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John W. Ralle oral history interview

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Material Information

Title:
John W. Ralle oral history interview
Series Title:
USF 25th (1985) anniversary oral history project
Physical Description:
1 sound file (41 min.) : digital, MPEG4 file + ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Ralle, John W
Hewitt, Nancy A., 1951-
University of South Florida Libraries -- Florida Studies Center. -- Oral History Program
University of South Florida -- Tampa Library
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Genre:
Oral history   ( local )
Online audio   ( local )
Oral history.   ( local )
Online audio.   ( local )
interview   ( marcgt )

Notes

Venue:
Recorded July 9, 1985.
Statement of Responsibility:
interviewed by Nancy Hewitt.
General Note:
Description based on CD version record.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002208008
oclc - 635515277
usfldc doi - U14-00037
usfldc handle - u14.37
System ID:
SFS0022381:00001


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C O P Y R I G H T N O T I C E T h i s O r a l H i s t o r y i s c o p y r i g h t e d b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a L i b r a r i e s O r a l H i s t o r y P r o g r a m o n b e h a l f o f t h e B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a C o p y r i g h t 2 0 0 7 U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e d T h i s o r a l h i s t o r y m a y b e u s e d f o r r e s e a r c h i n s t r u c t i o n a n d p r i v a t e s t u d y u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e F a i r U s e F a i r U s e i s a p r o v i s i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o p y r i g h t L a w ( U n i t e d S t a t e s C o d e T i t l e 1 7 s e c t i o n 1 0 7 ) w h i c h a l l o w s l i m i t e d u s e o f c o p y r i g h t e d m a t e r i a l s u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s F a i r U s e l i m i t s t h e a m o u n t o f m a t e r i a l t h a t m a y b e u s e d F o r a l l o t h e r p e r m i s s i o n s a n d r e q u e s t s c o n t a c t t h e U N I V E R S I T Y O F S O U T H F L O R I D A L I B R A R I E S O R A L H I S T O R Y P R O G R A M a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h F l o r i d a 4 2 0 2 E F o w l e r A v e n u e L I B 1 2 2 T a m p a F L 3 3 6 2 0

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JOHN W RALLE Hewitt : I am speaking today with John Ralle, Chief TV Engineer at USF, as part of the Silver Anniversary Oral History Project Could you tell me when you first arrived at USF? Ralle : t September 1, 1960 Hewitt : t And that must have been within weeks of the school opening? Ralle : t It was about two or three weeks before the students came Hewitt : t And what position did you actually have when you first arrived here? Ralle : t My title, I believe, was Audio/Visual Coordinator, but I was really a technician and the only person in the Audio/Visual Department Hewitt : t Was this a job that you had done before or was this your first job in this area? Ralle : t That was my first major job in this area Hewitt : t Did you have alot of people in Audio/Visual to help you out? What kind of offices did you have at the time? Ralle : t Well, there were only four staff in Educational Resources and we had student assistants, as projectionists, to show the films and things in the classrooms It was a club It didn't work out We had to pay them We found out the first day of classes that if they didn't want to show up they didn't So we found out that we had to start paying them to get them to show up

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2 Hewitt : t Materialistic students! That was in the idealistic years at USF too What kind of equipment did you have to work with initially? Ralle : Everything was new--16 mm projectors, tape recorders, audio tape recorders, slide projectors, film strip projectors, overhead projectors, and all that stuff that Audio/Visual departments have Hewitt : t Did you participate in actually purchasing that set of equipment? Ralle : t The first group of audio/visual equipment we got from the science building, which is now the Chemistry building It came with the building We went down and picked it up and made our first enemies when we took that away from them Also we started buying some additional equipment Hewitt : t Was most of the equipment purchased initially, centered in Educational Resources, as opposed to being shifted out to the various colleges? Ralle : t Well, after we got that equipment from the Chemistry building from then on all audio/visual equipment belonged to Educational Resources, even though we would loan it out to the colleges on what we call a permanent loan But that was the philosophy of President Allen that it would be a centralized audio/visual service So all audio/visual equipment was owned by Educational Resources Hewitt : t Has that changed over the years? Ralle : That has changed over the years I'm not in the Audio/Visual department any more I'm sure the colleges, especially the College of Medicine, have their own equipment

