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Ex libris :
b journal of the USF Library Associates.
n Vol. 1, no. 3 (winter 1978).
p Winter, 1978
Tampa, Fla. :
USF Library Associates.
c winter 1978
Major acquisitons -- Permanence and your gift -- Associates events and activities -- Exhibits -- From our collections III : a brief history of pre-Darwinian systematic biology.
University of South Florida.
USF Library Associates.
Ex Libris: Journal of the USF Library Associates
Calendar of Library Associates Events & Activities For Quarter II, 1978 (January 5 to March 27) January 5-March 15 Exhibit: "Botanical Panorama: A Selection of Early Botanical Works from the University of South Florid a Collection. March 16 Library Associates reception and open-hous e in the Special Collections Department, USF Library. Further information relative to given events or act ivities is given in the "Events and Activities" section, page 3. Contents Major Acquisitions ................................ ....1 Permanence and Your Gift ........................2 Associates Events and Activities ..............3 Exhibits .......................................... ...........4 From Our Collections: III A Brief History of Pre-Darwinian Systematic Biology .. 5 Cover: Title page from Clusius' Rariorum Plantarum Historia (1601); see article beginning on page 5. Programs, activities, and services o f the Universi ty o f South Florida are available to all on a non-discriminatory basis, without regard t o race, color, creed, religion, sex, age, national origin, or handicap. The University is an affirmative action Equal Opportunity Employer. Ex Libris Vol. 1, No. 3 Winter, 1978 Ex Libris is published quarterly by the USF Library Associate s, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Please address suggestions and comments to J. B. Do bkin, Executive Secretary, USF Library Associates, USF Library, Tampa, Fla 33620. All illustrations in this issue of Ex Libris are reproduced from works in the Special Collections Department of the university of South F lorida Library. Photography is by the photography department of USFs Division of Edu cational Resources.
Major Acquisitions ONE of the brightest spots in our acquisitions pict ure since the last issue of Ex Libris has been our progress in developing the Library's h oldings of 19th Century American literary works. In addition to many fine gifts from private sources, the USF English department made available resources from its librar y fund allocation for the acquisition of material for our 19th Century American literature c ollection. Particularly encouraging has been progress towards our goal of a comprehensive c ollection of American fiction of the 19th Century. Among the books acquired this quarter were first editions of works by such writers as James Fenimore Cooper and Mark Twain. Wi th continued support, our collection of 19th Century American literature promises to be one of major stature. Growth has also been encouraging in the University's general rare books collection. Continuing their generous support for the Library, Dr. and Mrs. David P. Wollowick donated seven folios (numbers 7-14) of Topolski's Chronicles. Covering the period 1958-1967, each of these portfolios of drawings by the British artist Feliks Topolski are hand-printed, signed, and numbered. Together with the Topolski folios previously donated by Dr. and Mrs. Wollowick, the Library now has a splendid run of these important works. We have also received a gift of twenty-five issues of Moscow News. Published in Moscow, this English-language newspaper was the wee kly edition of the Moscow Daily News. The collection covers the period 1936-37, giving va luable insight into the Soviet version of life in Russia during the Stalinist era. Due to the fragility of newsprint (and, no doubt, to the unpopularity of Communism in America at the time), original issues of Moscow News for this period are not common. We are most gratefu l to Mrs. Catherine Dahl for her generosity in donating these issues to our collection. During the past quarter we were fortunate in acquir ing several fine specimens of early printed works. Of particular note was a volume enti tled Ex Paluti Comoediis xx, published by the famous Aldine Press at Venice in 1 522 This interesting work is an edition of the comedies of Roman dramatist Titus Ma ccius Plautus (254-184 B.C.). Another early book acquired was J. Bingham's Historie of Xenophon, printed in London by John Haviland in 1623. Bingham's book was the first published English tran slation of Xenophon's Anabasis. Also received for the rare book collection was a fi rst edition of Receuil D'Etampes Representant les differents Evenernents de la Guerr e. Published in Paris in 1784, this Engraving of the Siege of Pensacola (1781), from a 1784 French illustrated history of the American Revolution acqu ired for the USF rare books collection.
