Marina Inclan

Citation
Marina Inclan

Material Information

Title:
Marina Inclan
Series Title:
Spanish Civil War oral history project
Creator:
Inclan, Marina
Varela-Lago, Ana M
University of South Florida Libraries -- Florida Studies Center. -- Oral History Program
University of South Florida -- Tampa Library
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publisher:
University of South Florida Tampa Library
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 sound file (21 min.) : digital, MPEG4 file + ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ybor City (Tampa, Fla.) ( lcsh )
History -- Spain -- Civil War, 1936-1939 ( lcsh )
Genre:
Oral history. ( local )
Online audio. ( local )
Oral history ( local )
Online audio ( local )

Notes

Summary:
Marina Inclan describes how Tampa's Latin community supported the Spanish Civil War through fundraisers, demonstrations, and sending food, clothing and medicine. Particular emphasis is given to women and their efforts.
Venue:
Interview conducted May 16, 1997.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
General Note:
Supplemental material available in the USF Tampa Library Special Collections area.
Statement of Responsibility:
interviewed by Ana Varela-Lago.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
029487148 ( ALEPH )
316065279 ( OCLC )
S64-00009 ( USFLDC DOI )
s64.9 ( USFLDC Handle )

Postcard Information

Format:
Audio

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This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
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Marina Inclan describes how Tampa's Latin community supported the Spanish Civil War through fundraisers, demonstrations, and sending food, clothing and medicine. Particular emphasis is given to women and their efforts.
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segment idx 0time text length 208 Ana M. Varela-Lago: This is an interview with Mrs. Marina Inclan. Marina, I would like to start by talking a little bit about your family. Could you tell me, why did they come to Tampa and when did they come?
1Marina Inclan: They come to Cuba first, and then they came to Tampa. I was born in Cuba and have a brother that was born in Cuba and my sister was born in-they already passed away-my sister was born in Spain.
250 AVL: I see. Where in Spain were your parents from?
331 MI: Lugo, la provincia de Lugo.
441 AVL: That is in Galicia, in the province?
572 MI: Yes. They moved-the town in which Mother was born was Santa Eulalia.
618 AVL: De la Devesa?
756 MI: De la Devesa. And my father, San Miguel de Reinante.
835 AVL: Could you tell me their names?
996 MI: My father was Baldomero Lopez, and my mother was-. I have to give her, the maiden name, or-?
1026 AVL: Yes, the maiden name.
11MI: Leonor Ranon.
12AVL: Leonor Ranon.
1315 MI: Um-hm. Yes.
1465 AVL: Okay, so they met in Spain, your parents, they met in Spain?
15MI: Yes, they met in Spain. My sister-my older sister was born in Spain.
1639 AVL: Okay, they married in Spain, then?
1748 MI: They married in Spain and they came to Cuba.
18AVL: Why did they come to Cuba?
19126 MI: Because they wanted to-my father had a brother in Cuba and he told my father to come there and he will provide him a good-
209 AVL: Job.
2132 MI: Yes-and they stayed in Cuba.
22166 AVL: What did they do in Spain? Were they farmers, is that what they did in Spain before they decided to come to Cuba, your parents? Do you know what they were doing?
23134 MI: My father came first, he was a young man. He came to Cuba and he learned how to make cigars in Cuba. He was a cigar maker in Cuba.
2452 AVL: Did your mother also work in the cigar factory?
25MI: No, no, she doesn't work in the cigar factory.
2682 AVL: So, they are in Cuba and you are born in Cuba, and your brother also-in Cuba?
2780 MI: Yes. And my sister, my older sister-she's passed away-she was born in Spain.
2860 AVL: And why did your parents decide to come to Tampa, then?
298 MI: Yes.
3057 AVL: Why did they come to Tampa? Why did they leave Cuba?
31103 MI: Yes. They leave Cuba because they thought that they had more prosperity here in Tampa than in Cuba.
3278 AVL: I see. And when they came to Tampa they also worked in the cigar factory?
33MI: My father worked in the-right here in Celestino Vega.
3437 AVL: Celestino Vega? Was he a roller?
35MI: He was a cigar maker. He made both.
3654 AVL: And he worked in Celestino Vega most of his life?
3777 MI: Most of his life, yes. My mother doesn't work, she take care of children.
38AVL: How many children did they have? There were three when you came to Tampa?
39MI: There were three, yes.
40AVL: So, three?
41MI: Um-hm, Um-hm.
4263 AVL: Where did you live when you were growing up here in Tampa?
4333 MI: Right here, around here, yes.
44AVL: So they settled in West Tampa?
4523 MI: In West Tampa, yes.
4646 AVL: And they always lived here in West Tampa?
4751 MI: Yes, they always lived here in West Tampa, yes.
48AVL: Did they speak Galician at home, your parents?
49137 MI: No, my mother is the one that, but my father no, my father speak good Spanish. But my mother, sometimes she had some word in Gallego.
5044 AVL: Did they ever go back to Spain, Marina?
5124 MI: No, no, they didn't.
5220 AVL: They never did?
5328 MI: They died here in Tampa.
5425 AVL: Did you go to Spain?
55111 MI: I went to Spain, yes. I went to Spain, and I've been in Asturias. My husband was a native of Asturias, yes.
5684 AVL: Yes. Let's talk about your husband a little bit. How did you meet your husband?
57MI: I met him at the Centro Obrero.
58AVL: At the Centro Obrero?
59MI: Yes.
6030 AVL: And he was from Asturias?
61MI: He was from Asturias.
62AVL: Where in Asturias?
63MI: Piedras Blancas.
64AVL: Piedras Blancas. And where is that, do you remember?
6514 MI: In Aviles.
6645 AVL: In Aviles. Um-hm, and what was his name?
6721 MI: Alejandro Inclan.
6822 AVL: Alejandro Inclan.
69MI: Yes.
70AVL: Was his family also here in Tampa?
71MI: His sister, yes, his sister was here.
7234 AVL: And he was also a cigarmaker?
7329 MI: Yes, he was a cigarmaker.
74AVL: Did you work as a cigarmaker?
7549 MI: Yes, I did, I did, here in Garcia & Vega.
7642 AVL: What did you do, did you make cigars?
77MI: Yes, I made cigars.
78AVL: And he also worked at Garcia & Vega?
7953 MI: No, he worked in Ybor City, Corral & Wodiska.