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Hewitt : t There is now both a radio and a TV station at USF How early did the radio station begin operation? Ralle : The radio station went on in September of 1963 It was a 10 watt station Now it is 100,000 watts, but it was 10 watts then And television went on in September of 1966 Hewitt : t Could you pick up a 10 watt radio station on campus? Ralle : t On campus and about down to 30th Street Hewitt : t What kind of interest was there in that early radio station? Was it something that the administration wanted, that Educational Resources wanted, students wanted, or was it a combination of all of those? Ralle : t I think the administration wanted to get started with a radio station I don't think there was a whole lot of student involvement when it was just 10 watts But the students did get involved with it Shortly after that we raised it to 1000 watts and then it went up to 85,000 and then to 100,000 where it is now Students got involved after it became larger than a 10 watt station Hewitt : t Once it got off the ground What was your role in those early days? Ralle : t Well I was a technician I was the first technician hired by the University By the time the radio station came along I think we had about two other technicians that worked for me We built the station We put it on the air We were really in our glory then 3

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Hewitt : What kind of other jobs did you do as a technician? What was expected of you if you were the only one here? What kind of things did you get called on to take care of? Ralle : t We did everything close to electronic, but probably the most unusual was putting in a remote control system for President Allen's wife, Mrs Allen, so she could call the waiter in the President's dining room It was a television remote control system, a primitive type that they had back in those days There was a microphone in the ceiling and a television remote control that would activate a bell in the kitchen Hewitt : t Is that actually still in operation? Ralle : No In fact it never did work very well because the remote control made more noise than . Everybody knew she was doing something when the big click went off Hewitt : t Did you have much interaction with the faculty at that time in terms of people having equipment breakdown and calling on you to run over and fix it? Ralle : t Oh yes We fixed all the audio/visual equipment on campus There wasn't alot loaned out to the faculty And if one of theirs broke, we would usually send them another piece of equipment and then fix that piece Hewitt : t Where was Educational Resources located back then? Ralle : t The first year we were in the Administration building in rooms 89, 90, and 91 which are now procurement 4

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Hewitt : t When did you start expanding in terms of the number of staff? Ralle : t When we moved over here to what was the library then Hewitt : t This was the library? Ralle : t This was the library We moved over here in the summer of '61 in the basement We didn't have any rooms on the first floor as we have now We were just in the basement Hewitt : t And the library was in the rest of the building? Ralle : t The library had the rest of the building Hewitt : t And then you pushed the library out? Ralle : t Well, they called us the octopus in the basement But we never did push them out They got a new building Hewitt : t And then you just slowly climbed out of the basement onto the first floor? Ralle : t That is right Hewitt : Well at least you have a view now That must be nice When the TV station started, was that something that you and other technicians at USF actually built or did people come in from outside to develop the TV station? Ralle : t We had outside contractors do most of the work down at Riverview where the transmitter is, where the tower is But most of the work here, in this building, was done by us 5

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Hewitt : t And did students become involved in that early on who had been involved in radio or was it a different crew? Ralle : t It was different people in television They are still involved in television But they are mostly either talent, directors, or camera persons Very few students worked in the technical part Hewitt : t So most of the technical people were hired as technicians Is that because students wanted to be stars? Ralle : t Could be or it is boring, I guess, being a technician Hewitt : t Ha! Ha! You have been at it alot of years ; you must like it When did you move out of your job as a technician and into Educational Resources? Ralle : t Well, I was in Educational Resources from the very beginning Hewitt : t Oh, I see, as a technician? Ralle : t Yes I was here as an audio/visual coordinator That was what they called me I was the technician and the A/V coordinator because I was the only person Then my job became more and more paperwork and less and less technical work so we hired another technician to do the work that I wasn't getting done Then later on we had to hire another one Then when the radio station came along, we hired a couple more Then when TV came, that is when we really had a big push and hired about 9 or 10 Now there are 22 of us Hewitt : t Now when were the stations at Fort Myers developed? Ralle : t In 1983 It just went on a little over a year ago 6

