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Osakwe Igwemma oral history interview

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Material Information

Title:
Osakwe Igwemma oral history interview
Series Title:
Asaba Memorial oral history project
Uniform Title:
Holocaust & genocide studies oral history projects
Physical Description:
1 sound file (37 min.) : digital, MPEG4 file + ;
Language:
English
Igbo
Creator:
Igwemma, Osakwe, 1944-
Bird, S. Elizabeth
Ottanelli, Fraser M
Uraih, Ifeanyi
University of South Florida Libraries -- Holocaust & Genocide Studies Center
University of South Florida -- Library. -- Special & Digital Collections. -- Oral History Program
Publisher:
University of South Florida Tampa Library
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Crimes against humanity   ( lcsh )
Asaba (Nigeria)   ( lcsh )
History -- Nigeria -- Civil War, 1967-1970   ( lcsh )
History -- Personal narratives -- Nigeria -- Civil War, 1967-1970   ( lcsh )
Genre:
Oral history   ( local )
Online audio   ( local )
Oral history.   ( local )
Online audio.   ( local )
interview   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
This is an oral history interview with Osakwe Igwemma, a survivor of the Asaba Massacre, a mass killing of civilians that took place in 1967 during the Nigerian Civil War. Igwemma, who was 23 when the massacre occurred, was living in Asaba with his mother and siblings at the time. The day of the massacre, the townspeople gathered in the plaza to welcome the Nigerian soldiers and offer them money and gifts. The men and boys were separated from the women and ordered to kneel, and the soldiers then started firing. Igwemma survived because he was in the middle of the group and other people fell on him as they died, covering him with blood. He and his two brothers escaped from the crowd and fled into the bush; it was three weeks before they came back to Asaba, and when they returned, their house had been burned. Seven members of Igwemma's family died in the massacre. In this interview, he also expresses his hopes for the memorial project.
Venue:
Interview conducted December 12, 2009.
Language:
Interview conducted in English and Igbo.
Statement of Responsibility:
interviewed by S. Elizabeth Bird and Fraser Ottanelli.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 024901624
oclc - 656560900
usfldc doi - A34-00010
usfldc handle - a34.10
System ID:
SFS0021963:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
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This is an oral history interview with Osakwe Igwemma, a survivor of the Asaba Massacre, a mass killing of civilians that took place in 1967 during the Nigerian Civil War. Igwemma, who was 23 when the massacre occurred, was living in Asaba with his mother and siblings at the time. The day of the massacre, the townspeople gathered in the plaza to welcome the Nigerian soldiers and offer them money and gifts. The men and boys were separated from the women and ordered to kneel, and the soldiers then started firing. Igwemma survived because he was in the middle of the group and other people fell on him as they died, covering him with blood. He and his two brothers escaped from the crowd and fled into the bush; it was three weeks before they came back to Asaba, and when they returned, their house had been burned. Seven members of Igwemma's family died in the massacre. In this interview, he also expresses his hopes for the memorial project.
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PAGE 1

COPYRIGHT NOTICE This Oral History is copyrighted by the University of South Florida Libraries Oral History Program on behalf of the Board of Trustees of the University of South Florida. Copyright, 201, University of South Florida. All rights, reserved. This oral history may be used for research, instruction, and private study under the provisions of the Fair Use. Fair Use is a provision of the United States Copyright Law (United States Code, Title 17, section 107), which allows limited use of copyrighted materials under certain conditions. Fair Use limits the amount of material that may be used. For all other permissions and requests, contact the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA LIBRARIES ORAL HISTORY PROGRAM at the University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, LIB 122, Tampa, FL 33620.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 transcript
segment
idx 0
time 00:00:0.6
text Elizabeth Bird: All right, this is Sunday, December 12 [2009].  Were in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria.  This is Elizabeth Bird with Fraser Ottanelli, and we are interviewing Mr. Osakwe Igwemma.  Also in the room is Dr. Ify Uraih, who is going to interpret for us.  If you couldbegin by talking a little bit about you, your family, and what life was like in Asaba before the war.
1
00:00:29.3
Unknown Man: (talking about another interviewee) (inaudible) Hes an elderly man. Hes very (inaudible). So, we have these groups from (inaudible), so we want to bring you to them. (inaudible) before the other young man. So, when we finish with this, please, its next on the line.
2
00:00:42.7
EB: All right, thats good. Would you like to joinis he going to join us?