work is an illustrated history of the American Revo lution. Among its 16 fine engraved illustrations is the first appearance of the famous plate showing Galvez at the seige of Pensacola in 1781. A copy of the first edition of E. E. Cummings' work EIMI was presented to the Library by Ms. Barbara Deane. Published in 1933, only 1,381 copies of the first edition were printed. The copy donated, number 519, is signed by Cummings. Among the many items acquired during the last quart er for our Florida collection were two particularly notable collections of photog raphs. The first of these was an album of 100 Florida views dating from circa 1895, primarily taken in the Pinellas-Pasco region. Each view has an identifying caption and is labeled either "along the route of the Plant System," or "along the route of the Sanford & St. P etersburg Railroad." The photographs were made by a Mr. Stokes, whose office was in Moha wk, a small town formerly located in Lake County. Of particular interest are the many fine views of St. Petersburg and Tarpon Springs to be found in the collection. The second major group of Florida photographs acqui red was an album of 130 views ranging in date from the 1870's to 1923. These view s related mainly St. Augustine, Ormond, Daytona, and the St. Johns River area. Each item includes a descriptive annotation. Accompanying the album were a number of rare and interesting paper-bound Florida guide books and tourist brochures dating fr om the 1880's and 90's. All in all, the album and its accompanying collection of Florida pa mphlets made a most useful addition to our Florida Collection.
Permanence and Your Gift IT IS NOT EASY in these days of rapid change to fin d a haven of unchanging excellence. The buildings we knew as children, that seemed so grand and glorious, have in many cases been deemed unprofitable and thus exp endable. The respected business firms that catered to our needs and pampered our wh ims, too often turned out to be dinosaurs of the marketplace and they are gone. The slower paced times before the days of instantaneous world-wide communication and the p ossibility of instantaneous worldwide atomic destruction are now lost and but regret ted memories. Where, then, can we find continuity and a haven in this maelstrom of change? Where better than in the special collections area of the library. Here the assembled wisdom of the centuries still clothed in its original raiment awaits our leisurely perusal. Microforms, reprint editions, and all of the other stars of the media parade have important places in our educational system and provide much needed mate rial that would not otherwise be available. Despite its obvious utility the new does not completely replace the old. The original type, paper, and binding lend much to the bare outlines of the text. Notes of an author or contemporary reader add a dimension that we can ill afford to lose. The feeling of closeness to the author is lost when we are deni ed access to original editions of his work. Handling the manuscript letters in our collec tion we gain a special sort of insight into the social milieu that was home to many 19th C entury American authors. The very handwriting and stationery lends a sense of closene ss and intimacy otherwise impossible. When your gifts come to our Library you can be sure that they will be maintained as a valued and lasting part of our cultural heritage. W e feel that our security, temperature and humidity control, and specialized knowledge of anti quarian materials all contribute to the survival of the research material in our care. Whil e a few pieces of paper or a few old books may not in themselves be of particular intere st, when placed with numerous other items in the same subject area they can form part o f a collection of great value to scholars. We must think of the generations of stude nts and faculty to come and work toward creating the tools for their research. What we fail to acquire today may well no longer exist tomorrow.
