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xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 transcript segment idx 0 time 00:00:0.0 text Michael Hirsh: And what I want to do is get your name and information first. 1 00:00:3.3 Wayne Roy Ogle: Sure. 2 00:00:4.9 MH: So, if you could give me your full name and spell it for me, please. 3 00:00:5.9 WO: Yeah, Wayne, W-a-y-n-e, L. Ogle, O-g-l-e. 4 00:00:12.8 MH: Okay, but they call you Roy? 5 00:00:15.1 WO: They call me Roy because its Leroy. 6 00:00:17.2 MH: Oh, okay. And youre a PhD? 7 00:00:19.2 WO: Im a Ph.D. 8 00:00:20.9 MH: And your address, please? 9 00:00:22.0 WO: 10 00:00:22.8 MH: And your phone number is. Whats your date of birth? 11 00:00:26.1 WO: December 23, 1922. 12 00:00:29.7 MH: Twenty-three, 1922. 13 00:00:32.2 WO: Yeah, I was a young man when I was there. 14 00:00:34.7 MH: Where were you growing up before you went in the Army? 15 00:00:38.2 WO: I was born and raised in Knoxville, Tennessee. 16 00:00:42.2 MH: How did you go in the Army: enlist, drafted? 17 00:00:45.7 WO: A little bit of both. I enlistedI was a college student, and I enlisted in a Reserve, and then the Reserve was called up, so it was actually a draft when you got right down to it. 18 00:00:58.9 MH: What unit did you go into? 19 00:01:3.4 WO: I went into the Infantry ROTC [Reserve Officers Training Corps]. 20 00:01:10.7 MH: Ultimately, when did you go to Europe? 21 00:01:17.2 WO: I went to Europe in 1944, yeah. 22 00:01:25.4 MH: With what unit? 23 00:01:27.1 WO: With the 84th Infantry Division. 24 00:01:29.2 MH: And you were a rifleman? 25 00:01:31.7 WO: No, I was in an anti-tank platoon. 26 00:01:35.7 MH: Which means youre using what kind of weaponry? 27 00:01:39.6 WO: It was a 57mm anti-tank gun. Its like an artillery piece, except its got a flat trajectory, and it was a tank destroyer, is what it was. 28 00:01:55.3 MH: And you went to Europe around when? 29 00:01:58.8 WO: At the same time Ken did, whichI would have to look it up, but it was the fall of 1944. Kenneth Ayers was also interviewed for the Concentration Camp Liberators Oral History Project. The DOI for his interview is C65-00006. 30 00:02:7.3 MH: And this was after D-Day or before? 31 00:02:15.3 WO: Yes, it was. D-Day was June 6, and we went overseas in September, after D-Day. In other words, six months later. 32 00:02:25.3 MH: And you went where? 33 00:02:26.4 WO: We went to Omaha Beach, landed at Omaha Beach. Much after D-Day, of course, no fighting or anything like that. So, then we went on through France to Belgium, and in Belgium, we jumped off into combat in Germany. We were right on the German lines when we finally landed there after our overseas trip. 34 00:02:54.8 MH: So, you were there before the Bulge? 35 00:02:58.5 WO: I was there before the Bulge and during the Bulge. 36 00:03:2.2 MH: And during the Bulge. What was your first combat action? 37 00:03:4.8 WO: First combat that we were in wasoh, my goodness, lets see. Let me think just a second. Just put down Siegfried Line. 38 00:03:23.6 MH: Okay, close enough. And where were you during the Bulge? 39 00:03:28.9 WO: We were at Marche [Marche-en-Famenne], Belgium. Its the northernmost part of the Bulge. 40 00:03:38.2 MH: Nobodys mentioned that before. I was unfamiliar with it. 41 00:03:42.3 WO: This was one of the keys to the defense of the Army. It was a very important stand. 84th Infantry Division was very important in the Battle of the Bulge. 42 00:03:57.0 MH: How long were you in the fighting there? 43 00:04:1.6 WO: Seems to me it was about six weeks, but it seemed like six years. 44 00:04:5.9 MH: Cold as hell? 45 00:04:9.3 WO: Oh, God, it was unbelievable. I ruined my feet when I was in Belgium. 46 00:04:15.1 MH: They were wet with the snow and ice? 47 00:04:19.2 WO: Well, it was what they call frostbite, and yeah, itswhat do you call it? Hypothermia, yeah. I just ruined my feet there, and everybody else that Ive ever been associated with that was there did the same thing. 48 00:04:36.2 MH: What was the end of the Bulge for you guys? 49 00:04:39.9 WO: We ended up at Houffalize. I was in the hospital, but the other guys went on to Houffalize, and that was the end of the Bulge. 50 00:04:52.5 MH: Were you wounded, or you were there for your feet? 51 00:04:53.9 WO: I was wounded. 52 00:04:55.9 MH: Shrapnel, bullets? 53 00:04:58.5 WO: Shrapnel, yeah, in the chest. 