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Hewitt : t Are they also run by technicians that are hired . ? Ralle : t That is all we have down there is technicians They work for Educational Resources, but they are down in Ft Myers Hewitt : t Is the system that was put into Ft Myers considerably more sophisticated or advanced technologically than the one here at USF? Ralle t No, it is newer It basically does the same thing It doesn't have any studios We have studios here It is called a satellite station of these stations Hewitt : t I see So the only studios are on the Tampa campus? Ralle : t That's right Hewitt : t Now that you are in the office of Educational Resources, what is the main focus of your job now? I assume you don't go out and do the actual technical work yourself at this point Ralle : t Well, I do alot of design work for the ITFS System We put that in And expanding the stations We do other things on campus also We did the Learning Lab--this was quite a few years ago--which is now being dismantled in the Education building We put that together So we do alot of design work and we keep up with the FCC and make sure the stations comply with all their rules Hewitt : t Has there ever been any trouble with the FCC rulings or the use of the radio or television here in terms of running into problems with FCC? 7

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Ralle : t We never had anything serious with them We had minor things frequently, but I think all stations do Hewitt : I'm sure they do, especially the college stations You mentioned that the Learning Lab was being dismantled As you work to design the programs, do you have input in terms of deciding which programs get designed or . Ralle : t You mean design systems? Hewitt : t Yes Or is that something that the administration says, "We want this system and you design it"? Ralle : t Well, that is usually the way it goes If they say they want a certain system, then we see if it is feasible and if it is, then we design it and write bid specifications That is what we did for the Learning Lab Hewitt : t Is the Learning Lab now moving or what? Ralle : t The Learning Lab was in the Education building It came with the Education building, but we designed the system That part of Educational Resources is now on the top floor of the library They have moved the booths up there They have changed the system totally It is no longer the system that was in the educational building because that is obsolete It was telephone dials and stopper relays, and all that stuff is all obsolete Hewitt : t Well, I have only been here four years and it seems to me that the technical systems on campus, and I'm thinking of computers at the moment, have just changed dramatically even in four years I mean the technology seems to becoming more and more sophisticated at an incredibly rapid rate How do 8

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9 you keep up with all of the changes and how do you work with systems that become obsolete? Is there no funding to change over to a new system? Ralle : It's hard to keep up with it, with all the computers and things like that They are changing all the time We try and we really don't keep up with it in broadcasting because we are not funded that well So most of the things in our station are practically obsolete Little by little we upgrade, but we never do a massive upgrade like commercial stations do Hewitt : t No advertising I guess Ralle : t No, we don't get that much Hewitt : t How is the radio and TV station funded? Is there special money set aside for that at the beginning of every year or do you have to come up with some of your own funding? Ralle : t Well, we get alot of grants We get grants from the federal government and from the state to support radio and television and we get money from the University Then we get money through the Foundation We have donations to the station and we have, for Ft Myers stations three times a year, we have a fundraising program for television down there Similar to what Channel 3 has here in Tampa We don't have the same thing in Tampa because we would be taking some of their money, and we agreed in the very beginning that we wouldn't do that But in Ft Myers we are the only educational station down there, so we do have our fundraising and we get quite a few donations Hewitt : t Do you have any involvement at all with the programming that goes on on TV or just on the technical side?

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Ralle : t Just on the technical side I make sure it works, that is all I don't make any selections on programming Hewitt : t And is that done through a separate office or is that some other aspect of Educational Resources? Ralle : t It's Educational Resources, but it's another office It is the program manager There is a program manager for television and a program manager for the radio They select and buy the programs Hewitt : t Do the students who work on their programs . Say a student wanted to get technical expertise at USF as part of his degree program or as a way of getting a job when he got out, like if he was a history major like myself and there were no jobs, is it possible for students to get involved in the technical side of these programs? Ralle : t The College of Mass Communications teaches broadcasting They use our equipment over here for their practical side But to get technical background, like to be an engineer, there is no program here to train students in that We do use students in television to do our on-air switching Those are all students that do that They are trained pretty well Alot of them have gone on to other broadcast stations, but it is to do the same thing Hewitt : t How do you get the technical expertise? When you look to hire someone to fill one of these new positions and replace a position, what kind of expertise are you looking for? Ralle : t Well, we like experience in broadcasting, but very seldom here can we afford them So we look for people who have an electronics/technician background, 1 0

