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Ex libris journal of the USF Library Associates
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USF Library Associates
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Tampa, Fla
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University of South Florida Library
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Exhibits EXHIBITS of rare and unusual items from the Univers ity's collections are displayed in the Library on a continuing basis. Display areas ar e located on the fourth floor of the main library building, both in the lobby and in the Special Collections reading room. Exhibits are changed quarterly. Quarter III, 1980 : "The Art of Printed Book Illustration" This exhibit will portray through specimens drawn f rom the Library's special collections the various techniques for illustrating books that have been used through the centuries. The materials comprising the display will consist o f books and detached book illustrations ranging in date from the 15th to the 20th Century. Works by such artists as Picasso, Miro, and DuChamp who have on occasion ill ustrated books will be among the items to be seen, and the display will include dive rse forms of illustration ranging from woodcuts to copper plate engravings to etchings. Th e exhibit should be of considerable interest to both art enthusiasts and bibliophiles, covering as it does the interface between book design and graphic arts. The exhibit will be o n display until June 10. Quarter IV, 1980: "Books for Girls in Nineteenth Century Am erica" Although the writers of boys' books such as Edward S. Ellis and Horatio Alger, Jr. tend to be better known today, it is important to remember that the 19th Century was an age of increasing literacy for girls as well. Better educa ted than their frontier grandmothers, the "modern" girl in the 1800's was as enthusiastic a r eader of popular fiction as her male counterparts. To fill this feminine demand for ente rtaining literature among America's young women, there developed a large and varied sel ection of books written with girls in mind. Written by women writers, male authors, or ev en in many cases under female pseudonyms by the same men who wrote for American b oys, girls' books of the last century form an interesting and little known facet of America's literary heritage. The exhibit for Quarter IV will draw on the Library's e xtensive holdings of early girls' books to illustrate the types of reading materials availa ble to American girls during the 19th Century. These works, reflecting the male-dominated society of their era and helping to shape the attitudes of new generations of American women, give valuable insights into why our nation is the way it is. Though the books t hemselves are largely forgotten, the attitudes they embody are by no means dead in today 's "liberated" America, despite the challenges of the past eighty years. The exhibit wi ll be on display from June 22 to August 14. CONTENTS Major Acquisitions………………………………… …..…1 American Anti-Catholicism and its Literature…………2 Nineteenth Century American Literature Collection…. .9 Associates’ Events and Activities……………………….15 In Memoriam…………………………………………….16 Cover: Engraving from The Great Red Dragon or The Master-Key to Popery, by Anthony Gavin (Boston, 1854).

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Programs, activities, and services of the Universit y of South Florida are available to all on a non-discriminatory basis, without regard to ra ce, color, creed, religion, sex, age, national origin, or handicap. The University is an affirmative action Equal Opportunity Employer. Ex Libris Vol 4. No. 1 Ex Libris is published quarterly by the USF Library Associat es, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Please address suggestions and comments to J. B. Do bkin, Executive Secretary, USF Library Associates, USF Library, Tampa, Fla. 33620. Not printed at State expense. Except as noted, illustrations in Ex Libris are reproduced from works in the Special Collections Department of the University of South F lorida Library. Photography is by the photography department of USF’s Division of Educati onal Resources.