Associates Events and Activities Library Associates Book Sale The first annual Library Associates book sale (Nove mber 9-10) was a resounding success, both for the Associates and for the hundre ds of persons who picked up book bargains. By the end of the sale, the bulk of the e ight thousand volumes on hand had been sold. The proceeds of the sale will go far toward s upporting the programs of the Associates during the forthcoming year. And, as a f ringe benefit, thousands of good books that would otherwise go unused are now in the hands of Tampa's reading public. Through the good offices of Dr. Fred Pfister, staff for the sale was provided by volunteers from the USF Department of Library, Medi a, and Information Studies. A portion of the sale's profits will go to the depart ment in return for the splendid service rendered by the volunteers. Although many individua ls contributed to the success of the sale, particular mention must be made of Mr. Horst K. Joost's outstanding services. A professional bookseller, Mr. Joost volunteered to p rice and arrange the thousands of sale books. This proved to be a herculean task involving many long hours of patient labor. A great debt of gratitude is owed to Mr. Joost and al l the others who donated time and books to make the Associates book sale such a splen did success. The sale for 1978 will be held in the University Ce nter Ballroom on November 5, 6, and 7. Although over one thousand fine books have b een gathered already, we will need the support of our members and well-wishers if we a re to make the 1978 sale even bigger than our first effort. Donations, large or small, o f books for the sale are badly needed. If you have unwanted or unused books that you might wi sh to donate to the Associates, please contact Mr. J. B. Dobkin or Mr. Paul Camp at 974-2731. A gift of books to the Associates will not only help further our goal of a better library for the University community, but will also get good books to readers who can use them. Marshall McLuhan Dinner A buffet dinner sponsored by the Library Associates was held in the University Ballroom on the evening of November 26. Addressing the Associates was noted author and media specialist, Dr. Marshall McLuhan. The eve ning's program also featured a most entertaining musical program presented by the USF O pera Workshop, arranged by Ms. Annamary Dickey of the University's Music departmen t. Ms. Dickey's courtesy in providing such an enjoyable addition to the evening 's entertainment is most deeply appreciated. To commemorate the evening, a copy of an attractive and amusing keepsake edition of Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper was given to each guest. The edition was printed for the occasion by Konglomerati Press, and was based on a specimen in the USF collection published by W. B. Sprague of Albany, Ne w York, sometime around 1840. Author's Brunch On December 11, Mr. and Mrs. Dudley Clendinen spons ored a meet-the-authors brunch at La Cave Restaurant for the benefit of the Associates. Guests of honor at the reception were noted Bay area writers Jack McClinto ck and Howell Raines. Mr. McClintock's new work, The Book o f Darts, is the first book ever written on the history and play of dart games. Mr. Raines is the author of the popular novel Whiskey Man. Proceeds from tickets to the event went to the Libr ary Associates treasury through the
great kindness of Mr. and Mrs. Clendinen, who perso nally met all expenses for the brunch. Their generosity is most deeply appreciated Special Collections Open House On March 16, 1978, there will be a sherry-and-biscu it reception for Associates members and their guests in the Special Collections department on the fourth floor of the University Library. This will be a splendid opportu nity for an intimate, behind-the-scenes look at how a rare book department operates. In add ition to guided tours of the Special Collections department, there will be a show-and-te ll program about the department's services and the many rare or unusual items housed there. Many visitors will be surprised to discover the range and depth of rarities in the collection. During the open house, guests will have the opportunity of examining such things as a four thousand year old Babylonian tablet, an Egyptian papyrus, early American childre n's books, and such bibliographic curiosities as fore-edge paintings. A lso to be seen will be autographs of famous persons from Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to the Kennedys, not to mention a fortune or two in Confederate money. All told, the occasion should be entertaining, informative, and perhaps even educational. The even t is free of charge for Associates members and their guests, though reservations are r equired so that we may know how many visitors to plan for. Reservations may be made by calling 974-2731. All members of the Associates are cordially invited to attend w hat promises to be one of the most memorable events we've sponsored.
