a aupplr at. hand, Pl'o'rialou baft Ma111lUwall.J HarM aD4 bar at.noe the altlshlll& talledJ oom Mal Jau been ao14 at Ool4 Sprbg at tour u4 a halt HDta Pll" pound. "!bt NhoOl at 014 town will oloM the preMnt. WMk, laa'f1Da 'bta ecmtlm.ted ou quarter Ul4 a halt !he Maohtr attfD4e4 .Viotl7 w \he aOhool. X WDk tlttMJL or alxteen _. the larpat aumber of Hhol.ara that X aa SA at.t.adu.ot at UJ ou time. the aoholara made oou14erable paoogreaa 1D leU'J11Dc1 \110 atu41e4 arit.bmet.101 four nrt ll&l'll1DI to wnte, an4 alx na4 lA the 'leat.IIMnt. In the 9t.h l.u\1 tollow11lg oC'!IIID!anloa\lcm ti'CIIl three of the ohltta ot \he Jllesber .. rtlli ftd, ns. "Bl'ot.htn, the q,aaDra of Philadalphla. Ve, the tb.lefa of AUshGJ nHrratloa, MUift J'OU to 'bt our 'blat trlellda, u4 wet. J6u w Jmow bow ..aoh troubt. w haft about car le4. Behtzurhom eau to Buttalo ao\ loDC a1Doe, u4 lett mour w1 th our aaent to hlN ID41au to alp ..... 1D ta'ftnll" ot Hllbc their le4. !hi Hilt Jd J"Wmtn w the Mftral nrft.tlona SA \be nate tor \hat purpoM, aD4 Pl'OIVI4 lx\1 alpera. lllll.lel Oord.oll ... to AU.elhUJ u4 ottuel Blaokan cme thORMD4 tollan tor lllt ume, wh1eh u ntuM4, u u pretwre4 beplDa tM 1u4 tor Ill ehl14Nil. '1'Ure are lNt. ,., ehleta aD4 two otben, ta tU A11tsbell7 SA taTOUr of ..Ulq. Oar qat lbo Mleotea aiDe thleta to Mll4 to \be wa\1 \o .. the 1a4 where tbe71Dtea4 Ia41au to 110ft to tlb.1th M4e u ftrJ ueu71 u4 w Mt k81\bel' lA eoaoll at Cold Spriqa, u4 80t a peti tlon an.. u4 alaud 'br ll1Dt7- IJL41ua 1A ta'fOV ot kHp1Jls car lu4, to MD4 \o \luhlDatCmJ u4 tht ID41au Oil the other reaenat1ona are 4o1D& the .... Oar agent l boWD& )aok ov azmuit7 1mtU the ohleta' Nk1'll trca tlae wat, whloh wlU 1 uarlr \brM 110nthl heoe. wv. are 4et.UIIl1M4 ao\ to HU our 1u4, but w atar oa lt. ve haft &004 uopa of eon a4 po\atoea pocnrlDa, and hope w w1U 'be to 80 toii'IIU'4 u4 improft, v. would be &la4 to haw u aJLnV aD4 1mo1r J'O\Il' opinlon Oil the w'bJen ot tt1UD& ov lu4. I'DowlD& the uz1etr ot NM ot the *lte people to proCNN the n-moftl ot Indlana trca all their 1aD4e 1n Bn Tol'k, IIJl4 ttar1DC t.ha\ the etton .:> 8t.rtm1lO'U1.7 aa4t to o'bt&S.D a oealOD ot t.ulr prennt. "'-mlpt. n.alt lD .oe. paoooe4un aer1ou11 lDJuriou to \be Ill41ana. w eoaolu414 that a nait 'b7 a pan or ov II\ID1'btr 'be a4 9


_ _,, = 1 ... 1 .. betore we a\tapte4 w oormmnioate &117 a4Tioe in regard w thelr pnHnt oon41Uon, or future 4eo1a1ona. In punwmoe ot this oonol.ualon, \wo .-bera ot the OCIIInl\tM left Ptdl.a4elpbia on the )Ot.h. ot the 10th, and U'l"lft4 at !'llheaauaah em 8t.h ot the tollow1ns r month. J)urlDs the \S.. the7 NUJ.ned DOD& the Ia41aa, the opportunl\7 ot Tial\1111 u J1aD7 or thelr babl\atlou, and oonnra1ng ws. th noh ot the aoat lnteUipnt people, u the7 oonnn1nUr oould. :tbe7 toun4 10m1 or the tama 1n the ne1gbboarb.ood ot Old 'l'own 1D pret\7 sood eoll41Uon, '"'' othera ahiblted n14enoe ot negleot. 'l'hia la DO 4oubt Oiling 1D part \o \bOle habitl or 1Jl4olenoe Whiob. alft11 pre'ftU 11110ng people who are but paiia117 o1 YU1ae4, and 1n pert to the lncmaulng ettort1 11h1oh are u .. d to proOQH their rconl. !be land IDOMOTir la not Uld 1n Hnnlty, u4 tbON who 000UP7 ad improTe aJl1 partiCRllar part, 4o not therebr aoqu1re a permanent 1"1ght \o the 10111 ther hold b7 po1ae1a1on QJ117, 11114 are liable to be 418poeHaM4 1n oue the ohlera 8houl4 tom a treat7 ot oeaaicm. Banoe tur haft 1111 a.IOUI'age8J1\ "Mke permanent Sapronment1, \han they would ban lt thelr tltlel wve noh u are uual with u1. It wu obMrrable \hat the 1Jl41anl WN apt 1Jl a 'fW"/ DMttled oondi \!..)Jl b7 the at tapti 'lllh1oh were M4e to pre'ftil on tbelr oh1eta, b7 the otter ot bl"1be1, to agree to a aal.e ot the nsenation, u4 the taot ot bl"lHs being ottered tor thia parpo1e ._. oontlmN ti'CD .. .,.r&l quarter All with wham the JlrleDAa ocmnrH4 on the .ubjeot, wre uoeediq17 anx1ou8 to 11hezoe the7 wre J ...,.1'81 ot tha ahowillg b7 tear aa well u wol'da, the k:Hrmeu ot their MU1b1lit7 to the danpra and that aait them, b oue tbe7 ahoul4 be 4epr1ftd ot \helr preeent po .. M&810D.It In a eounoll hel. d at Oold Sprlnga a r ... 4ap atter their a:rrtnl, the ohieta san our tl"1a4a a 4ete.11 ot the prooee41Dgs whiob. took plaoe aome t1M befeJ" at Buttal.o. 'Dwrut there 1D ooneequanoe or the exertion ot Srmerhom, to p&'OOUN \belr ham the .tate, !he 4eleptlon whioh he bad taka 110 the wa wre DOt aent b7 \he nation, t.he7 41aappronng ot the J and l t na agreed at the OUDo1l to P4l7 DO a\tentlon to the repon ot \hoH wbo WDt, 1D .... thq lhould be 1n t&'fWI' ot a NIO'hl 1 that the7 woul.t aot Mll the land, lnlt wwl.d adhere to their ol4 br Tlrtue ot whloh the7 were to ntaln their present poaHaalona and I'IIUln at peaoe wlth t.he people or United ,_ .... u lons u 'the 8UJl roM and the tva tlowd, !he ohler1 ba4 Jut oome w W1 eonolualon 'llh8ll an apnt ntumed then tl'CII WallhS.ngton, PI'OfeaalDs to han a aaaaage to them ti'Om the pns1dent an4 HoretfiJ'7 ot w.r. !tal pu'poft ot tibia .., to OQI'llll1D1oatl to thtm Ml'ta1D otter 11h1oh \her 4eau4 11hl'&l, aa4e to \him b7 the &O'YUDtli8Jlt, on oonditlon or thelr agreelDs to NmO'N to the !JI_,Ae AtMI' 'del1beratlns OD theae p!'Opoaala the ohleta agreed to reJeft thBJ ud \he }ollowtng rtmonnranoe. addreaHd \o the Jal'lldat or \he United wu asree4 up.. n, a.d alped b7 ...,.ntrlflleta and attested b7 11% reapeotable white Milt fo the Prea14et ot the trnlW "We, the un4era1SDed laohema obi eta, u4 oh1et warrlora or the Six tlou, ualmble4 1n oounoll at the eounoilhOilM at Butt&l.o Creek aeaern.tlcm, in t.he State ot ... York, preaat the tollowS.Dg oonwmntoat1on tor the JUI'POM or la71D6 to OV father the :pna14e\ that 1e 1 lobo-


Ml'h01'111 United Statel Ooaa1aa1oner, bartng beG appointed to l'CDft \he ... York h41ana \0 \he ,-n, la .ml7 lut he pulld t.brougb all the ttleeata or the Six and t60k w1 th him acae or oar 11en, ot hia O'Wl1 Mlto\ion1 tor thl Jm"PC)H of tol'mi.Dg aD explorlag paftf to the !h11 aa hia own 4eleptlcm aad not oura. \II eoaa14er \hit ulawtW. aa4 blp:roPIJ' eurclM ot author1 t7, whleh atr1kea at the ftZ'J hD"emental. prinoiplea ot our lan u4 tr.atiea; w eazmot tllereto:re :recognise perlOU 10 llltottd &I Nsulal' appoillte4 4tlegatea, "lather& VI will npla1D to JOU our &inu n \he Ve ltanl-DOt anr 4ea1l'l ot apin explorizaa the atrn OOWltl'f the repetition hZl oonter on ua DO benet1t1 Suwmaoh o haft atlll the ... btermi Wtlon to remain upon the pnmiHa whioh w now bold 1A tu ot In York. J'atha;. w ha'fe eonoluded a '!NatJ ot Peaoe' 1101"1 \iWl tonr para ago 1 'llhioh w 1tlll a4here to tor our sutde, IA \bat treatr w haYe mutuall7 at1pulate4 that all ov national trnuaot1ou abov.14 H perto:rme4 1n open eounou. !1111 atlpulatlon as aget4 to b7 t.hl partiea stuall.r. In that treatr all Moret Mtt1D88 w tranaaot aational tneae are forbidden, .,atherr In that tl'l&tJ w &&N14 that DO ocaptlslon lhould be 1lM4 b7 el \her ot the partlt11 'tNt DOW 1, f, Sahemerhorn hal al.reacly uaed, U 1 t toroe, in taking our man to t.hl J!St olan4aat1nel.J. hrt.h n!i)re. w be111ft that ooammloatlou han bien to J'O'l. puoporting to be the 1'01oa or the Six Bat.iour but 11h1oh 1Jl real1t7 han not Hln aoted upon 1n our oouno111. "lather: we ainoerelJ hope \hat all tueh (it aD1 there be) 11&1 H oonlldered or \reatld u the aentimentl or the Six llatlona. we wUl DOW aoqua1nt ,ou with OUl" n ... reapeotlna the I'IIIIOnl. ot oar people t or thl Miaalltippl. VI han reaolftCl to a4heN to oar nt looe.tion; to remain and lar our 'bone b;r the tide ot our toretathera. bel1en ean oontlnue at home and be at peaoe with our a.ighboura. we han dlapoeed ot our landa asa1n and again, untU our Mate ue Nduoed, .a hat they are now but 8Uf"tta1et our oh114ran w lin on. We are DOW 8Ul'1"0unde4 on enrr 1141 \he white people. V. lon them, an4 autter DO lnoonnnienoe traa them; but an the oontrarr, w 4er1n tram the ireat and pemanent aasiatanoe. 'l'hey aN kind and pUl'Oua-hearte4 people, 'fbe7 tHat ua k:1D41.7 Ve Nlilw that w han Mt1lle4 ov obliptiou to each other, aa4 to thl treatr ot peaoe an4 tricbhip wldoh w made. V haft bHn 'born and eduoated 1n the ._. landa .. han crown up topthft in brotherly lon l w haft aoquired tmowll4p ot th8 ana ot el...Ulsatlon and ot_qrtoulture 1n a sreat mtUUN hom tha.1_Jle an DOw JI8Jl7 amoDst u wbo han built larp blll'AI and han aood an4 other uetul iaplEeDtl ot agrioulture& w han &180 wilt lohool aad eowuU-houaea and ecmnnibt ohurohea w ._.,. Mnral .....mua aD4 a p-aiD-mill IIJ:IOJlgl\ u. Our peo ple han made np14 adftlloea alJ'eady, and a:re till prosreniJla in alth and lnduat17; the moral oon41t1on ot our people haa Men YiaiblJ iJD. pro'f'in8 be,on4 our npeotation tor the laat tort7 J'l&l"l !rue, w haft al-110 immoral and 1U1prlno1pled 11111 aonaat u, but thia 11 eGIIIOJl with all -\lou, there la theNtore DO 1Utt1o1ent Nason tor whole aatlon to be remon4 on their uooant, J'ather, onoe more Vt han hear4 JOUl' llblralort ... 1n OODDex1on with JOQl' lutruotlou to J'OUl' acat nad to Ul b7lu481 8tl'J'br, VI haft undoratoo4 them well; but with all the llsht thua thrown upon the eubJot w oannot e wtr1o1ent I"'UUOla tor aooept1q \h. V. btlllft that ov oCI:ltorta hl:re are better than the Ve kDow ;;;. u


---that traa the ainoer1 tr or \heir heart.a our people to DOt whh to aaoept, and 1 t WOtlld be heart-renAing tor ua and av people to be lJ14uoe4 to 4o .,, eontrarr to our Tina u4 tHllngl. la\her, w han been :repeat14l7 uaure4 b7 all the prea14enta, an4 enn b7 JOUI' predeoea.or, that \he l'isht ot lholoe lhould be left entlrelr tree; t.hat w UJ tP or tar W ehooMe "We bellen our an father will follow the ltepa ot the wlH aD4 CD04 preaidenta who han gone before. we auppoae that the people han eleoted a pd and phllanthroplo man tor their ohlet magiatrate. We"" therefore hope ainoerelr, t.hat 7011 wiU ntfer DO S.proper meana to w ued tor Mduoing our people to aoquieaoe in the proposition de by our agent. h\hel', pen&1 t 111 DOW, 1Jl oloalng thia letter, to ec-nen4 JOUI' health and 110undneaa ot a p 11'1t to the oare ot the Qnat Spirit ot &.ann. "8oM 1Jl pneral oounoU ot the au ttou. at Blltfal.o Creek Reaerfttion, thla 2nd. 4Q' ot Ooto'ber, 18)7. "' InolOiing the l'lpol"t Of their Till t the IQb-Oaaai ttH exprlll theMlftl in= followi.Jlg tnma, Tis. "J"rca what W haYe 8H11 and heard 4ui'1Da thi ait, w are deoidecll.J ot the aut1Mnt that the preHrYation ot theM ple from total ntinotlon depen4a on \heir re\alnlng poaHaalon ot the lu4 ther DOw Jaan. !'he ottera whloh are aald to be aa4e to the 1n the "'It, bownr tlaUerlng ln appee.ruoe preent to our ainda a ftrr 4rN.rt proapeot. !her are probablrle81 fitted tor rtmo1'8l. to t.he wilda ot \he pat than \UJ wen when hi.a41 ec.unoe4 their labO\a'l emongat the. v '!her han aoqulreMoo &anJ ot the wanta Ul4 too t .. ot t.he habi\1 ot einllnd Ute to be remond, without the t Uautl"'U eon H quenoe, to an unoulthated wllderneaa. It appeara to u, that our 4U,. 11 a p1a1n one J that w ought to uroiM 111oh intluenoe as w poiHII to lnd11oe the to hold tut their preaent po111111ona; to 1mpron an4 their 1aD4 u rapi4lJ as poaai ble, IIJl4 to beoome DOt onl7 a oi T111aed but a Ohr11t1an eanmmitr. It ther lhould be 1Jl4uoe4 to aooede to the natterlna otter 'llhloh are 1t0 1Jl4uatr1oual.J preaented to their Tin, a tnmore fiHt1nc J"'aH w1ll pJ'Obablr Join and -..orr with thoM whloh are no longer kDOwn, exoept on the hlltoriaa' a pap." In a toimantoatlon nbuquentlr a4dreue4 br thS.a tm=ittM to the ID41au, w en4eawured to Smpreaa th wUh the importanee ot Hmc creater ettorta to tmpron \heir laJ14a, aDA to aoquire aohool-learning tor t hell' llh114NnJ hol41na up to their n u lntimatelr eonneoted w1 th their t.lture nltare u4 pJ'Oaperlty, the 41T1a1on a4 tenure ot their 1an4l 1n 11nralt7; aa4 total abltlnenO. ham the ue ot ardent aplrS.ta. llotwlthatan41q the YOioe ot the DatlCil ha4 lteen eo npeate4lr anA 4eo1dedl.J expreaae4, a4nrae to \he oeH1on Ul4 aale ot \he reaenation, ,.., 1n the earlr pert ot the preHZLt J"'&l' aother ICIIIIIiaaloner osu maona the, apoware4 b7 the Oonnwent to USOtlate a treaty for tboOH Bjeota. A eounoU waa eaUe4 at Buffalo, and through the artltioea and br1'ber7 ot pereou lntereated ln obta1n1q a lal.e ot their landa, a pretended treatr aa unJutlr toroed upon tha and though qreed to ltr onlr a aal1 tr ot the ohleta, whUe the reonatranoe aptut 1 t aa aiped b7 a .uoh lal'pr IIUIIlber, the eoamlaaionel' perallted ln eou14erin& lt u a ftll4 eontran. In the 2D4 110n\h, the OCIIIIIlttee reoe1n4 the tollcnr1na oonm1n:Soat1on a-c. the ID41ana relatln to Wa attetina lUJan, a1pe4 '' tlfteen lhlefa and otherta


' Ool4 SprlDs, 2nd. mnth 18, 183S frieDA, the ot Philadelphia. r "B1'othens our brotbez', the 1lbo rel1dea here with ua, wu here to-c1a7 at ov OOUAOll tn oar eounoll-boue. w oonalder 1 t our dutr to lot JOU mow what paa .. d at the pnel'al eounoll at Buttalo. We all met, Seneoae, Onon4a&o1, CJa7u8u, !tlacl.l'Oru, Ono14u aD4 all hdianl tram ClrMn Ba7 to a\tend the oouno11, wbo wre aloo there, !he t7n1Hd Statea' ocmmiaatour proOH4ed end opened the oounoU theae .,I'U; 'I DOw open the oouno11 ot the Six t1one. 1 OCIII1d11loner ot the t7n1 te4 stat. I abaU 4o the ctutr us1gned .. bJ the dent. I _. Hilt to let 70U mow wbat the 8)ftrDHnt wlahea, It 11 poUOJ ot the tpftrment that all the Indlau lhal.l. I'COft beJODA the H1al1u1pp1. Zftrr ahbt that will aontrol cme hundred 801111 to I'COft, 8bal.l noel n tin hwldre4 4ollara. Ba .tated that SOftl"IP8llt wu ftr1 kind to ln41ana, it would tuftiah ou ,..r' prortalon, .one)' to 4etrq the IXPIJllll ot IB01'ing \hem \here, lnllld the houaea, IIUla, ... ttns-bouMa, aohoolbou .. a, th-ahopa and tum1ah the 111 th m1aa1onar1u. When J'Oil noe1n \ hla otter, aU J'OV ammttr w1ll be NmOYM to the tar oountr)'J 1t IUl1 Indiana l'tl!la1n here thor wJ.U .. t no moner, there will be DO agent here, but there wlU be ODe MAt \o the w1U atten4 all JOUr OOUJ10lll there. You 21111t aooept ot thla otter -JiOu BP ___ __/) "Be oooupled the 'llhole time ln telldng tor the tint eight ot the oounoll, After w had on what he had laid to ua, u4 a... temine4 on renaln1ng where w are, the ocm:dnlcmer aaidt-"We han tinlahed. Tou han aold all ,OU haTe olaSmed: here 11 the treaty made and written betoro J'OUJ and all JOU haTe to 4o ia to a1gn 1t, "Bethen laid the treatJ on the table: at the HU time, oar petition being written, w laid that on the table &1110, 'l'he oomm1aaloner oalled on us. to a18n hie papers the 81nisrat1on part7, to the IWI!lber ot twnt7-tm-eo, forward 1U)4 a1gned. fbe OCI!Di .. ioner ltati.Dg it wu lawtul. to aign 1n the presenoe ot \he oounoll, our petition -.. aigu4 b7 alxtr-two at the same time. At that '1me \here wu a large majoritr ot \he ohieta, end nearlr all the warriOl'l on our a14e, the ocxrate11oner tba Mid, '1 now oloae the eouoll, kt rq bookl ab.all. be OpezL all nlsht, and untU atter brealctut to-morrow \hen I will leaTe the NMrftt1on,' A' the time he 41111111114 tbe IOunOU he nmom the boob to a pu.b-110 h011M 1n a4 ... ot our people wbo had reoehe4 larse -.a ot 110ll8J ot the Ogden '-CX!IpUl' v.H4 sreat eurtiona to set ot the ohieta to go to thl pliO., u4 pnra1le4 on eome with IIOUJ1 u4 other a under the 1ntluenoo ot ari.ent ap1r1 ta, wre pren.ile4 on to sn the pretenW V..tJ, !heJ ottere4 lu'se IIUml ot mour to MJ11 ot the ehieta, who retuMd lt, and l'eained uoorrupW by the otter ot \heir bribe We \ol4 wbo had a181W4 the \reatJ that tho oounoU 11 DOW tlole4, ud J'O'Il thlDk JOU han aol4 CNr l.aD4, nt w an 4eterm1ned w hold oar ---------------Sohel'Mrhorn, who hal uuud the oharaoter of a Ohr1at1an minbbl' hal llknl .. aoted u 0o'N1"JIDIJ1t apn' to the ab.eroohH 1D41au, with wbam he pntncle4 w tom a treatJ almllar ln 1\a oharaoter to that here 4eor1bed. 13