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Major Acquisitions SINCE THE LAST issue of Ex Libris we have added a number of significant items to the Library's research collections. Many of these i tems have been acquired with funds made available through the Associates, while others have been received as gifts. Overall growth has continued in most of the Library's resea rch collections in spite of rising costs and a severely limited reservoir of acquisition fun ds. Of the many generous donations received in the past months, two outstanding gifts me rit special mention. First of all, Mr. Leland Hawes donated the sum of one thousand dollar s to the Associates for the purpose of acquiring materials for the Special Collections Department. This gift was particularly opportune, as it allowed us to take advantage of a number of opportunities to acquire significant items for our collection of early Ameri can children's books. The second outstanding donation was the gift of the late Dr. H enry Winthrop's extensive library to USF. The collection of several thousand volumes was given to the Library by Mrs. Winthrop in memory of her husband. Dr. Winthrop was a member of USF's charter faculty (1960). Although it is not practical to list the materials added to the collection since our last issue, it is possible to mention a few of the most notable: Florida Pirate Narrative Perhaps the most interesting acquisition added to t he collection recently was an original copy of a very rare pamphlet narrating a c ase of piracy off the Florida coast. Entitled Narrative of the Capture, Sufferings and Escape of Capt. Barnabas Lincoln and His Crew, Who Were Taken by a Piratical Schooner De cember,1821, Off Key Largo, this forty-page account was published in Boston by Ezra Lincoln in 1822. Captain Lincoln, master of the 107-ton schooner "Exertion" was captu red by pirates while en route from Boston to Trinidad in Cuba. He was marooned with ot her prisoners on a barren island, from which he was rescued by a Scotsman named Jamie son. Jamieson had been serving the pirates as navigator under duress, going by an assumed name. Jamieson escaped from the pirates with a prize ship, returning to rescue the marooned Lincoln and his companions. Accompanying the Lincoln pamphlet is a six-page add endum continuing the narrative and providing further information about Jamieson. A lthough printed at a much later date than the original account, the addendum is numbered continuously with it, beginning with page 41. With the items mentioned were acquired a l eather wallet-like folding case, an explanatory note by Lincoln's son Nathaniel dated 1 876, and a braided lock of Jamieson's hair. According to the note, the leather wallet or pocketbook belonged to Jamieson, who used it to carry the instruments he used in tattooi ng sailors, "... at which he was very skillful." Also with the pamphlet is a certificate recording the donation of a copy of the pamphlet to Harvard College in May of 1870 by Natha n Lincoln. The certificate is signed by Charles W. Eliot, then president of Harvard. Whi le the Lincoln pamphlet alone would be a significant acquisition, the various items rec eived with it add greatly to its interest. Nineteenth Century American Toybooks Another major acquisition was a group of forty Amer ican chapbooks and toybooks dating from the early part of the 19th Century. Inc luded in the group were both

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commercially published items, and specimens publish ed by religious groups such as the American Sunday School Union and the American Tract Society. Dime Novels A number of interesting dime novels were acquired r ecently for the Library's Dime Novel Collections. Included were several issues of Beadle's Dime New York Library dating from the 1880's, copies of the detective ser ies Old Sleuth's Own, and others. Perhaps the most interesting of the lot was a detec tive novel entitled Darky Dan, the Colored Detective. Blacks were not generally featured as the main char acters of popular fiction during this period, giving this item a part icular interest for modern readers. Nineteenth Century American Literature A great many interesting works of fiction and poetr y were added to the 19th Century American Literature collection during the past quar ter. Although no truly stellar pieces were acquired, numbers of quite rare items were add ed. In a few cases, the items in question show no copies as being held in the United States in such standard bibliographies as Wright's American Fiction and The National Union Catalog. We are particularly pleased with the many colorful and oft en charming specimens of American 19th Century juvenile works that have been added to our holdings. Perhaps the most significant item acquired was a first edition of Ja mes Fenimore Cooper's History of the Navy of the United States, published in 1839. Although not fiction, this work is being placed in the American Literature Collection so tha t it will be housed with the bulk of Cooper's works represented in our holdings.