Exhibits EXHIBITS of rare and unusual items from the Univers ity's collection are displayed in the Library on a continuing basis. Display areas ar e located on the fourth floor of the main library building, both in the lobby and in the Special Collections reading room. Exhibits are changed quarterly. Current Exhibit: On display until March 15 will be a selection of b ooks and illustrations from the University's extensive colle ction of early botanical works Included are many of the landmark publications in the develo pment of systematic botany, ranging in date from the 16th to the 19th Century. Many of the works are beautifully illustrated, some with hand-colored plates of considerable artis tic merit. Quarter III (March 27): "Florida in Pictures, 1885-1925 ." Through the vivid medium of contemporary photographs, this exhibit wi ll present a picture of Florida life in the pre-boom era. Most of the structures and views portrayed in the photographs and postcards comprising the exhibit either no longer e xist or have changed beyond recognition. Through these visual records, however, the exhibit will portray the life-style of a Florida now lost beyond recovery. The exhibit will be on display from March 27 to June 7. Quarter IV (June 19): Thomas Bird Mosher and the Mosher Press, 18911922." The Library is fortunate in having an extensive col lection of books published by the Mosher Press, perhaps the paramount private press i n the history ofAmerican printing. Established in Portland, Maine, in 1891, for thirty years the Mosher Press produced "choice and limited editions" of books notable for their typographic excellence. In addition to producing beautiful examples of the typ ographer's art, Mosher played a major role in introducing the works of important British writers to Americans The display will be on view from June 19 to September 1.
From Our Collections: III A Brief History of Pre-Darwinian Systematic Botany Richard P. Wunderlin, Ph.D. ONE OF MANKIND'S most insatiable urges is the quest for knowledge. In order to understand his environment and himself, man has had a need to organize and classify. One may argue that systematics started with human s peech since the naming of abstract concepts and individual items are means of classifi cation. Since plants were an omnipresent and an extremely important part of man' s environment, systematic botany in a broad sense developed very early. Although little is known about the botanical knowle dge of pre-literate man, much can be inferred. Those who gathered food were by necess ity practical plant taxonomists. Through experience they learned which plants were e dible and which were not. It can be said that those who failed to learn this basic taxo nomy failed to become our ancestors. Existing "primitive" societies possess linguistic m eans for accurate distinctions between the kinds of plants. These methods are ofte n very sophisticated. The period of history when man could read and write but before the advent of the printing press, saw the rise of the intellectual an d social basis for what is now our civilization. The advent of writing was unquestiona bly one of the greatest breakthroughs of ancient man for it provided a means of recording and recall at a later date. It must be emphasized that at the time writing was done "for t he record." It was not new information nor new interpretations, but was general knowledge of the people of the times. "Publication," on the other hand,, meant an oral pr esentation of new data and it may have been some time before it was regarded as "common kn owledge" and written down or recorded, if ever. What this means is that the writ ing which was done quite likely was derived from the experiences of preliterate man. The first attempts at systematizing botanical knowl edge are generally credited to the golden age of Greece during the 4th Century B.C. Theophrastos (ca. 370-285 B.C.) was the first great botanical writer and is usually referred to as the father of botany. Theophrastos s tudied with Plato and Aristotle. After the deaths of these two great men, he became head o f the Lyceum with its gardens and libraries in Athens. He produced over two hundred w ritten works during his lifetime, although most of these survive only as fragments or in quotations from other writer's works. In his well-known Historia Plantarum he described over five hundred species of plants. These he classified into four groups: herbs sub-shrubs, shrubs, and trees. He also laid the foundations for many of the basic concepts of modern botany, such as floral morphology, sexual and asexual reproduction, and th e various kinds of tissues. Students of the writing of Theophrastos will note that his s entences are often terse and sometimes rather vague. It has been suggested that his botani cal writings were not meant to be read, but were in fact lecture notes. Caius Plinius Secundus or "Pliny the Elder" (A.D. 2 3-79), a Roman scholar, produced one of the more influential botanical works, Historia Naturalis. In this work he attempted to record everything about the world. Of the 37 vol umes of the work which survive, 16 dealt primarily with plants. His botanical writings are essentially agricultural and medicinal in nature. However, he mentions nearly on e thousand species of plants. In his works he perpetuated many errors of his predecessor s. However, they are encyclopedic in
