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text MH: Okay. Before I start, could youwhats your birthday?
FA: February 9, 1926.
MH: Okay, and let me just put your name on the tape. Your name is Fred Abraham, A-b-r-a-h-a-m?
FA: Where are you located?
MH: Im in Punta Gorda, Florida.
FA: Somebody else called me from Florida the other day, who wanted to know.
FA: It wasnt you, was it?
MH: I might have left a message. Im not sure.
FA: I dont know.
MH: Okay. So, did you know anything about the camps before you got to Dachau?
FA: Yes, my father in 1938 was in Buchenwald.
MH: Your father was in Buchenwald?
FA: Yeah, for about four weeks. I lived in Germany.
FA: I only got out in 1940.
MH: You got out in 1940 and came to the U.S.?
MH: Then how did you end up in the Army going back?
FA: I was drafted.
MH: Oh. Were you a citizen?
FA: When I was drafted, no; they made me a citizen in the Army.
MH: Oh, so they made you a citizen before you went over to Germany again?
MH: I see. Your family lived where in Germany?
FA: Different places. The last place was Giessen, Germany.
MH: In Giessen?
FA: Yeah. You ever heard of it?
MH: I have heard of it, because I know some guys who were there. Ive interviewed a couple people who were there during the war.
FA: What do you mean, during the war?
MH: They were with the Americans who got to Giessen.
FA: Oh, yeah. Who were in the American Army?
FA: Occupation, or what?
MH: No, during the war.
FA: During the war, no, I didnt get near there.
MH: No, you didnt, but other Americans did.
FA: Yeah, different outfit.
MH: Right. How did your father get out of Buchenwald?
FA: They let him out. They let most of them out. They put a lot of Jews into Buchenwald. Some of them died there, some they kept, and some they let out.
MH: When he was in Buchenwald, where were you?
FA: In Giessen.
MH: You were in Giessen.
FA: Yeah, I was thirteen years old then.
MH: And when they let him out, did he come back to Giessen, or did he go directly to the U.S.?
FA: Went back to Giessen.
MH: Okay. And it wasnt unusual for them to let him out?
FA: No, they worked minefields at that time, most of them.
MH: Then how were you able to get permits to come to the U.S.?
FA: We got visas in 1940; our quota came due. We went to the American Consulate that was located in Stuttgart, Germany, and they sent our passports.
MH: Wow. And then how did you go to the U.S.?
FA: By way of Italy, by way of Genoa.
MH: And you went to where?
FA: To New York.
MH: To New York. Did you have relatives in New York?
FA: Distant ones.
MH: Distant ones. So, then you went to school in New York and then got drafted.
MH: And you were how old when you got drafted?
MH: Eighteen. And
FA: I had my nineteenth birthday in a little place called Reipertswiller, which is in Alsace-Lorraine.
MH: There was a big battle there with the 45th [Infantry Division].
FA: Yeah, I was a replacement for that battle; a lot of guys got lost there. We were allwell, I would say 99 percent of us were replacements for the guys who originally started; in a rifle company, you dont last that long. And we were dug in at Reipertswiller, and then they pulled us back and we came on line again, and they pulled us back from there. Reipertswiller was in the area of Bitche-Hagenau, if you have a map in front of you.
MH: I dont have it in front of me, but Ill find it. What was the name of the place?
FA: R-e-i-p-e-r-t-s, I think.
MH: Right, Reiperts
FA: Like all those Alsace and all that. The last syllable is willer, an old German word for town or whatever.
MH: Okay. So, when the unit left Reipertswiller, then
FA: We were pulled back from the line for additional training, then we pushed off in March.
MH: And you were heading toward Munich.
FA: No, no.
FA: Not directly. We pushed off to the Saar [River] basin near (inaudible).
MH: Okay. Just take me from there all the way to Dachau. What was going on?
FA: Well, there was a main battle there. We crossed the Main River, and we captured a railroad bridge near Aschaffenburg and started going into Aschaffenburg with very heavy fighting. It was a miserable battle: up the hill, down the hill; up the hill, down the hill. We came under tremendous mortar fire and rifle fire and what have you.
MH: Were you hit at all?
FA: No. I had the straps on my pack cut, though. I had a little case ofa concussion, and the company commander begged me to stay with the outfit because I was the only guy in the outfit that could read, write and was fluent in German to question prisoners.
MH: Were you taking lots of prisoners?
FA: We took plenty of them.