54 00:05:1.3 MH: How badly hit were you? 55 00:05:3.9 WO: It was a minor hit. But my friend was right beside me was almost killed, and he laterI think it did kill him, to be honest with you. He lasted for a few years, but he was terribly wounded. I was just plain damned lucky, thats all there is to it. Oh, man, was I lucky. 56 00:05:27.5 MH: There are those moments in combat when the only explanation for living or dying is luck. 57 00:05:32.5 WO: And that was my case. Actually, I had on everything I had, and I had on a heavy, real heavy overcoat, plus a field jacket plus everything else I could get on. The shrapnel went through that double-lined of the lapel on the overcoat. It went through the lapel and went through my Army jacket, field jacket, combat jacket. And went through all the other clothing that I had on, and it lodged in my chest, believe it or not. 58 00:06:6.2 MH: But it had slowed it up enough. 59 00:06:8.5 WO: It slowed it enough to where it didnt kill me. If itd penetrated my chest, it wouldve gone right into my heart. I was lucky. 60 00:06:18.8 MH: How long were you in the hospital? 61 00:06:19.9 WO: Oh, it seems to me I was there about two weeks, as I recall. So, I wasnt in for the last part of the Bulge. 62 00:06:32.0 MH: Howd you rejoin your unit? 63 00:06:34.4 WO: Well, they hadthere was a time limit, of course, but when I got through, they had a Jeep there to take me back to my unit, and I ended up with a tank platoon. 64 00:06:49.4 MH: You just told me something I didnt realize. You mean if you were wounded and they took you to the hospital, there was a time limit if you were there; under that time limit, you went back to your old unit, and if you were longer, you got reassigned? 65 00:07:2.0 WO: Thats right, you went into replacement depot. And I barely made it. 66 00:07:6.6 MH: I didnt know that. 67 00:07:7.7 WO: Yeah, this is true. This is the way they operated. Oh, a lot of our guys never got back, because, you know, they were in the hospital for too long, so they didnt come back. 68 00:07:19.5 MH: Where was your unit when you rejoined them? 69 00:07:22.7 WO: Oh, they were in a rest area there in Belgium, and just having a great time. (laughs) 70 00:07:31.1 MH: At that point, what, if anything, do you know about concentration camps, the Holocaust, that sort of thing? 71 00:07:39.5 WO: You know, all of us were familiar with the major concentration camps and the crematoriums and all that sort of thing. 72 00:07:52.3 MH: You were? 73 00:07:53.0 WO: Oh, yeah. We were aware of it. This was generally known. Im not sure at what point in time I knew about it, but yeah, I knew that there was such a thing. And as I recall, Salzwedelnow, this is simply my recollection. I think those prisoners were used asI think it was a labor camp. 74 00:08:16.5 MH: Probably. 75 00:08:18.1 WO: And what they would do isI think some of them worked on farms, and probably some of them worked in factories. And then, at nighttheyd haul them out there during the day, let them work, and bring them back in at night. Now, that was my understanding. I did not speak German, so I couldnt understand everything that was going on, but this is the way that I remembered it, and Ill tell you, I was never as shocked in all of my life when I saw those guys. They were skeletons. Thats all you can say. 76 00:08:55.4 MH: Tell me about the day you got to Salzwedel. What was going on? 77 00:09:1.2 WO: The day I got to Salzwedel, these guys were overjoyed, and they had been outside, but I think that our commander had locked them back up, you know, just to protect them from getting out. They really werent able to do much. 78 00:09:21.6 MH: But you were coming down the road and you saw the camp, or you went looking for the camp? 79 00:09:25.4 WO: No, we went right up to the gates of the camp, and they had put them back in. The gates were locked when I got there. 80 00:09:30.5 MH: So, there were Americans there just ahead of you. 81 00:09:32.3 WO: Now, I think probably we were the first ones there, but that I dont know, to be honest with you. I better not say. 82 00:09:41.6 MH: So, youre riding in your vehicle? 