scope and were held in the highest esteem for more than a thousand years. His Historia Naturalis was one of the earliest books to be printed by mova ble type in the 15th Century. It is unfortunate that Pliny had an untime ly death during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Pedanios Dioscorides -(1st Century A.D.), presumably was a contemporary o f Pliny. He was of Greek ancestry and served as a military p hysician under Emperor Nero in the Roman Army. His most important work, Materia Medica, is an account of about six hundred plant species used for medicinal purposes w hich he derived from firsthand observations as a practicing physician. His book is divided into chapters in a rather haphazard manner, but many of the plants were place d, at least superficially, in groups according to natural relationships. Since the Materia Medica dealt with human medicine and was easily understandable, it became a very imp ortant work. The possession of a copy of Materia Medica was a virtual guarantee of fortune and success. Wit h it one could practice pharmacy or medicine since he had the single most important source book available on the subject. ABOUT A.D. 512, the Byzantine emperor, Flavius Olybrius Anicius, had a beautiful manuscript copy of Dioscorides' work prepared as a gift for his daughter, Princess Juliana. This manuscript became known as the Anicia Juliana Codex and is today housed in the Imperial Library in Vienna. The Anicia Juliana Codex is now available in facsimile and in translation. Most of the plants illustrated may be identified with certainty as plants living today. The Anicia Juliana Codex attracted the attention of scholars all over western Europe, and many came to Constantinople and later to Vienna to study it. A copy of a translation of t he Codex came into the hands of Pierandrea Mattioli, a 16th Century Italian herbal writer. Mattioli noted the fact that his own herbals were ultimately derived from Materia Medica of Dioscorides. It is great tribute to Dioscorides' fame and influence that Mat tioli, one thousand five hundred years later, would proclaim his own work as being derived from his Materia Medica. During the Middle Ages, following the decline of th e Greek and Roman civilizations, little significant botanical progress was made. It was a matter of course for people to simply defer to the ancients whom they assumed were infinitely wiser and more cultured. The early herbals were simply recopied for centurie s with few additions or improvements. The only botanist of note was Albertu s Magnus (ca. A.D. 1200-1280). He An early edition of Linnaeus Species Plantarum one of the key works in the development of systematic botany. Port raits of Linnaeus usually show him with a sprig of Linnea borealis in his hand, as is the case here. This plant was discovere d by Linnaeus in 1732 and later named in his honor.
was given the title of "Doctor Universalis" by his contemporaries and was called the "Aristotle of the Middle Ages." He was elevated to sainthood by the Church of Rome. St. Albert, as he was also called, was a prolific write r and his books on botany are only one of his many contributions. Although his actual cont ribution to botanical knowledge is hard to assess, in an era of general ignorance St. Albert was a shining light. He is probably best remembered for his classification of plants in which he recognized two major groups of flowering plants, the monocots and dicots, and the separation of the vascular plants from the nonvascular plants. These are basic distinctions which are used today. The ancient and medieval botanists felt they were w riting in the realm of "common knowledge" and there was little originality in thei r thinking. With the coming of the Renaissance, the cultural and intellectual nature o f Europe changed. People now sought originality in all manner of personal expression. One of the most significant impacts on systematic b otany was the development of the printing press. Printing made books relatively inex pensive and readily available. As a result, the literacy rate increased manyfold. Medic al-botanical books became quite popular during the early days of printing. The disc overy of misconceptions in the older works prompted scholars to publish their own books or "herbals." The popularity of these herbals, and the ease with which they could be publ ished, permitted botanists to propose various relationships among plants and to devise no menclatural schemes. The best known and most influential herbalists were three Germans: Otto Brunfels (1488-1534), Jerome Bock (1489-1554), and Leonhart Fuchs (1501-1566). Brunfels' best known