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Ex libris journal of the USF Library Associates
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Serial
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English
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USF Library Associates
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USF Library Associates.
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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University of South Florida Library
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usfldc doi - E09-00002-142
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Ex libris :
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The civil rights era in Tampa : a forgotten legacy -- Radicals, workers, and immigrants in Tampa : research opportunities in Special Collections -- An immigrant library : The Tampa Italian Club Collection -- Major acquisitions -- Exhibits -- Associates events & activities -- A non-professional's guide to book values -- Comments from the Executive Secretary.
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Contents The Civil Rights Era in Tampa: A Forgotten Legacy ................................ .1 Radicals, Workers, and Immigrants in Tampa: Research Opportunities in Special Collections ............................ ..5 An Immigrant Library: The Tampa Italian Club Collection ........................... 10 Major Acquisitions ................................ .13 Exhibits .......................................... ........13 Associates Events & Activities ..............14 A Non-Professional's Guide to Book Values .................................... ..15 Comments from the Executive Secretary ............................... 16 Programs, activities, and services o f the Universi ty of South Florida are available to all on a non-discriminatory basis, without regard t o race, color, creed, religion, sex, age, national origin, or handicap. The University is an affirmative action Equal Opportunity Employer. Ex Libris Vol. 1, No. 4 Spring 1978 Ex Libris is published quarterly by the USF Library Associates, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Please address suggestions and comments to J. B. Do bkin, Executive Secretary, USF Library Associates, USF Library, Tampa, Fla. 33620. Cover: Picture postcard view o f Tampa's Ybor City, postma rked March 14, 1912. All illustrations in this issue o f Ex Libris are reproduced from works in the Special Collections Department o f the University o f South Florida Library. Photography is by the photography department o f USF's Division of Ed ucational Resources.

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The Civil Rights Era in Tampa: A Forgotten Legacy Steven F. Lawson, Ph.D. IN TAMPA, a city populated by a rich mixture of eth nic groups, blacks have been a forgotten minority. Accounts: of Americans of Spani sh, Cuban and Italian descent heroically appear in the pages of "Cigar City" hist ory books. However, Afro-Americans are scarcely mentioned in these chronicles, and whe n they receive attention it, is in a separate and unequal fashion. This is not surprisin g, because historians often reflect the social mores in their environment. Thus, it is easi er to comprehend why Negroes generally have been deprived of a place in Tampa's annals by recalling that until the middle of the 1960's blacks were excluded from marc hing in the Gasparilla Day Parade, the annual celebration that draws notice of the cit y's Latin background. As times have changed and racial barriers have tumb led, there has emerged an interest in discovering the black experience. The c ivil rights revolution heightened in blacks a consciousness of pride in their heritage a nd also aroused in whites feelings of guilt for virtually having ignored it. The wide app eal of Alex Haley's Roots dramatically emphasized the presence of this phenomenon. Manuscr ipts recently donated to the Florida Collection of the University of South Flori da Library reveal a significant period of Tampa's past in which Afro-Americans played an i mportant role. The records of Cody Fowler, Robert Thomas, Robert Saunders, and the Gre ater Tampa Merchants Association depict the interracial struggles in the 1960's to e nd discrimination and extend equal opportunity without bloodshed. At stake was not onl y the expansion of freedom, but also the progress of growth and development of the entir e city. In 1960, Tampa faithfully followed the color line i n maintaining Jim Crow; but, within the segment of its population that was 20 pe rcent black, preparations were underway to assault the walls of segregation. Direc tion came from various officials of black fraternal and labor associations, the NAACP, and the Young Adults for Progressive Action, a nonpartisan organization composed mainly of black teachers and professionals. Most of these leaders were under forty years old an d had received a degree from a southern black college; some had served in the arme d forces during World War II or the Korean War; nearly all had spent time outside of th e South; and a majority were either self-employed, worked for a black-owned enterprise, or taught in the school system. Part of the black bourgeoisie, these spokesmen considere d racial separation in and exclusion from public accommodations as an affront to them an d a deprivation of their rights as taxpaying citizens. They stressed that full equalit y depended upon obtaining jobs previously denied on the basis of race. To facilitate contacts between black and white civi c leaders, in the fall of 1959, Mayor Julian Lane had created a twelve-member, inte rracial advisory committee. The mayor hoped that the group would encourage concilia tion and foster a peaceful climate that would boost plans for conversion of the "Cigar City" into a major economic and cultural center in the New South. The six black app ointees included respected business, labor, and religious leaders, as well as the presid ent of the Florida NAACP, the Reverend A. Leon Lowry. Among the six recruited from the whi te side were Robert Thomas, an industrial developer, and Cody Fowler, one of Tampa 's most prominent attorneys, who presided as chairman. Convinced that Florida could not avoid integration for very long, Fowler wanted the committee to pave the way for cha nges to occur slowly and