MH: Okay. What did you do with them?
FA: Question them.
MH: And then what?
FA: Send them back.
MH: Okay, so they were sent back to the rear?
FA: Yeah. We couldnt (laughs) handle them.
MH: So thenafter Aschaffenburg, then whats next for you?
FA: Oh, I forgot to tell you. Before we came to Aschaffenburg, we hit the Siegfried Line. There we had very heavy losses. Our company started off with about 175 men, and the next day we had only 60 walkers, that were able to walk back.
MH: How did you deal with that, personally?
FA: What do you mean how I dealt with it? I was a machine-gunner, besides everything else. I can only see whats in front of me; I dont know whats going on around me. We came under a lot of fire there, heavy stuff. Artilleryyou know, pillboxes, you name it. Tanks, (inaudible).
MH: The kinds of enemy fire that you people came underI mean, it amazes me that you come out of there not crazy. I was in Vietnam; Ive been under mortar fire, but nothing like you people had.
FA: Well, we not only had mortar fire, we had the heavy stuff. They sounded like a freight train coming in. They would rip out an oak tree in front of me the size ofa diameter of at least a meterand rip it right out of the ground. The old-timers who were at Anzio used to call that the Anzio Express. I understand it was a 280mm railroad gun that they fired from a tunnel maybe ten, fifteen miles away.
MH: Right. Ive seen pictures of it.
FA: Well, Ive never seen pictures, but thats what the understanding was. Well, guys wentdid go, you know, shell-shocked. Not too many of them, but they did. You hear that stuff come in, and the 88s, you dont hear come in.
MH: The 88s you dont hear coming?
FA: No, theyre too high velocity. You dont hear a mortar shell either, unless theyre very heavy ones.
MH: Well, you hear them blowing up.
FA: You hear them blow up, sure, but you dont hear them come in. The sound, you know, (makes sound effect).
MH: We used to hear (makes different sound effect).
FA: Thats it, and they blow. You dont even have enough time to duck sometimes. It depends on what the caliber is; the Germans had a heavy caliber 120mm youd have heard. And then you heard Screaming Mimis come in; they called that that the Nebelwerfer. The fog thrower, it was translated word for word. They threw white phosphorus.
MH: They were called Screaming Mimis, but what was the other word, the German word?
FA: Nebelwerfer. They were six barrel.
MH: Okay. I understand.
FA: Now, the Germans, when you took prisoners and questioned them, they also had a name who were on the so-called Eastern Front, what they called, that were under fire from the Russian rockets. They called that the Stalinorgel, the Stalingrad Organ; they sounded like an organ coming in. Oh, they were terrified of that.
MH: When theyd launch a barrage, how long would they last?
FA: It varied.
MH: So, it could be short, or it could keep you down for hours?
FA: There were all kinds of barrages: barrages to stop you, barrages to harass you, barrages that could be very accurate. So, we were crossing, they knew exactlythey were all zeroed in on that. Pretty determined, you know.
MH: When your unit suffers heavy casualties like that, do they pull you back, or do they have to keep you moving forward?
FA: It depends how bad things are. They pulled us back the next day. We were there overnight; we repulsed the counter-attack.
MH: Tell me a little bit about what thats like.
FA: They try to come in on you.
MH: How close did they get?
FA: Who the hell knows? I fired my machine gun, and that didnt always stop whats coming in.
MH: How much ammunition do you have available for a machine gun? Would you have somebody carrying?
FA: Oh, yeah, plenty; we had plenty of canisters of 250 rounds. But a light machine gun you cant fire forever, though; the barrel burns out. And to change our barrels takes a half-hour, whereas the German machine gun, they changed it in twelve seconds. They had better small arms than we did.
MH: Was this a water-cooled or an air-cooled gun youre firing?
FA: Air-cooled. A light is air-cooled.
MH: A light is air-cooled?
FA: Heavy is water-cooled. Same caliber.
MH: Its .30 caliber?
MH: Okay. So, what happens next in the war for you, after that?
FA: After that, they pulled us back.
MH: And how soon after that did you move on to Dachau?
FA: We fought our way through Germany first, the heavy fighting; that took about ten days at Aschaffenburg. Uphill, downhillthose are the mountains on the Main River; we couldnt get in. We thought we could go through there, but we supposedly took 10,000 prisoners alone. There were days when we had the Air Force and bombed them, and when they bombed, they went into their cellars. You know, thats wine country. They have the deep cellars there. Our artillery didnt penetrate those cellars, nor did the bombs.