80135 AVL: Did you belong to the clubs, Marina, to any of the clubs? What club did you belong to? The Centro Asturiano, the Centro Español-?
81MI: I was a member of the Centro Asturiano, yes.
8299 AVL: How old were you when your family came to Tampa? Do you remember, were you still a child, or-?
83MI: Yes, I was a child, yes.
8464 AVL: And what year did they come, do you remember, more or less?
85MI: I think in-1914.
86AVL: Nineteen-fourteen [1914]?
87MI: I think so, yes.
88150 AVL: Okay. Tell me a little bit about your childhood. What do you remember about growing up here in West Tampa? What are the things that you remember?
89MI: I'd always go and play with my sister and my brother and with the children around here, yes.
9093 AVL: Do you remember any of the activities of the club, any of the picnics, things like that?
91MI: No, they don't have any club around here, no, no.
9276 AVL: Okay. How about the summer. What did you do in the summer and holidays?
93MI: In summer-
94AVL: Did you go to the beach?
95MI: No, I helped my mother, I helped my mother, and my sister helped my mother, yes.
96100 AVL: When did you get married? Was that during the Depression when you got married, do you remember?
97MI: Yes.
98AVL: Did you marry in the church?
997 MI: No.
100AVL: No? Did you marry at home?
101MI: Civil, yes.
10298 AVL: What do you remember of the Depression, the Great Depression, was it hard here in West Tampa?
10313 MI: Yes, yes.
104123 AVL: Did your family still have work or did they have to go somewhere else to find work, or they stayed here in West Tampa?
10540 MI: Yes, they stayed here in West Tampa.
10688 AVL: I hear that a lot of people had to go to other places, but your family stayed here.
107MI: Yes, yes.
108147 AVL: Okay. Tell me now a little bit about the war in Spain, the Spanish Civil War and how do you remember the things that people did here in Tampa.
109MI: Yes, yes.
110AVL: What did you do during the war in Spain? I saw you in this photograph with all the women of the Committee.
111363 MI: We collected clothes, we collected clothes, and we made churros. We made churros, on every Saturday in the afternoon we'd go around the street and sell churros. And I had two or three of them that had a car, and they'd go to-they'd come to West Tampa to sell churros, and they'd go to Ybor City to sell churros. We made churros. I'm the one that made churros.
11287 AVL: Oh really! So where did you make them, I mean, did you go to a bakery, or-at home?
113170 MI: No, at home, yes. There was a baker there that told us that we could make all the churros there. I don't know the name of the bakery, I don't remember the name of it.
11467 AVL: Right. So you did that every Saturday, every Saturday morning?
115MI: Saturday, yes.
116106 AVL: And how long did it take for you to make all those churros? Was that, like, all day working on those?
117MI: Yes, all day! We'd begin very early in the morning, yes.
118AVL: What else did you do, did you do other things?
119MI: Yes, we collected money in the factories, yes.
120AVL: And when was that, like every week or every day?
121MI: Every week, every week, yes, every week.
122AVL: Here in West Tampa.
123MI: West Tampa and Ybor City, the whole cigar factories.
124AVL: How about the clothes, how did you collect the clothes?
12575 MI: The people offered the clothes and they'd take it to the Centro Obrero.
12611 AVL: I see.
127MI: Yes. Lot of boxes of clothes we delivered to Spain, yes.
128141 AVL: How about food, did you send any food, also, or do you remember people sending food or other things like medicines and things like that?
129MI: Oh, yes, medicines, right, medicines! Yes, they sent a lot of medicines.
13062 AVL: And your husband was also involved in the Frente Popular.
13116 MI: Yes, he was.
132AVL: What did he do, do you remember?
13336 MI: He collected clothes and things.
134127 AVL: Do you remember being in any of the demonstrations, Marina, all these demonstration that were organized here in Ybor City?
135MI: Yes, yes. One demonstration began in Ybor City and went to downtown.
136AVL: Were you there in that demonstration?
137MI: Yes, yes.
138AVL: Was it a big demonstration, do you remember?
139MI: Yes, very, very, very big.
140AVL: How many people do you think were there?
141MI: I think about 300-400.
142122 AVL: And what happened afterwards? It went to City Hall and what happened there, do you remember, were there any speeches?
143109 MI: We talked about the condition that Spain was suffering. Yes, that's one of the reason that we went there.
14470 AVL: Right. Do you remember participating in any other demonstrations?
145MI: No, I don't. If I did I don't remember, you know?
146108 AVL: Yes, that's okay. How about the speakers, you know, from Spain, that would come to speak here in Tampa-
14712 MI: Oh, yes!
148AVL: What do you remember about it?
149MI: I remember very, very much Fernando de los Rios.
150AVL: Uh-huh, that was the Ambassador?
151212 MI: Yes, yes. I don't remember the names. There's a lot of people that came from Spain, but I don't remember their names, you know. The only one is Fernando de los Rios, because he was very nice and very popular.
152AVL: And where did he speak, Fernando de los Rios, do you remember?
153MI: At Centro Asturiano.
15486 AVL: Centro Asturiano? And do you remember any of-was there a lot of people attending?
155MI: Oh, yes, it was a lot-
156AVL: Was that at the theater of the Centro Asturiano?
157MI: Yes, the theater, yes.
158AVL: And what kind of things did he say, do you remember?
159MI: He talked about the conditions that suffered Spain, the Civil War.
160153 AVL: How about the other people here in Tampa, apart from the Spaniards, like the Italians and the Cubans, were they also involved in the Frente Popular?
161MI: Yes, yes. The Cubans, they were involved in it.
16274 AVL: Did they do the same kind of things, or did they do different things?
163MI: No, they do the same thing.
16497 AVL: They worked together, there wasn't any-was there any conflict between the different groups-?
165MI: No, no, no, no, I don't, no-
16679 AVL: In their support of Spain? So everybody agreed and supported the Republic?
167MI: Yes, yes.
168AVL: How about the Americans? Were they also working for the Republic?
16961 MI: Much of them sympathized with that, but I don't, I don't-