83 00:09:43.0 WO: We were riding in the vehicle, yeah. 84 00:09:44.8 MH: What do you see? 85 00:09:45.9 WO: Well, what we saw wasthe thing I remember best about it is, apparently they had really become jubilant about the fact that they were free, you know, and they would runthey had run all over camp, and they had spilled flour on the ground and all of this, you know. They were rebelling, basically, is what it was. And the guards had all taken off. They ran. And so, they were just having a fine time of it; and apparently, if Im not mistaken, I think the air commander must have tried to restore order by putting them back in until the rescue troops could come in and take care of their medical needs. And I also remember, for some reason, I briefly remember that there were some British and some American prisoners there. Not many, but maybe a half a dozen, something like that, and they got those guys out pronto, and they sent them back behind the American lines where they could get medical attention. 86 00:11:3.4 MH: Do you remember seeing women prisoners? 87 00:11:5.1 WO: You know, I do not. I do not. I have the feeling it was all male. I dont know. Better not say. 88 00:11:17.6 MH: Ill read you something in a minute, because I think the women were locked in a barracks, which might be why you didnt see them. How long were you there at Salzwedel? 89 00:11:30.1 WO: Well, Ken and I were talking about that the other day, and as I recall, we were there for three or four days. See, we were still at war. We were in a combat area and still moving. But now, as I recall, in order to restore law and order and get some medical help to these people, I think we hung around there a couple of days, and maybe some of the other troops in my unit, in the 84th, went on and then we had to rejoin them later. This is pretty vague in my mind. The thing that struck me so strongly was, I have neverI did not believe that anybody could be that way, and Im still in a state of shock from it. 90 00:12:24.4 MH: You were there a couple days. What did you do? 91 00:12:29.0 WO: At the time, I was corporal gunner on that anti-tank gun, and so what they would do is they would detail you for different jobs. So, one of the things Im sure I served at was corporal of the guard, because I did it, you know, I did it pretty much through the Bulge and after the Bulge. So, I think that I wouldve been in charge of the guard. 92 00:13:2.5 MH: Were you in the camp or just outside the wire? 93 00:13:5.7 WO: Outside. I was never inside that camp. Gates were locked, and you know, they were trying to restore order. It was not inhumane, what the American troops did, by any stretch; it was for the benefit ofit was for the benefit of the prisoners. They needed medical help, and they needed all kinds of help. It was terrible. 94 00:13:30.6 MH: How soon did the Army have medical units and cooks and other people there to help feed and heal these people? 95 00:13:39.0 WO: Im sure immediately. Im sure that our own medics moved in, and Im sure that our battalion surgeon was right on the job and he was helping. He was a fine man, and he was kind of a take-charge guy, you know? So, hes one you need to interview. 96 00:14:6.6 MH: Is he still alive? 97 00:14:9.0 WO: As far as I know, hes alive. 98 00:14:10.5 MH: Whats his name? 99 00:14:11.6 WO: Captain Hazlett, H-a-z-l-e-t-t. 100 00:14:20.6 MH: Any idea where he lives? 101 00:14:24.4 WO: Well, Im sure the roster would give it. Have you got a copy of the roster? 102 00:14:30.8 MH: No, I dont. 103 00:14:31.6 WO: You surely need a copy of it. Call Ken and tell him that one of the things you need is a copy of our roster, and these things are available through the 84th. Have you talked to Forrest (inaudible)? 104 00:14:48.1 MH: Yes. 105 00:14:49.0 WO: Oh, okay, hes your man. Call him back and tell him you need a copy of the roster, and run Captain Hazlett down, because hell be an excellent resource for you. And some of those medics of his; see, he was in charge of all the medical service, Captain Hazlett was and any of thoseand Im sure there are several of those that are still alive that can tell you aboutand, see, they would have more of an idea, because they were the ones that gave the service. I was simply there to kind of help maintain law and order, so to speak. 106 00:15:31.9 MH: Did you see any camps after you left Salzwedel? 107 00:15:40.0 WO: Nope, Salzwedel was the only one that I saw. That was the only one that I was ever involved with, and I dont know whether other membersI dont think my unit was involved in any other one. We saw a lot of the prisoners, of course, after they were liberated. They were what we called displaced persons, DPs, and they came through. But weI dont recall another one there. Dachau, I guess, was the big one. 108 00:16:20.7 MH: Yeah, Dachau was a big one. But you didnt see any others? Whats the long-term impact of having been at a place like Salzwedel? 