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either out of the military or someone who went to a technical school or something of that nature Hewitt : t Early on when USF didn't have radio or television that was very developed yet or didn't have learning lab systems, how easy was it to find people who are willing to come to a brand new university to work as technicians? Ralle : It wasn't real easy because they could get more money elsewhere But hasn't been all that difficult We get people out of MacDill that are technicians in the air force, that come out looking for their first job on the outside Hewitt : You have obviously stayed at USF for a long time since you arrived in 1960 What attracted you to working at a brand new school with new staff and not too much equipment? Was it the fact that is was so new and you could build your own . ? Ralle : t Well, I lived in Tampa and it was here in Tampa I had planned to go somewhere else I already had a job interview elsewhere and then I found out about this job through a friend of mine So I came out I really didn't think I would stay this long Hewitt : t That is what alot of people tell me who I have been interviewing What was the campus like when you first came here? Ralle : There were three buildings, no sidewalks, and there was no grass It was all sand Wind blowing and sand blowing and everything else But there were three brand new buildings The parking lot wasn't even paved 1 1 Hewitt : t How did you park without sinking into the sand?

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Ralle : t Well it had gravel on it They had a security guy out there directing because there were no markings on it to show us where to park Hewitt : t Did people know that there was an Educational Resource Center initially? Ralle : No There wasn't one We didn't have an office We didn't even have a chair We all arrived about the same time And we all met and sat on a table and tried to figure out how we were going to get started Hewitt : t How did you get started? Ralle : t We got an Allied catalogue They gave me about $750 expense money and said to get started Hewitt : t Alot of people I have talked to, most of whom have been faculty and administrators, say that initially at USF there was a very close-knit sense on campus That everyone knew everybody else and people ate together and drank together Since there were only three buildings you were more likely to see each other all the time Was that true if you were working in something like audio/visual? Did you have alot of contact? Ralle : t Well, at that time we knew more of the faculty than anybody else because we had to go out and show the films in their classrooms so we knew all the faculty Everybody would meet at the University Restaurant after classes That was the only thing between here and Nebraska Avenue We all had charge accounts there We would go there for lunch Hewitt : t Did they give out charge accounts to all the Ralle : t They just automatically gave it to us 1 2

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Hewitt : t That is amazing I guess now with all the fast food places they can't compete anymore Ralle : t We just automatically got a card to charge our meals at the University Restaurant Hewitt : Over the years do you think Educational Resources has become more closely tied in? Do more people at the University know about the services, or do you feel like with the growth people have gotten more distant from Educational Resources? Ralle : t Yes, I think it is more distant now than it was then Also the faculty have their own equipment now They run their own films Hewitt : t With the changes over the last 25 years, what do think have been some of the most important additions to the audio/visual and Educational Resources programs, things that you can offer now that you couldn't have offered in the first few years? Ralle : t I know the broadcast stations weren't here in the first few years, so we can offer training for the mass comm students in broadcasting I guess there is a better Photography department You see we didn't have a Photography department when we first started We did get one shortly after The Graphics department was started in the very beginning, but it is alot more advanced now than it was then And we have the MDP which is where they do films and things for the University and small format video tapes and things And we have the ITFS system now which covers Hillsborough and Pinellas counties with television for courses 1 3