herbal, Herbarum Vivae Eicones, first appeared in 1530 and went through five editions. It contains 86 woodcuts of excellent quality. Bock's first herbal is his Neu Kreuterbuch, published in 1537. Although it contains no illustrations, it has many technically accurate des criptions of plants based on firsthand observations. His Kreuterbuch, which is actually the second edition of the former work, appeared in print in 1546 and contained 477 woodcuts. There were eight further editions of this work. Fuchs' De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes (1542) contains 509 full page woodcuts of plants. Some rare copies of this work c ontain hand-colored illustrations. The woodcuts were later used by Fuchs in his Neu Kreuterbuch. There exists in Vienna a manuscript for a revised edition of his De Historia Stirpiurn with 1,525 woodcuts. What made Brunfels, Bock, and Fuchs different from their predecessors is that they were original in their thinking. They admired the a ncients, but did not consider them the ultimate authority and based their decisions on ori ginal observations. A few other well known herbalists were the Dutch, C harles de L'Ecluse (1526-1609), and Rembert Dodoens (15171585), the German, Valeriu s Cordus (1515-1544), and the British, John Gerard (1545-1612). IN ADDITION to the printing press another very impo rtant development, the science of navigation, took place at this time. This natura lly led to the botanical exploration of the New World. Toward the beginning of the 17th Century large numbers of plants were being described from the New World. As the number o f plant species increased, there became an evident need to expand and revise the cla ssification systems. Andrea Caesalpino (1519-1603), an Italian physician was one of the early systematists who attempted to produce a new expande d concept of classification. He
based his system on the assumption that certain fea tures of a plant were more meaningful than others. Caesalpino's major contribution to the literature was De Plantis (1583), a work consisting of 16 books; the first a general wo rk on the theoretical aspects of botany, and the others containing descriptions of about 1,520 species. Gaspard Bauhin (1560-1624), a Swiss botanist, published what was the most comprehensive work at t he time, Pinax Theatri Botanici. This work was an account of all species of plants known at the time, approxi mately six thousand in number. It also listed the differen t names that had been used for each species by other botani sts before him. Bauhin was the first botanist to firmly establish a clear concept of a genus and species. H e also used a binomial nomenclature, although not consiste ntly. These are basic concepts which we consider obvious today. The Englishman, John Ray (1627-1705), was another influential systematic botanist. He published numer ous works, but is perhaps best known for his Methodus Plantarum Nova (1682), and Historia Plantarum (16861704). He produced a system in which plants which looked alike were grouped together. Although this i s obvious to us today, it was a new idea at that time Even though his system contained a number of peculiarities derived from a mixture of new and old systems, it w as a major step in the right direction. In his Historia Plantarum, he accounted for approximately eighteen thousand sp ecies of plants. Pierre Magnol (1638-1715), a French contemporary of Ray, found Ray's system to be too cumbersome and divided the plants into 26 major groups which he called families. The family concept as put forth by Magnol is basic to an understanding of modern systematics. Although we have greatly modified the original groupings proposed by Magnol and expanded them upwards to over three hund red, we still use his basic ideas. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort ( 1656-1708) was a student of Magnol. Tournefort's Elements de Botanique (1694), illustrated with 451 copper engravings, inc luded 698 genera and 10,145 species. He later enlarged the te xt of this work and republished it as Institutiones Rei Herbariae (1700) The Institutiones was less sophisticated than Ray's Historia and was structured on a mechanical basis designed t o identify the plants at hand, somewhat like keys found in identification manuals today. THE THEORETICAL works of Ray and others had made gr eat strides toward providing a sound basis for systematic botany. Howe ver, exploration of the New World, the Far East, and Africa had increased the number o f known species of plants to unmanageable proportions. The then available system s could not accommodate the diversity of plants and it became obvious that a gr eat reorganization would have to be undertaken. This brings us to an important milestone in the his tory of systematic botany, that of A page from a 1610 Frankfurt edition of the First Century A.D. botanical works of Pedianos Dioscorides. Throughout the Middle Ages and well into the modern period, Dioscorides work was considered the last word in botanical science.