109 00:16:30.2 WO: Oh, its just a terrible nightmare. Ive even dreamed about it. About those scarecrows that came out, you know, and it was just the saddest, really. It was terrible. 110 00:16:49.1 MH: How oftenwhens the last time you dreamed about it? 111 00:16:53.0 WO: Oh, its been some time, although now that Im reminded of it, I may do it again. But, you know, its justit was so terrible that its just hard to describe, to see a man and from you say, maybe there were some women, too, that are just plain skin and bones, and thats all. Its just a terrible thing. Its worse than seeing a corpse, Ill tell you that, and Ive seen plenty of those. 112 00:17:27.7 MH: Really? Thats the impact that it has? 113 00:17:33.8 WO: It has exactly the same impact, really and truly. You know, when youduring the Battle of the Bulge, we saw hundreds of American soldiers that had been wounded and died and were frozen. And the impact was pretty much the same. You know, a human being is still a human being, and it doesnt make any difference what he is or where hes from or anything else or anything else, whether hes from Germany or wherever, but its always the same. 114 00:18:14.4 MH: What did you get your Ph.D. in? 115 00:18:18.5 WO: Horticulture, from the University of Maryland. 116 00:18:24.3 MH: How long did you stay in the service? 117 00:18:27.0 WO: I got out of the service in January of 1945, and actually, I went to college during thethe Army sent me to take engineering at VPI, and then I later ended up back in the infantry, much to my sorrow. And then, after that, I came back and finished my undergraduate work, and then I went on to Delaware for a masters degree, and then I got the Ph.D. at the University of Maryland. So, I had a very nice life later [when] I got out of the service. And there were parts of it during the service that were not bad, when I was at VPI. 118 00:19:11.6 MH: I was just looking on my computer so see if I have Forrest (inaudible) phone; I do. I have his phone number and his email address. Ill write and ask him. Its Captain Hazlett? 119 00:19:25.0 WO: Its Captain Hazlett, right. 120 00:19:28.1 MH: Coming back toyou taught at Clemson [University], right? 121 00:19:32.5 WO: Yes, I did. I taught horticulture here. 122 00:19:35.0 MH: Did you ever have occasionI know its way off the subject of horticulture, but did you ever get into discussions with your students about what youd seen during the war? 123 00:19:44.5 WO: Obviously, I did. And you know, I guess you forget about things like that, I guess, but oddly enough, I had aI had an e-mail from the Railsplittertheyve got some kind of a voicemail on it, and one of my students had answered and said that Roy Ogle was one of her old professors and that he was in the 84th Division. And she sent me the song aboutoh, I cant think of the name of it, but it was a song that was put on e-mail recently for anybody to copy that wanted, where they were orBefore Theyre Gone, is the name of it, yeah. (inaudible) 124 00:20:51.7 MH: All right, you got a second? Ill read something to you 125 00:20:57.0 WO: Yeah. 126 00:20:57.9 MH: that I found. Recently I was at Fort McNair in Washington D.C. at the Army Center of Military, and I was going throughthey have file boxes for each of the units that were declared liberating units and the camp that they liberated. And in the Salzwedel box, there was a letter and it was written by a woman named Mrs. Alice Kransler Fulop, F-u-l-o-p, who at the time was eighty-one years old. She lived in Milwaukee. She wrote this on April 2, 1982. 127 00:21:31.5 And she wrote: What did we camp prisoners perceive of the momentshes talking about liberation. She said, The SS suddenly left. Were locked inside the barracks. An airplane circles menacingly close to the roof. Hundreds of women crouch on barren floors and contemplate imminent death, who is no stranger; and a few do hope, and so they speak. Shoots are heard sporadically, the jail keepers plane vanishes, and then silence, long silence. Suddenly, out of nowhereit seems theyre out of another worldsome mystical beings appear and shinny armor at the gate. All the prisoners that are able to move cry and laugh and embrace each other and shout, Americans! Americans! The gates, the doors open. Americans! We are free! The words are shouted in innumerable languages; it forms one united choir: life. And in the name of all of us that were freed, please accept the thanks for our last thirty-seven years of life. God bless America. 