170113 AVL: Do you remember things happening in Tampa proper, downtown Tampa, events in support of the Republic, at all?
17190 MI: Yes, we went to City Hall and we talked to those people that were employed there, and-
172AVL: Right, the mayor and all that-
17319 MI: Yes, the mayor-
174AVL: So, do you think the Americans were supportive?
17573 MI: Yes, most of them were supportive, yes, most of them were supportive.
176116 AVL: And how about the church, Marina, do you remember? Were there conflicts here between the church and the people?
177MI: No, I can't tell you nothing about the church because I don't think they-
178228 AVL: What did the people here think of the United States' response to the war, you know, they wanted to be neutral, not to help any of the sides. How did the people here in Tampa think about that? Were they happy with that, or-?
179MI: They would be more happy if they'd help the Civil War in Spain.
180AVL: Okay, tell me a little bit about the work of the women. Did you all work together at the Centro Obrero?
181MI: Yes, yes.
182AVL: How did the group become organized, do you remember how, how the whole thing started?
183112 MI: They sympathized with the cause in Spain. That's the reason they gathered there and we formed the committee.
184101 AVL: Who was the leader of the women, I mean the people, who was like the president, do you remember?
185MI: Well-Elisa, but she died. Elisa, and-
186AVL: Is that Elisa Morris, was her name?
187MI: Yes, yes.
188AVL: And when she died, then Carmen Ramirez became the president?
189125 MI: Yes, Carmen Ramirez did it, yes. She was very enthusiastic, yes. I think that all the women, they were very enthusiastic.
190121 AVL: And you used to meet at the Centro Obrero, how often? Like every week, or every month, or-? How often, do you think?
191MI: It depends on how the war was. They'd call us and maybe-sometimes it's a week and sometimes it's a month.
192AVL: I see. And how did you know how the war was going in Spain? What were your sources of information?
193MI: The paper.
194AVL: The paper? What paper did you read?
195MI: I think La Gaceta was the most read.
19659 AVL: That's the one? Did you read American newspapers also?
197MI: Yes, yes. I read also.
19847 AVL: How about the radio, did you listen to it?
199MI: Oh, yes, I do listen to radio.
200AVL: Tell me about that.
201MI: Yes, I do listen to radio.
202AVL: Did you have a radio at home?
203MI: Yes, yes.
204AVL: And what time did you hear the broadcast usually, I mean, were those news from Spain coming from Spain?
205MI: Yes. Approximately in the afternoon or at night, yes.
206AVL: And almost every day there was the news?
207MI: Yes, yes.
208AVL: Do you remember any of the picnics that were organized to have money?
209MI: Oh, yes, yes.
210AVL: What kind of things-?
21169 MI: A lot of people'd go to the picnics, they were very enthusiastic.
212133 AVL: Where were the picnics, where were they, do you remember? I've seen photographs of some of the picnics at Drew Park, La Columna-
213MI: Yes, La Columna, that's right!
214AVL: Do you remember that?
215MI: Yes, La Columna, that's right, yes.
216AVL: Were the women the ones who did all the cooking and prepared the things?
217MI: Yes, yes, they'd do churros, they made churros.
21827 AVL: Always making churros!
219MI: Yes, they'd make churros and they'd make empanadas, and they'd make everything to sell them-
220AVL: I see. How about, you know, when people here know that the Republic is not winning-
221MI: Oh, yes.
22238 AVL: How were the people here feeling?
223MI: They feel bad, sure they do! They feel bad. They sympathized with that.
224AVL: Did you have family in Spain, Marina, at that point?
225MI: Not now.
226AVL: During the war?
22766 MI: Yes, up there, yes, I have family, I have cousins, that's all.
228AVL: But when the Spanish Civil War was going on, did you have family there?
229MI: Oh, yes.
230AVL: Did you keep in touch with them, how did you know about them?
23183 MI: Yes. They'd write to me often-not often, once about a six month or seven month.
232AVL: What happened then when the war was over, when Franco won, how was the feeling here in Tampa?
233MI: Oh, the feeling was terrible! Yes.
234AVL: And did the people here in Tampa do anything else after the war, to keep supporting-?
235139 MI: No, I don't think so, no. They were so depressed that they didn't do anything. No, I don't think, I don't remember them doing anything.
236343 AVL: Marina, to conclude this interview-is there anything else that you would like to add to the interview-some aspect that we haven't discussed that you think comes to your mind? I remember now seeing the picture with the General, General Philemore, and you were there with the other women. Do you remember anything about that visit, the man?
23768 MI: Yes. He came and he talked in the Labor Temple. He talked there.
238AVL: Was he representing the Red Cross-who was he, do you remember?
239MI: He was Mexican, huh?
240AVL: He was a Mexican general, I see.
241MI: Yes.
242211 AVL: Okay, do you think there is something else that you would like to have included-? No? Okay, well, Marina, thank you very much for this interview, and it has been a pleasure meeting you and interviewing you.
243End of interview
unicode usage 2-byte sequence starting at 9669 [195 177 (c3 b1 ) {"\u00f1"} ]. [ Asturiano, the Centro Español-?
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COPYRIGHT NOTICE This Oral History is copyrighted by the University of South Florida Libraries Oral History Program on behalf of the Board of Trustees of the University of South Florida. Copyright, 2009, University of South Florida. All rights, reserved This oral history may be used for research, instruction, and private study under the provisions of the Fair Use. Fair Use is a provision of the United States Copyright Law (United States Code, Title 17, section 107), which allows limited use of copyrig hted materials under certain conditions. Fair Use limits the amount of material that may be used. For all other permissions and requests, contact the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA LIBRARIES ORAL HISTORY PROGRAM at the University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fo wler Avenue, LIB 122, Tampa, FL 33620.