') / rlehta. You 11a1 Hll JO\Il' propon1on aooo1'41ng to J'OU1" IWIIbera, lut w _, DODO ot our lan4. ht \he ecllmlaaioner 41d DOt 10 u u aa141 he ataid two 4Q'I after \he 101ma1l aa oloaecl, u4 b.11 boou wn open ,all ts.m.; an4 the Ogden ppanJ uH4 all \hell' intluenoe \0 waken our Plftr br otter1ng large ma of moner \0 lll4uoe the to alp \he treatr. On the third Cay in the afternoon, the OCIIDiaaioner lett the renrnt1on aD4 wnt to Buffalo ID4 held a HlHt oOUDo11 w1 th t.hoH Indiana who had tsned the treatr. "1'he Ogden ppanr tnowiDg our agent had w1 tbhel4 ou &DDUl tr tl'Gm us, an4 that we lilten4ed to HDd a delegation to Waabington, ad IU.ppoatng w should be neoeas1tated to hin money to 4etray the expcaea ot our delegates, went forward to all \hoH \her \hought would be 11kelr to aoooaoodate ue, and by their 1ntlunoe preYeDted our eett1ne; a111 tor t.hat "Brothers, Our heart are pained, thertton w l'tmlmbtr ,ou, an4 aim to let you know ou.r dletre Our neoeuUy induoea ua to uk ua1atanoe ot our trienda. we ban pren1le4 on 1aea Robinlon to go to Vaabington tor us. Be wlllstop and aee you on hh Journey, 1A order to be adTieed b7 7011 who to a'PP'l7 to at Waahington tor aaa1atanoe; and w think U la not likely we shall be able t.o raiN money enough to defray b.1a expenses while there, and would Uk you to lend h1m u muoh aa he _,. ..a. OUr agent 1818 we shall han our azmulty 1n the 6th. monthJ when we pt that we Will pay rou, and rtU pay J"U what JOU think right tor the uH or 1 t. We will hold aooountable tor whatever llmOWlt JOU 11a7 think proper to let lsnea Robinson ban tor that We are 4eterm1ned to Re.y Where n are and enjoy Our old homes. we hold the 88ml Jllind we wre ot, when our tr1en4s book Lnia and loMph lkinton Tiaited ua -laat taU. Brothers, we believe the len you have felt towar4a ua ll!laDated tran the CJ:eat Sp1r1 t; and we beg the Great 8p1rl t to pnaene JOU and ue, IID4 proteot ua ln our rlghta. 'l'hen are 11xten ohieta on thla nHrYatlon, ,., ot whaln han joined the cigratlon pu'tJ The Tonewun4a 1D41ana an all tlrml7 oppond to Hlli.Dg their landa. ,., Buttal.o H&el"h.tlOD1 there 1a a m.e.jor1ty ot \he ehieta ln taWour ot 18l.Ung1 but \he -.,rion are moetl7 oppoae4 to u. The lome M7 'be Mid ot Cattaraugua I'IHrfttlon. "'Thertflii1n iliit-two 11U'1'1ora ot Wa neenat1on eiped the JltiiOnltftlloe and added the ot each femur, making 1n all Mnn hundred IIWla, the chiete baTing llgned 1t at Buffalo." Soon atter the noelpt or thla letter, tour Beuoa ID4laDI arr1ft4 at Philadelphia u a 4eleption t'I'CII1 the 81X Hatlona, authorised to prooeed to \laah1JI.&tcm, tor the purpoH -ot nmon1trat1n8 apinat the rat1t1-oat1on ot the treatr AI. lt obY1ouai trcm the 4ooumnta 1D their poaaeuud.on, that \he treaty had been extorted tram the sneter part ot those 1lho lipe4 1t, by trnudulent means and that a large -.1or1t7 ot the people re 4eo1cledly oppoeed to a oeaalon, apon any tezoma,ot their nma1n1ng lande, the OODD1 ttee belleftd 1 t 1Downbellt upon the, to a4dreaa a 1"810n1tranoe against ita rat1t1oat1on, to the Preddent end CcmgNaa of the tl'DlW States, and to ran4er the 4elesat1on auoh ualatenoe, ... ln ate.tlng their eue to the sovel'JJ'Q81lt1 and obtehdns an impartial hearing, u llisb.t 'be 1n their powr. ID pursuance ot theM objeota tour Mda wre appolllted to prooeed to Vaahineton 1D OClllpaDJ w1 th the Indlua: a4 ther aooordinelY arr1 nd about the J11ddle ot the last month 1 and laid betore the proper autJ1or1t1ee the renonatrenoe ot this O

beins Wol'IUd ot the proOM41np, ILa4 sl'Nn atention w mb. an4 al.80 the UltimonJ in pGIMU1on ot the cleleption, proT1ng the lnJutioe whioh mun aa"YOi4ablJ 4au to \he ID41u.e, bJ oontirmln an4 euouttng the treatr. the toUowtng 1e tu topr ot oar eMie !be toUoW1ng lxti'U\ ti'Cil a t.ntu, 1111:'1"-'' Meat7U4, of lut &=bu:rgb, (Un1te4 ftaw1) 4ate4 25th. ot lit. mo. 18)8, wlll throw .,. tu.fther llsht oa the ohaftoter ot \110M veaU tor the aoquiei tion ot 1aD4, "Tho SOftZ'IIMilt ot \he UUW S\atee ee WI 'Sml Mldq nepe tor thl remoftl of tho Hew York 1D41ana, t of tho N111u1pp1. !beJ han two o

anct to attol'4 the IIQoh a4Tioe and aaaiatanoe u their peouliar aituation or looal. 41rt1oult1ea might render n.oeut.r7, "'l'heee eatabllabmenta ,... lll&lntaiu4 tor many JV&r. with little 1nttrrnpt1on en4 one Of the iltUl ftin1 DMI' the W..shent 1'8Hrfttlon, wboll.7 at the ezpeae c4 ader \be of tM 1'8l1g1oua Society ot the 1nteroour with the pneJ"8.l SOftl'lJment, to which this .:lrk ot oharlt.y baa ginn r1M1 t.b.e oCIII!litt.M baa had \he aat1ste.ot1on to reoein the oountenanoe Ul4 apl)Z'Oftl. ot the pNa14enta who auooeao1 nly t1Uet\ \hat high off1oe1 u well u to bel1en that 1\a aert1ons have t.end&(i to increase the bapp1neaa or om' ln41an brethren, and to et.rengthen their tr1endl7 relation with the 11h1t.ea. "At the period when the OCIIID1 ttM 0011:r:11enoed Us labour a 80al'Cel;y a trace of o1T1llzat1on 41eoern1ble DOnS the Aborigines. rran the erratic ( and unoer\ain purau1 t.a of the ohaM, \heJ gleaned a aoanty and hard; earned anba111tanoe, often pinched wit!1 hunger, and mtaerably, while a l'Ude and oantortleu oab1n fol"'DDd their only and inadequate shelter trom the Yiolenoe of the el...-..nta and the Y1o1aa1 tudes of the eaeone. "Without Jieldine to the 41aoouragcenta whiob naturally out of ltate of thinga, t.ho oa:mittee hu persenred 1n ita efforts to the present period, cheered by the ta'V'OUI'ablo change whiob has boen silently and gradually wrought, until the upaot ot 4a:neat1o atraira among tho nation, presents a atr1king oontrut. to their onoe forlorn and oa:ntort 1i t.uation, "Many of them are l1Tinc on well-inclosed fa.rms, atooked with horses, cattle, hoga, eta., trcm the oult1Yat1on of whioh they derin their r.lp;'lOrt; and han araoted and OOO\lp;y au.batant.1al houses, respectably turniahed, and kept. in 4eoent order. "Aa \he cantorts ot his heme increased, his attachment to it ..... &lao; th& propensity tor wan4er1ns, and the loft of the chua, sradual-Y san -.y to uw and mora powrtul atteotlou, an4 the red man learned w olS.ns oloaer and closer \o the enjoJm8nts ot his tire-side. To oheriah thia feeling has beon a primary object with ,our meoorialists, e.s well as to exoitc ll:lll.ation 1n \he eourse ot 1mproYtDent, both physical and moral; an4 they han w1 tneaae4 w1 th peculiar pleasure, a steady lnoreas9 fo!' 8CII1G rears paat, 1n the population ot thoH under their oare l a taot, they belhve, alco.t w1 a parallel 1n the JIOdern hiatol"J of the Aborigines ot our tountrr. with \he ballet that the metho4a by JOUr msuoriallata, were ealoulate4 to p110m0te the happlnesa and 1Nltare of thia 1ntere.t1na people, an4 4esl1"0Us \o further the aooeaa or the enterpr1aa Preaidont Monroe adctreese4 a lnter to the Indians oll the Allegheny reaenatlon, (a oop7 of Which b hernit.h aulmd.tted,) reoomendins them to 41T1cle their landa and hold the:::t 1n srreralt7, 1n order that a more aotin a pring Jd(Jht be gi?G to 1mproYa::umts1 and the pemanenoy ot their tenure aeoured. "Long and undispuW poueaslon or t.hs1r lands Maran teed to t!le by t.raatiel 4ul1 rat1f1e41 cd with npeated uauranoeF, they should not be reoond tram thc1 without. the oouea of the nation, inap1re4 the with oon.t1clenoa that t.b.a Un1\ed States would adhere 1nY1olablJ to the faith thus eolemnl.y and repaate417 pledge4; and they han gone on ulc1"8 their tmpro,..nta 1n the hope ot being pemltted to enjoJ thai without molestation, an4 to tranamlt tha to poJter1tr. In the a14.t ot the naurUr oreaied by their relianoe on the t1del-1t7 of the aon1'11181lt, and in 'fiolat.lon or the u.uranoea ot protection again an4 17


r-. ap1n mended to the, atcptl han 'been de to ..!tteot their expulaion tram the land ot their tathera, 'bJ Mana, u JOUl' aemor1alhta oonoein a1ite at ft!'iuoe with ,Jut1oe ed huzwl.UJ, and loudlr 4can41ns J'OUl' iaterterenoe aad reprobation. r .A.t a eounoU ot the Six uou, noentlr held at luttalo, a treaty tor the ale or their land presented to them, and, u JOUl' JUIIIOriallt ee ore4iblJ intoi!Ud, ftl"ioua eompulaorr and deoeptln measures were adopted to aipaturea, 11h1ah naul,ed 1n a ...U ainoritJ att1xing their umea to it: ud alao that the lilt wu .ubaequentlJ lnoreaaed by uau ot bri'bei'J and atrong 41'1nk. -we learn, on pod authorltr, that the sreat b947 ot the nation an un1 ted 1n the 4etel'minat1on ne1lber to Hll their landa aor to remon thCJ an4 U.n ateadtutlJ reailted enrr onrture tor the aooompliabment ot theM o'bJeota. Yet, UAder the OO't'U' ot this treaty, thua illepll.J ob ta.1Jle4, and 1nftlld 1n 1 taelt, \eing the aot ot a mnori tr onlr, \hose poor people are aow ott1oiallJ theJ must leaTe their hamea, and the graTea ot their fathera, to Htk a aew rea14enoe 1n the wstern wilda; \hat the1r-annuitJ will only be paid to \h on oond1t1on ot their I"'IDDrtng tu 'berolld the !Uaa1aa1pp1, an4 that there onlx will the Un1t.e4 state hold ott1o1al bteroourae with "!hua the nrr nktenoe or thia feeble remnant ot a numeroua aJl4 powrtul Dation, oaee the pJ'Oprietora or the aoU on whioh n aow dwll, an4 where w haTe I1'01IIl 1'1cah1 le jeopardiae4; their r1ght.a ee 1nTa4e4, and their pi'Opel"tJ lJ;l' &anaer of beiq unJuUr wrung trca. th. Win the hour of. their extremitJ n teel oonatrained b7 a aenae ot dutr to appeal. to rcRiu theil" behalf, and beMeoh 10u to un1 Teraal obl1pt1on ot the solden rule laid down b:y our bleued Sartour, tllihataoenr 18 would au ahould do to JOU do ,.. eTen ao unto them". 'l'helr onoe erleain dc.ain hal bJ repeated oeaaiona to the _white man, been reduoed to the Jl.U'l'Ow l.1m1t1 whioh the:r aow ola1m, and the:r are-now eiroumaoribed within a naenation, oomparat1TelJ lll1all. and ln11gn1t1oant. "Shall a creat and ponrtul Dation 'like t,Jle UJL1ted Statea, r1oh ill aoU and b. all ita pz'04uota, triTe tom the 1oantr plttanoe ot land ret lett th1111, th81e UDHalltiq and helplell people, w grat1tr the oraTinga of aTarioe? 1'wr umorWina tiUat not. Dr retpeottu.Ur but earnestly atnat rou to. wi thholdf!-. aanotlon trcm thia pretended \reatr, and thua aaTe trca. the nas.n o t iagraoetul an an, the Oharaotol" or our 'belond ooua._ ,...,-,. I "!he 11Uttering1 and 4epr1Tat1ou theJIIUit exper1enoe 1n the eTent of beiDa foroed b-CIII. theil" b.amea ud rcond to the w1t, uo1 to OUl' oanmaeration. .A.oouatamed "to the habit1 and aanr ot the oonTen1enoea of o1T111aed lito, to \he paraulta ot &SI'ioulture, the:r an dllqual1t1ed tor nturnlns-' w the preoar1ou1 od expoi1D.S lite ot the hunter. '!'heir pl'OX1m1tJ -\u fieroe 8J14 unoul.tinted Indllll.l ot \he a1t be a tlUittul ot 11h1oh the:r art 1117 pre:pilfed to anoounter; WhUe tlut ;.motenell ot their tutun hamea. would neoealal'UJ .uapod the laboun ot rov aaoriallat tor their further 1mproTement and 1n a great uuun render abort. iTo our exertion tor more than tortr JO&rl, u4 the 1 expenditure ot 'llpwarda 65,00b4ollara, the whole or whioh hal bean oontr1rbute4 b7 of the Soo1e'J of frieda. t w IWUI!lber that & 'who gt_one blood aU aatiou ot men twj1 upoa all the faoe ot the T hal hiuelt to 'be the roCu&e of the ppor, the H'fu&'e ot the uedr tn: llil d1ltro11, Ul4 tho aTengor ot the 'nonga ot tM oppreale4s that juatioe Ul4 l 18


the habi tatlon or hi a \hrone, and that reapeote IUltlona not leas than 1J'ld1T14ual.a, 'with what uuuzoe w ute lt aha1.l be meted to ua again, we feel u ardent 110l1oi tude that t.he rulers or our beloTed oountey, tor whose prosperS.t;y an4 wltare w 1ft 4Mpl7 lntereated, J1a1 be &Uided 1n their pro... dinga on th11 atteot1ng abjeot, b7 \he Mnign a pirlt ot OQI' bol7 Re-4eemer, who baa d.eolared, an the meroltul tor thar lhall obtain meror. 55 Signed 1n and on l*la1t ud b7 or4er or the Cba1 ''" atonaid. !btwlll Vlatar, Olerk. --3rd JDOJ1th 12th, 18.)8," CopJ of President Mouoe'a Letter to \he Seneoa ID41alll. "M7 114 Ch114ND, "' ftl"1 llad to leara b7 J'OUl" hiei!a a-mel Bettle, !'homu Wiatar, fbcmu Stl'ft!'4aon, a4 lohll Oooa, J'OU no longer lln 1J'l that miaerable and 4eat1 tute .tate 11h1eh JOU onoe 414. "The7 eq that moat of JOU. han beeame lOber and lJ'lduatrtouaJ that you han &Ot p4 hWHI to lin UJ ad that b7'fatba the pound u4 l'dt1DC eattle J'OU aft DOW a to eat. 'fhla 11 to ae nrr new u I llhal.l alWB71 rejoi .. to hear of the happln of red lhildren. "M7 Re4 OhU4Nil, You hDDOt biO

bpreaentationl ban bea made, mder Yfl'rl plaua1ble u_,d' .. a. \() the ottioera ot SOTII"DmRt, w pron that the 1lltue1t1 or \he uti na 110Ul.4 be lft&tl.7 adTUOe4 b7 tba1r rtmOTal \o the Wit ot tlw l11aa1,.1pp1, ud that the oppoa1 tion to to treatr 11 the 'liork ot a tn lntere1ted 1n-41Tiduala. Pre'rioua to lea'ri.Dg \laahSngton, the OCIIInittee, \h1'0I18b the anion ot 8t.:IU ot the aenatora, proe3'UM4 the ot the tooumenta whioh J'lienda and the Indian delegation had Pftpare4, 1n oppoaition to the treaty, b7 whioh maana thai' would be placed w1 thin the reaoh ot enrr .-nber ot the aen.ato. All the treatr baa not been aublitted to the ..nate, \he lnaaiDiu 1a atill under the tare ot the au'b-O

snu puMd ot 5th month, 1830, proT1a1on waallde tor an ot lands with the Indiana rea141ng 1n any ot \he ltatea or territories ealt or \he M11111a1pp1, aa4 for \hell" NDO'hl MJOD4 \ba\ It authorise a 1\1 PN814ent l.ml1 U8U.ft \1M Vlbe or aation w1 which the 11 aade, that the Ulli\el Statea WU1 fOI"'ftr Moure azul gul!l"antee to \hel \heir he1n and auooeeaora, the eountr7 exohan&ed with th8!11;" 1t further authoi'1SG4 hlm to oanae .uOh tribe or ut1cm to be pzoo\eoted at their new ree14moe asa1nat all interruption or cllaturbanoe t1'CD any other \r1H or Dation of 1A41ane, or tram any other peoaon or pereou whatenr. UDder W1 pol1or lt &PPM!' b7 a :report tl"CCI1 a ocani11cm em In41an atta1ra \o Oongreas, laW lat ot 12th m. 18)6, \hat w1Wn the laat eight. J$8.!'1, 93,401,6_37 aorea han bean oeded b7 the Indiana, tor whioh \he United States bAa n1pul.ate4 to gift them 26,982,o68 c1ollara azul 32,381,000 aorea ot l.aD4, ftl.ue4 at 4D1476(2'!1J 4ollara mattns tile whole eone14erat1an 67 ,48S,)l.S 4ol.l.ara. !'.bJ.a aum la aade up ot pemannt annut ties, landa, reMrn.t1ona tor 1n41Y14uala, ezpenMa ot remoftl. and aubalatenoe, MI'Ohan41ie, ohanS.eal. aa4 a&l'loultUftl. eakbl1abmata aa4 tmpltmenta. 'l'he being ecmamted at tift per eat, lands and NMI"fttlona one dollar and a quarter per aore, ot nmoftl, abalstaoe, MfthencUte, MOhanloal u4 ac&"loultunl eat1.bl1ah JUJlta put down at \he IDCWlta appropr1ate4 tor th. '1'he tollowinl eop7 ot \he repon ma4e \a OQI' Yearl7 MNtln& 1n the lOth month l.ut, will tunbh the uoeaserlnto1'111&t1on ot \he proszoeal and preaen\ at \uat1on ot one eatabl11bmu\ \he ShawuM IncUana, alao an aoknQWlede;nent ot \he reoe1p' ot J. 290 from rrien4e ln. lngl and 1n dd ot our e4ea'f'OUI"a tor \he oi vU1zat1on aD4 Obr1et1an b-nnaotlon ot Uibe. "To the Yearl7 "-t1D81 81,t1D8. "The oonmittH on Ia41u oonoerna that elnoe OQI' lut Y..rl7 MMtlDg, Ter'f tmpOnant monmen' ban been etteoted t.n relation to t.he ln\ereetlng 001l08l"Jl ot the o1 nu .. uon aD4 Qbriet1u lnatruotloa ot the Shawnese ID41aaa, "'1'he eciE\1\tH appointe4 on thla abjeot b7 In41ana Yearlr Hee\1AI1 azul who haft b.1t.hefto, ill eonjunot1on with a 11mllar ou ot Ob.1o Yearlr Meeting, oo-operated wi\h 1n Wa bcwwlat un4enaldq, laaw been lndustrioual.r U6IIP4 &uz1.Ds the pnHUt JMr 1n 1 pzoiM'IIUcm. "By a report trca, that earlr in t.he lu\ aprlnc, haTing reoetftd btelllsenoe \hat th8 donation ot Dr. VA\bank ot Ireland, bad been oolleoted b1 their acent at Olno1mlat1, thl1 proceede4 to tumllh houaehol4 an o t1 tohen tuml wre, tami.q u\IU1l1, Ul4 a quan\1 tr ot proT1elona, no. 1D ol"4er \0 enable \hem to IU'l'7 into exeoutlOR plan ot operatlona, agee4 upon bT the \hNe MTenl. IOIZidttHI Jun mentlone4. !b87 aploJ*l !t>111 PeaNOn u4 his wlte ,., hlenda, u apvinMildllltl or t.he intended eetabltlbmat trw m '"'" at tift hu.n4re4 4ollarl :per 8J111U111 and a JOUD8 waman, a110 a rrla4, w ualn 1a their 4utlu, at 100 4ollara per annum, all ot 1lluD P1'00ee4e4 \a \Ulzt )laoe ot 411t1-nation. !MJWN quiokl.r tollow4 bra ct.JJUKtloa fJICia \he oCIIDlttH ot In41ana Tearl.J lfenln&, tlbo cm I'Mohlng \he llb.-e H\tl .. nt, uoertaln .,JII that the wperllltendct u4 h1a oampaniona bad U'l'lft4 Uo\lt tift 4818 preTioullJ', u4 ha4 alrea47 purohaee4 about t1ft aoree ot oom, we Pftii:IIU ot 1ome ot the In41au, and wre w.u., oe=p114 1a alMntna it out. El1u ... ,, a JOUa aan, -.. '-1 21


this 4eputat1on to act as teacher ror the aohool, tor tour montha, at the rate ot twntr-tour dollue e 110nth; but 8houl.d !ae oontinue 1n We oapaf._..--1t1 until nnt amng, \lw eampensat1on to be only tnnty Aollar1 ,.r .:mth tor the whole term, fhe bad an i.JlterTin with the ln-41&111 at their oounoilhouee, 1n &lludin.g to llhioh they remarked, that the In41an.e appeued &lad to meet ... them, lookoci 1 end apoke highly or 'their oountry, !1w 4epukt1on Mi-ted to belieTe ti'CIIl the appearance or thinga 1n the Httl.ent, and tram 1ntol"'llat1on elsewhere 4er1nd, \hat th11 portion or our AlxJriginae &l'e beoan1Jl8 more Hnt1ble or \he e4Tim tasea ot eS.T1l1ut1on, On oontll'riDg with them ntpeoti.Dg a Hbool, t.heJ aanlte1ted muoh pleaaUJ"e at \he pro1peot or one IIIDOl'lg them, and p ll14 they woW.d turnilh u Mn7 ah1l4nn aa we wanted, at 10011 u \he \tal. ... __.._ r and the hou1e wre ftady tor their noaption. on pal"\ln.g with 1ohn PC/!rl, the head ohiet, he 1poke u tollon; When rou get home, tell .:s trienda th1 that I am thlir trland, and ahall be as long a I lin, ad 1dum l laid 1n tho ground I hope rq ehlldren will be J'OUI' t:r1en41, When w llTed 1n Ohio, when oould set pm., I thousbt lt DOt _,rth while to Hn4 my oh114ren to aohool, end I Hnt DOne but now we 11.,. where w eannot set sam, I ant rq ohlldren \o so w 1ohool, and work too "17 an eztra"" or a letter acl4naHd b7 the wperintenden' ot \he ea\ablilhment, to the oomm.ittee ot Indiana Yea.rlr 4ate4 12th ot 7th .a lalt, 1 t woulc1 appear that ln41ana npoae \he utmolt ooDt1c1enoe 1n the tr1en4lrtntentlona whloh w han c11apl&JK towards the, 110 1111oh 110 l.D4eed that they ba .... c111m11aed hom their Httlement two resident m11a-1onar1es, ot other rel1g1ou aoo1et1ee, ln order to enjo7 esoluatwlr the labour or Friende tor their tmproTementa 1tating in oounoS.l that the7 hac1 had a oonterenoe .ang theeelns n1peot.ius this tRlbJect., and he4 determined .,ootncte PnTioualy \0 exobangins lancla 1n Ohio, aD4 nmoftl. wet ot the M1aauaipp1, u4 wh1llt UD.4er our oare 1 the:r (the ShawneH Indiana) ha4 made eona1derabl.e a4nn0Clent 1D the art or oi T1l1zed 11tea \her ha4 built thtmaelna good hned l.os-houaea-opened plousb 1'&1184 fna14erable atook and 1l81"e greatl7 SmproTOCt 1n hab1 ta or IIObrlnr. An .Ab8 ID41an ... n wre 1111t.ruoHA 1n the ue ot tu 1ibMl, an4 auob kind ot lN11D.eaa u w1tabl tor \ba, an4 oa1, -toed to prciDOH \b8 Gault1t oamtort or thAt Mtlon, lie had aliiO eata+-_1 ,Al111he4 a acthool IIDOilS whloh \be In41an oh1ldren or both u wve kusbt \he branohea ot a OCIIIDIOn eduoatlone !be boJI were lnlt.NoWd ln \he pnatlaal 1Na1neaa ot tumtng, and the 111'11 1n lftlna, Jall\tlng, 81nnlns, and cenera:urtn the buatuaa or a ram-117 !h8 orderly deporCiment ot tbe lh114nn, and their lmproftMnt han bNil h1Chl1 Rt.iltaotol'f u4 attol'4 ue aoourogin.g prope"" ot tut\&1"1 aooen, About ,_,,. ln41an oh1ldren wre under \118 oan an4 tu1 UoD. ot 0\11' hindi, Benr,. Barny u4 wife late a\ WllashP&uahkonllfl!tt.a1 IICII8 ot wham ICNld na4 and write ft17 wU, and Hftral ha4 aade JWrO&N b tlgupa other ooul4 na4 and m \o, d ICIU ha4 gone 6hrouah \he they wre nr;y lnsen1oua, aD4 1eun1 more ao, the .uperintendenta than &n7 ch1lc1r u n '"7 had bolm, an4 wrt ftr1 a\tants.ft to tireot1ou g1'ftl1 to \hlm.e Balt1moJ'8 Ocalll''" 24th 3rd .mo. 183, ,, 22