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bloodlessly, controlled by common sense instead of emotionalism. Several of the members had already cooperated on another interraci al venture, the construction of Progress Village for black homeowners displaced by urban renewal. DEMONSTRATIONS to integrate Tampa's department stor e lunch counters furnished a major test of the committee's ability t o solve potentially explosive problems temperately. Inspired by sit-in protests in Greensb oro, North Carolina, in early February, 1960, Clarence Fort, a 20-year-old barber and presi dent of the NAACP Youth Council, made arrangements to bring similar activities to Ta mpa. He questioned why blacks were refused service at a lunch counter, but were invite d to purchase items in the rest of the store. Intending to demonstrate this injustice, you ng Fort planned with older NAACP officials to conduct a direct action drive. Well br iefed by Robert Saunders, the state field director of the NAACP, and accompanied by the Rever end Mr. Lowry, on February 29, Fort and about fifty black high school students tri ed twice to integrate the lunch counter at Woolworth's downtown store. Denied service each time, the protesters quietly remained seated on the counter stools for nearly tw o hours until closing time when they departed. The next day, racial tempers flared, and the NAACP acted quickly to restore order. Approximately one hundred black youths, not associa ted with the NAACP, marched for two hours through the downtown area, where they wer e refused service at nine stores. However, unlike the events of the first day, a few incidents occured, including a well publicized fracas at the Greyhound Bus Terminal res taurant between a black demonstrator and an unsympathetic white customer. I n addition, newspapers disclosed that the apparent leader of these efforts had a len gthy juvenile police record. Upset by the unfavorable publicity, the NAACP quickly repudiated the "rebels" and moved to reassert control. The following afternoon, on March 2, Clare nce Fort returned with some eighty Negroes wearing identification tags with the inscri ption "I Am An American, Youth Council, NAACP," and staged an orderly but unsucces sful half-hour sit-in at the Woolworth and Kress stores. During the next few weeks trouble brewed, and the B i-Racial Committee prepared to mediate the dispute. In the early morning hours of March 13 unknown assailants fired several shots into the home of the Reverend Mr. Low ry. The following day, the black minister invited representatives of the Merchants A ssociation "to discuss intelligently and sensibly the present situation," or perhaps face th e possibility of a boycott. Led by its executive vice-president, Colby Armstrong, the Asso ciation promised to participate in conferences to study how other cities approached th e problem and to present recommendations. As a gesture of good faith, the NA ACP declared a moratorium on sitins in order to give the Bi-Racial Committee a chan ce to work out a voluntary solution. Negotiations took place on both the municipal and s tate levels. Near the end of March, Governor Leroy Collins (whose papers are als o housed in the USF Library), lived up to his reputation as a racial moderate by appoin ting a bi-racial committee to settle the lunch counter issue fairly and harmoniously. Two of the six representatives lived in Tampa and sat concurrently on its bi-racial panel: Cody Fowler and Perry Harvey, Sr., the black president of the longshoremen's union loc al. Throughout the spring and summer, the state board chaired by Fowler met priva tely with Florida businessmen urging them to adopt new racial policies or suffer the consequences that prolonged resistance would bring. In typically coolheaded fas hion, the Tampa attorney cautioned

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businessmen that an "objective look at Little Rock will show us that such policies mean economic deterioration of a very substantial kind. It is our belief that thoughtful people do not want such a damaging effect on Florida's bri ght future." Fowler and the Bi-Racial Committee also preached th is message in Tampa. After several months of unpublicized deliberations, the M ayor's advisory group and the Merchants Association designed a plan to desegregat e lunch counters. They agreed that on a prearranged date without prior public notice, pairs of carefully selected black young adults would be served. By acting uniformly to drop the eating restrictions, store managers hoped to lessen the chance that any one' o f their establishments would be singled out for reprisals by angry whites. They ins tructed waitresses to treat Negroes courteously, and those who balked were given the da y off. The committee tried to reduce the possibility of racial tension even further by s cheduling black couples to patronize the lunch counters at hours when there would be few whi te diners present. On September 14, 1960, 18 stores accommodated blacks without fanfare according to the carefully constructed plan. OVER the next seven years, the "Tampa Technique" pr oduced mixed results in promoting racial peace and justice. Segregation roa dblocks gradually fell at municipal facilities and in public accommodations, and innova tive job training projects were undertaken in cooperation with the Merchants Associ ation and General Telephone Company to provide equal employment opportunities f or qualified blacks. In 1964, Tampa created a Commission of Community Relations ( CCR) to extend the work of the pioneering Bi-Racial Committee. Administered by Jam es A. Hammond, a 35-year-old electrical contractor and a prominent civil rights activist, the Commission investigated complaints of discrimination and sponsored novel re medial programs, most notably in the field of compensatory pre-school education. Neverth eless, reports of the CCR's activities found in the files of Robert Thomas at USF suggest that by 1967 the Commission had many unresolved problems on its agenda. The most se rious grievances concerned lingering bias in municipal employment, a lack of q uality jobs available to blacks in private enterprise, inadequate low cost housing, a shortage of recreational facilities in black neighborhoods, and the poor character of poli ce protection in the ghetto. Aware of these deplorable conditions, the Commission sought to remedy them. Before the CCR could get very far, on June 11, 1967 a major riot exploded in the Central Avenue area adjacent to the downtown busine ss district. Triggered by a white policeman's fatal shooting of an unarmed black robb ery suspect, the disorder followed recent incidents involving charges of police brutal ity. Rioting first broke out in a section where 69 percent of families had an income under $3 ,000; the unemployment rate for black males was 10 percent, a figure double that fo r whites; 60 percent of the housing units were deteriorating or were dilapidated; and t he median number of school years completed was 7.7. In coping with the uprising, Tampa relied heavily o n the channels of interracial communication built up over the years. Through four nights of burning; looting, and rock tossing, influential blacks and whites cooperated t o restore tranquility. The CCR dispatched Jim Hammond and his staff into the riot zone where they joined popular