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Hewitt : t Those are television courses that cone out of the University? Ralle : t They come out of the University We broadcast them from the First Florida Tower building to Hillsborough and Pinellas counties It is like closed circuit, but it is open air, but you have to have a special receiver to pick up the courses And now we are expanding it to Sarasota and Ft Myers and over to Lakeland So pretty soon we will be covering all over Hewitt : t How many people are involved in that in terms of people who have special receivers and teach in the programs? Ralle : t I don't know how many right now I know that the Bay campus can receive it and Pinellas Park High School can receive it and some of the high tech industries in Pinellas County They buy their own Its a down converter We tell them what down converter they need They buy their own and put up the antenna and then they get the courses Hewitt : And was the development of that system a way of developing more community outreach? Ralle : t It was started mainly for the College of Engineering so they could get their courses into the high tech industries in the area without those people having to come to this campus Hewitt : t But now there are people from all departments from alot of different colleges who are involved in the program? Ralle : t Or are getting involved, yes 1 4

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1 5 Hewitt : t Does the expansion of that program take any particular expertise on the part of faculty members who are involved, to translate courses from a classroom situation to television? Ralle : t I guess so They have to be a television teacher That takes a little know how I guess Hewitt : t Do faculty have any involvement with the technical staff in trying to get some sense of how teaching on television might be different from teaching in a regular classroom? Ralle : We have a department that takes care of that It is called the Instructional Video Department or IVS They work with the professors In Engineering, we are the ones who designed the system and had it installed Hewitt : t How closely do you work with the College of Engineering? Are there people from the College of Engineering that work in these technical areas? You mentioned Mass Comm as a department that you worked closely with Do you also work closely with Engineering? Ralle : t I do work closely with the College of Engineering in getting these systems going But I have very little to do with the operation of it Once it gets off its feet and it gets operating, then I am out of it Hewitt : Since you were first hired you were obviously doing alot of hands-on technical work including things like putting in buzzer systems for the president's wife How difficult has it been to make the transition from that to designing systems, but having very little contact with actual hands-on experience? Is that something that you are really glad to have made, that transition, or would you still like to be .

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1 6 Ralle : t The transition just came automatically because I just found myself bogged down in paper work and not getting any of the other stuff done Hewitt : t Are there people who are involved in the system who do both hands-on technical work and systems design? Or is it pretty much divided? Ralle : t No, the insuring manager, Don Freeman, he does alot of design work, but every now and then he does hands-on also Hewitt : t And is the design work something that you were trained to do or is that something you picked up basically along the way? Ralle : t I picked it up right here Hewitt : t Have you designed any systems that didn't work? I mean if you pick it up along the way how easily can you Just sort of . Something like designing technical systems to me seems impossible I can't imagine just picking it up along the way Ralle : t All designs aren't good Some of them are not repeatable Hewitt : t What would you say have been the most successful systems designed, I mean the ones that you were the most pleased with? The ones that when they actually went into affect, that they worked the way you wanted them to work? Ralle : The most pleasing of all has been the Ft Myers television and radio stations We did that with the experience that we gained here It was only done 1J years ago That came off real well

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1 7 Hewitt : t So the branch campuses can benefit from the experiments from Tampa You mentioned that in the Ft Myers area you actually do fund raising because you are the only public television system there Do you work with Television 3 in Tampa developing programs or exchanging technical assistance or anything like that? Ralle : t We exchange technical assistance with all the stations But I don't get into developing programs with any of them You are talking about television programs now? Probably the programming department does We are always exchanging technical assistance Hewitt : t Given how many faculty, students, and staff don't really have much expertise in using sophisticated, technical systems, whether it is radio, television, computers, film projectors or tape recorders, how much difficulty does the University have or have you seen over the years in terms of people destroying systems or equipment that you so nicely designed? Are there ways in which inexperienced staff or faculty can really screw up a system or a piece of equipment so that it is beyond the ability to fix? Ralle : t Probably, but I haven't seen that happen I know that it must happen I think the worst thing that happens is that the equipment gets stolen Hewitt : t I guess that is less of a problem with a television station Ralle : t We have alot of cameras and things, but we haven't had any cameras stolen We have had monitors and testing equipment that have been stolen Hewitt : t I assume that is all insured against theft? Ralle : t No None of it is insured Our budget insures it