the advent of the Swedish botanist Carl von Linne ( 1707-1778) He is perhaps better known by his Latinized name, as Carolus Linnaeus. S everal books and countless scientific papers have been published on Linnaeus a nd his works. He is unquestionably the most influential pe rson in modern systematic botany. Linnaeus, the son of a parson, received clerical training at the University of Lund and the Universi ty of Uppsala, later taking a degree in medicine at the University of Harderwijk in the Netherlands. While attending the University of Uppsala, he published h is first paper, one dealing with sexuality in plants. He lat er elaborated on this theme which became the foundatio n for his proposed classification system. His interest in plants and the university garden endeared him to Olaf Rudb eck, an elderly professor, who helped him financially an d used him as an assistant. Under the sponsorship of the Academy of Sciences of Uppsala, Linnaeus undertook a botanical expedition to Lapland in 1732. He traveled 4,800 miles in five mo nths and collected 537 plant specimens. One plant which he named Campanula serphyllifolia turned out not to be a Campanula at all and was renamed Linnaea borealis by the Dutch botanist, Jan Gronovius, in honor of Linn aeus. While in the Netherlands, after completing his medi cal degree at the University, Linnaeus published his Systema Naturae (1735), a brief work consisting of eight folio sheets, sett ing down the basis for his classification system. This work went through 1 3 editions during his life and several further editions by various authors after his death Linnaeus served as the personal physician to George Clifford, a rich hypochondriac. Under the patronage of Clifford, Linnaeus had time and money to pursue his true interest, botany. In 1737 he published his Genera Plantarum, Flora Lapponica, and Hortus Clifffortianus all major works. Upon the death of his former teacher, Rudbeck, Linn aeus returned to Uppsala to fill the Chair of Medicine at the University. Due to Lin naeus' attraction as a teacher, the enrollment at Uppsala tripled. Linnaeus served as m ajor professor for 180 students. The ultimate contribution and influence of many of thes e students forms the backbone of modern systematics. Among the students of Linnaeus were Peter Forskal, Fredrik Hasselquist, Peter Kalm, Carl Thunberg, and Daniel Solander. With the publication of his Species Plantarum (1753), the starting point for the system of priority used in our present-day nomenclature of higher plants is establ ished. Here for the first time we find a consistent use of the binomial system of nomenclatu re. The system of classification used by Linnaeus is si mple and artificial. Plants are divided into groups according to the number and arr angement of flower parts. This simple but effective system became very popular wit h botanists who had to deal with many new species. Linnaeus and his immediate predecessors were concer ned with the mechanisms of Illustration from Labliche abbildung und contrafaytung aller kreuter by Leonhart Fuchs (Basel, 1545).