3
00:00:46.0
Unknown Man: Yeah, if you
4
00:00:47.4
EB: Just put that chair over there, and he can just sit here and watch. (murmurs in the background)
5
00:01:1.4
Ify Uraih: (Speaking in Igbo)
6
00:01:18.9
Osakwe Igwemma: (Speaking in Igbo)
7
00:01:45.0
IU: He was with his uncle in the north.  His father was already dead at the time before the war started.  Then, when the crisis started in the north, they came back to Asaba.  They were in Asaba when the war started.
8
00:02:1.1
EB: Who was living in the house with him at the time when the war started?
9
00:02:5.7
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
10
00:02:8.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
11
00:02:12.9
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
12
00:02:14.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
13
00:02:19.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
14
00:02:20.8
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
15
00:02:23.6
IU: He was living with his mother and four brothers and two sisters.
16
00:02:31.2
EB: Was he oldest, youngest?
17
00:02:34.7
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
18
00:02:36.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
19
00:02:37.3
IU: He was the oldest.
20
00:02:38.2
EB: He was the oldest.  So, inso, there was living as normal, before this happened.
21
00:02:46.8
IU: Yes.
22
00:02:47.9
EB: So, when did they first hear about the Federal Troops?
23
00:02:54.5
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
24
00:03:2.3
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
25
00:03:28.1
IU: They started hearing that the Federal Troops were on their way from about the third of October [1967].  They were hearing shelling.  But, because nobody knew the sounds of shelling, they thought it was the lookout cannon that we use for festivities around here.  We didnt know what it sounded like.  So, what theyeverybody was agitated that something was going to happen.
26
00:03:56.4
EB: Were the people afraid, or were they excited?
27
00:04:0.5
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
28
00:04:7.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
29
00:04:19.9
IU: There was so much excitement.  People were frightened and families are separated and people are running around.
30
00:04:29.6
EB: So, what happened when the troops did come into?
31
00:04:33.6
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
32
00:04:35.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
33
00:05:24.4
IU: On the sixththe first time, they danced around on the sixth to welcome, and they danced. Then on the seventh there were murders and they started to kill around the town, and then suspected that something was going to go wrong because they already seen corpses lining the road as they were moving along.
34
00:05:45.3
EB: We heard from other people that there were killings on the sixth of October near the soccer field, thenear the football field, nearand the people were killed, lots, in groups on the sixth by the
35
00:05:57.4
IU: Yeah.
36
00:05:58.3
EB: by the football fields.  Does he recalldoes he know about thatnear the police station also?
37
00:06:4.0
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
38
00:06:11.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
39
00:06:53.1
IU: He says yes.  He saw a lot of corpses around the police station and in the lots opposite this hotel.  And he was notthey were not sure what they are going to do with them because he saw two captains quarreling among themselves.  One said they should wait first, because there are more troops coming from outside Asaba to reinforce.  And at that time some corpses [were] already getting rotten and smelling.
40
00:07:29.8
EB: So, he didnt see the people killed on the sixth, he saw their
41
00:07:32.3
IU: He just saw the corpses.  He didnt see the action.
42
00:07:38.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
43
00:07:42.2
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
44
00:07:43.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
45
00:07:45.3
IU: As we were dancing, they would take one or two people from the dance group and shoot them down.
46
00:07:49.6
EB: This is on the sixth?
47
00:07:51.1
OI: On the seventh morning.
48
00:07:53.0
IU: On the seventh morning.
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00:07:54.0
EB: Okay, lets moveso we move to the seventh.
50
00:07:55.6
IU: Yes.
51
00:07:56.6
EB: So, if he could describe the day of October 7 from when he
52
00:08:1.8
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
53
00:08:5.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
54
00:08:21.7
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
55
00:08:24.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
56
00:08:41.9
IU: So, they danced around the town, until they got to the front of what was a place I will show you tomorrow, called Mecab.  And then they moved all of themanother group joined them, and they moved all of them further inside and separated the men from the women.  They took the women across the road to a maternity room, and then took the men further inside.
57
00:09:5.1
Fraser Ottanelli: Could you ask him, this group that hes part of, where it started out from?
58
00:09:14.2
IU: He told me already
59
00:09:15.4
FO: Oh, okay.
60
00:09:16.4
IU: So, I missed that.  They started off from my house, my family house, the group hes talking about.  (Speaking in Igbo)
61
00:09:26.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:09:34.4
IU: From the front of my family house they got a lot of people and they moved, so already there are people coming from different directions of the town.