MH: So, howd you finally beat them there?
FA: Well, after a while, they must have gotten sick and tired of being bombarded. They must have run out of ammunition, and out of food.
MH: There was no problem getting supplies to the Americans, was there? You had plenty
FA: I dont know about that. I ate K-rations for about six weeks straight. Damn crap.
MH: (laughs) Did you gain weight
FA: You know what they are?
MH: Yes. Did you gain weight or lose weight when you went to Europe in the war?
FA: I lost.
MH: You lost?
FA: I think we all lost. Believe it or not, I gained weight in basic training.
MH: Really? Were you a skinny kid when you were drafted?
MH: Whered they send you for basic?
FA: Camp Blanding, Florida.
MH: Which was near where?
FA: It was inland in Florida, if you can picture a right angle(coughs) Excuse me. Between Jacksonville and St. Augustine, inland.
MH: Oh, okay. I know exactly where it is, then.
FA: Miserable part of Florida.
FA: Swamp and sand.
FA: They didnt have Army camps on the beach.
MH: This is true.
FA: Not for the infantry.
MH: So, you fight at Aschaffenburg, and then move out for where?
FA: Nuremberg, where the trials were.
MH: Oh, yes, Nuremberg. Okay.
FA: And we had house-to-house. We took one or two losses; we didnt take many losses there.
MH: When theyre doing house-to-house fighting and youve got the machine gun, what are you doing?
FA: I didnt have the machine gun then anymore, because at Aschaffenburg I caught some concussion. I couldnt carry any more. House-to-house fighting, you dont go in the middle of the street or run down the street. You blast your way from house to house with TNT, and thats that. You dont show your face. You hide.
MH: How long did that last?
FA: About two days, I think.
MH: Was it still winter?
MH: No. So, the weather
FA: It was nice by then.
MH: It was nice?
FA: Yeah. We got into Munich on May 1. About April 29 we hit Aschaffenburg. No, no, we hit
MH: April 29, you hit Dachau.
MH: So, tell me about coming to Dachau. Did you know the camp was going to be there?
FA: When I saw Arbeit macht frei at the beginning of the gate, I knew it was a concentration camp. And I saw people in there, you know, with the pajamas on, and I knew something. I went back and I told the company we were at a concentration camp.
MH: So, your company commander had sent you up to look at it and come back?
FA: Yeah, a recon [reconnaissance] patrol.
MH: Had other Americans gotten there ahead of you, or were you in the first bunch to get there?
FA: As far as I know, we were the first to get there. The first ten men.
MH: The first ten men.
FA: Yeah, or so, that were with me.
MH: You were coming in from the south side, or where the big Jourhaus Gate was?
MH: Where the big gate was?
FA: Yeah. There was a gate there, and to the left there was an SS hospital, for the SS and their wives and this and that.
MH: Where was the train in relation to the gate?
FA: Near the front gate.
MH: Near the front gate. So, you came to the
FA: We came to the train first. How do you know there was a train there?
MH: Because Ive been talking to a lot of people, and Ive actually seen pictures.
FA: Yeah, I got the division book here; they have pictures in there, too. Im sure youve seen that.
MH: Yes. So, when you come to the train and you see that, what goes through your mind?
FA: What can go through your mind? What kind of animals are there around here?
MH: Okaygo ahead.
FA: I knew that things like that were happening, so I was pretty well prepared to see it, but a lot of guys, they couldnt believe it.
MH: A lot of the guysmost of the guys Ive talked to had no knowledge of concentration camps before showing up at one.
FA: No, they didnt know. Thats right. Well, we hit a labor camp just before that, but there the guys were in pretty good shape, in Nuremberg, [a camp] called Allach, we liberated.
MH: And that wasokay.
FA: That was a labor camp. And they had mostly teenagers there working on whatever; at the BMW works, they were pulling out tanks, Tiger tanks.
MH: Did you go into Allach?
FA: No, I stood outside, but I talked to the guys. I met a guy whose uncle I knew in New York.
MH: How do you end up figuring that out?
FA: I spoke to him, and he told me his name, he has an uncle in New York and whats his name. I heard of the uncle, but I didnt know him. He was a chazzan in Washington Heights. And these guys there, they werethey raised the Star of David there. And I asked one of the guys, You guys want to come to the States? Oh. no, were going to fight for our home country. They were very Zionistically inclined there.