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1 Spanish Civil War Oral History Project Oral History Program Florida Studies Center University of South Florida, Tampa Library Digital Object Identifier: S64 00009 Interviewee: Mrs. Marina Inclan (MI) Interviewer: Ana M. Varela Lago (AVL) Interview dat e: May 16, 1997 Interview location: Tampa, Florida Transcribed by: Unknown Transcription date: Unknown Interview changes by: Mary Beth Isaacson Interview changes date: November 19, 2008 Additional changes by: Arlen Bensen Additional changes date: Dece mber 16, 2008 Final Edit by: Maria Kreiser Final Edit date: January 21, 2009 Ana M. Varela Lago : This is an interview with Mrs. Marina Inclan. Marina I would like to start by talking a little bit about your family. Could you tell me, why did they come to Tampa and when did they come? Marina Inclan : They come to Cuba first and then they came to Tampa. I was born in Cuba and have a brother that was born in Cuba and my sister was born in they already passed away my sister was born in Spain. AVL: I see. Where in Spain were your parents from? MI: Lugo la provincia de Lugo AVL: That is in Galicia, in the p rovince? MI: Yes. They moved the town in which M other was born was Santa Eulalia. AVL: De la Devesa? MI: De la Devesa. And my father, San Miguel de Reinante. AVL: Could you tell me their names? MI: My father was Baldomero Lopez, and my mother was I have to give her, the maiden name or ? AVL: Yes, the maiden name.