to intom the two misa1onar1ee that mew the won their trionda; tlult when went \0 move a1ra1 hun .woneet \he, t.bey haTe lett all, .nd wol: away with thCJ, and \bat 'b7 this ther knew that. \her were their h'iendl; aD4 \hat the had Mnt. \heiz teaohera to Eliee Neuby and the supr1ntenaent,) to t.eoh their ohildren, and that thor w1ohed thc1 alone t.o teaah their oh114nn, and would pretor \hat the no mbeionariee lhoul.d mow awy; all ot wbS.Ih, added 'o the ar:f./;.etr11b1oh t.her disoowrect 1n relation to the aohool, 1a oalaul.ated w inaroase OUl' aolicitucle BU.coeaat\11 adnncemnt or the ND8wlent 1n wh1oh w han ebarkect. 'l'he oCIII:litte wou14 tunber mention, that h or4er to ftD4er our attempts tor tho lmp.roWI!!Ont ot .theee Inctian.a !!lOre etreotual, in a nl1g1ous point Of Tiew, a meeting tor "11101'11hip is to be held ftgularl.J OD n.rat-ctars, and ln the m1ctctle ot each week, wh!Oh the Indiana are \o be iA ntect to attend. A portion ot the Holy 8oflpt.uea ls alao to be na4 4aUy, 1Jl a .olean anner to all of the who may 1nol1ne N pnNllt J a ailent pause to be O&Ntulll' o'bMJ"n4 attar \he rea41q. "We haw the at.latanlon alao to nate, \hat a lnter Ntatlr reoeiftd tree. J'oa1ah ronter, ot lfnsland, oonmunS oatsJIA' intomation that aum ot It 290. Ia., &all aoant llhieh U.4 b7 J'rS.enda ot that oountrr, 1n aid of our udertaking, wu waiting our u4 tohat n misht draw on a oertatn 1n Lon4on tor tohat .-, tlhloh aa aooordlDglf 4cme, t'he MtJ prooMda ot the bill of exobenp, &.nolu4.1na .uountag to l.f.94 4o1lara, and 48i oenta, 11h1oh, with tel 4ollara 4er1ft4 tram another aouroe1 b DOW ln the handa of 1oaeph nq, luu veuurer ot th1a oommittee, "In oonolud1138 our report, 1 t may pron 1ntereattns to the Yearlr MMtSJ:la, to be de aoqua1nte4 w1 th the taot that the Uni\ed 8tatea Qoy.. Ol'Didnt haa reosntlr ahiblted peouliar marta ot a trlendl.71 toater1ng tiapoai tlon towar4a the tr1 bea ot Indiana who han ND0"1'8cl tram ehe1r olt lo' eaUona to the wa of the !U.aaiaaippi. !hia la put1cularl.7 eTinoed, b7 the o1rouc.atanoe of the agent ot the general OoTennent. b&T1Dg a lhon time ainc& 1&14 before ftl'ioua tr1bea a proposition, t.M .abltalloe of which wu, that our Qo'Nl'IVQ&t wiUillg wtth their approbaUcm, to la7 I ott a large ot oount17 aaft1a1ent to eontalll a number ot :aauou ot Indiana, ad to lift thlll a 'ft1'l"&JltH 4ee4 tor the ( cleacr1lttq the bCNll4ar1ea.) That the traot ot oount.1t1 ahould be moe. b7 t.hl \1\l.e of the IncUana Oountr7J \bat DO white JDU ahoul.d han any rish\ w1\hb the hid bOW24ariea, except hi a 'buaineaa wu -et1one4 'b7 the OoftWt J that the Indillll8 llhoul4 haft the prtTilege ot uking \bell' own lana at aau \iu ac:a lan WN nOQI:lDenW, 11hioh 1t na thOusht beat tor t.ha to naot J that \he Oofti'DJMialt Bould be at tht e%Pftl8 ot bu1141Da a !()04 aubatantlal oouje1l-houNJ that each utlon IJhaul4 ou or more ot the11' DWnber the aa14 h011M1 there to OODter on 8\&0h subJects u they 1118.7 N 1nt.enate4 lD& \hat t.he7 ahould eftr7 rear elect ou ot their number CoD.81'8U to JICI&1n 4ur1ns the "n10A to JIOJNHilt the whole ot tu nat1ou reat41na 1n theu eoantrr, aa4 \hat GoftrDIDent 1rould par Ill expenHa t.n fPlJ!lg to, while JW!aSnSna at, D4 1Jl retuJon.1ns trcm the nat ot !hta lmpertant propolal. hU Mm aeoepte4 br nral or the \1'1b11, ot '!thioh the 8halm.eee, un4er oar oharp, ia ou, l'rao public documents before the Vn1te4 Btatea Oonsreaa of 1836, w aoz.o:luc\1 \hat the otter on ita part to the Aborigine wat ot the !Uu1u1pp1, wtdah w haft jut not1oe4, does DOt look to their apia ftGIOTing to 110111e new terrltorJ1 but aiapl7 propoaea thell' aooeptanoe ot \UN pr1YS.le .. a 1n the1l' preHUt 1ooat1cm.


"The oomm1 ttee are gla4 tc be able tc nate. that fran a review ot t.lle preent ocmdit1on ot our nd brethren, u presented to public llOtice, 1n the report ot Un1to4 States Ocmnbaiour ot In41an attaira, ft 1e mar.J.teat that acra ot the Vi bea ct t.hia lont; outout end unhappf people, baTOa to a 'f'8%'Y gratifying and enoouragtlki 4esrae, bean made 1n the bleaainga of c11'il1Eed life, and we aee no grcund. to 4aapeir ot thia ocmdng to 'be their experience to a atUl sreater extent. u ia exero1e d tcwarda th&, on the part ot Christian pb.1lantbl"op7, a aood a.gee ot that Uberallt7 &1oh 4e1"1aet.h l1berel thlnp, aD4 that brotherlJ k1n"ness whiCh 11 eo eminently a pan ot the praG\leal Ob.arlt.r ot the goepel. "Slened on balullt ot the Ocllm1ttee b7 -s&:mel Oare7, Olerk. ,. On the aubjeot ot the e4uoat1on ot the Indiana. the tollow1D8 uvact ot an earlier 4ate oonta1ns 8l&11DB an aptneu tn41oat1Ye ot e't'entuol protlolenoJ Letter fl'Onod a llftspaper 1n the In" liah B4 Cberokle the latter be1nc u;preuod in obaftotera iD:1 nntea bJ'


l cme ot \he Vi 'De. %11 \he ..a\lu, the ft1u ot t.hetr l'loh nMrn.Uona beMU appuat to \be ot Oeorsla, 'D7 1lball tbe7 were llll'l'OU:D4e4, an4 \he Oonl'DIIUt ot that na'-luined em their 'Dtiq liftll up th in 10Dtolll1t7 Ul 11h1oh U vp4 that the seneral. Qoy. erDIDftt ha4 ma4t \0 \hat ettHt, 111 \bout the tcmOUI'ftlloe ot the Cherokee a aa4 ill Ylolatlon ot the Vee.t1ea 1t7 whioh \he reM1"ftt1cma laa4 'Dea aa4e. 8CIM ot the mon able 1a117U'J ill \bot tJD.S.\ed Statea re reta1M4 b7 the Chft'Obea cletell4 \hell' rlshta 1ll \he 1101t leg! tlmate u4 ooutt wt1cm-el aor -114'101&\el -...... a \U J.an1D& j zoeapeot ot Mnkin4, tor \be ab1U t7 and IIMl 111 \h whioh tha7 ftrauoualy, 1 and tor a time wooeutu1.17 Wc4e4 \he Iicht ot the oppreue4. 1 U that the b.Mrta u4 wlabea of 110 1noou14erable IWIDber ot \be en e1t1uu ot Amerloa wre oa the a14e ot the Oheroaea, an4 M-ala u4 ill ac:aa ot whioJr the lllllben ot the Soolet7 ot J"rltm4J a part, ,.... preaente4 to Ocmgreu ti"CD 41tterat parts ot the Uniona bat the ot the CollgNJJ with the Oeordeu, liD the oa\h ot Bero4 to the 4a&hter ot BeroUu, .. aot to be nolaMAt The pn8l"ll. iJO't"el"ZZMMlt hal ue4 101M ettorta \0 a1 tlp.te the blow 11h1oh it wu reaoiftd to 1Dtl.1n, u4 1 t ploJ84 reonatruoe u4 perJUUlon 'Detore hanna nOOUI"H to ooerllcm, !bat the Wuoementa tMOh 1 t held out wve tar tl'cD equ1ftlent ill \he e,ea ot the CUl'OkHa to \he a\traotlou ot thelr utin lu4, wiU 'De MU ti'CIIl the tollowiD& pathetlo ap. peal ot tu Clhel"'nea, ill *ioh _, alao 'De NeD the aharaoter ot _. ot tu apnu whloh \he tml.lpteect ot a e1Yillu4 eountrJ ICIUtimea Mlfttrn ltMlt to Plo7 in ita 4ee.l1Dp with Aborlsinal \rlbea. !he Meol'lal ot \he Ohel'Otee Batton to the Honourable the SeDate an4 BouH ot RepreMDtatlfta ot the Vnitect ftatea, ill Oongreaa uiHIIlblect, 1101t humbl7 a4 moat &oatil, !hat whereaa, \he wulerals:u4, oltlnu ot \he brotH ut1011, haft alwaya regarded the lnltrmlat JNI'POI"tina to 'De a tzoeat7 made .mer 183, at. ... lebok, .. the an. lolm r u4 oena1n -author1H4 lll41 Yltul Clbc-oaea to M a Ylolatlon ot \he tutaatal pr1n o1plea ot jutloe1 all4 u 0\ Gill \he p1"1.mu7 ftlea ot utlonal lnt.el'eoune, u wU u the ao-. lan u4 uapa ot tu OUI'okH uUcm, aD4 therefore w 'De 4eJt1tute ot DJ toroe oau. ... With the tuU 4etal1 ot our boUblea tol4tear to V.apua oa JVR ln4ulpDOe, lbe7 aN meaalftlJ b01mt an4 OV 4eleptlon, DOW at. Waah-1Jl&tan1 wl11 'Dt tomt4 rea4J to tuDllh U7 litozmatton *loh aq be Me4-e4. we therefore reapeottullJ' preaent the toUowlnl, whloh will t.holr \he appal.lins e1rcrmutanoe 1D llhioh are pl.aoect b7 the operat1ona ot that pert14loua ICIIlp&,_, A IC)Ill!!lan1oat1on hu reoat.l7 1uue4 trca tba Vnltecl Statea &genOJt a44reaH4 t.o the ehieta, Jlea4 Mn and people ot the OherokH Dation. ill 11hiah w are to14 that tu extoutln hal tol'ID&ll7 4eolillec1" ..U later_,. .. or _,__ ltr, -, 1.11 Nla\1011 M \U


\hat an a4 baa \Mn p&t w .U ugot1at101l on \he nbJeo\ \bat U la \be UDal krabl.e 4e\el'minatlcm ot \he present to ueouto treatr, the time oarmot poaa1b1J b )l'Olonp4, cother 4&1 be70nd the' time d, taDDOt, an4 will DOt, be allow4 10111 !be mtera ar, will DOt attapt to 4eaar1be \be ertl.a that 11a7 tall upon JOUa lt :rou are at1ll o'betinato u4 ntue to 0011tozm to \he nqu11WD8Jlta ot \he Ue&tr, ws WUl DOt paint the borror. that -r euue ln wah u. eftllt. It wUl be na4llr ocmoe1ft4 \hat uolaratlona Uu \hose, tmallatlng tram IUOh a .ouroe. our 80W1Vf al.l'eactr tuled with tzooopa. oannot tail to t1U our m1D4a wi \h ooutemat1cm and 8UJ'pr1ae. What haTe we 4one to merit aah Mftft Ue&tMilt? Vbat la ossr oriae? Haft w inTaded aD1 one' a right? Ban we nola ted any anlele ot oar lll1m8l"'ua treatlea? Haft we iJ1 tm1 manzaer, acted iJ1 bad faith? We .,.. DOt na aharpc1 with any auoh th1Dg. But w ue aoouMct ot l..aboul"lD8 UD4er a tanserou error, and ot beiDa 'ctuped aJl4 ct.luded \r tbon bwhcrA w ha4 iap11o1t oont14enoe.' 'YCNr pretended t'l'1en4a, 11a1 tber,'han \heaelna to be fOUl" worst eDeDS. BQt what la our 4azl&eroua el'I'Ol"? Vbat la our 4elua1on? I a lt a 4elua1cm' to be aeulble ot Ule ftOD&8 w nttel"? Ia it a 4angeroWJ Wl"'r' to bellen the creat Dation, whoae repreHntatlna we DOW approaah, will nenr Jmow1D&lJ aanot1on a tn&Uaotlcm originated 1n V.aahflr'T, ud to be neouted cm1J b7 nolenoe u4 oppnasion? It oazmot be. Ia it a telulcm" w asMn that the maker ot thet lU-omenod ocmpaot weft 4en1tu\e ot athorl\7'? !hla tan w uoe prepared to pron br inooutelt1'b1e meta... ln4ee4, lt la n.rtuall.r admitted bJ the par\1ea th-a elftl, an4 the ftr7 taot, that a UM4 toroe lhould be put 1n :requ1a1t1on w 4eten4 their peJ"80U, a4 w eompel ov .ubmiaaion, argu DOt obeCNl"elJ a 4eteot1ft ecmt14enoe ln \he ftl141\J ot the oompaot. 11 lt obnlnaor to fttuM ov uaut to an aot whloh 11 a fiagrnDt nolatlcm ot the fll"a\ pr1no1plea ot me &114 Whlah t 1 tl toot Oil neat of oar llbeftle1 u4 ou cteuen r:llh\1? ArfJ we to be thus frowned into 111enoe tor to utter our eampla1nt til the earot our lawtul. &114 ooft!Wlte4 proteotoJ1 Ia it a a1u to oont14e ln OUI" t.he IDA ot OU' ebolH J 1lb.cla W baft Vied u4 toun4 tal thtul? We 110ul4 humblJ a1t, lJl -. aboul4 w eont1cte? Sarelr aot ln thoH who han, 1n the taoe of ov aolam 11lJunn1ona, u4 in oppoa1Uon to the 1'81terate4 ezpnaalcm or OQI" an\ima\1, eoup1Hd the Nln ot ou-OOWltrr, uurpe4 \he powra ot \he Mt1cm, hwMd \he apQI"loua ecmpaot. all4 b7 artttioe trau4 pel mad U em the authol"1 tlea of the l7n1 Wet state a and pzooCU1"'04 tor lt the NOOSDl t10D ot t.boH Jl1P twlot1onar1ele ABA DOW la the preaenoe of J'OUI" ulllllbllea all4 1n the ot the Bllpl'tiM h4p ot the un1 nrM, .oat aoltmDJ.y and moat humbly w aak .._ ue tor the aauea, to be aubjeoM4 to the 1n4eorlb&ble 11 whtoh are 4 ale;nect to M 1Dtllote4 on ua? It our oountry to be DAde the aoee or llhieh the 0Clllllllaa1ouel "will aot paint? J'or a4heri.Ag to the pr!Jlolplel on whloh your great empire 11 toWlded, and whiah han actYUoect 1t to lta PftHil\ eleftt1on an4 slorr, are we to be uapolled ot all w hol4 4ear em eanh? An w to M hunted throush the mountaiDa lin wild bee.at1, u4 CNI' women, our oh114ren, our aged, aar mot, to be 4raae4 trca \helr hcua Uke and paakect on board loatheame boat a tor tranaportatlon to a alokl.r ol.S.IIIII? .Alreadr are w thl"cm&e4 with arme4 tort.a, Mmpa, aD4 llillt&rJ pona ot en1"7 cracte al.fta47 oenpJ 0111' wbole oountrr. Wlth u tt ta a aeaeon ot alum u4 We aolmowle4p the power ot the 17nited ltatu. lie aolalowlo4p r t .. bl...... Oar oal7 torireu


-/ /' l' I .r 1;1 ot oar-.., Our oaly lOU \ribuul., 'lo ,ou thti.'-look. leton JOV honourable M41ea-1D Ylft ot \he ap w1 \!a wbioh w an 8VI'OWa6e4 tq em tu l'ilht ot our tau .. ad thl jult1oe a4 N&Dtnlmi\r ot \he \r1bWlal to 11hllh w appeal, w 40 IIOlCDJ.r aJl4 euD.UtlJ protelt agatnet \hat apur1oua lnatl"UUII8nt 1 ad 40 herebr, &lao, IU'PIO\tullr natthm, u a part ot Ulla oar -.or1al, \he n110l.u\lona a4 uOQIIpiU111Dg ot the tm 1ut ll!leral toUnoUa ot ut1on1 hel4 at Re4 Cla7 Ola' m1n4a l"88l&1n aaltU'ed. We eu nenr uant to \hat ocmpaota DOr aan w bel1en that Ulllted stat aft lKMmd 1Jl boD.our u4 Juat1oe \o tDoute on ua lta tegra4bc a4 ni.Jloua pl'OTia1ona. I\ le Woe, Waft a t .. ble people; and u Nsarcla w are ln the hands ot the thdte4 StatJ wt w haft not our 1 1'1shtaa ud it w tail to Vaumi\ to our aons..,.-the treedom w b&ft :;;:cr1 ..... ,._hom our tathera, it mat aot be b7 au aio14e, 1\ mit aot be by our 01m oonaent, Vlth \rembllll8 110l1e1tu4e ana auietr, -moat humblr an4 .oat _1peottul.l.7 ut, will )"'u hear u? ViU J'OU extn4 w u rour powwtul PI'Oteot1cm? VlU JOQ ab.lel4 U haa \he bol'l'OH" Of \he t.hreatenecl a\oa? VUl J'OU au6ta1Jl the hopea w haft reate4 on t1w pabllo faith, honour, \be jutl" ot JOUI' alsht7 Ve talllldt our eauee k JWI' fa"tWr u4 proteotlon. AD4 J'OUI' =-oraltna, u b tutr bou4, wU1 enr "'f/ft ObuokM Ration, lebnu7 22, 18)8, 81SD b7 tit\Mn \hoUd4, au hwutzoe4 u4 alstr-tiw ot the Ohezootee aat1on. (the friaAa,) '1'h8 eonta1ne4 1n the pzoeoe41Da meorlal wu IIU.ppont4 b7 a ad m .. trail the oiUseu of Penna7lnnla, tram whioh the following pazoagrapha an extraotl4. lblorial 1n behalf or the Obei'Oaea. !'0 the Scat ua Boue or Jlapnaentatlfta ot the United St.atea, 1n usemblt4. The u4era1pt4 olUseu ot the state ot lWmaJlTanla zupeottullr ftpreaent. ftat \her t .. l a tHp lntanat U the pNMDt unhapp7 OOn41t1on Of nat1on"wt' InUau, an4 they han ob .. ne4 with lllOh 110l1oU.ude the dlttennt ettorta 11h1oh haft H4m ade to 1Jl4uoe JOUZ' napeetift bodlea to noonaider the tzoeat1 }NZ'POrtin8 to haft been made with the at ... lohota ln the winter ot 183' Vn4er a tim eonnotlon that thia la ajult ac1 nul la 1 ta oharaotv a4Terae to the beat lnt.eZ'IJt.a ot the ln41aJLa, ad obtalna4 apiJllt the eonHnt an4 ln oppoal tlon to \be 4eolared will ot their u.tlon, Tour memoralhta cwmot bat t.ain that 1t M7 DOt u tuzother eanot1one4 br OUZ' OonrJ111811t, l"'l1nou enaotmenta at01'014 upon theae poor ud \1Dl"ea11tin& obJHta of lta oppnaaicm. When w look to the uolent u4 1n41apataltle Utle ot theN people to the land upon whleh \her fte14e1 and trca 11h1oh it w1U M pzoo't'lnoe Of thll alleged VeatJ to forot that and drift thlm1 aner t1ft7 JMI"I ot partial o1Tillcatlon, hto the wU4erneaa, to ntum \o \M aanae et.ate 01' miMrablr per18b br eau 1no14ant to their l'IIJIO'hl. or the banda ot .Ulr more 'barbfll'Oul neigh'bouraa wha w oonaider \he1zo toaer happJ


tate pudable &dTanoea ther ban made toRI'U o1T1l1zat10A, u4 \M' tl'leDdlJ rel.&Uau Wh1oh ban 10 lcmg oontllmed w mark tbe interoourae ?MW.. our u4 tus.n. w tMl. ecmnn1 .,. ta4ann tmotlau ot p1M4 JOQ = Mbalta D4 vP JO'l b7 eftiT eou14on.t1cm ot NUCm aD4 ftlJ.IS.OJl, '' JOV 1oft ot aD4 u4 b7 \ba JOU owa to \ba tlgni\J u4 lhoUte:r ot our eaamon eount17 Who tal \h hal ben p1.e4p4 again u4 III1Jl to:r \hair proWotlOA, to laA roar &14 to \heir flrl IID4 cin JaM4 to Jltlt1au 'Whioh haw 1&14 b4>re JW oa \hel:r behal.t. IJl -.oluiOD., JOUl" .-orlalilt lee l\ l"l&h\ to uNit, that in eam.111 bet on J'Oil at W \Smt the7 are utuate4 b7 no pr1 ftM or poUtloal whatnv, llu\ an mo'ft4 \hereto 101.817 b7 a telift \o Nrn the eau ot \be JOOI' u4, \he uedfl u4 \.J a Jeal.ou teart len oar belo'ft4 80Wltl"J' 11187 c-.olnd lJl or!M of CII'Ul.\7 u4 oppreeaton t:rcm the rrta4, '1\h, 4\h JI0.,.18)8. !be tol.l..owlq uV&o\1 wUl 4elo:r1be \be hnher JI"'ONNI ot W attalr. lnh a, 18)6. !boN wboN Qlllp&WU ae em \ba 11cle ot the pei'MCIUW CJbU01. tee han bec olwere4 w1\h :reoent 1Dd1oat1cmP a\ WUl:l1ngtQn ot a nlu:at1on lD \helJ' ta'fOUJ'. &ppearl \bat the Ohe:rokH 4elapte tor II