MH: You said they were in good shapeis that because they hadnt been in the camp very long?
FA: It was what the Germans called an Arbeitslager, or a work camp. So they had to feed them something.
MH: But a lot of the Arbeitslagers, they just starved them to death.
FA: In this one, they werent in such bad shape.
MH: Okay. How long did your unit stay at Allach?
FA: We kept right on going.
MH: Thats something that Ive heard from nearly all the men Ive interviewed. Is that
FA: Well, thats the thing: youre in the infantry, you chase the enemy. You cant let them get away, right?
MH: Right. I mean, when you dont think about it from the context of being in a battle, you think you get to a place like that, you want to stay there, you want to do something, you want to help. And all the guys Ive talked to said
FA: Well, what are you going to help with? I had a little package from home, one my parents sent me, almonds and some nuts and some raisins to eat. I gave them to the guys. I mean, I had extra watches I gave them that I took off prisoners. What else am I going to give?
MH: Right. So, now come back
FA: I have to keep my rations for myself. I have two, three rations, right?
FA: Because I have to keep going, too.
MH: True. I mean, what do you say to the guy when you leave him at Allach? You know, this guy youve talked to?
FA: You dont say much. Theyre happy to be liberated.
MH: Were there still German guards there when you got there?
FA: No. They took off.
MH: They took off.
FA: They took off out of Dachau, too.
MH: Right. But at Dachau, was there shooting going on when you got there?
FA: A little.
MH: From your guys, once they got inside the camp.
FA: No, the prisoners were armed. Some of the guys gave the prisonersthey took away the German rifles that they left behind. They were armed, some of them. They had German rifles.
MH: I had heard that the prisoners were tracking down German guards who were
FA: Oh, they were looking for them, because some of themthere were some of them were caught. They were in uniform. They took good care of them, the prisoners. They had to obey the Geneva Convention laws.
MH: But some of them, I understand, the prisoners ripped apart.
FA: Oh, yeah. Oh, yeah.
MH: Did you see any of this happening?
FA: Well, I dont like to talk about these things. Theyre too inhuman.
MH: Okay. When you got inside the gate, tell me about that.
FA: I got in about a hundred yards, and I pulled back with the rest of the guys. They warned us thatwe were not too far away from where they had typhus and typhoid and this and that, all kinds ofyou know, sicknesses. We didnt want to catch it, either. But anyway, at Dachau, I caught lice. Thats how close I came to them, the prisoners. They were all loused up and full of disease, some of these prisoners. You try to keepthey hug you, youre bound to catch lice.
MH: Yeah. Considering that you spoke good German, you probably had many conversations with the prisoners there?
FA: Not too much.
MH: Not too much?
FA: Not too much.
MH: Do you remember talking to any of them?
FA: Oh, yeah.
MH: Can you tell me about that?
FA: No conversationthey were starved to deathunless they come to ask for cigarettes. You give them the cigarette, they light it, take two puffs, and they fall down. You couldnt even give them cigarettes. They hadnt smoked in a long time; they got nicotine poisoning. It was a sad situation.
MH: How do you deal with it? Do you cry?
FA: I didnt cry. Some guys possibly cried from what they saw. But that same evening, we kept going. Got there in the morning, by evening were on the goin the afternoon, were on the go again, (inaudible) going towards Munich.
MH: Before you left Dachau, did you go into any of the buildings?
FA: We were warned not to go in.
MH: How did
FA: The prisoners warned us, Dont go in.
MH: The prisoners warned you.
FA: Yeah. People are sick in there; you can catch something. But quite a few prisoners were still able to walk. A lot of them were unable, though. It was a sad situation in those barracks.
MH: Right. What kind of a day was it? Was it cloudy, sunny, rainy?
FA: Slightly cloudy, it wasnt raining. It was fairly clear.
MH: Does the camp smell bad at the time?
FA: I dont remember.
FA: It smelled outside where they had the train. Thats a certain smell thats impossible to describe. Its a sweet sort of smell. Ack! The smell of death.
MH: What else did you see there?
FA: Oh, they took some prisoners and put them up against the wall, and they shot em. We couldnt interfere with that.
MH: The prisoners were doing the shooting?