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community leaders to try to "keep the cool." Finall y on Wednesday morning, after roundthe-clock meetings, Hammond and other peacemakers c onvinced law enforcement authorities to withdraw their troops and permit bla ck youths to patrol the strife-ridden neighborhoods. Assembled into paramilitary units, w earing white helmets, and accompanied by adult Negro advisors, squads of blac ks, including some who had previously participated in the rioting, walked the streets and contained additional violence. By Thursday, June 15, as a result of tire less negotiations and alert vigilance on the part of the CCR staff, government officials, th e "white hats," and adult black civic leaders, the riots had ended. After the smoke cleared, Tampans searched for ways of relieving sources of black discontent. The city hired some of the "white hats" as troubleshooters, and it increased sorely needed recreational activities for ghetto yo ungsters. The CCR, along with the Merchants Association and General Telephone Company resumed a series of employment clinics, and with the Chamber of Commerc e they planned to institute a Young Adults Council, a program of accelerated acad emic instruction and on-the-job training. By virtue of these efforts and earlier on es in curbing the riots and encouraging sound race relations, in November, 1967, the Commis sion of Community Relations and the Bi-Racial Committee received national recogniti on when they won the annual $1,000 public service award of the Lane Bryant Corporation in New York City. FROM sit-in to race riot, Tampa's civic and busines s elites endorsed racial moderation. They preferred rational persuasion, vol untarism, and gradualism instead of coercion, repression, and confrontation. A progress ive biracial committee accepted the fact that the customs were about to change and atte mpted to encourage an orderly and peaceful transition. Cooperation came from merchant s and businessmen who calculated that ugly racial incidents did not make good dollar s and cents. Furthermore, the success of the "Tampa Technique" owed much to the nature of black leadership which blended militancy with restraint. Civil rights forces occas ionally took to the streets and appealed to the federal government to redress grievances, bu t they usually chose to settle disputes locally around the conference table or quietly in t he courts. This process did not benefit everyone, barely touching the lives of blacks trapp ed in the poverty of slums after centuries of educational and economic deprivation. From 1960 through 1967, the civil rights movement stormed the legal barricades of seg regation, but it had only begun to attack the unofficial remnants of racism still embe dded in economic, social, and political institutions. As one assault gave way to another in Tampa, the Commission of Community Relations aptly remarked, according to a document in the Cody Fowler files, "The end has not been reached, nor the beginning of the end, but perhaps the end of the beginning."

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Radicals, Workers, and Immigrants in Tampa: Research Opportunities in Special Collections Louis A. Perez, Jr., Ph.D. Now that the pride o f the sires receives charity, Now that we're harmless and safe behind laws, Now that my life is to be known as your heritage, Now that even the graves have been robbed, Now that our own chosen way is a novelty, Hands on our hearts we salute you your victory. -BUFFY SAINTE-MARIE FORAYS INTO THE PAST are always hazardous undertaki ngs. Historical literature often subsumes biases into affirmations of objectiv ity, rationalizes periodization as a function of time, and justifies omissions as requir ements of space. The limitations of historical sources, methodological constraints, and the very social origins of the historian, moreover, constitute a powerful combination that in trudes directly into the very inquiry and determines the hues of the illuminated past. An d while, to be sure, historians move competently, often elegantly, through the past,it is equally evident that the past is studied selectively, much more remains unexamined, and the subject of inquiry often falls prey to biases of class, race, and sex. The singula r inattention to blacks, chicanos, Indians, and women, to name but a few, traditional to American history texts constitutes an omission of no small significance. All by way of noting that the recent surge of inter est in local history either by coincidence or design-has chosen to emphasize those aspects of Tampa's past that serve to flatter the community's present collective selfconcept. To be sure, Tampa's desire to retrieve and preserve a history resting in large me asure on immigrant antecedents is laudable and in itself noteworthy. The danger lies, however, in reconstructing a past that evokes the imagery of idyllic immigrant communities made up of rum-drinking, dominoplaying workers waiting patiently if not indolently in line to take a plunge into the bubbling melting pot. Too many popularized versions of Tampa's past have gained widespread credance among too many people. Too many local histories, too many afterdinner speeches, and too many tourist tracts appeal to stereotypes, caricatures, and images of tarantella-dancing Italians and siesta-pr one Cubans. Indeed, it is emerging as an article of faith locally that the immigrant expe rience in Tampa was on the whole a felicitious one. Local residents take considerable pride in directing attention to the success of Cubans, Italians, and Spaniards as affir mation of the solvency of the American dream-a pride that is in part no doubt justified. T he impact of immigrants on Tampa architecture, restaurants, street names, and the ve ry food items sold in neighborhood supermarkets are seized as evidence of the contribu tion made to local culture by the "ethnics." Lest anyone be lulled into accepting the se protestations too uncritically, it would be well to note that the presence of frijoles negros, platanos, and yuca in the frozen food section of Kash 'N Karry is as much a f unction of the market system as it is a tribute to the impact of the Cuban presence. It is, in short, necessary to call a moratorium on self-indulgent flights into the Tampa past that have no function other than appealing to local vanity. Simply stated, the