I I i their oattle, h ouses, and most ot their movable pro_pert:,r, tor any person wt. c plae.sad to taka it into i'Osses-;ion. AS on e.IWlllple one w a s autrerad t o take nothinB their p luoo but the they had on. Arter aane days \he man had pe:rmiasion to return to his tor.ner dwelling. He tound all his property recoTOd; besides other things he lost MV&nteen head Of' oattle, ODS horae, forty dollars in ail nr 1 and a number ot "ftll.uable books. Yesterday, 11h1ch was the 3abbath, about eleTen hundret ocx:menoed their journey to the tar These made about tour thouaand who have already been sent ott u oapt1 fts. ?erhapa as many more are 1n cez:lP near Ro s a Landing, expeot1ng to start 1n a few cie{s '!'here are but r a f'ew Cherokees now 1n the oount:ry trho have not captured". Bu:!1 t 1a an honour to them that they haft made no f'oroible resistance, but au'bl::litted pMoeably to their oonquerors. Probably several thou _.> ands more Will leave the oountry the week. J'ran the Friend. Our poor Chei'okeea, with a resignation oaloulated to secure tor the our a:ppathy, han abandoned in silent despair their tert1le tieldo and beloved ha:nes. Resistance would han been madness, u there were 8,000 United States troops oolleoted to entoroe the oruel Mntenoe, and the volunteers tra:l e.ll the plunderine etates were ready to pour in upon them. But will not a day ot retribution arri 'l'he1r wrongs they oannot tor get, and when their collected toroe llhall. nut!lber SO ,000 taoahawkS I tre::lble tor the SOuth and South-west. E. c. to G. R. )rd1 7th mo. 1838. 21st ot 7th mo. lS)S. All the ao-oounts in the nenpa:pers agree in stating that the poor, peeled, tered, forsaken, and unresisting Indians have been hunted like beasts ot the tore at:, lilr:e sheep having no shepherd, oolleoted into groups, and hurried a-hw ban their cherished hanea to a strange and wilderness oountry; and General Soott, however lauded tor the gentleness and tor baaranoo ot hie operations, U' he otters tho oli 1n one hand, holds out threatening sword in the other, and MEl8 to us to han turnished, by the oourae he baa paraued, a most e:ompl1t1oat1on 1( ot the wise king' a aay1Dg1 the tender mercies ot the wicked are oruel," .......,......l A missionary teacher among the Cherokees, 1n a letter, well remar1cs: '!'heir a1:npla request ha.._ eTer been, to be let alone. But perhaps they are trou'blesc:ca neighbours, depreda.tiona upon \he whites. Not nothing ot the kind 1a alleged againat them. The Tlneynrd, honnr, 1G coveted and mullt be had' The ol.a1ma or eternal Juat1oe will DeTer be forgotten, they may aec to al.eep, tor Ood 1a just" J'rieud. Not only has the l'tlllOftl or \be Cherokees been in 1 taelt a cause ot geat trial and gr-1et to thoee Indians; but in the mode ot ita exeoution the cruelty has been greatly a&;raftted. Their removal has 'been oa:mitted to mercenary contractors, Who have b.aetened them aoross the country in a manner wh1oh haa subjected them to great tat1gue, privation, and BUtterin g They have been oloaaly crowded into ateam-"vessela inadequate tor their rooe ption, and several hundred, it 1a aaid seTen hundred, perished in consequence of' unworthy vessels being tr:lployed the service. 29


JJ an append to tbe oasa ot the Cheroke oa, \he tr a t or a help-loss ND:T.ant ot Cr.:leka1Wbo sought l''1f'uge 1n thoir tarritorr 11 too re::lBrkable &tt3ot1ng to be a:Uted. oar na4era vo aware, that tor .. nn.l rean put, \hi OrMkl undc \be opel'llt1cm. ot the Ol"Qel 1an ot Oeorgia, aD4 ot V..tiea tOI'c.d upon \h.-'br \be VA1te4 Statea Oonrnment, ban 'bMil 'fin& w OOWltrl' wn ot the l'Uia1aa1pp1. 8cae ot \hue poor un, 1t WlmJ 80 &TIIne to nmoftl, that \h87 ne4 tar ntup to \11811' bl"etbl"en \M mu.roaes. BM4 J:ftrt, Ani 3, lJ!Yl, to \he Oounoil ot \be Ohll"'kH Nation. It 11 ftPI'OHnted 'o b7 Lieutenant Deaa, U'l11 ted States Amy, and .aperintende:nt ot Creek .Ugratton, t.hat a numbu ot CrMk ln41ana haft \ak8n refuge within \he lb1ta of the Cherokee Kd1cm, au4 that a part7 at tboae people, 11h1oh -.. aotual.ll being Ven.lporte4, an4 11hloh a1caped on \hair a7 ti'CD that otttoar, la aow than. n 11 '11.1 4uty w rat,ab. \heM people aD4 Mn4 \him ott, and I han IDMnl to atteot that o'bjeotJ llat lt S.a reapeottuUraubmltW to the oounc11 or the Chn'olcM nation, 11hether tho lntereata ot bteani tr110tll.4 .DOt be best b1 eoll.Mt1Dc theu s-ople peaooablr, \h1'oush \lUI aseno7 ot tho CheJlokM anthortt1N, lutM4 ot huntins the down with a mill tary toroe, wh1ah, however etriotly ln.atl'lloted, m1sbt in the easern ot purauit, whether t.b:1"oaah aco14mt 01' atstaD, aaca1t wtngea DOt only upcm thea, but lftn on leooant and unotten4tng ln41Y1!ual.a ot Cherobe nation. W1Ulam LlndaaJ. Colcmel, 2D4 An1llet")', ChlzuUna AaJ, c. N. Jleaolut1cm, eto., ot \he Oeneral. OotmoU ot \he Cberokaea. !he pnenl. ooancU ot \be Cherokee nation han ba4 the nbject Uor ot Colonel William Undaqta OCI""D1Soation, reapecting certain creek In4S ana un4er eon.s1c1an.Ucm. the ot the ObnolrM utlOA han ft'e1'7 41aJIC)altion to ocmmnSoate \0 \baM people tlw Tina an4 dnenalna\lon ot \he t7rd W Sktea Ooftl'UIM.Qt rMpeotiDa tlat \her OUDOt tab cq to l.Am4 their a14 to CJ oompl].801'7 a.aure tor nmo'YiDa \be CNe:/u cut ot \he U:d ta ot the Cherokee u.tton. !!he lon&-eetabllahe4 lnter-ICNI' .. betee tbem, the .-asea u4 law un!er 'llh1oh \hey ._. into WI aatloll, \Oge\her teeli.Dp ot htmanttr, When \hell' attuatlcm la ecm.a14eft4, in aozmulcc wl\h paoullc aonditlcm ot OQ1' own attain, .U ton14 l\e !he OreekB I"N14lng ln the Cherokee Na\1on to 1o1m Role, laq., Prinoip&l. Ohiet ot \he Cheroaea,


Statea w11hos ua to go to the J!JSt. We IU"S sorry to hear this talk. our minds an troubled, we do;:'''hot want. to go to the unless the OhorokMs go thers too. We 8POak \o JW u a Chief of Cherolate ution. It hai beeh \h8 eu.etca. ot OUI' tathea an4 oar toreta\hu-1 \o co tnelr lnto eaoh other' a oountry. \11 \h thJJI lmowledge w oame into \he Cherok&e oountey. W 08IDit here to eaoape t1"CCIl the nile ot w.r. In \11M ot vauble w etne \o tb8 Ohel"'kHa u w \he hCime at a bro\her, Wben w oame we WIN k1D417 treated, OuJ' 1'84 brethren made no objection.. 'l'h87 did not teU ua \o lean the oountrr. Jut w han been pursued b7 \he wh1 te man, and treated harahl.J', Without Jmow1ng that are sW.ltr ot an.r 01'1laa, \lhile 11'1'1.D& here planted oorn ln \he aeuon, but the 11h1te Jll8ll destro18(l 1 t, &D4 took awar IIIUoh at our other propert7. In \hi a bad treatoent two ot our man wro k1lle4, one man shot. through the Wgh and U'!U1 an4 ohildrea lot ill tJr.e of mothera and haft not b8CI. tound, We 4o not want toM put into ot theae JUn, We uk fawur ot 7011 to pemU ua reside With 7011 we aak JOur p1t7.and proteat1on.. we put ouraelns into rour hands. we uk JOU \0 peak tor ua to the mident, our tather, that he _mo.r order h1s men not to hunt ua through \he oountrr. we hope rou will pi t7 ua; .. hope the JJr,Jent w1ll p1t7 We want to l1n with J'OU we are williDS \o o'tier 70ur laws. A&a1Jl w apeak \0 \he pr1no1pal. oh1ef of the Obaokll Molt ot our Jmlllbera are eonneote4 w1 \h the Cherokees b7 blood or IIU'l'1age, and \hoH who are not themael n oonneoted ln W manner are nearlrrelated to \hoM wbo u.. v. JaDpe Ohaok:H ohief w111 uu holt ot u and help u"berore our tathW''the prel14at. Wlll J'OU ttll the \ \hat the aon an4 brothe ot Ohinnabea. \he Onek arriOI', who 1iu \he strong tJ'iend of the 11h1tea in peaoe u4 .u-1 aft here with Ul, aD4 Joln w1th U8 in th11 petition.? W. hope \he lhiet w1ll obtain ha)p tor hie cnm people, ed that we l1lS7 ahara 1n \hat beMf1 t 1 'but lt not, w u. willing \o lhare 1n \he attllotiona ot \he Oherobla, You w1ll tilooftl" ov 4ai1NI, and hoSJe rou will M able help u. 81pe4 at 184 01&11 AD.SIIA 12, 1837, by JOlU' trienda an4 brothera,. Jlrcll1 \bl 11'181!.4. Al\boulh \be Indiana reoft4 t.erond Kiasbdppl han bHil Npt&te417 ueure4 \hat \he7 w1U hencet'orth be auttere4 \o enJoy UD41epute4 pou1on ot Wle territo17 whioh has been u11gned to \he. ,., 1 t 1187 reasonabl:r be aoW 11hetber, 1n their wakene4 oon41-t1on, they will be able to Minta1D \hecaelne agatnet tJ1e 1noreaalng prea.ure ot western migrw.tion, and prennt thl anoroaohmenta ot the baolaloocla-mlm, to whose progrea the ot the Unit&! States, \hougb lt _,. b actuated b7 the best lntentions. oan Sin little or L no oheok. !he aooounta turnilhe4 by recent travellers make known the exiltenoe of a molt aocea1ble and eur pe.IAS'I aoroaa the Roolq Moun -tiin., b7 11hioh enterpril1ng ettlers oannot fail to be -..... 1nTUe4 to enter upon the tertile terr1 torr. tered b7 the oregon or Columbia Rlnr. '1he tribes 1nhab1tlng 'hat cUtriot are 4esoribe4 u an 1nterellt1118 and 1imple people, and are aa14 al.readr to ban ex-


hibite d great r e a d iness to It 1o not d1tt1oult t o Wha t b e tho1r should thoir land be ocoup1ed by W h 1 te intruders, and l na exposed to the inf'luenoe of 'the riYal of the Hudalcm Ba7 and American lU1" OCmpanies. !he Indiana ot the wstern terri tol")' a ppear \o han auttered to an alff'ul extent, trail oauae 1n 11h1oh white men han probably been implicated, though 1n this instance no degree ot eriminallty mq posalbly attach to them. Various aooounta han been noe1 nd ot the extraordinary tateli ty ot an ep14em1o 811all-po:x of upnmte] MTV1 ty 1 whioh hu llpHad throu8h JIWl7 ot the tribes. The following letter will gin acme idea ot the extent ot the oalc:t ty. Extract of a J-etter hom t-:ajor Pitcher, dated st. Louis, l'eb. :rT. 18,)9. Sir Ha' reoe1 m authentic 1ntomat1on trom the nmote region ot the upper M1aeour1, ot a higblylmportant GJ:taraoter1 I detm 1t r:.y duty to ocmnuns oe.te it to JOU without 4el&r, thoush not entirelr appll o able to 111 own agency,, u I oonoeive 1t doea, a 'bear1na upon t!r. Barria' a letter ot the Uth ult. It appears the ettecta ot the --.11-pox anonc most ot tlw Indian::.tribea ot Miuouri termer aoourgea, and \hat the oountrr through which 1t hu passed ia literally depopulated, and oonTerted into ou great graTe-Ja1"4. 'l'he Mandana, oonaleting ot ai:xteen hundred aoula, ha4 been reduoed, by the lat ot October lut, to thirtr-one persons. t'b.e Grol Ventrea, or a tribe about one strong, 41HAM a month later than their neighboura, the t".andana. one halt had per1ahe4, aDd the disease was atill ragins. !hey, no doubt,Jibared the aama tate with the Mandane. '1'he R1caraa, who had recently joined the let-named tribes, and nuw.bered about three thouae.nd, were moat ot \hall out on a hunting excursion when the 41aeaae broke out among the and oonaequentlr receiTed lt ICIInnbat later. one halt ot them had fallen, and the diaeue waa with unabated tu:ry, not more than cmeout ot tiny reooT er1J18 tram lt. Moat ot those who aurr1T4td subaequentlr oammitted a u 1o14e, deape.1r1ng, I at the lost of their tr1end1, an4 the ohan ge s wrought by the diNaH 1n their peraou, .au b7 &oot1ug, othera by atabbiq, and acme by theuelTea tl'om the hlsh pno1p1oea along the M1a80UJ'1. '!'be sreat 'band ot AU1nne'bolu1 aq ten \houaan4 strong and the JllD!!l) about \hl"N thouaand, haft bee almoat arm1h1latad; an4 notwithattm41118 all \he preoaution use4 by \he sentlemsn engaged 1n the tre.4e ot that remote regiCJ!l to preTnt lt, the diaeue had reaChed the Blaokteet tribe ot Indiana ot the Rooky Mounte.lna; band ot one thousand Lodge I had bnntnfl'\ ott 1 an4 tht 41aeue was n p1dly apreading EOng the 41tterent banda ot that tribe, DUIDberlng, I think, about aixtr thousancS aoula. I han no doubt but the pre-41ot1ona oontained 1n 'aJ lettel" of the 27th ult. will be tul.l7 realized, and all the Indiana ot the Columbia u tar aa the Pco1f1o ooec, will ah sre the tate ot thoae before Alluded to. '1'he friend. '!ben aketohea ot the a1tuat1cn ot the North Amerloan Indiana would be 1noom;>lete without a brief DOtioe ot the wv wht.oh 1a now be1ug car-ried on between the Ull1 tat States and the Seminole In-


Floridu. TOes' ln!iana tho ottQDoe ot loTins their oou.ntr,, and teeling attached to the land ot their tat.t,era; and they eonaequentl:r haTe reaolnd to cling \o the oooupation ot ii, notwi t.hatanding their ne1sflboura han oonted to poaaeas 1 t. !he oha.r aoter ot \heir ooun\r7 h&8 enabled the to maintain a and obatinate atl'uggle w1 \h the \roopa ot \he Un1 t.ed Stawa. Millions ot 4oll.ara han 'been expended; a r;reat aaoritioe ot Ute ha:s 'betm made. Y.eny deoo)"ed by \he pretext ot a treaty ot peaoe han been aeiaed and oc3t into pri10n; warriors trom other tribes, 11hc:m may be mentioned the Sh.awneae, the proteges ot lr1enda) han been hired b:r the Al:ler1oan ud brought lnto Florida to ahed the blood ot t!leir brethran; still the seclnolea do not gin wa:r; enn a.ongst the member a ot Ccmgnaa \hare are aCI:le ind1 rlduala 'llbo appea:r to IJ:lpa\hize with the, and who adz:lit the Justice ot thdr ca.uae, ret 1n the exa.aperation ot d1aappo1nbeJlt, a war ot e:&..rr.ination aec.a to be threatened both 1n the &mJ and in t.he aenate. Strong apprehensions haft been entertained and the Indiana 'llbo han been ranoY&d to the 41aaatiat1ed w1 th their preaant allotment, and brooding oTe!' t.lieir oc expatriation, fAID.'1 engage in a oontederacy tor the purpoae ot -asne: wr alone; the weatern trontier ot the Un1 ted States, and thereby produce a 41 nrBion in taY"Our ot their breth .. ran the Secdnolea. An officer and aoldiera t!'CIIl the Ull1 ted Statea han been Mnt to onrawe any attapta ot Wa kindl and it NCB by the most recct acoounta. that the danger ot war has tor the present happily wbaided; aenrthelesa, 1 t 1a to be teared that permaDClt tranq,uUll t:r nan in (; that qu.arter eannot be relied upon w1 tJl oertaint:r. .'1.....__-1 In publiahins \baH partioulara respecting the North American In4 who are pr1ne1pally oozmected w1 th the tJn1 ted Statea Abor1s-1nea' Oolllll1 t\ee ot \he tor Sutterlnga, are tully aona1ble ot the 41ti'ioultJ ot doing &117thin& in Wa oounteylrhich J1&7 han etteot ot aiding their caua.. They do not adduce these taots to excite abhor\hoae t!uty oan eurt no 41reot 1Jltluenoe nwn b)' reonatranoe 1 and aUU len would that 1Awnt.1onallJ 110\md feelings ot U17 ot the wort.b7 o1t1aena ot jmer1aa, llho, ao tar trom part1o-1pe.t1ng in the oppresaicm ot the lAdiaua, clo not oeaae to regret and deplore it. fho7 reJoice 1A beUe'riD& \hat there are UJ11 ot Wa amongst other Mota ot Chriat1ana besides our own aD4 they wou14 tain hope that UD.itK eftorta 'IA&l DOt 'be tru1tleaa. b lw14a ot CNr Jimer1can bretan J1Ct.1 be u4 their ettorte b7 our correapondence, w 11a1 &14 the b7 oontnbuting \o the tunda wbi\Jh they may employ ill more e:xtenainlJ T1a1t1118 the Indiana, 1n proaeouttna labours tar the procotion ot Christi au lutructlon ud o1 T111Ztlt1cm ll!long thEI:l, end in pressing appl1cat1ozus in their taTOur w1 th the Oonrnwo Zllll1 nen oo-opente with t.hem by oontllwed 33


e"I-srtiol18 ill b ehalf cr those tribea wh1oh reside 1n or near British terri t or1oe and 'bJ urging our gonrnmont t.o t.ak.8 thoae at.epa llhiob w desire to oe pur.uect by OonmMnt ot \118 tJn1 ted stat.e1. t, wbiln oaretul to emplor \be just an4 reuonable liN1ll 1A our power, w -.,.at tlm.ea be enabled rightly to 1Uppl1cau \he great Pnsernr ot men, without 1111loae tavour all our efforts prove abort1 ft. \bat be would be sraoioualy pleased \o 80nen the hearts of the oppresiOMJ, and to orowm our labours with auooeaa. ( Ot f'!be Ialanda 'jn Pacific. 1 Ctrr belove" J'rift4 Daniel Wheeler, on his return to OOI.Ultrfe peraonallJ confirmed the llaid aooounts which had 'been pre'Yioualr received ot tho ennoua ettects resulting 1n \ho Sandwich and Society Ialee. and other hlands ot tho Paoitic tram. tho 1nt.eroourae ot Ruropeane with the na\ina. Ardent 1 diaeue, sun powder and haft been 1proad 8l110J188t them, the 1alan4 ot New z..O:rAnd; & clreadtul 4eoreue ot the population has awed; an4 1n man;r 1nstanooa the Chriatian efforts ot those who haft gone forth to apraad tho knowledge ot the Ooa}'lel or )eaoe ad aal ntion han been mourntul.l.J eountGracted. -Repon f'ram the !":eeting tor to Xeetin&, l.SJ8. atteoting 8Ubjeot baa tram t.tme \0 t.tme obtained \be at.ten tlon ot the Aboritu' ot the Meeti.Dg8 tor autter1ngs; and a sub-0C1'1111ttee hal bHn appointed to oollect and o1roul.ate 1ntor.nat1on relat1 n to 1 t and \o oonter w1 th \he pr1no1pal rahant ot tendon 1n the SOuth sea 'rade. 'ftlil eub-OCIZI:littee hal reoantl7 pu'bl1ahed a lliU8ll tract Hleot.e4 trcD \he letter aD4 joUI'Dal. ot Daniel enti\led F:tteotl ot Introduot1on ot J.rdent Sp1rU1 an4 Impl.Siienta or war amongn \be Na\ina ot 8CXD8__.2f the sea Islandl and Nn South An1 triencll at \he or elH'fo'bere, who may know ot aaltable ehannela 1ta l1atribut1on amongst and conneottlcl with .U Sou\h Seas, ma:r obtain a IUpply tor the P'.li'POIM on appl)1.ns +,o W1We Manler.


I I Page 30 their removal aa far south as possible was always contem plated by the General Government; and it was deemed important by the Commissioners at the treaty. as well as QY myself, that the northern line should not extend to the Big Swamp. (51) Conditions among the became steadily worse tor, while the authorities were debating over the boundary, they were wandering about--h?meless (52) .The government offered to let them use the Big Swamp temporar ily, it was needed by the whites. but the Indians refused to accept the loan--they wanted land from which they need never move again. (63) r 51. Duval t o Moienney, December 2, 1B25; American Btatt Papera, In41an Affairl, II,, S41. 52. Colonel George)(. Brooks (stationed at Tampa Bay), to Colonel Gibaan, December 20, 1825: The major part of the nation are, and have been, suffering tor some time in extreme want. Some have died from and many h&ve lived upon the roots of the sweet briar, aa a substitute tor bread, This is owing to several oause: let. The continued droughts, tor two month while their oorn was tasseling. 2d. Those whoremoved within the new boundary line had to cultivate new lands, wb.1ch would not produce tn.e first year of plant&.tliL ; and 3rd. Many 4i4 not come in until it was too late to plant. .... I oan assure you they are in the 1110st miserable situation and unless the government assists them, many of them must starve, and many of them will depredate on the property of the white,, in the Alachua and St. John's settlement. It is impossible for me or any other officer who possesses the smallest feeling of humanity, to resist affording some relief to men, women and chilttren who are actually dieing (sio)'for the want of something to eat. Niles Register, (l4arob 18, 1826), xn, 37. 53. See reply of Tuckase-Vothla to 1talk1 of Secretary of war: 'The land we occupy we expect will be considered our property, to remain as much forever, unless we may thiCk proper to part with it--The hardship we suffered from our first removal nve us Jain enoughwe do again. N Re ater, (June 10, 182p), f I


. \ Page 31 Soon they began to drift back northward to their old homes which they found being held by white settlers./ Homeless, they began to steal cattle and corn to ward off starvation and trouble was quick to follow. By of acting Governor Walton. Edmund Doyle (54) examined ,. several 1nc11a.rr and on October 20, 1825, reported the following reasons for their discontent: let The land allotted to them by the treaty is too poor to make their bread on. 2nd. That there is no running water in the country; and from their knowledge of pond water, 1n hunting excursion disease and sickness must ensue. 3rd. That a sufficlnt maintenance has not been issued at the agency for the Indians tha t did present themselves there, many of whom have returned from thence. 4th. That a fair distribution of funds allowed them by the Government has not been attended to, either by their own chiefs or by. the white men. 5th. That many, who have for several years resided within the vicinity of the reserve, have not as yet moved into it, and still object to do so 8th. That the land allowed them by the treaty was partly forced. on the chiefsf and that the Indians never to give up the land. (55J 54. Edmund Doyle, formerly and Indian trader and agent, tor rorbes and QompanJ. He and nambly, another trader, had /been captured bJ 'the Indians who incited by Ambrister and Arbuthnot dur1Dg the First Seminole War. See Amerioan .State Papers. Military I, 700-735. passim. 55. Doyle to Walton, October 20, 1825. American State Paoera, Indian Affaira, 11,,638.