MH: When you say you couldnt interfere, tell me what its like. I mean, what do you see? Is there any consideration of maybe we should interfere, or this is
FA: Well, when you take prisoners, you sometimes like to take them alive to question them, of course. They can give you information that can be useful: What outfit are you in? How many in your outfit? How are they armed? How long have you been? But the German prisonerswhen we took them, we asked them in German, How many men in your outfit? They tell you, We just joined the outfit two days ago. But theres one thing you can find out: they all carried what they call a Soldbuch, a pay book. And in that book, it was noted in old German gothic script what outfit they were in and for how long. And I could read that.
MH: So, to come back to the prisoners lining these guys up, I mean, whatIm trying to get a sense of what the experience is like being there and seeing something like this. Are people screaming and yelling and shouting, or is this quiet?
FA: Oh, who remembers?
FA: You watch and walk away, none of your business. I dont like to see people killed. We were not brought up that way. Bad enough to see what they did, very bad. Its unbelievable, what went on there.
MH: Ive talked to some other people who werent terribly upset seeing, you know, a German SS shot down.
FA: Well, they were not in uniform when we saw them, but they shot down our boys. We lost two guys that were wounded; we left them behind. We were riding on tanks in Germany, and the SS sneaked in behind us and killed them. So, we had no sympathy for the German SS.
MH: So, when you see this happening in the camp, your inclination is, as you said, Its not our business, walk away.
FA: Right. They did it to us.
MH: I was just sort of surprised that the prisoners were able to get a hold of weapons.
FA: I dont know where they got them from, but they got them. Most of them were German weapons; they were rifles.
MH: Im sorry, your unityou were inwhat battalion were you in?
FA: C Company is the first battalion. A-B-C-D is the first battalion, all of the time. 157th Infantry [Regiment].
MH: Of the 157th. So, after you saw these people shot, then what happens? Where do you go, what do you do?
FA: You do nothing. You wait for your next move. You always keep going.
MH: About what time of day did you leave Dachau?
FA: Early afternoon, I would say; we didnt stay there long.
MH: In a camp that size, when youre wandering around in it, how do they get you back together to say, Okay, its
FA: We didnt wander; we stood near the entrance. We found out that there were no Germans in there, we stood near the entrance. Whats the sense of wandering? When you walk all day, you get a little tired, too.
MH: When you finally left, are you riding in trucks or in jeeps?
FA: We rode in all kinds of vehicles: captured vehicles, trucks, whatever we got a hold of.
MH: What kind of captured vehicles did you guys get?
FA: German trucks. All kinds of crap.
MH: And you moved on from Dachau to
FA: On top of tanks, you know, infantry riding tanks to protect the tanks.
MH: Right. And then you moved on to Munich?
FA: Yeah. We had to cross the Danube [River], which we did. I crossed the Danube in one of those DUKWs
A DUKW, or duck, is an amphibious vehicle that allowed for land and water transportation.
, nearly got killed in that thing. The damn thing couldntgrab the line, land on the other side, a machine gun opened up not too far away.
MH: So, howd you get off the DUKW?
FA: Finally made landfall on the other side of the Danube. At that time of yearyou know, in Aprilthe Danube is not the blue Danube anymore.
MH: Its flowing very fast?
FA: Its a brown river, flowing fast, all the snow melting from the Alps and coming in from the tributaries.
MH: And you got into Munich?
MH: How long was the fight there?
FA: Not very much.
MH: Not very much?
FA: The regimental headquarters was the Hofbruhaus [Staatliches Hofbruhaus in Mnchen]. Ever heard of that?
MH: Say that again?
FA: Our regimental headquarters was in the Hofbruhaus. You know, where Hitler launched his first push. A beer hall; very good beer. We liberated some kegs of beer.
MH: Theres got to be something good there.
FA: Oh, yeah, there were two warehouses full of the finest liquors and the finest stuff that we put guards on right away and used for ourselves.
MH: I was going to say, did you sample it?
FA: Oh, youre damn right!
FA: Some of the guys were drunk for weeks, including myself.
MH: Is that where you were when the war ended?
FA: Yeah, in Munich. No, wait a minuteyeah, we came into Munich May 1. The war ended the eighth [May 8, 1945], and we were in Munich. We stayed in Munich for about six weeks, and they took us back. On the way home, we were supposed to go to fight the Japs.
MH: Thats what I heard, that the plan
FA: We trained. We went by way of France, one of the camps in France, and we shipped in at Le Havre. We were stationed near Reims, France.
MH: All right. Do you remember how long the boat ride was back to the U.S.?