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2 MI: Leonor Ranon. AVL: Leonor Ranon. MI: Um hm Yes. AVL: Okay, so they met in Spain, your parents, they met in Spain? MI: Yes, they met in Spain. My sister my older sister was born in Spain. AVL: Okay, they married in Spain then? MI: They married in Spain and they came to Cuba. AVL: Why did they come to Cuba? MI: Becaus e they wanted to my father had a brother in Cuba and he told my father to come there and he will provide him a good AVL: Job. MI: Yes and they stayed in Cuba. AVL: What did they do in Spain? Were they farmers, is that what they did in Spain before they decided to come to Cuba, your parents? Do you know what they were doing? MI: My father came first, he was a young man. He came to Cuba and he learned how to make cigars in Cuba. He was a cigar maker in Cuba. AVL: Did your mother also work in the cigar f actory? MI: No, no, she doesn't work in the cigar factory. AVL: So, they are in Cuba and you are born in Cuba and your brother also in Cuba? MI: Yes. And my sister, my older sister she's passed away she was born in Spain. AVL: And why did your paren ts decide to come to Tampa, then? MI: Yes. AVL: Why did they come to Tampa? Why did they leave Cuba? MI: Yes. They leave Cuba because they thought that they had more prosperity here in Tampa than in Cuba.