' Page 32 Conditions failed to improve for the Indians. Reduced to starvation and pressed by the white settlerst they continued to roam beyond their boundaries, Killing stock and raiding the fields.of the whites. The depreda- tiona of the Kickaauky branch of the were especially troublesome. The whites made matters worse by 9omplaining that.the to shelter tugitive slaves. When urged to give them up the Indians retorted tha t many of their own slaves were in the hands of the white and that, in equal justice, these should be to them. (56) t Finally the Legislative Council of the !erritory memorialized Congress, stating that and development of Florida being impeded by the presence of an 'unfortunate but no less obnoxious tribe of beings am requesting -the1r speedy (57) J&!Jles Barbour, the Secretary of War, when pressed for futher informat on, reported .that one of two 'things be done; ,either Indians JBUst be moveti to more productive country or they IBUSt be ... / _56. 1Talk1 of Duval to Seminole, and reply of John: Hicks, February 24-25,-1826. 690-691. The Seminole Indians owned a number of but they held them under r a system more resembling feudalism than slavery. The negroes were settled in towns, some distance from the camps of tbeir masters; they might cultivate or own cattle, and the only service due their owners was a certain small proportion of their crops. 57. Extract from memorial, Sprague, 40-41. (no date giYen.)


{ I Page 33 regulatly with provisions. (b8) The president preferred removal and Colonel James White, delegate from Florida, was directed to offer them, unofficially, a district north of Arkansas and west of Missouri in exchange for their Florida lands. "' The Florida legislature meanwhile took matters into its own bands and passed an inflicting severe p*nishment on any Indian found outside the reserva tion without permission. (59)". This .. did not help nor imerove .the temper of the (60) Concerning this measure Humphries wrote: r 1The want of good policy of this law to say nothing of ita inhumanity and injustices, it appears to me--that an enforcement ita provisions --must unavoidably lead to bloodshed in our frontier.settlements. It ie to be expeoted; that this people, who though greatly and cruelly oppressed, are by nature and eTery principle of.right--free, tamely submit to the ignominy pf stripes, and that for no other pffence, than the mere -exercise of a privilege common to all who are not slaves. Bo eirl oarry thie law into effect and.war in reality may .. be expected-to follow 5 58. Abel, AJndian Consolidation, 359. 59 1.ln Act to prevent Indians from roaming at large throUgh the territory, passed January 15, 1827; Florida Territorial La.wa I, 103. 60. Humphries to McKenny, office of Indian Affairs, February 9, 1825, (1827)--Sprague gives the former date which be a misprint Iince the law was not passed until two yeara later, Sprague, 36-37. /


..: Page 34 I I us as a consequence: indeed if I may take the word of a member of the council, such consequence was calculated u upon by that body when the bill was under consideration. said he--'it is found impossible to bring them to negotiate for a removal from the territory, and the only course, therefore, which Femains for us to rid ourselves of them, is to adopt such a mode of treatment towards them, as will induce them to acts tnat will their expul sion by force.' This, sir, is the benevolent language of an enlightened legislator. Thus when Colonel Yhite, acting upon the president's instructions, held a talk1 with the Seminole on KaY 4, urging them to accept the proffered land and remove beyond the Mississippi, they promptly refused. also refused to send a delegation to examine the lands being offered.(Sl) When Jackson became president 1m 1829, -Indian hopes of ever having a permanent home in the East were blighted. .Q.. Jackson announced that as excutive be would not interfere '.... I with the legitimate authority of a state within its t limits. There was no.olution for the Indians except removal ..;: ..,..." If they wanted a home they could. call.'their own as long .\ .. .. as the tr-ees and the waters run_ ... they must go west. (62) ... "" .: _(. \ ,., ....... \ s1. 'Silea Register, : (June 30, 1821) mii : 291:.. / __. 62. Abel, 1Indian 370. \ -.. ,;, ,.. ;


Page 35 These taotioe as well as Governor Vuval's hostile attitude and the constant pressure of the whites to regain I their runaway slaves--often securing those belonging to the S eminole also--soon wore away their resistance. On October 19, 1828, the chiefs and at KcKenzie's Pond and agreed to send a deputation to explore the western terri tory if the United States government would provide the means. (63) Tney were assured tnat removal would not be required unless they agreed to go willingly after inspecting the land. The Indians also stipulated that their agent Gad Humphries was to accompany the delegation on its tour of inspection. r No immediate action was taken by the goYernment and soon the Indians became discouraged, declaring their deter mination to remain in rlorid&. Meanwhile more insistent demands were made by the whites for the rEturn of runaway slaves. Frequentlr these claims were unjustified;. oftener still, dishonest. The method of recovery was peculiar; the Indian was forced to hand over the disputed slaTe to the authorities and the white 63. Iiles Rerlstet, (Jlovember 29, 1828) XXXV, Ill.


Page 36 claimant was required to put up bond to insure his return in case the claim could not be established. Experience r soon taught the Indian that once the property was relinquished, tnere was little chance of its ever being returned. Then too, the whites, while quick to demand of an Indian for the death of. a white man, rarelr ever surrendered and punishe d one of their number who harmed an Indian. (64) Situations such as these brought about a precarious state of affairs, and during 1829 and 1830 no one knew at wnat moment hostilities might begin. To make matters worse, Humphries was removed from tne duties of agent to the Florida Indians--a position which he had held for eight years--in March, 1830. During his years of service, while not always infallible, his correspondence shows a sincere attempt to serve the best interests of the Indiams, as well of those of the. whites. (65) Talk of John Hicks at the 8emiftole agency, January 1.(.,, 1829. Sprague, 65. 65. Article 10 of the Moultrie Creek treaty, where by the cniefs ask that Humphries receive Neamothla's land, seems slightly unethical. While the Indians apparentlr respected Humphries and while his reports show a sympathf tor them, his squabbles over slaves do not reveal him in the same favorable light. 25 Oong. 3 Seas., Vol. V, P. 95-96, uo. 225, for Humphries demands for the return of some 47 slaves; also Humphries to Secretary of War, May 10, 1838, P. 93-94.


Page 37 Unfortunately, this method of dealing wtth the Seminole did not appeal to Jloridians of the territorial period who considered only the welfare of their own race and country, little caring what hardships and miseries were forced upon some 3,000 Indians who, in their eyes, were .;. only retarding the progress of the territory. Major John Phagan, who succeeded Humphries, was a man of a different type. Sprague says of him: Without the requisite qualifications for the office, he brought with him the patronage of the executive, as well as the partialities of the people---Though totally unqualified, both by eduoation and morals, as an example and an a4v1ser, he nevertheless bore an important part in the measures adopted during his period of office to expel the Indiana, and. thus inflict upon the country a protracted and sanguinary war. (66) DU::ing Phagan's a.dministration the I became more and more restless. Obviously something had to be done to remedy the situation, {67) and the only solution appeared to be immediate sa. Sprague 72. 7. For a further account of Phagan's frauds and improper conduct see Westcott to Herring, November 5, 1833, American State Pape;a. {Washington, 1861), Military rfairs, VI, 49Q-49l. Phagan was succeeded in .August, 833, by General Wiley Thompson. Kurt a to Thoapson, August 29, 1833. Ibia., 509. r


Page 38 removal from tne Territory. Early in 1832 Colonel James Gadsden was appointed by the Secretary of War to begin 1 with the Seminole for a relinquishment o f .... ., their lands in exchange for territory in the Creek Nation .. west of the Mississippi. (68) After many difficulties {69) Gadsden gathered the tribe at Payne's Landing on the Ocklawaha River and on May 9, 1832, the chiefs signed a treaty by which they agreed to reli_nquish their lands in Florida and emigrate to the reservation assigned to the Creeks west of the Mississippi. (70) Stipulations were made for remuneration, annuity and provisioning; a of chiefs was sent to examine the Creek lands and removal was to be accomplished within three years. (71) Since th1e treaty concern ed only those Seminole who had 68. Cass to Gadsden, January 30, 1832. I2!!, 472-473. 69. Gadsden to Caes, June 2, 1832, Ibid.,505-506. 10. Major Ethan Allen Hitohcock,_while serving in the Seminole War, noted in his diary: 11L he treaty_ of Payne's Landing in 1832--was a fraud upon them and they .nave in fact never agreed to emigrate .. I say therefore, that. the Indians are in the right to defend themselves in the country to the best of their ab'1lity. Grant Foreman Indian Removal, (Norman, 1932), 321, note. It is interesting to note that while 32 chiefs signed the Moultrie Creek treaty, only 7 chiefs and 8 subchiefs signed treaty of Payne's Larxling. 71. For treaty see Kappler, II, 344-345.


:to Joutli 'Florid&; ; .ano1;her treaty -waa 11a'de ::..,_. .. -. :.;: ... ... .. ....... ,-Ootobor ll, w1 -th. Df}ond .-,the. add i :,. :_'"; "..,.: i ... ..... _-.... :_--:. ;.;--. ............ ..... :. had retained 1.a.n4a -along'tlle River ia ,the .. ,: ... _-: ,.


r With the treatiea final11. aiped# Cla4ade haatened to aend weat to ezamiDe -J the land. !he treatiea 4efin1telr atated that f .ulflllaent-oondi tioD&l., dependent on a -. ( .,, ) favorable report bT the 1lelegat1on of clliefa. After the delesatio of Seminole had apent J&Zlusrr, .. and Jl&rob, 1833, tn the weatem oounur, which uaturallr at that aeason .of the -.. rear ppeare4 barren and lnhoap1 table; -they aipe_ d -' -. --an -adc!1 tional treaty at t Clibaon, putt1q la full force th treatr of Pam' L&D41nl !hia ., "' 4 --.-. --. -. .:...._. .... OOIIIIIlenoa_ the re.oval._ to _their ome, u soon aa Governaen i Will ""iate a fer their -(15) aattafao,orr .. 4 ,.. -. W -hen 'the telep.tton returnee! to aa4


r _-:: ... "':4. ; .... --..,< .'"' "': ...-. ........ ,.. oould oDlr the lands. -,. .. ..,..., -;-. ... ,. = -.. ... -;,:_"" .. .. .-the of the--delegation ;old oonflioting ... .... -.... _:'. ...... :'".0 ...... \ -11ioanopy the treaty; -1"" -... _.... ,. .. _..o.f_-... --........ .. be hid i:be-f en although he -had -ex-. -.. ; Fe" -"-7&) '. .r tended his hand toward __ ,_ Jumper, .however, ,. .& -=-0 :,. a&1. 4 t-:hat the :treatr liad been IB&d.e to .keep the wh1 te .. .. .,i;.. ...... ... aen cauit ..,. r ... o--'T.--:: .. It 'liae this , lands -..,-::--....... -. .. ,. -offered them -'1Ji exchange--for -those 'hey held norida, .#. --.) ... ... .... ... "", to ..,_ ., -... -the at-tempts ef the. UnitetlBW.t'ea Qovernml'nt to en-... ... ..... ..: .... and :l'!"----...... .- ..... .. .. .force tht. terma of .. the treaties in a_pite of tht resist-....... .. -. ,.-, -... --anoe __ resulted in 1"' Po ,.., ... -.,.. .. -. __ t second .-"'-"' .i


-Page 42 : of the Atteapta The two treaties. aigned at Payne's Landing, .. and at Fort Gibson, were not ratitied_ by the Senate until April 12, 183,, and "to that time no was made tor removal .Uao, out of regard f1o1' the-health -of the .Indians, and in order "to g1 ve them time to harvest -their crops, active meaaurea could not carried out until the ('7) _During period of ederal 1'f'ity the majoriiy of the Seminole were able to consolidate : T their and decide not to obe the treaties. But the agi tator moved quietly, at the aame tfme frightening .,.. ..,. r their opponents into Thus e'f'idence that .the be prepSr1ng toi arme4 rssistanoe was ot observed by the Wll 1 Tb.ompion, (78) :" r !ecaue of the of a1otnes clue to the .. crowded tran porta, t was thought _,_winter was a better .lme f-or remo't'8l th&n tlimmer. The Indiana bad I1 t"tle res_ 1atanoe to d1aeaee. Oholei"a and crtber contagious 41seae. e l1a4 ravagecl all th-e tribei ot m1grat1ug Indians during their journeya lJee Joreman, ID1ian RemoDll for ..,,;,.....-. ..,..., ........ 1n 1834, P. 252; among the p.-77, 81, Oberotee, .. .. .. l '"'18 Wiler 'l'liompeon wa.i born in Virgi ma, but moved -:. Georcla arly in Jife. He was United Btatea Congressman Georg in }he ti tl aener&111 must have b .ee ho oruy. !'. Davia; 11The Seminol.e Octo r 23-%5, l83,,1 !lorida H1storiQa1 Sooietr QuarterlY, Vol. Vl, 33S._ : J .. {


Page 43 .. until October 28, 1834, when he wrote: -r _. '!'he I nc:M.ans, at-t;er they r eoei ved their. annuity, puroh&sed an unusual amount of powder and lead. I saw one keg q! powder carried of! by one and I am informed that several whol keg were purchased. I did not orb1d the sale of those article to the Indians, because, a such a course ould have been a declaration of my apprehensions, it might pro4uoe udden and immediate I& might b proper 110 add that I 1ras heretofore informed tbat the chiefs have depo it of forty or fifty.tega of powder, which I did not or di t t the time. H ving thus given you a full view of the existing at te of &ffaira here, I feel it an mperioua duty to urge the neoes ity of strong reenforoem nt tbia post, and the location of strong force t Tampa Bay s aoon as possible. ( 79) -. I T ... During council held at Fort 23 .to 26, the Indi n and the agent to work toward opposite ome reaaon the ohiefa that tbe Oreek they were to their lands for


. ,.... presented four questlona for th ir 1. Will you 'aooept the invitation of your brothers of the western Creek Bation? (invitation to join. with them in the West) 2. Do you prefer or money, when you arrive at your new home, for the cattle which, under the treaty, you must 81ve up here? 3. Will you petition to go water, or do you prefer -to go by land? 4. How willyou have the next annu1 ty to you, in money or in goods? (82) -The Indians pa1d .no attention to questions they were still quarreling over the more basic problem of .whether they were going toove or not. The head chief Micanopy was weak and but Osceola (83} continually urged him to stand firm against removal. Cbarley-lm&thla was in >r favor of emigtation, while Jumper refused to-give 'l'hus matters 82. 'l'hompaon a .report to .Secretary of War, October 23, 1834, 5.' 83. It is in the council (aee uote) that Osceola' for the time in official documenta. He is by Engliah Powell Since he was only a aub-ohtef he na not permitted -to speak in council, ut aG Y1olen,ly waa he oppose4 to re oval that > he was unable restrain hi self, and becaUse of Kioanopy1s weak character, Oaceol& ba4 come to be looked to as a leacier, Carolyn llaya Brevard, Hiatorj of norida, (.Deland, 1924) I, 118. Also Foreman, Imian RemoTa!, 329. ;I ..,. I \ .. .I ... r


, .. -deadlock. ; J.a aooa aa the Seoretarj

;. croup ... .. sembled until APril aa, 1835. -theaessacewaa Jumper &D4 the other. ohlefs 1objeoting to the treaty &B4 to %emov ... &1 from their .present Jet expressing menta of friendship an.d' &Terse to hoetll. e reslataaoe. 1 After llUOh waa wasted' -in 1uruaean1ng talk and 14le ob3eotiona1.the whites 'beoame tapatient. To lpeed up events -General Olinoh proceeded to make a \ few bl"ief and pointed re-.rka. Jle declared that: the time for expos tula ti on bad paaa ed; that &lrea4J too .uoh said &D4 nothiDg had been done; tbat :tlre -s.nnuenoe of the agenta .of the govariUien", their powers of persuasion and reasoning been exhausted, oth in publio oounclls and in priT&te lntarrtewa to indace them (the 8em1nola) to do that we had lingered enough ln the performance of our duties to have averted, had they been wllling, the' ertla which threatened thelr -foollwh resistance to -the fulfillaent of pledge aolemnly and fai-rly made by thea; and that. now n.a th.e time .to A -Be )ULd be n .tntr.$here to enforce the treatJ; be had warr lor. s enough 1o do i and he would M.J-} !U a quea _tion now whether they wo go f on accord., or go by foroe. ,.....,. .. .. 4 ..... ... .. At the the council eight ohlefa agreed I to a peaceful l'emoT&I, while, fiTe &1. though e had no power t do so, !hoapao':l proMptly ordered (86)


1: !h frtendlr oh1efa &n4 aUb-ch1ef8 .. were"' peraua4e4 n .lprl"l 23, 18351 -to aip an agre&-I aent &Oltnowledging 'the Yal1d1ty Of two treatlea '' 1 ( 87) I and conaentlng 1:0 .r moftl. So etta 1n Aprlli in rder any reaiata.noe, !hompaon !) rb&de the a&le. of &rll8 and -AJBIIm1'l1 t1on to anr Indian boa til to"%eaonJ.. 1118 -(88) 1nteallona were doubtless for the beat. but the Indiana were fb'oel.l' resentful. When Osceola heard ., --. f lt he or1e4a Aa l a negro a alaYel 111 akin 1a dark, but not blaok. I am u._ Indian -a Seminole. !he wh1 te -.n ab&ll ot lll&ke ae black. I will make the Whit an red w1 th blood; and then blaoken Jlia 1 the aun &n4 rain, where t e wolf ahall amell of hi a bone a, and the b\l&aard 11Ye upon hia fleah. (81) olent rewlta -... a?. 1 Obi fat an, April 1835,' .!i1!-,. 75." .as. !h()uspaoD o Glbaon, pr11 1'7, 1.835. ror the purpose of reduo1Dg the refractory -Indiana' to' aenae of dependence and to wit&-. 14 fro "h the aeana r-do1n& a1aoh1ef-. I bae proh1b111ed the a&le of &!'M, pewd.r aad lead w .. ... -the 'l'hia Will deprle thezru to aoru extent; the& .of aubaiatence, e8a u ,; has been reported, bae a co lderable depoalt of thoae &!'tlclea. 1 lJUA 533. 9. Oaceola a toDd of heroi a ; 81.


. 49 apparently the ;uthor1t1es expected no d1ffioulties. _fhey,apentmoat of the over ..4 I how to dispose o! the--Indians livestock, what to do with I their how to feed, clothe-and transport the emigrants. The's\ problems were by simple ones .. -, .. -It was diffi ou1 t to animedi&te fi.Ild fair market I for be livestock .in nor-ida, ret it was totally impossible consider transporting The slave question was the. most troublesome. wh1 t es J ,. : ( .. laid claim to Tarious _of....:the Indians 'lave&-and, because of the Ind.1an of 1liher1 tance 1 t was almst impose--r ible to trace the true ownership w1th any degree of ( 93) Then : too, 'the to an .easy life among the Seminole, lUt.d llttl.e desire to be -returned to the toil : I ". ---.-. ,.. "" ....: C -"' of the cane and cotton fields:.-: &coozdingly they did -. '; .. ... ..... "t ... r.. -. ,.... -. -: .. they could to ke ep their Indian ma.atera giving them ;. .. -... J' .. up and tll8r a1ao -... ,.. -::."-.,--__ .-o ._ --, "" .... -; .. .... .. -. 93. 'The reasoD of lawof inheritance, by which brothers and_ aona s1ste%a inherited in prefer-ence to childreneem to bave arisen from the belief enterby the a brother sisterJ e eon would be more likely to have same blood w1 th the deoeasec1 flowing in his veins thaD even.. the children of the wif.e of the deceased, al.though ...tho-ae. ohildren be reputed.' to-be-the o f the de_ceaae4., --J. A. 08Jlleron, Judge of West Florida, 1831; 468. -;., -.:. '. : :-:::.. :'; _;___. -... .: ... .,. li' .. : .. .. .. -.:. : "' -.