128 00:22:29.4 WO: Thats touching, isnt it? 129 00:22:31.6 MH: I cry every time I read it. 130 00:22:33.6 WO: Yeah, I do, too. Well, that was us. That was the 84th, the rifle shots and all that. And believe you me, they still remember. A number of those guys that made it out finally did end up in the United States, and Im sure youre aware of that. Some were in California. 131 00:23:1.7 MH: Right. 132 00:23:2.7 WO: And I guess this is kind of a sequel to it, but when I went to Albany, New York, for the reunion there, they had several of those, several of the former prisoners there, and also their children. I walked upstairs with onea young lady, probably twenty, twenty-five, something like that: a kid. And so, she was talking to me about the 84th, and referred to me as a hero, and I told her, I said, Now, look, I was in an anti-tank platoon. I was no hero over there, and she says, To me, youre all heroes. If it were not for you, I would not be here. 133 00:23:59.2 MH: And then they need a mop to wipe up the floor. 134 00:24:1.1 WO: Yeah, they sure do. It just touched my heartstrings when she said that, and she was a remarkable young lady, too. 135 00:24:12.2 MH: Yeah, Im just making a note. Any other experiences since you came back that relate directly to this? 136 00:24:20.4 WO: Not really to Salzwedel, I guess. But again, just the shock of seeing those people. But, you know, its so much like that lady described in the letter. They were just jubilant; they were happy, you know. Life was wonderful. And she said the gates were open, but actually, by the time I got there, which maybe was twenty minutes later, the gates had been closed back up, and they were trying to protect the people. And I bet youis she still living? 137 00:25:1.0 MH: No, she would be 102 or 103, and I cant find her or her daughter in the phone book, either. 138 00:25:7.3 WO: Well, of course, her daughter probably wouldnt know, either; but in any event, I can assure you that they were locked back up to protect them from, you know, just wandering off. They were just so happy. They were jubilant is the actual term for it. They were just so happy, and they were celebrating by rebelling and throwing that flour on the ground and all this sort of thing. 139 00:25:39.6 MH: Its hard to imagine people in that devastating physical condition being able to have the energy to celebrate. 140 00:25:52.3 WO: And Im sure it was the last ounce of energy that those people had. You know, they were just dancing around and carrying on and it was a shock. 141 00:26:8.3 MH: Thank you for your time. Do you happen to have a photo of yourself from World War II? 142 00:26:17.8 WO: Yeah, I do. Im trying to rememberI can send you a photo, but I might have to have one made. The one I have, of course, is so similar of the era, and its a large photo, but I could probably haveyou need something for publication. What do you want, something like a glossy print? 143 00:26:43.5 MH: Any kind of print, as long as its a good print. Even if theres a way to have the picture you have scanned on to a computeryou know, I dont know what access you have to the university or anything like that. But if thats possible, what Id like is a picture of you from World War II and a picture of you today, or recent picture. 144 00:27:8.9 WO: Yeah, I can get you a picture of today; thats no problem at all. I got a passport picture that I can send you, but I can get one made of that other, and I will. Now, who do you want me to send this to? 145 00:27:25.3 MH: Okay, you got a pencil? 146 00:27:27.5 WO: (murmurs in agreement) 147 00:27:28.2 MH: Its Michael Hirsh, H-i-r-s-h. 148 00:27:35.6 WO: Just a second. 149 00:27:36.4 MH: Okay. 150 00:27:36.9 WO: H-i-r-s-h. 151 00:27:41.0 MH: Right. 152 00:27:42.4 WO: Michael Hirsh, yup. 153 00:27:43.3 MH: My address is and let me give you my phone number; do you have it? 154 00:27:47.1 WO: Yeah, please. 155 00:27:47.9 MH: Do you have e-mail? 156 00:27:49.9 WO: Yes, I do. 157 00:27:50.5 MH: Whats your e-mail address, and Ill just send you something? 158 00:27:53.2 WO: Im going to have to send that to you; my wife is the one that has the e-mail and I dont have it in front of me. Lets see, I do, too. Wait just a second. Its. 159 00:28:7.5 MH: Okay, all right. Ill send you an e-mail with my address on it so you have it there, too. 160 00:28:14.9 WO: Yeah, and that way I can get in touch with you by e-mail; thats even better. 