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3 AVL: I see. And when they came to Tampa they a lso worked in the cigar factory? MI: My father worked in the right here in Celestino Vega. AVL: Celestino Vega? Was he a roller? MI: He was a cigar maker. He made both. AVL: And he worked in Celestino Vega most of his life? MI: Most of his life, yes My mother doesn't work, she take c are of children. AVL: How many children did they have? There were three when you came to Tampa? MI: There were three, yes. AVL: So, three? MI: Um hm Um hm AVL: Where did you live when you were growing up here in Tampa? MI: Right here, around here, yes. AVL: So they settled in West Tampa? MI: In West Tampa, yes. AVL: And they always lived here in West Tampa? MI: Yes, they always lived here in West Tampa, yes. AVL: Did they speak Galician at home, your pa rents? MI: No, my mother is the one that, but my father no, my father speak good Spanish. But my mother, sometimes she had some word in Gallego. AVL: Did they ever go back to Spain, Marina? MI: No, no they didn't AVL: They never did? MI: They died here in Tampa. AVL: Did you go to Spain?

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4 MI: I went to Spain, yes. I went to Spain, and I've been in Asturias. My husband was a native of Asturias, yes. AVL: Yes. Let's talk about your husband a little bit. How did you meet your husband? MI: I met hi m at the Centro Obrero. AVL: At the Centro Obrero? MI: Yes. AVL: And he was from Asturias? MI: He was from Asturias. AVL: Where in Asturias? MI: Piedras Blancas. AVL: Piedras Blancas. And where is that, do you remember? MI: In Aviles. AVL: In Avi les. Um hm and what was his name? MI: Alejandro Inclan. AVL: Alejandro Inclan. MI: Yes. AVL: Was his family also here in Tampa? MI: His sister, yes, his sister was here. AVL: And he was also a cigarmaker? MI: Yes, he was a cigarmaker. AVL: Di d you work as a cigarmaker? MI: Yes, I did, I did, here in Garcia & Vega. AVL: What did you do, did you make cigars?

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5 MI: Yes, I made cigars. AVL: And he also worked at Garcia & Vega? MI: No he worked in Ybor City, Corral & Wodiska. AVL: Did you be long to the clubs, Marina, to any of the clubs? What club did you belong to? The Centro Asturiano, the Centro Espa – ol ? MI: I was a member of the Centro Asturiano, yes. AVL: How old were you when your family came to Tampa? Do you remember, were you still a child or ? MI: Yes, I was a child, yes. AVL: And what year did they come, do you remember, more or less? MI: I think in 1914. AVL: Nineteen fourteen [1914] ? MI: I think so, yes. AVL: Okay. Tell me a little bit about your childhood. What do you r emember about growing up here in West Tampa? What are the things that you remember? MI: I'd always go and play with my sister and my brother and with the children around here, yes. AVL: Do you remember any of the activities of the club, any of the picnic s, things like that? MI: No, they don't have a ny c lub around here, no, no. AVL: Okay. How about the summer. What did you do in the summer and holidays? MI: In summer AVL: Did you go to the beach? MI: No, I helped my mother, I helped my mother, and my sister helped my mother, yes. AVL: When did you get married? Was that during the Depression when you got married, do you remember?

PAGE 7

6 MI: Yes. AVL: Did you marry in the church? MI: No. AVL: No? Did you marry at home? MI: Civil, yes. AVL: What do y ou remember of the Depression, the Great Depression, was it hard here in West Tampa? MI: Yes, yes. AVL: Did your family still have work or did they have to go somewhere else to find work, or they stayed here in West Tampa? MI: Yes, they stayed here in W est Tampa. AVL: I hear that a lot of people had to go to other places, but your family stayed here. MI: Yes, yes. AVL: Okay. Tell me now a little bit about the war in Spain, the Spanish Civil War and how do you remember the things that people did here i n Tampa. MI: Yes, yes. AVL: What did you do during the war in Spain? I saw you in this photograph with all the women of the Committee. MI: We collected clothes, we collected clothes, and we m ade churros. We made churros, on every Saturday in the afterno on we'd go around the street and se l l churros. And I had two or three of them that had a car and they'd go to they'd come to West Tampa to sell churros, a nd they'd go to Ybor City to sel l churros. We made churros. I'm the one that made churros. AVL: Oh r eally! So where did you make them, I mean did you go to a bakery or at home? MI: No, at home, yes. There was a baker there that told us that we cou ld make all the churros there. I don't know the name of the bakery, I don't remember the name of it. AVL: Right. So you did that every Saturday, every Saturday morning?