63
00:09:41.4
EB: Does he remember why he learnedhow did he learn that this was what was wantedwhat was expected?
64
00:09:49.7
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
65
00:09:55.3
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
66
00:10:36.4
IU: Okay, so the chiefs of the town got out themselves and told everyone, Look, lets contribute money, and let us welcome the troops by offering them money and offering them presents.  Thats how they all knew.  They were sending messages across to different people to come out and join.
67
00:10:56.9
EB: So, now hes in the group of men thats been separated from the women.  Can he give us an idea of how many men and boys were in this group?
68
00:11:8.2
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
69
00:11:18.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
70
00:11:20.1
OI: Five hundred thousand.
71
00:11:23.1
EB: Five hundred, not
72
00:11:24.6
OI: Uh, five hundred.
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00:11:26.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
74
00:11:28.8
OI: Five hundred, or even six [hundred].
75
00:11:30.2
IU: Yeah.
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00:11:31.1
EB: Five or six hundred men?
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00:11:31.9
IU: Five or six hundred men.
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00:11:32.8
OI: Men.
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00:11:33.6
EB: Men and boys.
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00:11:35.7
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
81
00:11:36.9
OI: (inaudible) sixty, seventy, forty, thirty, even fifteen.
82
00:11:48.2
FO: Even the young ones.
83
00:11:49.1
OI: Even the young ones, man.
84
00:11:50.7
EB: So the youngest would be about
85
00:11:51.5
OI: Ten.
86
00:11:53.5
EB: Ten.
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00:11:54.3
IU: Around ten. The youngest would be about ten.
88
00:11:57.8
EB: Can you let him describe what happenedthe men and boys were separated from the women.  Thenwhat happened then?
89
00:12:6.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
90
00:12:24.1
IU: Once the women and children were asked to go, they asked everybody to kneel down
91
00:12:29.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
92
00:12:31.8
IU: And they brought out their machine gunsyou know, the ones with the chain bulletsand they started shooting at everybody.
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00:12:41.3
OI: Close range.
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00:12:43.6
EB: But had people seen the machine guns before then?
95
00:12:46.8
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
96
00:12:51.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:12:54.2
IU: They were mounted on top of their Land Rovers and we are going along with the procession, so they saw.
98
00:13:1.7
FO: So these were machine guns on tripods.
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00:13:3.8
IU: On tripods, yes.
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00:13:7.3
EB: Sowas it completely unexpected?  Did they justthey set up the machine guns, and then they started firing just
101
00:13:15.4
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
102
00:13:19.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
103
00:13:30.7
IU: At first they thought that because they had some officers hiding among themselves whether to do or not to do.  They didnt know.  But, whenthey also sawonce in a while, they take one or two people
104
00:13:49.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
105
00:13:50.2
IU: or three and kill.  So, that was
106
00:13:54.9
FO: Were all the machine guns on cars, or on Land Rovers, or were some hidden around?
107
00:14:2.0
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
108
00:14:4.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
109
00:14:9.8
IU: They were dismantled from the car and put on the ground around
110
00:14:12.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
111
00:14:14.6
IU: Yeah, on tripod.
112
00:14:15.9
EB: Did there seem to be disagreementthat there was disagreement between some of the officers about what should be done.  Is that what hes saying?
113
00:14:22.7
IU: Yes.  (Speaking in Igbo)
114
00:14:27.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
115
00:14:46.8
IU: He said that there was disagreement among the officers.  Some didnt want it to happen, but some were insisting that they had to shoot, so the ones that insisted thus continued.
116
00:15:0.4
EB: So, they knew the order of them.
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00:15:1.4
IU: Yes, but he didnt know about ranking at that time.  He didnt know it was mostly the officer or the other.
118
00:15:8.5
EB: So, could you describe then what happened to you?  You were there, and what did you see and what did you experience?
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00:15:16.6
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
120
00:15:19.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
121
00:15:47.3
IU: So, he said he was lucky, because he was in the middle of the pack and then a lot of corpses fell on top of him; that his head was covered with other human blood; and that while they were shooting, some people who were injured were asking them to do them a favor and kill them.  (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:16:9.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
123
00:16:20.1
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
124
00:16:21.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
125
00:16:29.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
126
00:16:30.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
127
00:16:32.9
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
128
00:16:33.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
129
00:16:35.1
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
130
00:16:35.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:16:42.4
IU: Okay, they started shooting around five, and they finished about thirteen minutes after seven.