classification. They assumed that species were fixe d entities. They did note, however, that some plants were more clearly related to each other than to others, but this was of little concern to them. BY THE LATE 1700's, sufficient information had accu mulated for the taxonomists to be more concerned with the ultimate purpose of thei r work. A good cataloging system had been devised by Linnaeus, but now it was eviden t that it was little more than just that. It did not accurately show biological relatio nships. The de Jussieu family of France had four members wh o became important botanists: Antoine, Barnard, Josep h, and Antoine-Laurent. They were all associated with the Royal Botanical Garden in Paris. Probably the most signif icant of the four is Antoine-Laurent in whose Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines Naturales Disposita (1789), was presented a natural approach to classification. Thi s meant that plants which looked alike were classified toge ther. There was no basic scientific dicta supporting this concept of a natural system. This would come a century late r with the elaboration of the theory of evolution. Botanis ts of the time accepted the idea of a system with its basis i n intuition and observation, rather than one which was fundamen tally artificial, such as that of Linnaeus. The Swiss-French family de Candolle was another gre at family. Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), i n his Theorie Elementaire de la Botanique (1813), developed his morphological approach to systematics. However, he and the other de Candolles are most noted for their Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (1824-1873), which was an attempt to write a flora of the whole world. Augustin de Candolle worked on the Prodromus from 1816 until his death in 1841, then his son, Alphonse (1806-1893), worked on it until 1873. After that a series of monographs was published by Alphonse and later his son, Anne Casimir (18361918). The great Prodromus was never completed. Throughout the early and middle years of the 19th C entury, the natural system of classification became firmly entrenched. Most botan ists were satisfied with the system and spent their time using it to prepare floras of the various regions of the world. The last and most complete pre-evolutionary natural system was that proposed by George Bentham (1800-1884), an eminent British amat eur botanist, and Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911), the Director of Kew Gard ens. This work, Genera Plantarum (1862-1883), is still a very useful work consisting of very precise generic descriptions arranged in a system derived from that of A. P. de Candolle. IN 1859 Charles Darwin published his monumental On the Origin o f Species. This gave rise to a whole new concept of systematic bota ny; one based on evolution. One era had come to an end and another was beginning. It is perhaps appropriate to digress briefly at thi s point to touch upon the topic of floras. This is a vast subject about which much has and still could be written. I'll briefly mention only a couple of the more beautifully illus trated works at this time. Illustration from Pierandrea Mattioli s New Krauterbuch (1563). Of particular note is the way the plant specimen is drawn as a neat rectangle to fit the available space, a technique common in early botanical drawings.
One magnificent work is that of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (1731-1743). The magnificent plates were made in th e field and were based on fresh material. The work consists of two folio volumes and an appendix. Each volume contains one hundred hand-colored plate s and the appendix has twenty such plates. Linnaeus based several new species of plant s on Catesby's illustrations. The work is, as the name implies, a natural history work, an d contains illustrations and text of various other su bjects as well as botanical ones. Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) and Aime Alexander Bonpland (1773-1868), a German and a French naturalist-traveler respectively, spent seve ral years traveling and collecting in tropical America. As far as taxonomy is concerned, their principal work is Voyage aux Regions Equinoctiales du Nouveau Continent, fait en 1799-1804, partie 6, Botanique. Section 3, Nova Genera et Species (1815-1825). This is a seven-volume work published simultaneously in quarto and folio editions. It contains seven hundred plates, beautif ully executed. Carl S. Kunth, a German botanist, was responsible for most of the text in this work. The University of South Florida Herbarium Library includes a valuable collection of rare botanical wo rks dealing primarily with systematic botany. This libr ary is largely a gift of Dr. George R. Cooley, an ardent s tudent of botany and friend of former University President John Allen. The USF Herbarium and Library originated at Chinsegut Hill in February, 1 958. It was believed by Dr. Cooley that in order to do any serious taxonomic work, one needed a good library and this included the classics. During his many travels abou t the world, Dr. Cooley purchased both books and specimens which he in turn gave to t he Herbarium. By the time the new University was ready to receive students at the Tam pa campus in 1960, the Herbarium already contained approximately twenty thousand spe cimens and the nucleus of a good botanical library. The first director of the Herbar ium was Dr. James D. Ray, Jr., now dean of the College of Natural Sciences. He was succeede d by Dr. Robert W. Long in 1965. Upon Dr. Long's unexpected death in 1976, the prese nt director was appointed. Because of the value of the USF Herbarium rare book collection and its deterioration through the years, it was recently transferred to t he Special Collections department of the USF Library. Through the cooperation of the Special Collections department and an agreement with the directors of the USF Library and the USF Herbarium, the books will be housed and preserved in the USF Library, but wil l remain the property of the USF Herbarium. Through funds provided by Dean Ray of th e College of Natural Sciences and the USF Library, the books will be properly restore d and cataloged. Many of the works described in this article are part of the USF Herba rium or the USF Library Special Collections holdings. The Executive Secretary Leaf from John Gerard s The Herball (london, 1597).
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