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historical experience of Cubans, Italians, and Span iards in Tampa was not pleasantCubans, Italians, and Spaniards were not entirely w elcomed. Indeed, for the first thirty years of this century, social tensions, labor dispu tes, and political turmoil characterized much of the immigrant experience in Tampa. Cuban socialists, Italian anarchists, and Spanish syndicalists emerged as the most articulate and forceful representatives of their respective communities to combat a system that sought to perpetuate exploitative relationships. To this day, old cigarworkers and their families recollect with some pride-if only among themselves-the successes of militant labor organizations of the 1910s 1920s and 1930s The six major strikes between 1901 and 1931 and most especially the ten-month strike of 1919 serve as highlights of the local oral tradition among the surviving first generation immigrants and their fam ilies. Tampa was not then celebrating the contributions of "ethnics" with bronze plaques on Seventh Avenue or after-dinner speeches. On the contrary, the city responded with calculated terror, indiscriminate violence, and free-wielding vigilante squads. Ethni city served to single the immigrant out for persecution -not praise. THE PASSAGE of time has apparently dulled these mem ories among all but the surviving participants. It is equally apparent that local historians are loath to remind the community of the grief it once visited upon its now celebrated "ethnics." A consensus view of Tampa's past has now emerged, one in which the infelicitous encounters between immigrants and Tampa have been minimized if not ign ored altogether. Before historians complete the task of reconstructing Tampa's history a history in which the inexpedient and troublesome facets of the immigrant experience fall victim to convenient if not conscious lapses of memory, it is necessary to re-e xamine in detail those turbulent years. The holdings of the Special Collections division of the University of South Florida Library offer potentially important sources to arre st the development of "happy history." Nothing perhaps better illustrates one forgotten dimension of Tampa history than the small but impressive collection of Italian materials recently secured by Special Collections from the Italian Club in Ybor City. A casual perusal of these materials sheds considerable light on the orientation of one sector of the Italian community in Tampa. An inventory reveals such titles as Michele Bakounine, Dio e Lo Stato (1903), Pietro Kropotkine, La Scienza Modernia e L'Anarchia (1913), Errico Malatesta, L'Anarchia (n.d.), and Luigi Galleani, Aneliti e Singulti (n.d.). Interspersed among these Postcard view of Ybor City, postmarked October 22, 1908 Crowded workshops like these made Tampa the cigar capital of the world. Postcard view, circa 1907.

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Italian materials, moveover, are a number of sugges tive Spanish titles: Carlos Malato, La gran huelga (horrores del capitalismo) (n.d.), S. Canovas Cervantes, Proceso historico de la revolucion espanola (n.d.), and Pedro Esteve, Socialismo anarquista (1902). The vertical files of the Florida Historical Societ y also provide a rich source of materials relating to the development of the Cuban, Italian, and Spanish communities in Ybor City and West Tampa. A copy of an unpublished manuscript titled "Diary of a Tampa Cigarworker" (ca. 1911) offers a vivid, day-b y-day first-person account of workers' struggles in Ybor City. Set largely betwee n 1911 and 1932, the diary includes some moving accounts of the major labor disputes of the period. Two files on Ybor City consist largely of material prepared by the Federal Writers Project during the 1930s and 1940s. This collection contains unpublished manuscripts of varying lengths, uneven in quality but all useful f or research on the immigrant antecedents of Tampa. The titles include "Ybor City : Tampa's Latin Colony," "History of Ybor City," "Social-Ethnic Study of Ybor City," "Fo lklore: Ybor City," "Witchcraft in Cuba," and "Superstition in Ybor City." One of the outstanding manuscripts in this series is entitled "Ybor City: Historical Data." This manu script contains some twelve "life histories," largely transcribed reminiscenses, that offer a remarkable if only fragmentary socio-economic profile of cigarworkers and their fa mily. The vertical files also contain a miscellaneous assortment of newspaper clippings that deal generally with various historical aspects of Ybor City and West Tampa. ADDITIONAL material compiled by the Federal Writers Project is located in the Hillsborough County entry of the vertical files. Relevant manuscripts include "Study of the Church in Ybor City," "Fifty Years of Group Medicine in Tampa, Florida," and "A Study of the Latin Press in Ybor City." The catalogued materials in Special Collections rep resent modest but important holdings. There are a number of key books that warr ant careful examination. First and foremost is Jose Rivero Muniz, Los cubanos en Tampa (1958). Rivero Muniz's study represents that most ambitious attempt to examine in a systematic manner the presence of Cubans in Tampa b etween 1513 and 1954. One of the outstanding Cuban labor historians, Rivero Muniz co nstructs an account of cigarworkers, strikes, and labor organizations in Tampa's immigra nt communities that is unparalleled in the literature. An excellent bibliography provides additional avenues of inquiry. A book published locally, Yo fui uno de los fundadores de Ybor City (1950), by Emilio del Rio, contains useful insights into the f ounding and growth of Ybor City through the turn of the century. Used judiciously i n conjunction with Rivero Muniz, del Rio's work provides a personal narrative that when set in a larger context acquires considerable significance. The book also contains r emarkable photographs of life in Ybor City and West Tampa between the 1880s and 1890s. Photographic material is the strength of Charles E. Harner, A Pictorial History of Postcard view postmarked December 3, 1908.