FA: Hell no. About a week, I would say, less than a week.
MH: And where did you land?
FA: New York.
MH: In New York?
FA: We came back on a Victory ship.
MH: Okay. Landed in New York, and how much longer did you stay in the Army?
FA: Till the following June.
MH: For almost another year, you mean?
FA: No, it wasnt a year, it was less than; who the heck remembers?
MH: And what did you do once you were out of the service?
FA: I went to school and went to work. I went to work. Look, Im kind of tired. Ive got to go for dialysis in the morning, so
MH: Oh, okay. Let me just ask you two more questions. Did the experience you had over there, either with the camps or even in the war, affect you later on in life? Is it something that comes up?
FA: Oh, once in a while I think about it. You dont forget these things, because theyre so bad.
MH: You have nightmares?
FA: Not really. I was nineteen years old. I mean, when youre that age
MH: Okay. You got married when?
FA: In 1960.
MH: And you have kids?
MH: What kind of job did you do?
FA: The main thing I did, I worked on Wall Street for a while, about twenty years tradingarbitraging securities.
MH: All right. Anything else you want to tell me?
FA: I dont know what you want to know.
MH: Im interested in what the experience was like and how it might have affected you later on in life.
FA: Oh, you dream about it and think about it once in a while. Think about some of the guys that came in with you and didnt come out with you, especially.
MH: Your experience of having been over there, born in Germany and especially having a father in Buchenwald wasIve never heard that before.
FA: Well. At eased my impression of Dachau, I knew pretty well what was going on.
MH: Right. Well, Im gladthank you for going, and Im glad you came back okay.
FA: (laughs) So am I!
MH: Do you have a photo of yourself from World War II?
FA: I have some around here; theyre misplaced. Im legally blind. I dont see the crap anymore. So, I have a problem. Im riddled with diabetes, and I go to dialysis three times a week.
MH: Ah, all right. Well, I thank you very, very much for taking the time to talk with me.
FA: Youre quite welcome. My wife insisted that I do. I wish you luck with your book.
MH: Whats your wifes name?
MH: Carol? With a C at the end, or no C? C-a-r-o-l?
MH: Okay, thank you very, very much.
FA: Youre quite welcome. Bye-bye.
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Fred Abraham oral history interview
h [electronic resource] /
interviewed by Michael Hirsh.
Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida Tampa Library,
1 sound file (38 min.) :
digital, MPEG4 file +
e 1 transcript (20 p.)
Concentration camp liberators oral history project
This interview was conducted as research for The Liberators: America's Witnesses to the Holocaust / Michael Hirsch (New York: Bantam Books, 2010).
Interview conducted April 12, 2008.
This is an oral history interview with Holocaust concentration camp liberator Fred Abraham. Abraham was a member of the 45th Infantry Division when it liberated Dachau on April 29, 1945. Born in Germany, he and his family came to the United States in 1940; his father was in Buchenwald in 1938, but was released after four weeks. Abraham was drafted in 1944 and participated in the Rhineland Campaign and the Central Europe Campaign, the experiences of which he describes in the interview. While en route to Munich, the 45th and 42nd Infantry Divisions were redirected to Dachau. Abraham was on a reconnaissance patrol, and recognized it as a concentration camp when he saw the sign "Arbeit macht frei" on the gate; as a Jewish German whose father had been in a camp, he had prior knowledge of concentration camps, unlike many of the American soldiers. He also participated in the liberation of Allach, a subcamp of Dachau, before finding the main camp.
The Liberators: America's Witnesses to the Holocaust (New York: Bantam Books, 2010) and Concentration Camp Liberators Oral History Project, University of South Florida Libraries, 2010 Michael Hirsh.
Transcripts, excerpts, or any component of this interview may be used without the author's express written permission only for educational or research purposes. No portion of the interview audio or text may be broadcast, cablecast, webcast, or distributed without the author's express written permission.
Infantry Division, 45th.
Infantry Division, 45th
v Personal narratives.
Dachau (Concentration camp)
Allach (Concentration camp)
World War, 1939-1945
World War, 1939-1945
World War, 1939-1945
World War, 1939-1945
Personal narratives, American.
World War, 1939-1945
Crimes against humanity.
University of South Florida Libraries.
Holocaust & Genocide Studies Center.
University of South Florida.
Special & Digital Collections.
Oral History Program.
Holocaust & genocide studies oral history projects.
Concentration camp liberators oral history project.
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