' ? .. ... -:.... Page 48 and giTen f1Te days 1n which to return and keep his wordth1B he did bringing with h1m 79 of h1s Thereafter_ Thompson not doubt s1noerity_of his repentance, in fact the agent believed that one of the bad been surmounted by th1a agreement. (90) Thompson may haTe forgiven did not the for this 1nsul t ... lie also "blamed Thompson because his young wife, a descendant of a runaway had been carried off into alaverr by 1rhi te elavehunters. (91} Osceola' a chance for revenge oame ia December; ... -. ..... Undismayed by what they d14 not. the author. i t.ies -. continued their preparations for. removal ,and, to anticipate any .. -outbreak, the mil1 tary for_cea 1n nor1d.a wer-e considerablJ .increased. In February, l.835, there oompani:_ee concen-. tra,ed at rort Xing, three at !'or.t -arid one at West. By NQvember lS3S, the Florid& .Consisted O! one field .. .,. : officer, .. nine comP,anlea of &r"1llery arid two of .. (ntanuy-_ r t .. ,,. .. : .... J .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ... aaklng a :ot -536. l.ncludlng as commtea1o.ne4 offioera. .:-: r ./' ... ... .. 192) : --,1. Giddinga, sa: ; "' : 92 .. Adjutant .General -to Secretary o-:r 1rar, "l'ebruarr 91 183&, American Stat! PaP.ert, Jlilitart Affair, ,-... -" -. -.. :


r them pt tr-ansportation :. ....... o 0 .-A.- :. o ... ._.. 4 .. ... ... ... ... -A -. # ... ..,. .. a -8ub81-atenoe B.lao problem, while. perhaps the most part of this was the _dif......_ .. !:",. "C' .. ..:..,._ ... .... -. <.C': ..:..:- fioul ty the agen:t and 'the rlorida _had ln :.... -..... .. __ :. ------;:, ;: -.... --': ;;: .... ing to the War that Seminole 'men c;lid. not wear ...; ...... """' _....... ::. .... ... -,._---: f ... ::: : .-'. limiting shirt amooka,_,.:while_ -:. the Indian.; -t.he.y quiet, ominously -... ____ -:. -i'--. -r" --... -= so, bad the only -realized and, for -the --,. --.... r!"..., ;.'" ,'. ----.: .. ......, most -:part, from visiting the posts and agency. ::::... ,_ .. ... ;.;; --. -".. ._ While a few .outbreaks oecurred. they were merely interpreted .: -as :tlie :-usual f euds s.o 9ft en pr Etvail upon _border, : no ..... '; : : .. ; .. ,r .. ..... ; .. ... ... _*! '" ,. .. _J.nd -ttie were not .. ... .-, .. -.;.: s.'-: : ... r \ .. .. _.. Those vowed death to any chief -...,...; _-....,::........ .-,.....-;: ...... ""'""":::_-, -.... .,

. when the newa came. that friendly had been ambushed and .urdered, hiie returning to his village, by a party led "by Oao ol.a. Acoounta say that he .was carrying in his handkerchief a sum Qf gold and ailver which he bad I received from the ageBt for hie cattle. This Osceola scat. tered in all d1reot1ona, forbidding anyonl to touch it, for, he 8&14, it made Of. aana blood. (96) ... A "'few days later t h e agent learned that Bolate' 'Emathla with hie four oo-.ohiefs -and their peop1.e, numbering between four and five hundred, .nad fled to Brooks on I Tampa Bay, for then Thompson that a determined upon them the boatiles will, perhaps, Teas sure those disposed to qe and oonvinoe t hose who are hostile of the folly of. any attempt to resist. (97) .. -. Immediately he .urder of the. Indi ana living near the Big Swamp fie4. for safety to the J:vergla4es.. Sinoe this group was largely .favorable toarda ... ... ,. 1 .. "'. I .. / r


:.. 52 ........... gave fhoapaon caus. for worrr. Sooa" ;e0alo1-trant. .. ,J .. -r : .,... --,.;.,. -. _began to.make t1iemseiTea felt, and on, Deoember :-.. -. "" wrote: Pa.rt1ea -of Indians have recently .burned :a. few housea beyond -the--boundary .andratole {a1c) some .. -horaea .. !lieae, With .to con. ,' I -. .. 'aider the dectdely:1n_ a -state hostility. (98) ... ... a came_ 'tc; blood}' on :afternoon of -lieoembei-as; party o f forty or J \ --.... ->- -.., ambushed Wiley .Smith ntt11.l 30'0 ru4a Fort -i:ing; llUl'dering '-'.. them of the post r and his two clerks. 0& had 'this method 'of revenge. H1a 1ahr1 ll, pecUliar ... _' ........... -.,.s...... __ .. _;. din ("99) -his wife, and his were.., ,. .. "'' ..._ I :. .I-_, : --;""'1 ..-' .. .,.__ ... ;_" .-:' ... -:;,.': ;t ... -::;:. ... :::._ _,'" ........ ..... .... ,.. .-, _--.:.. .On>the. saDie day "a)l(lther party of Indians under Micanopy ,. .... "' .. -'j,r .. -'-.... .. --: -... ._ .. -:: ---. '.' and 11imper .no .ot "troops en route .. .. : .,. .... : -=:. ... _.. .... -... -: ... _,. .... ... -... 'f:rom tort,' :Brooke J'oit -Eiq/ llajor t. -:1.,-. .. .--"'".: -::.. -!; .. :..: \ .. ..;;.. -'l'hls attack, .. ... -.. \"'' <. c -'!:: ,. : l'o


. Page __ -. at the Wahoo Swamp ( near tile pres en-. town of Bushnell, -. .... -... _. in Sumter Countr.),.was a -.otal and of the entire "" I -. .._ command, -etght-officers and a hundred soldiers, only t.o .badly wounded -privata e : so&ped. {100) On December 11, aome 250 :"Wa.rriora, aoout thirty of whom were negreea,_ eommanded by Oaoeola and, Alligator .. .. -... (HolpatterClinoh'a command on Wi thlacoocllia River. n thoug)l _the Iridians .. .. ,-., were dri VJn off I -the regular &riiiJ DB extremely --. because JDOSt Of the 4.80 norid& yOlunteers under .. General R. 1:. oall rema1'D84 1naot1va across the river. Only 271 "Under ...Oolonel 1'arre11: L1euten8l).t i';illa, dashed e.Ot:oss to. help. fa .. pointed out in the .. : I -.. .. : ..:-_: -. -r ... report oommaDder ti General Alexander Ka.oombl .., I ... -!": .... ot.)be t .oU:r hUndred or five Jlundred volunteer :. who had joined General with & Tiew of &!ding in .. ubduing :the onlr tJrenty-aenn: and three of"fioera took part -1D tb.e &ot1oa! .._, .ao out of action. is never zP1&1ne4 -Ha4 zeal and brayery been dlsplayel. by was evinced by. the regular vo_ ope,-there. ta l."lttl.._ doubt that the war 1t'Oul4 haJ'e beea.. ---;-::. :. _..., :---;_ -;. : ::. .:.. .., .-.. -... .. c ['_ r L


, termiDate.i .;!th tbe ,battle of thewi (_101) ;. that the. Seminole were determined to resist remov&i with all the force they oould muster_ Hostilities became -general the state J _as the Indiana tell the frontier falms and settle-, ... menta, the crops 'and atoot, and either tng the or forcing them to aeek refuge in the fort a and larger towns. BY J'ebruary, 183 oond1 had beoome ao serious that the o1 tizena of "Xast Florid& found it necessary to send a _petltion to requesting more adequate protection. eloquentlf described the plight of the' .settler a, who, &fter year a of hardsbip were about io reap frut ta their labors onlr ... themael aurrounded bf a savage bearing the fir br and tom&hawk through_, the land with unrestrained whole country eaveloped the borrora Of a at which 1 ... _, aginatio.n of o1 vili zed man revol ta -and human1 t7 aioken -'""" They have been almost universally to bandon their ,. ,.\ -... "101. eport f Kajor General, lovember r 183 -Ameriop Statt lape:ra, J1ll1N'I Ufa1ra VI, 817. .. Call lat r explained that Ilia men refused to _go into -... :. otion because: '$heir tera of aerrice exp.1red on the ;-: following dar-. sensible b t llnheroio; Sprague, .92. : ..:. -.. Alao Jolm Lee 1f1111ama, Dl. territorY .2f. nor14a. .(lew York, 1839) .. f .-" ...


-. .. : .JI< .. .. -. habitat ions and their _property -to the lioerit1ous rage o.t the enemy, and w1 th their .fam_iliea to l)laces of tem:porary safety-The consequence of this has been that desolation has and nmmbere of fellow who a few weeks since were 1n the enjoyment of competence and independence, are now reduced to want and ab'Solute ruin--By far the largest portion-of the-sparse last rlor1da consists of those who depend upon their ownpersonal laborand -industry for the daily upport o.t their families. !host of them that "resided in 1he country have been obliged flee for safety to the fortified posts, instances aTlnc and taking with thea "their clothes only 1 total suspension ordinary business ,. bas neoessarlly ooourred. !he moat serious and lamentable distress bas been by these 11eans produced -."Private -ty oan afford but partial apd tem;Porary relief. (102) .. ,.. ... While the 'War D.,..epartaent was bending &11 1 ts -efforts to 1nar. eaae the .forces by regular -- ; -7 (103) troops, volunteer militia by Oreek I .... ateps' were &lao taken to .-band ;ort -=ij-;;]. 9, 1836, --., f ... --_ James _the Quar'tcn:master issued an ... --(0) -. -. :.. 1 ... -:. ... oi'iler : On and 12 .... .... .. r-=:: ... 'lhe li'\tle -4Q'1 ...... on-'-. -":' ,..-.,. : -,_.,.. :;_,, = .- ) .: -::.. r ..


. .. under 'the command of Joseph w. and atarted on ita journey At lew Orleans they were to a ateamboat w1tb a teel 'boat in tow and etazted u.p ibe 111asiaeippi. On May s. they aohed Little now numbering \ onlr twentrfiYe haYing died on the way !hi a 110rtali'ty reaul ted_ froa: the pervt%1ity of the Indiana in adhering their own peculiar treatment of the iot; Which being confiDed to frequent the patien't with oold water, and .a constant kneect1ng of the boq, -terminated-inaamuoh as the diaeaaea.ooneisled of ooughe, alight dyaen tariea, etc.-alaoat invariably in death. J.nd this could not be ob vJ.a ted, although after having exhausted advice; entreaty and : -sxpoe-1ulation, we reaorted to 'threats and force. (105) _, l)um the riY&; 'beoaae 'too ab&llow for D&v1 the were put Uhore to. be trana-o --, in .Jlf!t&elea ran. through partf -and '7 llaJ f the Ind1an8 were 1li .. -, t -Yet ao f1l and unea11Jt&rf wer the11" campa that .. .. .. Lintena.nt Y&Jl aorne, 1t'h bQ %dieved Kazrili. .. -, it. beat to ke'eP !IR?vini lowly ._ : -;, I .. ne tale their _........._ all .pilogu.e to ,.. tbat of tlie Ohretie "e.nd to. 'those at-" -. -, J


, Page 5'1 I r further here. -Suffice ''o aay -that Jlolat.,.Ematbi.a, ,. did en. route and that it was a pitifully little. band th&t was settled on c1osr the of the Kississitpi. J the 'Campaign n.a continuing in Jlorida. t firat the army had little success against "" a mobile and 1nviaible foe that Yired upon it unexpect-edly from behind, and bushea, then, instead of com. ing out the. open, retreated into swamps before troops coUld ra1ly. 'l'he desperation with which the Seminole fought is described .. by a obserYer: Now just conceive their BOO or 1,000 warriors, by sentiments of hatred and revenge, and well aware what 1a to be the1r fate on losing their superiority; with them some or four hundred negroes of their own, 4iaoiplined and more intelligent than themselYea, whom there is a daily aooess1omof negroes from the with I arms and ammuni,lon from -the 4eceased whites. OonceiVIL these people li rtng i>n J if. necessary :for weeks entires, flying befort-regular ohargea of disciplined troops, .or avoiding. fortreaaaa or atockadea; but from .:..: -: their ambushes an4 retrea"t_-outting off the aost. val uab1e 11vea of -ar -attacking and .destroyi_ ng valuable properti.a. (l.G?) ... -.. -: ._ ... ... ... .. ...... .-. -""'-.-.. ., ,... p ... .:. -r ., -'"C" 106. When Ioca,e4 il their om domain last, on3:y of wer,. _aliYe Ib14'!. --... -.... 10,. tetter in r1cr14a, January 20, 1838,'1:-o. Doca., 8' Oong. 1 seaa. 'YOl. III, no. 80. Da&e, early learned the uselessness of marching aaroaa -country w1 't hou't acot(ta or. fia.nke.ra.. !he trouble waa. he 414 not live l.onc to make use of knowledge.


. sa ,By the apring of l8S? the seminole found opposing them ,. with a fu lu1er foro than they ooul( i;ope/for, after a year of and error, the army was mere in the art of cuutlla wa;,rfare. It wu nly when the troops adopted the enem1ee1 taot1oe that'they &D1 progreaa. John!. Sprague, ,. an offtoer 1n the war, ... The Florida war waa olosed by the aovementa of fifty and a hundred men, in acting in oonoert, and giYiAg the contest a partisan character. This was hazardous, ae they might be overoome by but it was the only means of bringing the enemy troa their ambush, and involving them ngagement. i1th the troops continually at their heela Indiana were .uable to plant their crops or replenish their supplies. Y1ft&lly after auob delay and the Indians aasembled, in large nU.bere, with their obiefa at Camp Dade on the Wi tl1laoooollie, and on llarob 8, 183?, signed a capitulat1on. While they agreed of hostilities, several arti olea of the agreement were later to oauae trouble. Those I ) ., aoe\ *o the .. two-partiel -Art1dle II. They ( the ohiefa) agree and bind themeel that the entire nation ahall immediately emigrate to the country assigned them by president of the United Statee, west of the.Kissias1pp1. r


: A.i--ti;le -:v. llajor Jeeup, {109) behalf of the United States agrees that -:the Sem1nol es 'their _allies, come in and emigrate to the west, shall be secure in their and property;_that their negroes, .theirbona fide pro-r pert.r, shall, accompany them tc;> -the west; :apd that -their .cattle andponies shall for b1 United at their .fair ftlue (ll'O) t ----:...-_ _.. '-> :. ,-.. Kica.nop)', _the recogni-zed_ baed did not sign : -. : -_:_ ..,. treaty; the signer were Bolatooohee, Jumper, Cloud, John Cawyya, oo\ _. and Later, on .... ,. -. \ ... --:-... March is lB3i, aa. o onfirm1ng --:. .. .:. -: -... "'. -:. --. -.. :.. : .. 1ine treaty. (l.'ll) ._. -. .... _: ->::: -/ ,-.. ---"The Iiutiana were to: .. o f Fort Brooks in fOr emigration "nd-by middle qf-Kay -. -_ .. "' .. ...... .. large numbera were in the camp under .the -diect1onof Micanopy. I' .; -.... -._ -- \ .. .... .. -- : Alligator, Holatooche,, Doa" .,._ -. ;. .. .:.: :: ,':" ..;.. .. ,... ""' -""" ,. .. ... t.....:: -: w"' __ ,,. ::. -f!. ... ... .-109. ll&jor 'l'homaa -e; 0.8 or:derfid noritla, Jlaj 19, secretary of W&r-c-1 o.--J.esup, .lmer1can; Sta'te Papers, .,._.-_-llili tary Affairs, -VI-I, !hie was the. d1fficiil ties' caused bJ. the. orcUtr Major Generals at -Gaines. ,see 1-Prooeedtng of 11ili tary. CC?urts "in the -. operations of Ar-r.under_the of Major General and Major General pursued by those officers respectiYely1 -. Communicated to Senate March 3; -. 1837 Ibid l2r:.__jltl!ll! .. .--.:. '. .-: ._ .... -;..... : .... :-;- f-l -... ... I ,.. ,.. ... ... --f..,. -J-"'. .. -... ,..., "l -.. \ Jl111tary -----.. Affairs, (washington, 1B61J 834 Sometimes this is referred to as the :tratr. -Drane. ;,.. r ... .. ." t < _.,-. .:. I -, i ... -. .. ,;..,., iti. Aoknowledgm9nt ot. Mi.oan_o_py, -Mai-_ oh -181'_1837! 25 3 Seas., V -Jo. 22.5,-. P --: -;<;: _- .. ..... ... ,.. ,.. ..... ..... -;,;:). ....


Page 80 \ apparently pleased at the preparations for their departure. Twenty-six vessels laywaitlng to take-them I r to New Orleans. Word came that Osceola bad also expressed a desire for peace and approved of the terms agreed upoa at Camp Dade. ..... To all appearanoea the the Seminole I reconciled to removal, their embarkation was postponed week after the chiefs said they were expecting friends and relatiYea whom they Wished accompany them. General Jesup, certain that there would be discharged the miltt1a and The marines were ordered north and the remainder ot the troope posted at points chosen for th 1r heal rather than their m111 tary advantages The -citizens of rlorida returned to the1r,homes and the land was at peace ... -' lat r event a proYed, onlr the surface was tranquil; II .:. .. the deptb.8' below were aeeth1 ng. 1 n he place the wh1 te ;, ... ... people uot takek1Ddly to_4rt1cle V of the Camp :.: ..... .. D ade treaty. On lla:roh 18,-the Tert Kioanopr signified h1s pproval, group of Florida dtt1zena met -in Charleston, South -...... "' Carolina, up a Which they sent to I ,. f -... .., '118. Jesup Seoretary .of War, May, 1831; lmericau S11ate ll111tary Affair S'?o-871 .,. .,. ...


-Washington, triat.the did not protect the .. .._ .,. rights of the alaveowner {113) This was only opening gun of the slaveholders in thei1 struggle to reolaim their negroes .from the Indian and a.g&in General the warning that any attempt to return the negroes to-their.white masters would end .in disaster. On he wrote: The war i.e no doubt ended if a prUdent course b.e pursued; but a tl"ifi1ng on pa.t't of the white population of the frontier, might light it up again. The negroes rule the Indians; and 1t 1a important that they should feel themselves if they oeoome alarmed, and hold. out, the war 11'111 be renewed ; (114) In spite Jesup's the slavehunters beoame more and more vociferous in On April 5, Jesup and order that no white not in the United r ahoul d be allowed tQ region tlle St. Job.Jrf ftiver and the Gulf of.Kex1oo of Yet ... "' .....:: .. .--" "" .. all the uproal' lllUat have bad aoae effeo' on tJle General for days tie m84e I --113. Pet1 t1on of norlda "Oi a.roh '18 1837; Q2.2.!.25 Oong. Sese. v. no. J25; p. ... _: -"' ...,. -:. ,...,. -. 11,. Jesup to Adjutant General, Karch Exec. Dooa .2S Cong. no. 78,-p. 1U. maintained .that it was the negroea and n..ot Indiana, who_ ,... guided the war. Jesup to-secretary-of __ !.1?.!! .. ': r' ... ., .......... ... ,., # ..:. .... ";. l. --: 115. JesUp, Order no. 1S3.,; Exec.!!2.2!,., _. 26 Oong. 3 V 1lo. 225, p. I ; ... .. .; .. ... ..,. ..,.., ... v-


aurrender the negroes of ... white those taken during the war. (118) Th1a ed to aertoua tro le for,, aa later proved, 1agr eaent1 ba4 been ma4 only With the sub-chief Ooe-Hajo, who had no autbor1ty to make auob compact in behalf of the r inole nat1o!ll. (11 ') The whttea grew bol!'er, frequently coming to the camp at Tampa Bay to expr sa tne1r demands. Naturally I caused 'the negroea there to take &la.r &nC1 a number of t fled baot to the Wilda. On April 7, Jesup wrote: 1But tne pre ture attempt of ao e of the citizens of Florida to obtain poe easton of their lavea, the jority of those taken by tbe In4iane during th war, 1 well 1 those who have absconded previous to it, would h&Ye been aeaared before this tim (118) D1d hie tatement in ihe sacred-P. 10. 25 Oong.


r ,. of them simply didDot .ant to go west and ihey reason -. ..... .. ., -#< -... .... --.- why -jlley Jesup realized .this when he vote: we .. ...-!.. ---. an in: the to remOve them -before tne:: .. c -# .... country was required white was. no OD they D eYer felt ty ':1.: ---.. ... to { 111) In api te Of Jeaup-t a wa.rn1ngs .. t he __ ag1 tat1o.n .. con--" ... .... "" -:;: ..... .... ... ttnued .. he was the aoene -and the ---! -"!' ... affaire, olima% not --as :much sloak -to as ... --_ ... r... -.: .. .. 4 ,.... .. 1 t -'the __ wr1 tea .on-7, .. .. .. .... -;: L ._ "' r ...._ ..., -_ --t I had reoe1Yed, through princ1p&l_ Creek obief, on .. :-._ ,., ... -"-... the morning of the 'in"Stan11#-"intimation that the attempt 0 ,.. -., would probablr be .in a a PartY of Jl1okasuk1es ,--,_-.,.... .;.; -and & aul.l band 1)f "to ttll .oi those; ohiefa ... "' .. ""... --.. ... .... ._.-... ,:... ..... : .. ...,.,tlZO) .11'1a. banda were i84. -Of" "'tb.e tr.eaty -he "' ,/'" ..,. ..._ .. "' r :... ., : .. ., ':"'..,. "' .. 't:; ...: -... ;-. '"'. "' ,..,. ., '"' lsOuld -'1ate t )U' -"CUStody f' aor .. make -f. "' -. .__, .,\.,.. ..


" .... -r to those 1rho _bac!-come in, for fear of frightening .. !' '"' j;hem Thus of 2, a par-ty warriors, said tQ _)lavebeen 'led 'bi.;Osoeola, able to -creep into the "' I camp at Tampa Bay and force Micanopy, Jumper, and Cloud to the r-emovai pla-na and' them 1 nto the swamps. xt awoke to find that the entire I ....__ ....... ...;;. ,_;, : band of 700 Imiam, gathered ao paiutaklngly, had vanished. (121) -. -,-.,,; .. -_ Jesup did manage c ...some ,nipety negroes whom he '-:--. ..... ... .... sent to Hew_.Orleans _Be waa _told-by these _captives that the Indians would no:t-1:-.enew the war unless attackec1, but he to trust -Completlet discouraged, he ."' .. ... :' L wrote: ._,Emigration. I cQ.psider impracticable. The Indians, ...