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Hewitt : t That is incredible Is it difficult to insure because it is so easy to carry out? Ralle : That is the way the state is You are self-insured I'm sure that there are other things on campus that are insured like vehicles and things that have liability insurance, but our towers are insured, but not for theft or anything Hewitt : t So you are better off with hurricanes than with thieves When you first put up the radio and the television towers, there weren't that many buildings around Were there problems putting up that kind of equipment? Ralle : t On the buildings? Hewitt : t Yes Ralle : t You see we put the radio tower on this building That was a very small mast when it was 10 watts We had trouble getting the microwave tower that is up here because it was ugly, so we had trouble getting that up here Our big towers are down at Riverview and they are a long way from the campus They are down on what is called the antenna farm where the other broadcast stations are Hewitt : t Oh, I see So you are mixed in with all the commercial stations like WEDU and all the rest? Ralle : t WEDU is on our tower Hewitt : t Oh really? That is interesting Did they start in Tampa before USF? 1 8

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Ralle : They were before us, but they were on a small tower over on 78th street and when we were going on a tall tower in Riverview, we agreed to let them go up there with us And they are in our building We built the building also Hewitt : t So you feel like over the years that Educational Resources has expanded at about the same rate as the rest of the University or were there periods when USF was growing so fast that it was difficult for you to keep up technically and in terms of equipment with the growth of the faculty and the student population? Ralle : t I think it is always difficult for us to keep up I don't think we are funded well enough to keep up with the growth of the University We are just now getting our first computer And other people have had computers for years We have never had a word processor We are just now getting our first word processor Hewitt : t We are just getting our p .c .'s at the Word Processing Center over in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences and everyone wants to learn It is almost impossible to get any time at the terminals because they are just jammed with people I suppose some of that wears off after the initial enthusiasm goes away, but clearly that is something that it seems like people are ready for and we're just starting to get them Were you involved in designing or choosing the systems for the new computer systems or is that a separate . ? Ralle : t You mean the computer center? Hewitt : t Yes 1 9

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Ralle : t I don't have anything to do with that Now we do have some computers, Radio Shack computers, that we have had for quite awhile that we bought out of Foundation money that they use for . They have a list of numbers that get the program guide each month and that has to be on computer to mail all those things out every month, so that has been computerized for quite awhile Hewitt : t So those were just kind of bought on the side until the system was set up Will that be incorporated? Ralle : t It probably will be incorporated into the division-wide system whenever we get that going, but that will be awhile I think Hewitt : t That is still not hooked up here? Ralle : t No Our computers are just sitting out here in the hall in boxes Hewitt : t It must look alot like it did when you first arrived here Ralle : t Boxes all the way down the hall Hewitt : t Boxes of new equipment Alot of the faculty and administrators that I have talked to here have mentioned the sort of drastic transitions from President Allen to President Mackey I guess those two administrations in particular Did transitions in presidents or upper level administration have a big impact on Educational Resources? Ralle : t I think so because with President Allen, he wanted everything centralized And we got alot of support and we were under the business manager Then when Mackey came, we went under Academic Affairs and that changed our whole 2 0

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2 1 funding When we were under the business manager, we were funded better And also, when Mackey came, he fired the director of Educational Resources So that changed things Hewitt : t That changed alot of things I guess Did Mackey have a different vision of what it was that Educational Resources should be in terms of its role on campus? Ralle : t I think that he thought more of the broadcast station, in my opinion, than he did of the Audio/Visual department Where as under Allen, it was more the Audio/Visual department in serving the faculty I think under Mackey it was more communications so the broadcast stations came up a bit under Mackey and audio/visual went down a bit Hewitt : Do you think that over the years, in general, since there was one president who emphasized audio/visual and one president who emphasized broadcasting, is there a nice balance that has been reached or is there still a real need to develop one area more than the other? Ralle : t I think now the emphasis is on broadcasting more than it was during President Allen's time But then the broadcasting stations are larger and everything so maybe that's logical to do it that way I think the Audio/Visual department probably has fallen back somewhat in funding and everything, although ITFS is under the Audio/Visual department and that is similar to broadcasting and it is on its way up Hewitt : I know in terms of resources that are given out in terms of the academic departments, there is a big emphasis on how many students you bring in in terms of how much money you get for other kinds of resources ; everything seems to based on the ratio between students and faculty In terms of