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Ybor City (1975). Much of the descriptive narrative that acco mpanies the photographs can be found elsewhere. The strength of the booklet however, lies in the visual chronological construction of Ybor City, photograph s that could serve an indispensable function for the researcher seeking images. An excellent Cuban traveler's account of Ybor City and West Tampa can be found in Juan J. Pumariega, Impresiones de un viaje a Tampa (1909). Set largely in Tampa around the first decade of the 20th Century, Pumariega off ers one of the best personal accounts of the city's Latin communities. THERE EXISTS, further, a volume entitled America Guide Series: Florida, also prepared by the Federal Writers Project. This colle ction offers historical vignettes of the cigar industry, Ybor City, and West Tampa. There is material here that is unavailable in the other Federal Writers Project manuscripts. An unpublished M.A. thesis in history, Joan Marie S teffy, "The Cuban Immigrants of Tampa, Florida, 18861898 ," offers an excellent point of departure for any rese arch involving the Cuban community. With a heavy emphasi s on Cuban political and labor activity, the thesis provides outstanding notes and bibliography. The pamphlet collection of the Florida Historical S ociety contains useful if limited material dealing with the Latin community. These pa mphlets yield information on the Centro Asturiano, Spaniards in Tampa, and a history of Jose Marti Park. The materials in Special Collections relating to Cu bans, Italians, and Spaniards in Tampa is, to be sure, modest. The collection does o ffer, however, sufficient materials with which to make a start toward a balanced recons truction of the past. The chronicle of immigrants in the United States ge nerally makes for sober reading. There is no reason to expect the Tampa past to depa rt significantly from the national experience. Whatever claim Tampa has to singularity lies in the success the residents of Ybor City and West Tampa enjoyed in preserving-not shedding-cultural traditions, social norms, and local institutions. The centros, casinos, the social clubs, and the mutual aid societies served to bind the community and arrest its dispersal. The Latin community today confronts the loss of its individuality. Scattered, ageing, dying, and victims of educators, social workers, and the false prophets of urban renewal, the residents of Ybor City and West Tampa long ago lost control of their future; it is a short and perhaps inevitable step that an attempt be made to despoil them of their past. The Centro Espanol hospital –an example of the social services provided by Tampa’s Latin community for its members. From a postcard view postmarked September 4, 1908.

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An Immigrant Library: The Tampa Italian Club Collection George E. Pozzetta, Ph.D. AS MORE IS LEARNED about the immigrant experience i n America, it becomes clear that a considerable amount of intellectual ac tivity took place in immigrant communities. This knowledge has come as a surprise to some individuals. For years immigrants have labored under the uncomplimentary i mage of being ignorant, illiterate brutes who were only interested in expanding their limited economic horizons. In pursuing this goal, the conventional wisdom has tol d us, unthinking newcomers were willing to accept low pay, unsafe working condition s, and other forms of exploitation at the hands of employers. This stereotype, however, d oes not bear up under serious inquiry. As historian Rudolph Vecoli succinctly phrased it, "exploited they were, but unthinking they were not." The acquisition of the Tampa Italian Club Library s erves as another step in our continuing effort to understand the immigrant past in all its complexity. The collection provides valuable insights into the richness and diversity of the literary materials that occupied the minds of Tampa's Italian community. It consists of several hundred volumes and assorted pamphlets, journals, and articles. The volumes range from well-known works of literature, including plays, poetry, novels and short stories, to a handful of basic texts on English grammar, spelling, and mathematics. The works of many great literary masters such as Emile Zola, Victor Hugo, Maxim Gorki, and Miguel de Cervantes are presented in Italian language editions. A large number of these books deal with the proletarian themes that were favored by workers. The most interesting and rare part of the library consists of a sizable collection of socialist and anarchist literature. Pamphlets, books, and articles covering a wide spectrum of radical ideologies are present. Included are Italian language editions of the world's most famous revolu tionary propagandists-Peter Kropotkin, Michael Bakunin, Leo Tolstoy, and Pierre -Joseph Proudhon. A number of these writings are found in handsome (and expensive ) leather-bound copies that are suggestive of the important place they occupied in the library's holdings. A particular favorite among the international masters was Kropot kin, who has five of his works Still a center of Tampa Italian American life, the headquarters of Tampa’s Societa Unione Italiana looks today much as it did in this 1922 view. In it s library was preserved a unique collection of rare Italian -American pamphlets, now in the rare books section of the USF Library.