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American Anti-Catholicism and its Literature by Joseph G. Mannard Today the Roman Catholic Church has sewn itself fir mly into the crazy-quilt pattern of American society Although prejudice and hostilit y towards Catholics continue to exist in various forms, no longer does any intelligent pe rson believe tales of Vatican intrigues against the United States. Witness the popular effu sions during the 1979 visit of Pope John Paul II to this country. In the nineteenth cen tury, however, the nation's capitulation to Roman legions appeared an imminent possibility t o thousands of American Protestants. Although a conspiracy to subjugate the United States to Papal authority never existed, this belief constituted reality to many an ti-Catholic nativists. Anti-Catholic literature played an important role i n the growth of nativism by reflecting and helping to shape public opinion abou t Catholicism.* American antiCatholicism and fears of Papal conspiracy did not s uddenly spring full-blown from the feverish brains of Protestant ministers and nativis t propagandists. Nativist literature found a ready acceptance in part because anti-Catholic xe nophobia and conspiracy theories traced back to the first English colonists. Two forms of anti-Papal rhetoric existed in colonia l society. The first derived from the heritage of the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars of the sixteenth century. These writings depicted the Pope as the Anti-Christ the "Man of Sin" and the "Whore of Babylon" described in Revelation, who schemed to deliver the Christian world into the hands of his master, Satan. This primarily Scriptural argument dominated anti-C atholic thought until the late seventeenth century. More secular writers then prop osed political anti-Papal theories to supplement religious polemics. John Locke, John Milton, John Trenchard, and Thomas Gordon influenced British subjects to view Rome as a center of intrigue intent on extending its medieval despotism worldwide. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 upheld the triumph of English government and liberties over Vatican cabals. *Historian John Higham defines nativism as "intense opposition to an internal minority on the ground of its foreign (i.e., 'un-Am erican') connection." He cites three types of nativism: 1) anti-Catholicism, 2) anti-for eign radicalism, 3) Anglo-Saxon racism. Prior to the Civil War anti-Catholicism was by far the most virulent form of nativism. The Frontispiece of this anti-catholic pub lication contrasts the pomp surrounding the Pope with the holy poverty of Christ.

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Revolutionary America inherited this twin tradition of conspiracy theory. The founding fathers, in part, reflected these fears by their insistence on separation of church and state, freedom of the press, and public educati on as fundamentals of republican government. On the darker side, the nation accepted the idea of foreign conspiracy as normal to the American political situation. Enough Catholics supported the War for Independence to erase many old myths about the inhe rently treasonable nature of Catholicism. Yet, "anti-Popery" remained vigorous, if less vocal, ready to re-emerge given optimal conditions. Childhood education reinforced underlying fears. Te xtbooks used in American grade schools from the Revolution until the Civil War sow ed the seeds of nativism in young minds. Anti-Catholicism appeared as a prominent the me in these texts. The authors consistently lauded Protestantism as the true faith of Christianity. By contrast, they portrayed Catholicism as opposed not only to the va lid Church but also to the free Republic. "An American adult in 1830," according to historian Ruth Elson, "had already as a youth been fully indoctrinated in anti-Catholi cism." The cultural transformations of Jacksonian America coupled with events from across the Atlantic convinced many Protestant Americans th at the Pope hoped to add the United States to his imperial realm. In Europe the 1820's had witnessed the suppression of republican revolutions by the Holy Alliance, the passage of the Catholic Emanicipation Act in England, and the formation of Catholic missionary societies in Austria and France dedicated to proselytizing throughout the world, including the United States. In America the religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening professed an evangelical Protestantism inimical to Roman dogma. Disestablishment of their state churches led some Congregationalist ministers to try to regain their authority by leading the fight against Catholic infiltration. Most importantly, an unprecedented wave of foreign immigrants, mainly Irish and German Catholics, fed the fires of indigenous nativism. Throughout the nineteenth century numerous works of nativist literature helped to keep the Catholic issue before the American public. The printing of nativist newspapers, pamphlets, and books did not cause anti-Catholicism. These publications mirrored and helped to mold attitudes which grew out of rapid social, economic, and polit-ical disruptions as well as ethnic and religious co nflicts. Anti-Catholic writings often presented the most extreme and irrational side of n ativist thought. Still, anti-Catholic literature constitutes an invaluable source on the intellectual history of American A Roman Catholic conspiracy to dominate the nation politically through hordes of immigrant Catholic voters was a recurrent theme in American Nativist literature. This vision of the Papal serpe nt is from Justin D. Fulton’s Washington in the Lap of Rome (1888).