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00:16:47.3
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:16:48.4
IU: They were very, very (inaudible). So it took about two hours and thirteen minutes, the entire period of shooting.
134
00:16:55.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:17:5.6
IU: So, when
136
00:17:6.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:17:9.1
IU: He saw a lot of people that were shot on the neck; some were shot on their waists, some on the legs.  And these people were begging to be shot.  But he came out and crawled into the bush and escaped from there.
138
00:17:25.2
EB: Who was he with in particular?  Was he with other family members when all this happened?
139
00:17:30.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:17:34.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
141
00:17:40.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
142
00:17:44.9
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
143
00:17:49.4
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
144
00:17:50.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
145
00:17:51.6
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
146
00:17:53.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
147
00:17:55.7
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
148
00:17:56.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:17:58.3
IU: There were three memberstwo of his brothers that went with himbut none of them was killed.
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00:18:4.3
EB: None of them was killed?
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00:18:6.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
152
00:18:7.1
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
153
00:18:11.7
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
154
00:18:13.8
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:18:19.4
IU: Okay, none of them was killed, but one of them was injured when he was escaping: but not from bullet wound.  He fell into awhat they used to call a pit latrine. And then he was injured by
156
00:18:31.1
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
157
00:18:34.4
EB: So, when he and his brothers escaped, what happened next?  Where did they go?
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00:18:40.6
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:18:44.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
160
00:18:54.6
IU: Okay.  He escaped and went to his house
161
00:18:58.1
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:18:59.5
IU: and went to his house, and there he met two of his brothers.  And then in the morning their uncle took them, and they escaped to the bush in the neighboring town called Ibusa.
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00:19:11.3
EB: How long did they stay there?
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00:19:13.1
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
165
00:19:20.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
166
00:19:38.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
167
00:19:40.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
168
00:19:47.4
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
169
00:19:48.3
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
170
00:19:50.4
IU: Okay.  The first one was they spent about one week and three days.  And then Federal Troops came to Ibusa, started burning houses again, so they ran into the bush and spent another two weeks before they came back to Asaba.
171
00:20:6.4
EB: When they came back, what did they find in Asaba?
172
00:20:8.8
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
173
00:20:11.1
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
174
00:20:25.4
IU: When they came back
175
00:20:27.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
176
00:20:30.1
IU: When they came back, they didnt have any means of surviving, so the soldiers themselves were bringing food for them to eat.
177
00:20:37.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
178
00:20:38.8
IU: And the Red Cross people.  He happened to be also in the Red Cross.
179
00:20:44.3
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
180
00:20:47.7
EB: What was the effect on the entire town, the loss of buildings?  What did the town look like?
181
00:20:53.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
182
00:20:56.1
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
183
00:21:9.2
IU: They burned the house, and they burnt eight other houses in the village.  And then, um, (inaudible) long after, they were able to build another house for himself and his family.
184
00:21:24.9
EB: So, where were they living with the house burnt down?
185
00:21:27.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
186
00:21:29.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
187
00:21:37.9
IU: Okay, there was a house nearby that
188
00:21:39.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
189
00:21:40.7
IU: Uncompleted.  So, they go in there to sleep in the night.  (Speaking in Igbo)
190
00:21:50.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
191
00:21:54.5
IU: Okay. They then went andagain to another village and got thatchyou know, the thatch thingsand covered it. Thats how they stayed.
192
00:22:5.6
EB: Who was there with him at that time?
193
00:22:7.8
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
194
00:22:9.3
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
195
00:22:19.4
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
196
00:22:20.9
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
197
00:22:25.0
IU: His mother and one of his sisters went acrossthe last one of their family went across to Biafra, but he and the other members remained.
198
00:22:38.0
EB: What was your workprofessionat thatyou werehow old was he in
199
00:22:45.7
IU: He was born in
200
00:22:47.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
201
00:22:52.0
EB: Were youwhat were you working as?  Were you a student or
202
00:22:55.5
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
203
00:22:57.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
204
00:22:58.9
IU: He was a welder.
205
00:23:0.2
EB: A welder?
206
00:23:0.9
IU: Yes.  (Speaking in Igbo)
207
00:23:2.8
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
208
00:23:6.6
IU: Okay.  He was a welder, then a marine sea trader.
209
00:23:9.9
EB: And he wasnt married then?
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IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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IU: No, he was unmarried.
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EB: Did you stay in Asabahave you always been in Asaba since then?