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present, including Modern Science and Anarchy ( 1913 ), and Memories o f a Revolutionary (2 vols., 1911 ). Italian socialists and anarchists, many of whom spent time in America, authored most of the items found in this section. Luigi Galleani, an acknowledged leader of Italian-American anarchism, is represented (The End of Anarchism?, 1924 ), as well as the great revolutionary Errico Malatesta (Anarchism n.d ., Among the Peasants, n.d ., New Man, 1934 etc.). Both of these individuals visited Tampa in the early part of the present century and this may help to explain their popularity. Malatesta exerted an especially powerful hold on the reading interests of the community as is attested to by the large number of his writings included in the library. Other well-known Italian anarchists whose writings are found in the collection include Carlo Caifero, Pietro Gori (In Defense o f Life, 1905 ), F. Saverio Merlino (Why are We Anarchists?, 1930 ), Armando Borghi (Errico Malatesta in Sixty Years o f Anarchist Struggles, 1933 ), and Luigi Fabbri (The Modern Inquisition, 1904 ). Among socialist writers, the most heavily represented are those of Sicilian background. The composition of Tampa's Italian.colony, which was approximately 95 percent Sicilian, undoubtedly accounts for this fact. Edmondo de Amicis, co-founder of the newspaper La Sicilia Socialista, and Gaspare Nicotri, editor of the same journal, have several works present (Impressions of a Trip to America, 1928 and Freedom for Italy!, 1942). THE READING tastes of those Italians interested in radical philosophies extended beyond the writings of their countrymen. The French anarchists Charles Malato (The Great Strike, n.d. ), and Jean Grave (Society at the Eve o f Revolution, 1900 ) supplied works to the collection as did the German writers Max Nettlau (Errico Malatesta: Life and Thoughts, n.d .), and August Bebel (Women and Socialism, 1905 ). A local favorite, the Spanish anarchist, Pedro Esteve, also had his work represented on the shelves (Socialism and Anarchism, 1902 ). Although the bulk of the collection consists of wor ks in Italian, there are a Popular among many Italian immigrant workers, the writings of Italian socialist Errico Malatesta are well represented in the Societa Unione Italiana collection. A rare edition of this work of the noted Italian political writer Galleani. Published by Di Cronaca Sovversiva in 1925. From the Societa Unione Italiana colleciton.

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considerable number of Spanish language translation s. Many of Tampa's Italians acquired communications skills in English, Italian, and Span ish because of the language diversity encountered in the city's cigar factories. Througho ut the library, however, there are only two volumes printed in English and herein lies an interesting irony. One of these works is an early Horatio Alger novel (Ben's Nugget, 1888 ). How curious it is that amidst scores of volumes which advocate the destruction of capitalism rests the work of an author who perhaps did more than any other to glorify the opportunities and hopes of the capitalist system! The preservation of such collections as this is a vitally important task. Not only does it rescue from oblivion an important part of our past, but it also provides us with significant insights into the nature of immigrant life. Far too little is yet known about t he internal dynamics of how immigrants worked out for themselves their world-view. By lear ning more of this we can gain a deeper and more accurate understanding of the role that such ideologies as socialism and anarchism played in molding the lives of these peop le. At the very least an examination of the Italian club library dispels the notion that these immigrants were unenlightened drones merely worried about their daily wages. The issues and ideas that they debated, studied, and, at times, acted upon constituted a so phisticated bill-of-fare. Such a legacy should not be forgotten. Two rare anarchist pamphlets from the Tampa Societa unione Italiana collection.

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Major Acquisitions THE MOST IMPORTANT acquisition made during the past quarter was the addition of a copy of the Doves Press Bible to the Library's rare book collection. A splendid specimen of the five-volume folio Bible was present ed to the University by the Library Associates during the Special Collections Departmen t open house on March 23. Ranking with the Kelmscott Chaucer, the Doves Bible was one of the twin masterpieces of the British private press movement inspired by William Morris' Kelmscott Press. The Doves Press was established at Hammersmith by T. J. CobdenSanderson and Emery Walker in 1900. For use of the press, they created an austerely beautiful letter-form based on a roman type used in 1470 by renaissance printer Nicolaus Jenson. Doves books are characterized by a majestic classical severity, strongly contrasting with the lavish ornamentation typical o f the Kelmscott Press. Books produced by the Doves Press attain their excellence through faultless presswork, the beauty of their type, and the perfect design and balance of their p ages. The Doves Bible, printed in the years 190305, was the culminating expression of the press's ideal of typographic excellence. It has been termed by bookmen perhaps t he most beautifully conceived book ever printed. Among other recent acquisitions in Special Collecti ons have been several major works of general interest purchased by the Library. These include the original French edition of Victor Hugo's Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea) published in France in 1866 and signed by the author. Joining ou r first edition of Dickens' Little Dorrit in original parts is his Our Mutual Friend, 1864-65. Of great interest are the advertisements that appear in each of the parts and lend a special feeling of the period to this work. A special typographic highlight is the Golden Cocke rel Press edition of the Mabinogion, printed at the Chiswick press in an edition of 550 copies in 1948. These few titles are merely representative examples of some rare items received in the library recently. We have also continued to mak e substantial additions to the 19th Century American literature collection. As always, we are finding early Florida material th at adds lustre to our already fine collection available for research in this area.