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nativism. Analysis of these works illuminates the s ocial and political concerns of their authors, audience, and age. Most writers sincerely sought to alert their fellow citizens to the Catholic threat, others sincerely sought to mak e a dollar. The vast amount and variety of antiCatholic literature testified to the great a ppetite of the reading public for this kind of material. Anti-Catholic writings were theological, political, or sensational in content, although a single work frequently contained all three of the se elements. Books like Thoughts on Popery (1836 by Reverend William Nevins and Errors of the Papacy (1878) by E. M. Marvin opposed Rome chiefly on matters of doctrine. In sermons, tracts, and debates Protestant clergymen challenged their Catholic coun terparts on points of Christian dogma. These controversies did not necessarily invo lve anti-Catholic nativism, for theological sparring also occurred among denominati ons of Protestantism. All forms of Catholic-Protestant conflict, however, aggravated e xisting religious and ethnic animosities. If some readers showed interest in doctrinal matter s, others prepared to meet and defeat the Papal invasion. In the 1830's Protestant America awaited a spokesman who could articulate its fears regarding Catholicism an d expose Rome's designs on the young republic. This task initially fell to two indiduals Samuel F. B. Morse, later the inventor of the telegraph, and Lyman Beecher, Presbyterian mini ster and father of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher. Morse's Foreign Conspiracy Against the Liberties of the United States (1835) receives the dubious distinction of being the first book to connect the flood of foreign immigrants into eastern ports to Vatican plans for world conquest. Supposedly, the immigrants formed the Pope's vanguard in his struggle against true religion and free government in America. Expanding on Morse's revelations, Beecher, in his influential work A Plea for the West (1835) discussed the more subtle sides of Vatican strategy. Beecher's title indicated where his major concerns lay. "It is equally plain," he prophesied, "that the religious and political destiny of our nation is to be decided in the West." The West, the largely undeveloped area of the Mississippi River Valley, promised to be the ultimate proving ground for Protestantism. Here some Protestants expected Armageddon, the final battle between good and evil, with Protestantism representing the forces of light, and Catholicism standing with the powers of darkness. Beecher warned that Rome planned to send hordes of Catholic immigrants into the region. Priests and nuns had al ready established schools that welcomed Protestant children in order to indoctrina te them with Papist ideas. Following Polemic against priestly celibacy and the Church of Rome in general published in 1888. It was “written to save women and girls threatened bny the filth of the Confessional.”