161 00:28:18.6 MH: Okay. 162 00:28:20.7 WO: That sounds real good. 163 00:28:20.9 MH: All right. Thank you very, very much. Ill try and get in touch with Captain Hazlett. 164 00:28:24.6 WO: Yeah, and I just have another comment. 165 00:28:27.9 MH: Sure. 166 00:28:28.5 WO: Boy, Im really pleased that you are doing this, and if you would pleasenow, I dont expect a complimentary copy 167 00:28:35.3 MH: The publisher is going to send everybody Ive interviewed a copy of the book. 168 00:28:38.6 WO: Oh, really? How nice. 169 00:28:40.1 MH: Thats the deal that I made. 170 00:28:42.3 WO: But just in case that should fall through, I would like to have a notice of the title, because I want to get a hold of a copy of it. 171 00:28:53.2 MH: Okay, its going to be a while. 172 00:28:55.0 WO: I have a real good friend, and hes a professional writer. His name is Allan Howerton. Allan Wilford Howerton wrote Dear Captain, et al: The Agonies and the Ecstasies of War and Memory, published in 2000 by Xlibris. Did you ever hear of him? 173 00:29:4.8 MH: No, Im sorry, I havent. 174 00:29:6.1 WO: He was a member of the 84th Infantry, and he wrote one of the finest books Ive ever read, Dear Captain et al. I didnt know him until he wrote the book, and I bought the book and spoke to him, and he made the commentI asked him, Boy, you mustve spent a lot of time on this, and he said, I took five years out of my life to write that book. 175 00:29:44.7 MH: Well, this bookby the time I finish, this book will probably take two years. Ive been working on it forits going on eight months. My deadline for the manuscript is next May , and then it will be in the editing process and dealing with photos and everything else. And then the book will be out in early 2010. Why publishing takes so long, I dont know. 176 00:30:10.3 WO: Yeah, one of the big reasons in his case was the fact thatdoing the research, which is what youre doing right now. Just take forever to do.
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Ogle, Wayne L.
q (Wayne Leroy),
Wayne "Roy" Ogle oral history interview
h [electronic resource] /
interviewed by Michael Hirsh.
Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida Tampa Library,
1 sound file (31 min.) :
digital, MPEG4 file +
e 1 transcript (16 p.)
Concentration camp liberators oral history project
This interview was conducted as research for The Liberators: America's Witnesses to the Holocaust / Michael Hirsh (New York: Bantam Books, 2010).
Interview conducted November 1, 2008.
The Liberators: America's Witnesses to the Holocaust (New York: Bantam Books, 2010) and Concentration Camp Liberators Oral History Project, University of South Florida Libraries, 2010 Michael Hirsh.
Transcripts, excerpts, or any component of this interview may be used without the author's express written permission only for educational or research purposes. No portion of the interview audio or text may be broadcast, cablecast, webcast, or distributed without the author's express written permission.
This is an oral history interview with Holocaust concentration camp liberator Wayne "Roy" Ogle. Ogle was in an anti-tank platoon in the 84th Infantry Division, which liberated Salzwedel on April 14, 1945. He arrived in Europe in November 1944, landing at Omaha Beach, and was in the Battle of the Bulge, where he suffered frostbite and was wounded; after being hospitalized for two weeks, he rejoined his division and they went on to Germany. When Ogle got to Salzwedel the guards had already left and the prisoners were overjoyed, dancing and running around the camp. His unit was at the camp for several days, but Ogle did not enter the camp; instead, he was placed on guard duty outside the gates. Many years after the war, at one of the division's reunions, he met a woman who was descended from Salzwedel survivors.
Ogle, Wayne L.
Infantry Division, 84th.
Infantry Division, 84th
v Personal narratives.
Salzwedel (Concentration camp)
Ardennes, Battle of the, 1944-1945
World War, 1939-1945
World War, 1939-1945
World War, 1939-1945
World War, 1939-1945
Personal narratives, American.
World War, 1939-1945
Crimes against humanity.
University of South Florida Libraries.
Holocaust & Genocide Studies Center.
University of South Florida.
Special & Digital Collections.
Oral History Program.
Holocaust & genocide studies oral history projects.
Concentration camp liberators oral history project.
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