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Exhibits EXHIBITS of rare and unusual items from the Univers ity's collection are displayed in the Library on a continuing basis. Display areas ar e located on the fourth floor of the main library building, both in the lobby and in the Special Collections reading room. Exhibits are changed quarterly. Current Exhibit: "Florida in Pictures, 1876-1925." Drawn from the Library's collection of Florida photographs and picture postc ards, this exhibit is a picture tour of a long vanished Florida. Most of the structures and v iews portrayed in the display either no longer exist or have changed beyond recognition. In cluding early views of Tampa, St. Petersburg, and other Bay area cities, the exhibit presents an unusual opportunity to see familiar places as they once were. Overall, it is a startling commentary on the rapid development of 20th Century Florida and the radical changes that have been wrought. The exhibit will be on display until June 7. Quarter IV (June 19 ): "Thomas Bird Mosher and the Mosher Press, 18911923 ." The Library is fortunate in having an extensive col lection of books published by the Mosher Press, perhaps the paramount private press i n the history of American printing. Established in Portland, Maine, in 1891, for thirty years the Mosher Press produced "choice and limited editions" of books notable for their typographic excellence. In addition to producing beautiful examples of the typ ographer's art, Mosher played a major role in introducing the works of important British writers to Americans. The display will be on view from June 19 to September 1 Quarter I, 1978: "The Dime Novel in America, 1860-1925." The dime novel, though often lacking in literary quality, was perhaps the most totally American fiction ever produced. The dime novel chronicled and celebrated the great westward movement and the rise of an urbanized, industrial America. To a great degree, dime novels created and popularized the romantic image of the American west This exhibit will trace the development of the dime novel from its first appear ance in 1860 to its demise in the 1920's, using original specimens drawn from USF's l arge dime novel collection. Beginning in September, this exhibit will provide a n interesting view of a colorful, almost forgotten segment of America's literary heri tage.

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Associates Events and Activities Special Collections Open House: On the evening of March 23 a reception for members of the Associates and their guests was held in the Special Collections Departme nt. In addition to socializing and refreshments in the department's reading room, visi tors had an unprecedented opportunity for a behind-the-scenes examination of the departme nt's facilities and the many interesting collections housed there. Guided tours of the non-public areas of the department were conducted, with staff members avail able to answer questions about the department and its resources. In addition to the tours, a wide variety of rare an d unusual items from the department's holdings were available for firsthand examinations. It was a splendid opportunity to see at close range such things as a 4,000-year-old Babylonian tablet, an Egyptian papyrus, and original letters signed by su ch famous persons as John F. Kennedy, Andrew Jackson, and Thomas Jefferson. Also to be seen were items like Mark Twain first editions, dime novels, early children's books, and a wide range of other fascinating things drawn from the Library's researc h collections. The high point of the evening was the presentation to the Library of a superb copy of the Doves Bible by the Library Associates Board of Directors. Maste rpiece of the famous Doves Press, the five-volume Doves Bible has been termed the most beautifully designed book ever printed. After the formal presentation, t he Bible was available for inspection by interested guests. A truly major acquisition, our c opy of the Doves Bible will be the star of the Library's extensive collection of fine priva te press books. This landmark publication in the history of typography is a truly significant acquisition for the USF Library and its community.

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A Non-Professional's Guide to Book Values (Continued from the Fall, 1977, issue.) 5 Provenance The discussion of signed copies brings us to the qu estion of provenance-. Provenance is, basically, the pedigree of a specific copy of a book. That is, who its previous owners were. Usually, marks of previous ownership (signatu res, inscriptions, library markings, etc.) detract from a book's value. Books once owned by famous persons, however, may be of considerable value, even though the book itse lf is nothing special. For example, a 19th century Bible may be of minimal value of itsel f; however, if it were extensively annotated by Charles Darwin it would be a treasure indeed. We will discuss the effect of provenance on book values further in the section de aling with factors influencing prices. To Summarize: Where does all this lead us? Hopefully, to an under standing that it is easier to tell what is not valuable than what is. There are no eas ily spotted, foolproof marks for identifying valuable books. Age, edition, scarcity, associations, and so forth are all factors that may, either alone or in combination, make a book valuabl e. Having established this, we can proceed to more interestin g matters; namely how to estimate book prices, which is our next chapter. II Value and Identification NINETY PERCENT of the old books you are likely to e ncounter may be eliminated as possible rarities by consulting a few standard b ibliographic works. It is the purpose of the following sections to tell you about a few bibl iographic aids, what they do and how to make use of them. Pricing Guides It is impossible for any one source to list every b ook title, much less give current prices for each one. There are just too many books, and prices fluctuate too rapidly. However, there are a number of works that provide r elatively recent prices for selected books. There are two main types of price guides helpful in determining the possible value of books (notice that "possible"; it's important). The first lists prices paid at book auctions. Two examples are American Book Prices Current and its British counterpart, Book Auction Records. Both of these report sales at the important auction galleries in Britain and the United States, and their coverage overlaps. You are more likely to be able to locate a set of American Book Prices Current (known to librarians as "ABPC"), so we will discuss it rather than its British counterpart Substantially, everything said about one is equally true of the other. American Book Prices Current, like most tools of the book trade, is set up alphabetically by author There are annual volumes issued, plus five-year cum ulative index volumes. There is, however, time lag in getti ng the volumes out. Since the prices listed are those that were actually paid, ABPC is a good indicator of the market value of a given book provided the book being checked is identical to and in the s ame condition as the one sold. Before jumping to conclusions about y our book, be sure to read the section below on "Condition." Another thing you must keep i n mind when thinking about prices