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his victory, the Pope expected to establish his new throne in the West. The "Papal Conspiracy" which Morse and Beecher unve iled remained, with modifications, the favorite theme of anti-Catholic propaganda throughout the nineteenth century. Despite dire predictions, nativists soon r ealized that foreigners would never overrun the native population. Writers, therefore, shifted their focus to the manipulation of immigrant voters by the Catholic Church. Nativis ts alleged that this control permitted Jesuits to dictate the political balance of power i n the country. In 1855 Reverend Edward Beecher, a son of Lyman Beecher, wrote The Papal Conspiracy Exposed. This apocalyptic chronicle of Papist depradations throug h the centuries added little to the revelations of the previous generation, but gained an audience among Know-Nothing party members and their allies. The views of the AP A in the 1880's found an able supporter in Reverend Justin Fulton. In Rome in America (1887) and Washington in the Lap of Rome (1888) Fulton revived half-a-century-old arguments that outlined the constant peril which Popery posed to the nation. Religious antagonisms alone fail to explain why ant ebellum America proved receptive to the sirens of anti-Catholicism. The Ja cksonian era experienced sweeping, often abrupt, political, economic, and social chang e. Together with increased immigration came industrialization and urbanization, causing th e transition into "modern America." These changes supplied numerous opportunities to in dividuals to succeed through personal merit. But a lack of permanency also resul ted a person's fortunes might plunge as quickly as they had ascended. Jacksonian society exhibited a sense of dislocation, of rootlessness. The belief in individual enterprise b elied the people's attempts to reestablish lost security and identity by joining vol untary associations. The tendency to strike out at groups different from themselves magn ified the frustration of certain members of society. For these people the Catholic C hurch became a convenient scapegoat for their dissatisfaction. In the 1840's and 1850's these feelings manifested themselves in the growth of nativist political orga nizations, chiefly the American Republican party and the American (Know-Nothing) pa rty. The 1860's marked a temporary quiescence in anti-Ca tholicism. Nativism declined swiftly following the debacle of the 1856 president ial campaign in which the KnowNothing party, having split over the slavery questi on, suffered a crushing defeat. Furthermore, the temporary drop in the rate of immi gration and most significantly the coming of the Civil War, replaced xenophobia with m ore concrete fears in the mind of the American public. During the Civil War the heavy enlistments of Irish and Germans into the Union Army helped to dispel notions of imm igrant and Catholic disloyalty. The post-bellum period never saw anti-Catholicism r egain its former strength in national politics, although it remained a significa nt force at the state and regional levels. The 1870's experienced some Protestant alarm over C atholic attempts to challenge the exclusive reading of the King James version of the Bible in the public schools, and to obtain state funding for parochial schools. During these controversies anti-Catholics tended to direct their fire at the Catholic hierarc hy rather than at the immigrants. In the next decade another influx of foreigners ent ered America. The overwhelming majority of the "new immigrants" hailed from Southe rn and Eastern Europe, and many practiced the Catholic faith. The recent arrivals s purred a resurgence of nativist and antiCatholic feelings. Two other forms of nativism, ant i-foreign radicalism and Anglo-Saxon racism, also increased. Besides believing the newco mers to be inferior races, nativists

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associated them with labor problems and socialist i deologies. In 1887 a secret society known as the American Prot ective Association (APA) organized to oppose Catholics and immigrants. The A PA attained its greatest strength in the Midwest. The depression of 1893 further stimula ted the movement as some Americans seeking a cause for their misfortunes aga in found an answer in tales of Papal plots. Within a year, failure to verify its accusat ions and its own internal dissension hastened the decline of the APA in most areas of the country. By the turn of the century the waning influence of anti-Catholicism on nativism resulted principally from the greater secularization of American society. Anti-Catholicism, nevertheless, reappeared on many occasions in the twentieth century. The phenomenal growth of the Ku Klux Klan in the early 1920's, and the smear tactics employed against Alfred E. Smith in the presidential campaign of 1928 are the most familiar examples. Although the presidential contest of 1960 included anti-Catholic attacks on a candidate, the election of John Kennedy ended the specter of a Papist in the White House and effectively signaled the acceptance of Catholics in national government. Perhaps the primary appeal of anti-Catholic literature rested on its titillating aspects. Books promising to divulge the esoteric rites and rituals of the Catholic Church sold briskly. Former priests and nuns reputedly authored these exposes. Nativists scrutinized the Mass, the sacraments, and the priesthood in works such as William Hogan's Auricular Confession and Popish Nunneries (1848) High and Low Mass in the Catholic Church (1846), William Potts' Dangers of Jesuit Instruction (1846), and the anonymous Pope or President? Startling Discoveries of Romanis m as Revealed by its Own Writers (1859). Judging from the number of volumes concerning them, convents stimulated the imaginations of anti-Catholic authors as did no oth er facet of Romanism. Writers pictured nunneries as dens of sex, secrecy, and sedition. Th e secrecy surrounding convents intrigued nativists and allowed free rein to their creative energies. They described the convent system as a subversive network seeking to u ndermine the institutions of church, family and nation. A convent education prepared Pro testant maidens to be "Romish mothers." Moreover, anti-convent material proved do ubly attractive to readers imbued with Victorian sexual mores. Here was the opportuni ty to condemn the depravity of convent life and guiltlessly to enjoy the legal por nography that described such conditions. A stock char acter in American anti-catholic literature was the lustful priest. The alleged sexual excesses of priests and nuns exercised a continuing fascination for Nativists, who viewed convents as “houses of assignation.”