PAGE 8

7 MI: Saturday, yes. AVL: And how l ong did it take for you to make all those churros? Was that like all day working o n those? MI: Yes, all day! We'd begin very early in the morning, yes. AVL: What else did you do, did you do other things? MI: Yes, we collected money in the factories, yes. AVL: And when was that, like every week or every day? MI: Every week, every week, yes, every week. AVL: Here in West Tampa. MI: West Tampa and Y bor City, the whole cigar factories. AVL: How about the clothes, how did you collect the clothes? MI: The people offered the clothes and they'd take it to the Centro Obrero. AVL: I see. MI: Yes. Lot of boxes of clothes we delivered to Spain, yes. AVL: How about food, did you send any food also or do you remember people sending food or other things like medicines and things like that? MI: Oh yes, medicines, right, medicines! Yes, they sent a lot of medicines. AVL: And your husband was also involve d in the Frente Popular. MI: Yes, he was. AVL: What did he do, do you remember? MI: He collected clothes and things. AVL: Do you remember being in any of the demonstrations, Marina, all these demonstration that were organized here in Ybor City? MI: Y es, yes. One demonstration began in Ybor City and went to downtown. AVL: Were you there in that demonstration?

PAGE 9

8 MI: Yes, yes. AVL: Was it a big demonstration, do you remember? MI: Yes, very, very, very big. AVL: How many people do you think were ther e? MI: I think about 300 400. AVL: And what happened afterwards? It went to City Hall and what happened there, do you remember, were there any speeches? MI: We talked about the condition that Spain was suffering. Yes, that's one of the reason that we we nt there. AVL: Right. Do you remember participating in any other demonstrations? MI: No, I don't. If I did I don't remember, you know? AVL: Yes, that's okay. How about the speakers, you know, from Spain that would come to speak here in Tampa MI: Oh yes! AVL: What do you remember about it? MI: I remember very, very much Fernando de los Rios. AVL: Uh huh that was the Ambassador? MI: Yes, yes. I don't remember the names. There's a lot of people that came from Spain, but I don't remember their nam es, you know. The only one is Fernando de los Rios, because he was very nice and very popular. AVL: And where did he speak, Fernando de los Rios, do you remember? MI: At Centro Asturiano. AVL: Centro Asturiano? And do you remember any of was there a lot of people attending? MI: Oh yes, it was a lot AVL: Was that at the theater of the Centro Asturiano?

PAGE 10

9 MI: Yes, the theater, yes. AVL: And what kind of things did he say, do you remember? MI: He talked about the conditions that suffered Spain, the Ci vil War. AVL: How about the other people here in Tampa, apart from the Spaniards, like the Italians and the Cubans, were they also involved in the Frente Popular? MI: Yes, yes. The Cubans, they were involved in it. AVL: Did they do the same kind of thin gs or did they do different things? MI: No, they do the same thing. AVL: They wo rked together, there wasn't any was there any conflict between the different groups ? MI: No, no, no, no, I don't, no AVL: In their support of Spain? So everybody agreed and supported the Republic? MI: Yes, yes. AVL: How about the Americans? Were they also working for the Republic? MI: Much of them sympathized with that but I don't, I don't AVL: Do you remember things happening in Tampa proper, downtown Tampa, eve nts in support of the Republic, at all? MI: Yes, we went to City Hall and we talked to those people that were employed there and AVL: Right, the mayor and all that MI: Yes, the mayor AVL: So, do you think the Americans were supportive? MI: Yes, mo st of them were supportive, yes, most of them were supportive. AVL: And how about the church, Marina, do you remember? Were there conflicts here between the church and the people?