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2 2 audio/visual equipment and broadcasting, is there a relationship between how much it's used and how much funding you get to replace it or buy new equipment or does your budget seem to have little to do with use and what administrators are interested in? Ralle : Budget for broadcasting has alot to do with the government, whether it is a Democratic government or Republican government, because we get most of our money from the government rather than from the University Hewitt : t What about in terms of audio/visual equipment? 1 have used some projectors since I have been here that seem like probably charter projectors of the University Is there regular funding to replace that kind of equipment or does it come in spurts like the library money? Ralle : I believe that all the a/v money comes from the University So it comes in spurts Whereas the broadcasting money comes partly from the University but mostly elsewhere Hewitt : t Has there been pressure over the years to get more community involvement in things like the broadcasting stations in terms of support? Ralle : t Yes, especially now, with our fundraising in Ft Myers That is all community involvement Hewitt : t And I assume that the community's response so far has been fairly successful Ralle : t Very good Hewitt : t Do you think that will affect at all the way fundraising is done on the Tampa campus or because of WEDU is that really not an issue here?

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Ralle : That is right, because of WEDU You see, they agreed in the very beginning, not to compete with WEDU They have their auction and we have no auctions They have their PBS fundraising and we do not participate very heavily Hewitt : Are there any other forms of community fundraising that are possible besides the ones that Channel 3 already uses? Are there any other ways of privately funding programs, either through grants or something else? Ralle : t Yes and we have a department that works on that also Hewitt : t For an office that started very small it seems to have specialized Ralle : t Yes They work through the Foundation to get donations for the stations They do well Hewitt : t What would you say, since obviously there have been alot of changes in terms of systems that have been developed at USF over the last 25 years, what would you say have been the best developments in terms of your field and what would you say are the worst developments, the areas which USF needs to work on the most in the next 25 years? Ralle : t I don't know what are the best and what are the worst I have to really think on that one Hewitt : Do you think the broadcasting stations have been the biggest development in terms of the way USF might be perceived from the community rather than from internally? Is radio and TV something that really enhances our view out in the community or is most of it used on campus by campus people? 2 3

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Ralle : t I think most of it is used off campus, but I don't think It makes that big of an impact on the community Very many people think of USF because of the broadcast station 1 don't think the broadcast station is really that important There are alot of people who listen to radio It is classical music and it's the only classical music station in Tampa There is another one in the Tampa Bay area, but it is the only one in Tampa Compared to the population of the Tampa Bay area, it is very small And there are alot of people that watch Channel 16 but that is even smaller So I don't think they have much of an impact on how people think of USF Hewitt : t How much support do you think that the technical side of these services has had over the years? I've only been here for four years, but as a faculty member I know alot more about library services and things that directly influence faculty, and I'm afraid my only interaction with the technical side of these systems is if I get a film projector that is broken Do you think that faculty are relatively removed from having much sense of what goes on in terms of developing these systems and designing these systems? Ralle : t I don't think that since the faculty is large now, that I don't think that a whole lot of them know what goes on in Educational Resources Hewitt : t Do you think that the use of the systems developed by Educational Resources would be enhanced by faculty having some kind of initiation or a program that would introduce them to the range of services? Ralle : t Possibly Hewitt : t I mean I keep running-across things that I didn't know one could get here, things like learning lab programs, and just as I found out about that it moved 2 4

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Ralle : t Possibly it would in those kinds of areas I don't know that the faculty would get that much involved with broadcasting It seems like our broadcast stations in radio is sort of wrapped up with NPR, the network and television is wrapped up with PBS ; I don't know if they would have enough money to get more involved with the faculty Hewitt : t Is there any other aspect of your experience at USF over the last 25 years that you would like to get on tape or comment on that we haven't hit on? Ralle : t I don't know, I guess not Hewitt : t Alright, well thank you very much i pc5 2 5