65. Chapter v -Final Campaigns of the Florida war.' I Jesup had many to overcome in repairing the_ brea.oh made by the Ind.ians disappearance in his labors of the previous sixteen months So certain had he been of the end of hostilities that most of the regular troops had been ordered elsewhere, his Creek allies had been sent west, and the had been disbanded. The few troops remaining in nor1da were 1sickly1 under-o!ficered, and not strategically located. Beoause this Jesup was able to do little ore than keep scouts aoti ve in order to preven t raids on the !J."ontier settlers during the summer of 183'7. (123) The Indiana, ,tod, to fighting. They had gone home, newly olotpe4 by the government, to plant their crops and prepare tb mselvea in oase the United States ehould eee fit renew the attaot. On August and 20 -Jesup met with .. 4> .. .. several chiefs at rort J:ing. -There the 'Indians expresse4 a ., ,. ; desire for peace but. repor1ied; th&t aost Qf their people had no .. .. -wish to leave Florida. them no eat1afaotion on -this aoor _e; instead r


he insisted that no peace without removal and that they as well become reconciled to Co-e Hajo, the princtpal chief present, agreed that ,another council should be held .in twenty days to 4iscuss the matter $nd the negotiations closed unsuccessfully. The proposed oounc11 -,. was held, but -it was poorly a t t ended; neither Jesup nor Coe-Hajo I _:_. was The few chiefs who did attend agreed upon a law to I punish anyone who committed depredationsagainst the whites, but decided not to the country. (124) Yet inauspicious' as events o! the summer seemed, matters were rapidly coming to a climax. On September 9 and 10, Brigadier General Hernandez of s 't. AugWJtine the chiefs King Philip,(l25) .40 .... .. f Euchee Billy, Euchee Jack, and number df 'their people. ; John Philip, ,_ _, I th only negro chief who bad not previou*ly been secured, was also i ,. I among capti ( 126) How c&ne to _capture these -. Jesup a report, 125. Before ti e there was no Iing Philip in the official recorda. John Lee Williams notes tbis. and credits him wlth being the most mischievous of all,the. Seminole chiefs, having committed more depredations therrest of the put together Philip to be active commander-of Indians east of the St. John's river. Territory o! : .. l.2S Jesup to Seoreta1'J -of. wa'i-, SeptemlSer 25, 183?. American State AJapers, MilitarY Aff8.ira ni, 882. -:I. u -'


. ; Indians he fails to say. (127) Philip, .the chief. on .. the St. John's r1ver1 himself a prisoner, wished to __../ send a message to_ his people. This wish was and in response to his his a war of eome renown, t -.. ... .. -\ came in to St. Augustine under a flag of truce. Coacoochee I ) flf. ised and Jesup: 1to detach_ all his warriors, and perhaps > ..... ..... !II..... the great body of Seminoles from hostile party._ (128) J ... .. ".(" .... I n order to this -he was permitted to return to his. "1;; I ', ,.. people father relattves were held at /-_ A., ""' ., On October l. 7, Coaooochee returned to r.epor t Osceola,_ I .. I I Coe-llajo1 and a f6r a parley.These .... ,.., ....... ... ;, chiefs1 fearing _refused to St.' A:ugustine, but f --;. ...... -... .... "' instead Camped a few miles away. H;rnandez-Tiel ted them at their ... ... Y.:.. .... I .... ::" camp om s 1 "' : .... .11 ... M;. :-... ";" ,. m ._Ascertain the lndians. comi ng in this time. Also their -expectations .. Are they to deliver up "the tak'en fr.oi\ 'tbe c i tizena; 'lLt onee? Why 'have thet not surrendered them -already;, ,.>, .r. -:. :.. :. ;; j ,!_ "'. 1o .. _.;.;-_. Exec:-. Docs : ,._ '>


d 'Dy Oo-Ha4jo t ort King? Ba the cll1efa of the n tion h 14 a Oou oil in relation to the tal.k at Fo.rt King? t ohief tt d 4 .th t Council, and hat a their det rm1nat1on? Have ob1efa aeut a e senger itb the de o1a1on of tbe Oounoil? ve t e principal oh1e!a Wicanopy, Jump r, 'Cloud, nd ll1g tor ent essen er 7 and 1f ao, wh t 11 th tr m 18& ? Why have not beae c 1efa come themeel e ? (129) n ro t que tion took Oaoeol by 8urprise. It be aa unable to d. n wer for ( 130) Hernandez r por d t t the I d1 na eyaa1Ye &8 usual' (131) and both idea continued to r g&td each 0 h ausp1o1on and die! vor. During th talk another exprea received. from J up, ord rin tb t tb Indiana b captured at once. Obedient-ly B rn nd z pre ioualJ a.rr a1gual and the troops olo d i upo the Indiana. So quickly thle done that there tfull;y 189. 2 oong a 130. G1dd1nga, 16 131. B nand I' to J aup, 25 Oong. 8 ol. IX, P ve was not totally the eneDIJ,


thrown on the ground occupied by them were ready and ev1dentl1 prepared for action. (132) The party captured included '1 warriors, 6 women am 4 I Jesup bas been much ariticize4 for this failure to respect the flag of truce. But beforepassing jUdgment is well to remftmber tha t he .was al ao being severely ticized f&ilime to SUbdue the !ndiaJlS as quicklJ as the aettlera ; .,demanded. For this reason he f lt he was acting under force of necess1 ty and that the country would applaud the result and con done 'the method. In he claimed that Osceola and I Ooe-Hajo had both violated their parole, given at !ampa Bay the preTtoua apr .ing. !hey had also 'bees false to their promise' whem they not only refused to emigrate, theaselTea, but also prevented ., others from ao doing. In all it is necessary to recognize. ':t .. the truth in the arguments o:t' beth. sides. !he war ha4 hen dragged : .... I "' : ..... '. on ye&l' after rear w1 th no end 11'1 sight and arar was raptdlr .' .... .. J losing favor. Now things looted better to Jesup since .he ha4 ooi-Hajo, Johmoa.Y,a, the !uatenuttee, and Ohitto-yahola--nearly


' Page ?0 I leading war spirits of the nation--as prisoners. At this time another attempt was made to bring about a peaoef.ul remoYal of the Seminole. Upon the suggestioaof John H. Sherbourne, a apeo1al agent of the United States, the Secretary of War and John ftoas, chief of the Chefokee r .. who had removed from Georgia, the florid& ( 1!4) llosa agreed to act as mediator Accordingly he sent a talk1 and a delegation from his tribe to the Seminole. (135) These emissaries were to advise the Seminole to ( abandon the useless fighting and to heed the orders of their \ rather, the President, anq their 1elder brother, the Secretary of War. They aiso extended the offer of peace from I the Cherokee tribe who would be their neighbors in their new .. ,. ( western home. (136) Jesup not heartily in favor of thia Cherokee no 4irect reference was made to .. \ 13!. Jesup to Adjutant General, _()ctober 21, Ibi4., 3. 134. Foreman, I mian Removal, 352 ... 135. -!he' Oherotee delegation consisted of Hair Conrad, Jesse Buahyhead, 'Thomas Woodward, Richard -J'ields, and the interpreter, Kajor ,ribid._ 136. .JohDl Itoas, October 18, ... 183'7 .... Docs., 25 Cong. 2. Yol. 'P --6-8, .o._ 285.


Page 71 !l,-f removal; instead the emis saries a of peace with the Uri1ted States.-.this, he believed, was not at all in accord with the policy of the United States, and might possibly cause a great deal of mischief. (137) The Cherokee delegates arrived in Florida shor!lYafter the capture of Osceola. First at his a t Pioolata and .,. they to see Jesup the next day they oeeded to St. Augustine where, on November 10, they v1s1 t .ed I .. \ the Seminole prisoners confined These sug gested that Cherok .ee go the wilds. in .. order .to .. carry their message the Seminole still at luge. .. ;,> : mente were made and, :with Coe-Hajo as the -, l ../ 'I 11_'. ;,: ... ewent inland 'some sixty miles to meet Micanopy, sam .Jones ,' I : F .y ; Cloud, Tuskekee, Yahola and otlrer chiefs -..... .. ..... Chiokasawhatchee -There on !o:rembe;r 30 and 1, w ',.t ; : .. .. ,i.'"""! .. .. they .and Ro_ s _s' s .. talk to ,the .. 1 "if- 1 ""'"i \; ,.,, t:"' r urging. tn.em to giqe ... jtp their useless. resistance" e,nd t:t;lrow' .. ... ,. ', > '.:..j.= : -", : ; .2' H ,_ i'- ('\,;-',," \-j,. themselves the mercy' of:the United Sta.tes. ... ; .-' .. .. } : .... ,# ; ,: ./ -""'; .. -, .-. .. _:_.... .... :'L .... ..


I Soon'after this council (December 3} Micanopy \ With Cloud and eleveaother Chiefs and fifteen or warriors went with the Cherokee delegation to Fort Mellom llt what now Orlando) v.n<1er a nag of truce .for a further parley. This audience was successful and st' eps ., ,. were being taken 'o the Indians to come in. -. Unfortunately just as thl' mediators eff.orts to .be I resulting in succesa Ooaooochee and seventeen of his band escaped from St. Augustine and made their way south to, their people. Their story quickly turned the Indians ... -' ,._gains t the proposed settlement. (139) Ross repQrted that: 1This and other events. beyond the control of the Cherokee I produced a ,udden and unexpected t I ...J 1 .. change of determination' in" the minds of the.chiefs and .. .. warriors of the natioawho were still out in their .fastness I / ... ... '1' .. J ... -. : e.-. (140) change fesup ordered'" 1 139 J'Or Ooaooo_ obee:' a aoeount of his eaQape see Brevard, I, 17Q-171. In this he mentions oDlr the escape hiS :tr'iend 'l'allll\11 Ba30 PO WaS illj)ri&oned th hia. : .. He makes ref-erence to the Others JrbO escaped at the same tiwe ..... '... .. .:. '.' "': '. ;', r. Ross to .secretary or war, -llanua.rt --2; ; .lu.. Docs. ;2!$ Ooag. 2 Bess P. 11-1.2


flag of truce should be made prisoners of war. (141) John Roes immediately this act to the Secretary of saying it made the Cherokee appear traitors to their own raoe. (142) His demands for their liberty were disre garded. K1canopy and hi people after being imprisoned for tim at St. Augustine with Osceola and bia party, were ent to Charleston, and finally to Arkansas. (143) The Cherokee m1 sion ended in failure s.nd the Florida war ent on. The regular troops needed by Jesup did not begin to rive until the last of October and the principal Yolunteer force did not reach Florida until December. As an incentive for the Creek warriora Secretary a! War, December a, 1837. 142. Rosa to eoretary f War, cb 8, 1838. Exeo. !1.2.2... I 25 Cong. a I as. YOl. VIII I P 15-19 I no. 285:-. r 143. Th Indian pris' onera at St. Augustine were removed to Charleston and confined 1n rort Moultrie where an escape auch a Coaocoohee oould not be repeated. The party included Kicanopy,-Co -Ba3o, Xing Philip, Osceola, CloUd, 116 warriors and 82 women and children. After a month's imprisonment at Cbarl toa t eae captive 1th 220 othera, were sent to New Orleana and confined 1n the barracks at ort Pite. JiTe died on the voyage. who had been 111 ever since his capture, died at rort Moultrie on January 30, 1838. His d1ae se wa said to be an affection 1 of the throat, 1but grief and mortification doubtlea had their share in bring him to hi. s 1 end. 1 Foreman, Indian Re val 357-358.


, Page ?A: / .. .. ( used-in the and sent west after their discharge on September 1837) to reenlist Jesup all theplunder they could seize from the Seminole. To justify this unusual procedure be wrote: I 1There is now no obligation to spare. the property of the Indiansthey have not that or the c1 t1zens. .. The resulting' campaign was a strange mixture of guerilla warfare and slave catching forays. Jesup announced that all property seized would belong to or detachment of white troops making the capture, while the Indians were promised a reward for all negroes they took alive. tl45) This poli.oy aroused the wrath of many people the Un1 ted States, and espe.cially the Abol1 t1onists. Some of the regular soldiera alsQ resented being into slave hunter8. (146) With bis troops thus reenforced Jesup proceeded to ,., .

Page be established and during the campaign. light officets were giYen specific to -cover, each invading his territory) engaging in skirmishes and taking prisoners. (147) The hardships endured by the troops dur-. ing were ro every soldier killed .,. bY' the Indians, five died from the effects of the climate. Yet all the while the army. was being severely criticized by the people of Florida because of their failure to bring the war to a successful close. soldiers, on the other hand) saw their efforts &san: inglorious war, defending a domain which can never be and protecting some of its inhabitants who would suffer auch in with the During the.period from September 4,. 1837 to Kay Jesup 1,978 -prisoners were actuallJ secured --of whom-23 escaped. L49. Spragae


Page ?! Toward the end of his campaign Jesup became more and more convinced of-theimpossibility of ending the I war. During a parley at rort"Jupiter "(near Lake Worth) in 1838, he promise4 tne'Indians to try \ persuade the war department to allow to remain in Florida. He wrote: 1Ky depided opinion is, that unless immediate emigration be abandoned, the war will continue for years to oome, and at a constantly accumulating / Indeed I do not consider the country south of the Ohiokasa-Hatches worth the medicines we shall expend in I d.l'iving Indians from it. (150) While the Secretary of War found these 'interesting', he said he was to suspen4 the d the polioy. General Zachary 'aylor, who succeeded Jesup, evolved an elaborate action the into military twentr miles.equare. establishing a post in the or atthe most strategic point in each. These were Qccupied by 20 or 10 -part of them mounted. The officer commanding was ordered to "' scout his district al-ternate day, 'thoroughly ... ...-..... _. the swamps hammocks.


a,ge I held responsible to see that his territory was clear of I Indians. (151) !his plan would doubtless have preYed most ( -successful had it been followed for a long enough time. In the summer of 1838 Holatoochee, Coe-Hajo and several other chiefs and warriors who removed to the West were induced to return to Florida to per.suade the remaining Seminole to emigra.te. By' they had helped. to collect about a hundred Tallahassee Indians who had ooae in to negotiate w1 th General Taylor. Two months later the number had to (152) on October 20, 1838 Taylor succeeded in embarking all \ of the Apalaohee Indiananumbering about 220. During the following oaptiYea were being assembled at Tampa Bay' and on 25, 1839, !aylor shipped 196 -1 Indians ne women were Y.ery reluctant to go &D4 upbraided the aen with coward1c, in *0 die upon their native so1i. !be Teasel their lamen-tations and taunts, apa reproaches upon their warriors. (15&) 151. 153. 153. Sprague, 288. 154-.


' 1 Page ? B Although this combing process was evidently \ successful the people of r+orida were not entirely satisfied. In his message to council, January 11, 1839, I Governor a. x. 0&11 their position: Since the lastaession of the Legislative Council; our boraera have been greatly harrassed by the banda of the enemy..Dur 1ng the last aummer, numerous and distressing incidents occurred, in which whole families were murdered bY. the midnight attack of the enemy. The frontier inhabitants were kept in a of perpetual and alarm, and although the troops of the Government were actively employed in their defense, it became necessary in the opinion the Executive, on the urgent application of the people and the officers of the exposed districts, io order a portion of the Vil1tia into serY1ce. c I Call further advised the Council to memorialize Oongresa J auggesting another Be the o J 10,000 settlers, gathered I r. -t ere to be oom:pani. ea and giYeu and BUbBiltenoe for twelYe months. !hef were to form a :....,"',.,... ..... J bulwark be. tweett the Indiana and 'the settlements .lt' .! the close of the war eaoJ:l and ... .... ...., ... ._,_. was to reoeiYe the grant of a quarter section of land, and officers in


/ other as Congress might direct. (155) !he his advice and memorialized February 1839. (156) but proposal nor the plan of was given a / chance to succeed. In March; MaJor General Alexander Macomb, Commander -in-Chief of the United States was I sent to empowered by the to make an agree----: .. ment with the Seminole. It was hoped that his high rank would impress the Indiana and eventually lead to peace negotiations. / He released Tayldr'a tnem P&ck to their people with offers of peace. Through these prisoners Macomb I got in touch with the oh1efa aDd on a council was 1held. !he chiefs !ustenuggee Tustenuggee came in w1tb warri,ora; Jones, now too old to be ac .tive, r '.sent Chitto Tustemggee about the .same number. These ,;. .. .._ .. .,. Indians,. who ha4 been c!%1i from swamp to swamp for three \ reara:,. wer., thaD a buckaktm I !he men ha4 other 155. Governor a : x. Call's message delivered to llortda Leg1s1attr Oounotl, January 11, 1839. JournJ nofida Torrttori,al 1837-1843. loript .. 1 151. troa Leg1a1at1Ye Council of theTerrtterr of nortda, rebruat"y 18, 185; scpata fub11o Doowpen$ 25 CJope .. 3 Sea a Yo1 I .II t .JlO. 233. ..


' ahirt; while among the 'women children., -.hose who ha4 aar coTering at in old forage -(157) bags picked up 1n the .S.o1n1 ty Of abandoned posts. !alleot who was -.. xpreased h1a deaire forpeace and signifded that his \.... -. .. people were to ,n.ter into any teru 41d "-not require them to remove to Arkansas. -fhe and Jlaoomb r aohed an agreement "-,' were temporarily lands south of the Pece 1 Oreek. !here they were to assemble w1th their fami 11es within aixty daya azl'd u aa word of. their council could be the aoattered bands throughout the etate, to cease. Macomb ll&de no formal written agreeaent for., as he aaid, a written treatr .could haTe no more binding I effect. than a Terbal one on Indiana who oould not \ (158) read. ther did he think 1t to r tion re oval. It .waa the hope of f ; that as, th S h_ .-... thetr reiati.-iea 1n 'the I' est bad b I they would .to remove &lao. ....,.._ r


Page 81 .. I .the apparently uaeleas expenditure 110ney livea. Kowever, the treaty was 1denounced by the 'f' I of ilorida who demanded nothing of abaolute removal or annihilation of the Indians. Also keeping and feed1ng large numbers of troops -. in Florida had brought a measure of prospori tr to aome of the inhabitants of the !er;i tory who were (159) unwilling to see 1 t d1eoont1nued. 1 11th the war apparently over citizens again returned home to replant their crops and .repair their farms. were BO alarms during I ., f June, but early in July trains, express aen, and .traelera were assailed on the highways. Plantation er. e attacked and again the 1 ettlera had to fly., leaviq t I .I, ,r\ f f f" I o everyth1ng.behind. 1thoae.who had endeavored to make Jlorid&' & hoae returned to the neighboring (110) in the belief that the J'lorida war, would never end. 1 I "' :r '!he_deed'that ahooted the aauntrJ .Oat the p:n1ee attaok made upon the command of Lieutenant Barner wh1oh had been sent Charlotte to'eatab- J 11ah a tr&4iug post. While the f 30 men waa .' I ._ .,. -j I ._ I encamped on the I ., If


Page 82 \ (161} Indiana ... bJ the Spanish Chief Bospi tarche fell upon it at dawn, Julf 23, 1839. earlr h&lf (162) the Oc> were mu.rdered. It 11 impoible to aay whether this massacre was done with the knowledge and coneent of the 1e $ding chiefs. Kost of -(163) them denied it. lben Lieutenant Ranson at rort Kellon heard of the attack he seized 46 Semrhole Y1sit1ng his poet and ehipped them immediately to Charleston; from (184) there they were sent to Aikansae. !he ci tisane of were thoroughly arouaed and determined to secure either complete removal or 161. !he 1Spanish Indians lived along the south. ern coaat ot the 'lorida peninsula. They were called 1Spaniah Indians because they had intermarried with the Spanish fisheraen liTing near them. did not\ become embroiled the waras long as the fighting was confined to the neighborhood of the Withlacoochee, but in 1840, When tbe scene of the conflict ah1fted southward they took the field under the lead8rship of Boapi tarke and Ohet1ta.. Spragae ,243. 113. Description by Sargeant Bajwood, atiope1 latellinge;, XXVII, October 25, 1839. ... 163. Sprague (p. 235) at latter-Kioo) &lao led the attackers. The ational v Intellingerf lmi, oveaber S, 1839, quotee from r......... ..,, the J.An O:ta;ron1cle of October 31, Sam Jonea and bia tribe were at the tiae of the aaeeacre i.a the 'f'1c1ni ty o:t rort Lauderdale, dietant about 100 ll1lee, and h&ve notl only all ln, or knoWledge of, .the maaaaare, but up to the latest ad 'f'1cee continue to jiwlifeet a neutral d1epoei tion and &D .t.ntent 1o abide 'br the agreeaent 1r1 th General Jlacoe. 164. Spracue, 238... r


Page 83 total extermination of the Indi&Qs. In his first message to the Leg1slat1Te Council GoTernor Raymond Reid aaidJ 'le are waging a war W1 th beasts ot prer the tactics that belong to ciTilized nat19ns are but shackled and in ita prosecution; -we must 1fight fire with fire It ia high time that sentimenta1itr abould cease. J;o, the poor wh1 temanl1 ia the ejaculation which all, will utter, who baTe W1 tneased the inhumaa butcherr of women and children, and the maaaaor es (165) which drenched the territory in blood. At last the OTernment acceded to the suggestion first made in June, 1837, bJ General Jesup, ud re(166) peated bJ him at 1nterTals Ooloael -litzpatriok was sent to .the 'lest Indies 1D aecure aome of the bloodhounds which had bee ued so auoceasfullr by the Br1tiah againat the Maroons. Be returned January 6, 1840, nth 33 dogs and "\he1r trainers. !his attempt unaucceasful for the doga, trained I to follow the tra1i of would follow the dlfferm t aoent.6f the Ind11LD4 the government eTc considered uaing -. a atorm of objection burat the 165. aovernor Reid's messlie, January 14, 1840, Journ{: at lli ';tor1da tVritorial J.erlalature. 1837--lSi!. JD8.1luscr1pt 166. Jesup 1D Secretary Yar, June 1 1837 "ffr1gp bu Papers, 11111tarrfa1ra, VII, 878 .so Jesup to Secretary of War, December 20, 1837, 893. r


' P&ge 84 Viol nt proteata wer raised in both the lorth and I South and heated debat s were held in Congress. With ,the failure of the Tenture, howeTer, the proteat eubaided. The Florida war continued to drag on, apparently o nearer anc ebd than at ita beginning nearly fiTe year before General Tqlor asked to be relieYed of the oo and wh1oh he had held 'tar two years and on Kay 6, 1840, .he was r eplaoed by Br iP:41 er General Walker I. !he Seminole, while few in were atill able to oommit depredations. The most notorious of thetr massacres were the one (167) and the murder of at Indian ley, .lugus t 7, 1840, (168) Mrs. Montgo ery and her esoort, December 28, 1840. !he Yery amallneaa ot their numbers an adYantage to the Indiana oome and go undetected. !hef auddenly, th n disappear in to in aome ways army remained ueeleas in ita oampa or floundered r ,.,. 167. Bester Perrine Walker; 1Maasacrflbf Indian ley, Flojifa lietor1ca1 Society Q1mrter1x. TOle V, (1926-19 T P 18-42. During this attack Dr. llenry Perrin noted botanist, physician, and pioneer, was tilled. 168. Spr&l";l',


Page as--. t -pursuit. Armistead's Sl:"DIY of 3,403 non-commissioned officers and privates and 241 commissioned officers (169) was unable ... to prevent depredations and certainly could not take the offensive against an unseen and highly mobile enemy. Because of this apparently unsurmountable dead-lock a former method was tried again. Two the principal chiefs / of the Nacose Yahola, with 12 warriors and 2 interpreters prevailed upon to I go from Fort Gibson .to Florida and .exert their influence in persuading the remnant of the to remove west. On ..,. November 7, the Fort Xing a few days r .... :.....later went with General Armistead, Worth and a ... \. .. company of dragons to. the camp of Tustenuggee r an interview "'!'iger '!'ail sent word th8.t be would be present : !or a talk and affair a were moviDg. a'tis'factorilj'. .. L ": SuddenlJ on the. of llo'!ember 141 the .200 Indiana living .. "1\o ... ..... in the of Xing :al.f ,-ariisbed. Armistead ,, -.. was so exasperated that he 'ordered h!s troops to and in the event 'that anr' of shoul-d present : themsel vee .,.. ... under a flag of truce, _they were


Page 88 r .. t9 be made prisoners at once. The troops, however, were unable to overtake or d1scoyer 'ny of them for some time. (t70) The search continued and on March 21, 220 captive Tallahassee& were west' from Tampa Bay. Another party Ill' of 2GO was sent on May 7. About this time Costa-Tustentlggee I surrendered with his band of 32 warriors and 60 women and (171) ( children. They were to on June 20, 1841. 'In February. 1841: Colonel Worth reached ooaoooohee and persuaded him tocome to camp with 7 warriors for a 1talt. There he was greeted by his twelve-year-old daughter who had been ,l: (172) aome months earlier. near:.J'ort Kellon. Ooacooopae remained in. camp four hard as it admtted, the necessity of lea!s,rig $"he ccuntry. of the' ... ,. difficulty of "his he said that. no .thing .. could -l?e .done until the green-corn dance in o ": _...., ,"' I f order to ga his l)eopie he was parmi tteo. to leave tl\e ; ,. 0 '-, 0 ,. 1 ,' -, .:J;,.f ,"'4 camp with h18 daughter ana friends; ten days -:-... r ,,,.""' "':t: ... .. .. ,'i : ... { .... .,-: 'ft" .. ... f he returned w1 thout baving accomplished. anrtllg.


' oamp. always w1 th the aame exouae lle was difficulty collecting his people., llajor Ohilds at rort Pierce begalt to doubt his alnc.erity. reported hie euaplciona to General Armistead and, in obedience to the Generalta orders, tsed Ooacoochee. his brother. his uncle,'l3 .tfl' warriors and 3 negroes on Ma7 21. sending at once to lew !hie news did not reach headquarters until June 15. Immediately Colonel w.J. Worth. who had aucoeeded on Kay 31 l \1'73)< ordered the Indiana to be brought back to r lorida. When the party was returned they were kept in irons at Fort Brooke until the remainder of the band should surrender. During &ka an with t '" ,.. \ prisoners on July 3 Colonel Wor-th adTised the ohief l ':.. ... f .,J;; to' aend fiTe of his :coapanlba _wiih for the T r+ \ gloving thea .0 days to ooae in. r cera failed. tribe on the fortieth "7-: ... .. ... Ooaoooohee the rest were to ... -. ,... ... 1 beoaua e preferred any 4e.ath' to. ) ,.J t I i ( ; f that Ooa'oooohee sent .. ': forth; 1hie deeply wounded by his clanking :. .....