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IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:23:25.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:23:28.9
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:23:29.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:23:32.0
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:23:32.9
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:23:40.8
IU: He left Asaba in 1972 and went to Lagos, and then he left Lagos later on to Maiduguri, where he became a trader.
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FO: How did he supporthow did you support yourself after you had to leave Asaba and go into the bush and came back to Asaba?
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OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:24:6.5
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:24:6.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:24:25.0
IU: In the farms, inside the bush they were going to have raise crops of people that have gone away.  Like yams: they would dig up the yam and get snails from the bush and eat until they came back to Asaba, where the soldiers were feeding them.
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EB: Snails?
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IU: Snails.  Snails.
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EB: We heard from other people that another thing happened in 1968, March of 1968.  That the federal troops came back and took people out of the town to Saint Patricks College and then killed people who remained in the town.
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IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:25:4.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:25:38.1
IU: Okay.  He said that afternoon he started hearing gunshots again and a lot of people ran away.  Then they were taken to Saint Patricks.  It was at Saint Patricks that the Red Cross were feeding them.  (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:26:2.3
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:26:5.9
IU: They were there for two months.
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EB: And were people killed in Asaba who did not flee?
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00:26:12.0
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:26:16.1
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:26:23.2
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:26:24.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:26:28.7
IU: In Saint Patricks, all they did was they dug a trench around and protected the people there.  But the people in the townthey killed a lot of people who didnt come to Saint Patricks.
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00:26:38.7
EB: When you came back from Saint Patricks into Asaba, did you find people dead?
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00:26:43.5
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:26:48.9
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:26:57.3
IU: Okay.  They burnt houses and they saw skeleton of people on the ground when they came back.
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00:27:7.7
EB: What do you think should happen now?  What should happen to remember, to memorialize?  Is it important to remember this?
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00:27:18.2
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:27:28.7
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:27:52.4
IU: He said the memory of it is very painful to him, and that in his family, in his extended family, that seven people got killed.  And many of the people that the
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00:28:6.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:28:8.3
IU: They were the breadwinners of the house.  All their children opted to leave and they have nobody to train them.  So when he remembers, that is so painful to him.  (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:28:30.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:29:4.9
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:29:7.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:29:19.9
IU: He said that what he wants done is for the children of those people to be helped.  Then I said, What kind of help?  He said like, Train them to learn some job.  I said, Well, this is forty-two years ago and those children are now men.  Then he said, But they could have been better people than they now are, and that their children need help.
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00:29:46.4
EB: So, these terrible disasters, they changed the town of Asaba.  Did they change things thathow did they change the way of the Asaba people?
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00:29:58.6
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:30:3.8
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:30:43.6
IU: He said that
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00:30:45.4
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:30:48.9
IU: He said that the reason why we survived is because the people of the town loved themselvesthat there was a lot of self-help.  A lot of people helped people who did not have to begin treat.  And that is how he managed to overcome some of the problems.
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00:31:8.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:31:12.9
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:31:15.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:31:20.2
IU: Even when he was leaving town to go to Lagos, he didnt have any money to do so.  He was therefore relieved that one of the Indians, who was a vendor, he had a (inaudible) that carries newspapers from Asaba to Lagos, and he didnt pay any money for it.
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00:31:43.8
EB: One of the things we wanted to do was try to document the names of all the people that died.  Would he be able to tell us the names of the seven family members who died?
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00:31:52.8
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:32:3.6
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:32:20.4
EB: And the relationship.
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00:32:22.3
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:32:25.4
OI: [Speaking in Igbo translation based on interviewers notes]
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00:34:23.2
EB: Is there anything else he would like to tell us?
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00:34:24.7
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:34:28.2
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:34:57.3
IU: He said that he destructed a lot of lives, peoples lives.  A lot of people could not go further than they did, because their father was killed.
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00:35:8.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:35:9.5
IU: And then some people never were able to build their homes again.  They opted to (inaudible) peoples homes.  (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:35:41.0
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:36:4.7
IU: He says that each time he passes the place where they were shot at, that he gets very bad memories and that he doesnt pass it anymore.  But that he would like to see a memorial built there so that people will come there and see
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00:36:27.5
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:36:28.5
IU: And ask questions and see what has happened.  That is what he would like.
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00:36:37.4
EB: Thank you very much.
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00:36:39.0
IU: (Speaking in Igbo)
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00:36:40.8
OI: (Speaking in Igbo)