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listed in ABPC and others of its class is that they are auction prices. They may be higher or lower than the actual going rate, depending on h ow the bidding went at the particular auction. Basically, ABPC tells you that at a certai n time someone wanted a given book badly enough to pay "x" dollars (or pounds) for it. This provides you with a pretty good idea as to what price range a given book falls in. A second category of pricing aids are those compile d from the catalogs of antiquarian book dealers. One of the best known of this class i s an annual listing called Bookman's Price Index (BPI). It is also set up by author and, as in the c ase of ABPC, there is an unavoidable lag in the appearance of its annual upd ates. The primary thing to keep in mind about prices obtained from BPI and similar too ls is that the figures represent what specific dealers were asking, not what they got. Book dealers, like any other typ e of dealer, quite often suffer from delusions of grande ur when pricing their merchandise. When you find a price in BPI or its cousins, howeve r, you know that a specific professional book dealer thought that a book like y ours was worth "x." And, though not an absolute value, this figure will give you an ide a as to price range. A close relative of our friend BPI is a very helpfu l work known as Used Book Price Guide. This is really not a rare book pricing guide at all but rather a used book guide, which is not quite the same thing. Most pricing gui des do not take notice of books priced below 10 or 15 dollars; Used Book Price Guide does. In fact, most of the books listed are priced below $50. So if your book doesn't show up in the more aristocrat ic guides, you might find it comfortably ensconced in the pages of this work instead. You won't get rich on most of the items found in Used Book Price Guide, but you may be able to figuratively nickel-and-dime 'em to death. However, here, too, you must remember that you are not dealing with absolute values. (To be continued)

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA LIBRARY ASSOCIATES BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mr. Bronson Thayer, President Mr. J. B. Dobkin, Executive Secretary Mr. Dudley Clendenin Mr. Horst K. Joost Ms. Dougla s Phillips Ms. Barbara Dalby Mr. Laurence Kinsolving Dr. Will iam Scheuerle Mr. James Davis Mr. Arnold Kotler Mr. Michael Sli cker Ms. Nancy Ford Ms. Lee Leavengood Mr. Richard Ste in Ms. Mary Lou Harkness Dr. Fred Pfister Any person who wishes to help in furthering the goa ls of the USF Library Associates is eligible to become a member. Regular, sustaining patron, corporate, and student memberships are available on an annual basis (Septe mber 1 to August 31). Student memberships are open only to regularly enrolled stu dents of the University of South Florida, and are valid only so long as the member r emains a regular USF student. Life memberships are also available to interested person s. Membership in the Associates includes a subscriptio n to Ex Libris a journal of articles and news about Associates activities, libr ary developments, and other topics likely to be of interest to Bay area bibliophiles. The member is also entitled to attend all Associates functions and, in addition, is eligible for book loan privileges at the University Library, subject to prevailing library regulations. So, if you are interested in helping us to obtain a better library for the University and its community, and want to participate in the many services and activities offered to members by the Library Associates, please use the m embership blank below and become one of us today.

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA LIBRARY ASSOCIATES BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mr. Bronson Thayer, President Mr. J. B. Dobkin, Executive Secretary Mr. Dudley Clendenin Mr. Horst K. Joost Ms. Dougla s Phillips Ms. Barbara Dalby Mr. Laurence Kinsolving Dr. Will iam Scheuerle Mr. James Davis Mr. Arnold Kotler Mr. Michael Sli cker Ms. Nancy Ford Ms. Lee Leavengood Mr. Richard Ste in Ms. Mary Lou Harkness Dr. Fred Pfister Any person who wishes to help in furthering the goa ls of the USF Library Associates is eligible to become a member. Regular, sustaining patron, corporate, and student memberships are available on an annual basis (Septe mber 1 to August 31). Student memberships are open only to regularly enrolled stu dents of the University of South Florida, and are valid only so long as the member r emains a regular USF student. Life memberships are also available to interested person s. Membership in the Associates includes a subscriptio n to Ex Libris a journal of articles and news about Associates activities, libr ary developments, and other topics likely to be of interest to Bay area bibliophiles. The member is also entitled to attend all Associates functions and, in addition, is eligible for book loan privileges at the University Library, subject to prevailing library regulations. So, if you are interested in helping us to obtain a better library for the University and its community, and want to participate in the many services and activities offered to members by the Library Associates, please use the m embership blank below and become one of us today.