' ) as fe-tters. In ten day a Old Kicco, who ha.d sense for Philip, Coacoochee' returned with 6 warriors and a number of women and f I children. J'rom day to day amall in until, at the end of tbe aonth, the entire band Of 78 64 'women, and 47 1r&8 en. camped at fort Brooke. "' Seeing that further resistance was useless Ooaooochee used his influence to persuade other chiefs to oome .in. He was so aucoese-... ful that on October 11, "211 lndians were embarked (174) for the west.ern .country. .Among those were the Spanish chief Boapitarche and his band. r The army meanwhile was 'Y:Lounder ihg through the swamps seeking outthe hiding places.of the Indiana.-. I. Contrary to the usual d1d not gp I "' .,. summer'quarters, continued 'active pursuit dur-. t '\/' ... ;.. "" .. ing the warm months. ;!he_ hlghlJ .: ;. .... ,"' .... .. islands ln the vpon which the -. -. ... t / ... Indiana were depending for provisi. ona for the follow.. ... r :o .. ing winter. These fields the soldiers destroyed. ....: : : .. arely, h

e .Page 89 eummer campaip men suff,ered from ex--1,. --posure .beat and stagnant During the of June, iB41, the medical director reported that (175)-3,107 men had been taken sick. !o this summer l campaign, hazardous' as it was .t was laid the success -of the removal efforts and the numbers of Indians Governor Call pictured attendant I hardships in his_ to the Legi.slative.Oounoil, 'th following winter: Jt .,. The continued and harrassing pursuit of the enemy during season of the year when the army has hitherto reposed in summer quarters has produced such a result as mig)\lt have beea anticipated !he Indians find1ng'that our soldiers are able and willing to enooUIIter every fatigue and. privation and to endu:re .the burning s un .of summers as well as :the keen blast of winter in order to c!r1'1'e them from their -many of "their ltoldeat warrior a w1 th their families have surrendered and are now ready to aba.ridon a ooun in whi ell they can no longer hope for auocessful.res1tance andenjoy the nine months of safety and. during the :-. .... )_ ... : .-:-!"''"'"'' .......... .. -:;:: .. _,. ,. N .. _,- -.-1-, ::.,. .... By the w1nt.-r 1841 were only small __ ... ... -. "' groups of .. .in Daftl .. ... .... I-. ; 'l ... ; ', ..,. ., ':' .. "7 and land while acouring the t


' Page 90 found few Indians although some of their camping places and crops were discovered and destroyd.-I In othei' parts cf the Terri tory amall parties :were still committing murders and depredations. About 400 of these outlaws ere captured and sent west during. the and the' .spring of 1.s'a2, On i February 14, 1842, Colonel orth reported that not i (177) .. aore than 300 Indians remained in Florida. Conside,ring the smallness of their numbers be believed that it was i mposs1ble them by force. stead he attempted to. bribe them, offering !rom two to five thousand dollars to the chiefs and thirtr dollar'S and a rifle to the common. warriors who would ... r' 1'17. colonel Worth" estimate February l-4., 1842. Exeo Doca. 27 Cong. 2 Seas. Tol. V, P no. 282. j I women.and children Sam-Jones's band 15 31 ., 'l'he Prophets including Bowleg's 13 24 Assinawaa Ohi tto-' : ': -: ... !. 20 : -40 aalleck-'l'ustenuggee 12 20 I Powia Cockuchnies, associated ri tll llalleot .'I ..... 10 'fbe two Otiarchea' .; .. ao _. ... 2'1 4'1. Jlothle Peree 'lustenuggee, chitto, _. J!ajo, llalpatter 'l'ustenuggee ;L9 :. 30 / 49 .oz.-.... aa rt;. rei .. : .. r .. ..


(178) oome in. Page 91 I \ On August 14, 1842, Worth announced the cession of hoatilitiea. It was decided that the few remain-ing Indians were to a reservation assigned to them extending% from the mouth of the Pease Creek to the !ork of ita southern branch, to the "' head of Late Istokpoga, thence down the Kissimmee river to Late Oteeohob _ee, th:rough the Everglades to the Shark rive; and .then north along the'coaat I ( 1 ?9) i to the point. But were not yet over, A band of Oreeka under !iger Tail and attack settlers and press messengers. a band under Pascota was ;! l \ .. .I a till at large on. the .lp&laohioola river. .By Jan.:. I uary, 1843, these,chiefa taken and sem -. 1 ?a. fhia pol'ioJ na }begun by Armi tead, rebruary 14, .1841., 'but wascontinued with better reaulta the following rear by Worth. stead to Secretary_. of. 'ar, 7ebrl18l'y 1r .. 1841, 2? Oong. 2 Seaa. Yel. 1', P 14--:; no. 247. 1?9 .ldju*ant General, Ordera no. 28, August 14, 1842, .Eu..Q... poet. 18 .. Oong. : 1 Be, IV:, p. no.-n;-- :._ -.

PAGE 100

' I ... ..... -Page 92 -(180) west. low Sam Jones and Holatter-Kioco were the only chief' s remaining in Jlorlda and they announced themselves ready accept the terms that were offered the previous August. 'lhe Jlorida war was at an end at last and only a fragment of the Seminole tribe the Territory. On January 20, 1844, the Office of Indian Affairs announced that 3,824 Indians and (181) negroes had been removed and located in the west. 180. Foreman, Indian Removal, 381-384. Later accounts eay that Tiger Tail never left Florida and that the Indian who was taken in this place and who later died 1n tbe barracks at St. Aug ustine was only a resembling_ the chief in stature. When Tiger Tail was captU+ed he was found recovering from a drunken revel, 'hisface being badly beaten and scratched malting him practically unrecognizab1e. Liquor was known to be his greatest failing and perhaps the chief was just crafty enough to plan this clever substitttion. 'The real Tiger Tail is supposed to have to in Florida until his in 1881. Isaijella K. 'The Truth Regarding Tiger Tsil1 P 68-?4 and Inde, 'Old Tail Dead, 1 :J.92-lt4, llor1ftjllistorical igp1etx QuArterly, Vol. IV, (1925-1926 181. Office of Indian Affairs, January 20, 1844. ill2 Dooe., 28 Oong. I Sees. vol. IV, P 21 no. 82. .. .: ..

PAGE 101

page 93 -Considering the who must haTe fallen in t battle or died from the hardship. s of the war, it appears that the estimates of the numerical strength of the Seminole, in _1823, fell far short of their actual population. .After 1844 the Indians remained relatively peaceful, planting their crops and bunting within their own boundaries. At scattered intervals the llorida Legislature would pass a resolution to secure a speedy removal of those remaining, bul (182) nothing ever came of these ac.ts. !he attempt removal in i849, it incurred great (183) secured the emigration of only about 70 Indiana. :. \ -. ... ..., -. '-. ., In 1851 and 1852 a more definite attemPt was made I to remove the lot that the had done anything -unusual, but. the press continued "' I' _. .. '_, remind the Jloridians that in these few remaining -::.;:;;;,;:::::;::;...== \ Indiana lay a cons1ant menace towards their livea I 181;. 'Resolution ... of Legislature of l'lorida,1 December 28, 1848. Sepate Docs. 29 Oong., 2 Seas. vol. II, ao 21. "Resolution passed Kar 3,,-1848,1 louse Miscellaneous Docs. so I_.Sess. 1, no. 82. .. : .. .:. ,:. 183. Secretary of Interior to 11lake, April lSSl. iournal of the P:ooeedings of-the Bouie of Represeptatiyes Of the General AssemblY of the State ,o,f l1orid&, ppendiz, P

PAGE 102

.. and property. Brown wrote: (184) Page 94 .. ....... .... .. On April 11, 1851, Governor .. It is true, the Indians at thts .i.1.m@.. are, apparentlJ harmless bu ow long they 4 will 'remain harmless is Yery doubtful '!'hey murdered several of our citizens wi thin1 the last two years, and killed or captured the boy from the plantation of Captain Sumner within the last year. 'Therefore, it cannot be admitted that they have for several years been wm1ess, 1 .. as you say. (1.85) .. ,.. Then too, the 'O.ld urge for more laiXl had come back om ..: the white settlers of Florida. Th. e land ori which they had. settled the far from being worthless .. "' J. 1' "'-.!' c-..;. .... ;,.,.,., formerly believed, had come -to be, -.... \ 184. Editorial, seminole Indians, October 22, 1853; ,. in St. Augustine Ancient City --in collection Qf Julian Tonge, Pensacola. 1The immediate and final removal of this war-like tribe of Indians, from our. state. demands :the attention .of our and may be takem up by partisans.---we know Governor Brooma to be a man of-mind, a man of energy and perseverancey-He knoJrs the people wl th him, in carrying.out the principle& tOJwhioh he referred in his able and eloquent inaugural acttess .We give 1 t as our opinion: that the SeminOles. ; .ought to be removed thence as Yen of capital se$k a locati_on in another ltate. their persons and ,Properly will b e secure from ii?-cursions of sava.ges.l! :This ed1 torial. refers, to the inaugural speech of Governor James 1. Broome whq took office in October, 1853. His address does not appear 1n_the Legislative Journal, which was then only The first message he eent the Legislature on November 24, 1854 tells how he followed the instructions of 'the last sessiom of the General Assembly (1852-1853)-and raised a Brigade.of vol unteers to remove : the Indians. .Also he saw to 1 t that all who violated the law prohibiting trade with the Indians shouldbe punished. Legislati-Te Journal, 185_.. : : -:. -. '::-; ...... 185. Brown Ibid. 30..:31.

PAGE 103

.Page 95 I in their eyes, the most valuable part of the state. Brown wrote: It is quite certain that, if Indian are left to tneir own tney will never remove the most interesting and valuable part of our state i s cut off from any benefit to the citizens and sealed to the knowledge of the world, to be used as a hunting ground for a few roving savages. ( 188) As a result of this agitation Billy Bowlegs and a party of Seminole were sent to Washington to see tne President. There they signed an agreement with.the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, promising to.use their influence in persuading their people to go west. (187) Since no definite time limit was set on this agreement, Governor Brown's prophecies that nothing would come of this attempt were fulfilled. I In 1855 a more serious disturbance arose when a party of. government under Lieuteil&:nt Hartsuff, who making a gener8J. survey of. Florida, deliberately r .uined the garden of Billy Bowlegs just to 1 see old Billy out I 1.
PAGE 104

Page 96 $500 for living Indians delivered either at Fort Brooke "' or Fort llyer&. After years of government .bunting Billy Bowlegs his. band of 150 were forced to emigrate. (188) In 1889 the Legislature a bill _granting 835,000 acres of land to the Indians, but before the lands chosen by a special co ami ttee could be pass ed upon, those lands had passed private ownership and the work came to naught. bill passed in granting them 235,000 acres was vetoed by 'the governor. (189) Finally in 1917 the Florida seminole Land B1111 setting aside approxi mately 100,000 acres for the in Monroe County. (190) While only five per cent. I ., -of this land is said to be suitable for the Seminole at last has some territory land which he can call his own. .!' t' ,. ,. .. .. ; -........ 188. llinnie llooreWillaon. !he Seminole of Flo 'rida (lew: York, 1920) p 39. !he author:g!'ves no source for story, Foreman, Indian "Removal, 385, 'says Billy Bowlegs and & band of 165 were rem9ved in Yay, 1856. James Broomes message, November 24{ 1856, mentions attack on Hartsuff. Legislative Journ8.1, 18p6) p. :11. r-. .. ) \ 1 Jhe Seminoles of nor ida, 19'1 .. I 4 ._,. .... "' : 190 Revised General Statutes g! 1920, ... (Deland, 1926) I, section J313 .. .. '-_,;:}' ... "' .. it.

PAGE 105

Page 9? Chapter VI Tlorida and the War -. The years of interm1 ttent Indian warfare played havoc with Jlorida's settlement and _econom1o deYelopment. Before the outbreak of Indian troubles many plantations had been brought into cultiTation and settlers were pushing .,. further and further south into the peninsula. Towne, were beginning to spriag up. Japksonville was named in 1822. Quincy laid out in 1825, Monticello ial828, Marianna, '. Apalachicola and Key West in1829. (191) But the settlers' -were as hardy as had been those of the earlier northern and western frontier of standing ready to defend their homes in 'the w1ld.erne ss when. trouble broke .:> out, they immediately abandoned eTerything and fled to the towns and posts for -...,.. J. 4 ,... ., Since most of.the who Oreek t "" ..: .. ,. and on to had abandoned all their possessions they ve4 'destitute and had "to b ; e oared for by r f .: charity:. This addi tionat load decided bandicap because I the oomparati Te: : .-+.: : -

PAGE 106

. Page trade that Jacksonville enjoyed with the interior was entirely destroyed. Although it was expected that hostili_ties would be confined to the central portion of the. peninsula, the of trade with the interior was \ perceptibly felt in the business circles of all Florida towns. The Jacksonville Courier ceased publicatiomand, '"because of the gener&l unrest, many that had been contemplated were abandoned. (192) St. Augustine, too, felt the strictures imposed the war and by the influx of_ x:efuge .es. As early as January 26, 1836, a committee of citizens respec._tfullJ,. recommended: / That, for. the immediate relief of the poor families of this community: belonging-to the country, whose dwellings, provisions and means -of subsistence have been burnt, destroyed or abandoned, and who bave fled tor that, for the relief also of the poor and suffering familtes of this city,whodepend for their daily bread, upon the daily labors of their fathers, husbands, and sons, who have been taken from them the general defence, who are now held, and must be continued on that serTice, in the behalf of,. and in the service of, this territory, and the United States for the of all that ls moat dear to their and our families and firesides; that to all these suffering persons, General Hernandez, now in r

PAGE 107

co and, be reque ted to cause euf!1c1ent 1aauea t prov1a1one for their fro the public 1tor e. It further ret)OIIIIlended t t th norid& cleleg&te proourea I edi te pa age of a law for the compenaation, (full and adequate, if po eible) for thole hole plantation or other property a been destroyed, or tat n fro them, 'D.r the lawl and incendiary ene ; that by he country aay ln lome e be restored and aved from ruin. (193) The new plantations uf!ered most. Qften their o ere 4 1 rted thea for e eral ye a at a lv n if the bu1ld1ngl eloaped fire and looting at th of the Indiana, the groves and fields ent to ruin from 1 ok of care. fhen too, When tb aettlere did remain they dar d not venture tar from ahelter to oare for and oultiYate their oropa ) fh 1 could ever be aure that a I ty might not be lying in wait in aome bamaoot or OJ'Pl' I bay bead. J'ara1n under ooul4'.be neither auocesaful nor On aettler wrote on July 10, lMO-t The unaccountable or ather o nable oircumatano of th war, keeping e out of possession 4f -.y plao nd the total failure of the IIUl b rry ll&rk t, depr1-rea ae of &ll 111 resource tor the preaent either can I do anything at rJJ.1. orange grove

PAGE 108

, -,. .. myself to da.Dger for Indians are bolder than ever. !hey have dispersed into small parties and prowl about like wild beaats. -' Two rears later, on JalluSrJ 1, 1842, the same aan wrotel J -, This ia the I have obliged to abandon my place and sacrifice. money and everything r life In all former with the Indians they have to .come into Ka.ndarin settlement before .... tt has been longreportedand was be-. -lieved that the troops bad gotten almost all .the of the territory and that.the w:a.r would soon be terllinated. But alas! we have just experienced another orul disappointment and thete 18 no more eecuritr"or prospect far its termination than at its commencement. (194) .. In the eyes __ the people the war was a terrible handicap to'the territorr. While f r the entire countrr recovering fr9m the panic_ ... ; of 1837 llorida had to carry burden economic Governor \ .J'. r"-.... ,.: # ./ ]>' said in 1838: ;' ... ';1 ; ,.,
PAGE 109

. / courage. It was at time that llorida, in r company with other states, found it necessary to repudiate her debts. !o the whites, tbe Indian was merely a stum bling block in the way. of civilization and progress. Why a few hundr .ed savages should hold land solely for hunting, which would support "'thousands of farm. (196) era, was more than they could eee. lor could the two races live side by side w1 thin carefully defined limits, without indulging in raiding ex1 'p&dit1ons across each other'sborders The man was intolerant of the ways of the red, while the unused to being confined within limits in his search, saw no reason to respect a pur&ly imaginary c11 !be temper the whites bad been worn II) thin by theA,ong :War on March 5, 1842, the 'Legislative unanimously \ o C I adepted the resol.ut1oal .... ---..... ... Resolved by the. Qovernor and Council of the terri tory of F.lorida;' 'l'bat our Delegate in Congress be requested to use his best exertions to obtain from Congress a law rewards to be paid for Indian scalps; also, a reward for every Indian tlr.ken alive by any person or persona than those attached 196. Between 1835and 1842 no settler dared go south 0! the Withlaoooohee river. lational XXX, Karch 19, 1842. ..

PAGE 110

(197) ,to and tD the United States Army, .. lven more violent had been Governor Reid's message in Be ,said: If the Indians remained quiet, our people. would not be oontent. There is blood upon r too many hearthstones, too many homes have b een made desolate--the Ci tizen.'J of Florida oannot forget, if they would; and remembering, they will never tolerate the neighborhood of such fiends After the compacts they have made and violated,-the Indians have no claim to favoror consideration from the United ltates Government, which is bound not only -to cb.a.Btise their misdeeds, but its honqr is concerned in their speedy and entire removal to the West. Shall it appear hereafter in our annals that this greatwation was foiled(?) (198) and forced from its purposes, -'by a few savages; who, after spreading terror an sive for seven years, dictated their own ter01s and constrained u.s to a humiliating acquiescence in them? !he pride and dignity of the Oountrr would turn with disgust from such & recordS (199) On the other 'b:nd, the Seminole ,aawit, be was'f1ghting for the of his r ... .f "". fathe;'s,: ani the land in wbioh his ..:.0..: -:-. I I t ... ;_ .,. .. ... -.; .... ... i ....,:Y \ were could see no justice in the_C?laim .., j o:t the white people to land on which the Seminole had never willingly .relinquished title. !hat the ,., I .,.,.. ._ ,.. Xing of Spain., whom be had never aeen, had 'sold: -\r .. ..,......:..-

PAGE 111

page 108 .\ .. land to the United meant nothing to the Seminole l'&.rrior f.ighting to preserve his home. As Osceola said at the Fort I1ng' Oouncil 1n 'l834: agent tells us we must go away from the lands which 'We live on-our homes, and the graves of our fathers; and go th big :1ver among bad Indians. When the agent tells me to go from my home, I hate him, because I love my home and will not go from it, Ky Brothersl When the Great Spirit tells me to go with the wbi te .man, I go; but be tells me .. not to go. The white man says I shall go, and he will send people to make me go; but I have a rifle and I have some powder and some lead. x we must not leave our homes and lands. ( 200 J !hese sentiments eoboed by Kioanoprs We are not hungry for other why should we go and bunt for them? We like our own ,1 lands. We are happy here. lhy shoula -tear our hearts from .the homes round which ther are entwined? Our heart strings will snap. We cannot consent ._, .. We will not _goJ (201) J:ven afta nearlr 81x rears of hopeless fight-, I ing olung to tb.e'se same -I -. ... ... he oame Colonel Wortht a camp in 1841 he saidL. f !be wh'1tea 'have dealt unjuatlr by me. t came .. to them, they me; the land I was. upoa I loved, my body was made Of its sands; the. Great Spirit gave ae legs to walk over itl .. hands to aid myself; eyes to see its ponds, 'forests, and game; then a head With-. -. ..., : -.... -. /. aoo. !be-war in riorida, (BaltiJIOre.; r

PAGE 112

, I 1oh I think. f 1 and r1 t my feelings ar to warm ua and bring tarth o ope, the moon br1 ct th lp11t of our r1ora, our t th ra, iY nd oh1ldren ( .202) The ndur db after ts23 t h b en lmoat 1nd aer1 abl ruat oot 4 tro h11 t r 11 f1 ld 1 0 lor1 db rd d unh thy oou.n y, he had to d r tiona to t p &11'f h a r d 0 y th y r doubtl lndi a from at v1 but th 00 aOOfl opr 'f nt 1: p t 11 t de hip durin d tter heir Y1Y1dlJ p1otured by Or fe at 1 nor d truoea, both a1 1n t r1gh t du:r ing grounda out into wampy, nd o go rnment ttona, a ed kept 110 t of th food 1eY ., at led to d 1 tb lnc11ana haY be 1 a boota r

PAGE 113

page 105 -. the of Parne'e Landing and FO%'t Gibson. Yet no one knows just what methods were used to I aeoure the signatures of the chiefs. luaerous tales auggest bribery, trickery, intoxication and wherein lies tbe truth, DO one caa aay fqr aure. Certainly the unlettered Indian could ,. \ h&Ye DO oonoept1on mr the binding_qualitiea of a vi tten treatr. lie could acaroely be expected to respect and obey that which he didnot under atan4--espec1ally when white officers; who certainly oould not plead innocence, neglected to respect their own prpmisea and the flag of truce. Boundless aympatbJ was felt and expressed for these unfortunate Jlor1d1ans who fell beforethe ... riflr and and rightly, for scalping and .. can acarcelr be a pleaaaat, .... -
PAGE 114

page l.OS war he warfare and flight. .But his women and children must have e'uffered, too, during those rears of and wandering. lor did the Seminole1s .troubles cease after removal. Set down in a colder climate and in an unfamiliar land, they were a beWildered and ht!lpless it was y before they could become settled adapted to-their new surrounding& .lB the ,.ears -pass the Indian becomes a glamor. our creature. The picturesque translations of his -"talks make him seem a romantic and_ a poetic figure. Legends grow up around him, perhaps based originally on fact, but perpetuated and by Chambers of Commerce and agents._. '1'b1s it is difficult to imagine just what Indian was actually "' .. (' lite. Oertainl1 no primitive race, seen at first ( hand, appears as attract! Te as it dOes after time and distance haTe smoothed away the.harsh savagery and mellowed the prilllitiT unpleasantness. -.. '!he few to number between five and .aix who still remain J'lor- ida, retain many of old cuetoma. ow and then .. (204) they tate_ .over some of the man, 203. .!loy aab, Survex gt !)a Seminole Ipdiana At J'J.orid& (Washington, 1931). 20,. Such aa asking rederal Relief. !his aeema o be becoming the great American pastime. ... w--">""'-""n r

PAGE 115

. page 107 but, on the whole, clinging to their ancient folk ways, dress and mode of living. These Seminole are to be unusually good physical specimens, and the best looking of all American Indians. ll-, though in comparison with the intellectual abilities and operationsof a cultured white m49, the Seminole's mental powers appear quite limited, when compared to other American aborigines,the Seminole enters first ( 205) place. I Unfortunate as it seems in retrospect, the conflict between two races was in.vitable. It is a regrettable truth the pioneer is never aoved by humanitarian feelings toward the 1nst1tu- tiona Which be 1s supplanting. fhua the histories of both raoes are darkened by diahonorable and bloody deeds. In reading them one must reaasber that the aooounts were all kept by one side-by the aggressor. 205. of Florida,' Statea Byreau .2t Fifth Annual 1883-1884. (Washington, 1887), 469-531


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