PAGE 11

10 MI: No, I can't tell you nothing about the ch urch because I don't think th ey AVL: What did the people here think of the United States response to the war, you know, they wanted to be neutral, not to help any of the sides. How did the people here in Tampa think about that? Were they happy with that or ? MI: They would be mor e happy if they'd help the Civil War in Spain. AVL: Okay, tell me a little bit about the work of the women. Did you all work together at the Centro Obrero? MI: Yes, yes. AVL: How did the group become organized, do you remember how, how the whole thing s tarted? MI: They sympathized with the cause in Spain. That's the reason they gathered there and we formed the committee. AVL: Who was the l eader of the women, I mean the people, who was like the president, do you remember? MI: Well Elisa, but she died. Elisa, and AVL: Is that Elisa Morris, was her name? MI: Yes, yes. AVL: And when she died then Carmen Ramirez became the president? MI: Yes, Carmen Ramirez did it, yes. She was very enthusiastic, yes. I think that all the women they were very enthusi astic. AVL: And you used to meet at the Centro Obrero, how often? L ike every week or every month or ? How often, do you think? MI: It depends o n how the war was. They'd call us and maybe sometimes it's a week and sometimes it's a month. AVL: I see. An d how did you know how the war was going in Spain? What were your sources of information? MI: The paper. AVL: The paper? What paper did you read?

PAGE 12

11 MI: I think La Gaceta was the most read. AVL: That's the one? Did you read American newspapers also? MI: Yes, yes. I read also. AVL: How about the radio, did you listen to it? MI: Oh yes, I do listen to radio. AVL: Tell me about that. MI: Yes, I do listen to radio. AVL: Did you hav e a radio at home? MI: Yes, yes. AVL: And what time did you hear the broadcast usually, I mean were those news from Spain coming from Spain? MI: Yes. Approximately in the afternoon or at night, yes. AVL: And almost every day there was the news? MI: Yes, yes. AVL: Do you remember any of the picnics that were organized to have money? MI: Oh yes, yes. AVL: What kind of things ? MI: A lot of people'd go to the picnics, they were very enthusiastic. AVL: Where were the picnics, where were they, do you remember? I've s een photographs of some of th e picnics at Drew Park La Colu mna MI: Yes, La Columna, that's right! AVL: Do you remember that? MI: Yes, La Colum na, that's right, yes. AVL: Were the women the ones who did all the cooking and prepared the things?

PAGE 13

12 MI: Yes, yes, they'd do churros, they made churros. AVL : Always making churros! MI: Yes, they'd make churros and they'd make empanadas, and they'd make everything to se l l them AVL: I see. Ho w about, you know, when people here kno w that the Republic is not winning MI: Oh yes. AVL: How were the people her e feeling? MI: They feel bad, sure they do! They feel bad. They sympathized with that. AVL: Did you ha v e family in Spain, Marina, at that point? MI: Not now. AVL: During the war? MI: Yes, up there yes, I have family, I have cousins, that's all. AVL: But when the Spanish Civ il War was going on, did you hav e family there? MI: Oh yes. AVL: Did you keep in touch with them, how did you know about them? MI: Yes. They'd write to me often not often, once about a six month or seven month. AVL: What happe ned then when the war was over, when Franco won, how was the feeling here in Tampa? MI: Oh, the feeling was terrible! Y es. AVL: And did the people here in Tampa do anything else after the war, to keep supporting ? MI: No, I don't think so, no. They were so depressed that they didn't do anything. No, I don't think, I don't remember them doing anything. AVL: Mar ina, to conclude this interview is there anything else that you wou ld like to add to the interview some aspect that we haven't discussed that you think comes to your mind? I remember now seeing the picture with the General, General Philemore, and you

PAGE 14

13 were there with the other women. Do you remember anything about that visit, the man? MI: Yes. He came and he talked in the Labor Temple. He talked the re. AVL: Was he representin g the Red Cross who was he, do you remember? MI: He was Mexican, huh? AVL: He was a Mexican general, I see. MI: Yes. AVL: Okay, do you think there is something else that you would like to have included ? No? Okay, well Ma rina, thank you very much for this interview and it has been a pleasure meeting you and interviewing you. End of interview


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