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The genre of convent literature, long a popular sta ndard in Europe, established itself with American readers upon the success of Rebecca R eed's Six Months in a Convent (1835). The sales of Miss Reed's account of life in a nunne ry reportedly reached 10,000 copies in one week. One optimistic nativist editor predicted "that one or two hundred thousand copies of this work can be disposed of in one month." Narratives of other "runaway nuns" continued to tan talize portions of the American public throughout the nineteenth and into the twent ieth century. Josephine M. Bunkley's The Testimony of an Escaped Novice from the Sisterh ood of St. Joseph appeared in 1855 at the height of Know-Nothing power and influence. After the war, books like Edith O'Gorman's Trials and Persecutions of Miss Edith O'Gorman (1871) showed the sustained market for convent themes. The most infam ous of these works Maria Monk's Awful Disclosures of the Hotel Dieu Nunnery became the best selling volume of 1836, and eventually sold over 300,000 copies. As late as the 1960 presidential campaign, extreme opponents of John Kennedy reprinted copies of Awful Disclosures in an effort to besmirch his Catholicism. The mystery surrounding the convent made it a popular setting for anti-Catholic novels laced with Gothic motifs. Writers substituted the convent for the traditional castle with winding passageways and diabolical torture chambers, or the ancient mansion with its legend of bloody deeds and haunted attics. Instead of nymphs skirting across foggy moors, virginal novices fled the clutc hes of debauched Jesuits. Such titles as Dangers in the Dark; A Tale of Intrigue and Priestc raft (1854) and The Haunted Convent (1855) deftly played on an audience's desire to enc ounter the unknown. In addition, nativists asserted that they based their portraits of convent life on actual situations. For example, the subtitle for the novel The Convent (1853) declared it to be A Narrative Founded on Fact. Anti-Catholic fiction had great appeal. In the mid1850's Charles Frothingham earned a comfortable living from the sale of three tales t hat were set around the 1834 burning of the Ursuline Convent in Charlestown, Massachusetts. The publisher's preface to The Convent's Doom (1854) boasted that more than 40,000 copies were so ld within ten days after publication in their original form..."' By 18 57 Frothingham's Six Hours in the Convent had entered its sixteenth edition, each edition acc ounting for 10,000 printings. In the post-war period Julia McNair Wright seems to ha ve been the most prolific and successful novelist of nativism, producing such pro vocative titles as Almost a Nun (1868), Almost a Priest (1870), Priest and Nun (1871), and the obligatory Secrets of the Convent and Confessional (1873). Fiction or non-fiction, novel or expose, anti-Catho lic writings provide fascinating insight into the thinking of another age. Furthermo re, they remind Americans that religion may still be twisted by frightened people to deny basic rights and freedoms to others. Novel by Julia McNair Wright, the most successful writer of anti-catholic Fiction in post-Civil War America.

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Scholars and others interested in perusing a wide v ariety of anti-Catholic literature will find a representative selection on the shelves of the University of South Florida Library. The Special Collections Department possess es nearly one hundred original volumes, including most of the titles mentioned abo ve. At least another fifty books are available in the library in reprint editions from t he Arno Press Anti-Movement Series, and on microfilm rolls of the American Culture Seri es and the American Fiction Series.

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The Nineteenth Century American Literature Collection at the University of South Florida by J. B. Dobkin We have chosen as the specific area of concentratio n for the Special Collections Department of the University of South Florida Libra ry, the Belles Lettres of 19th Century America. Our choice of this area and period is base d on a series of fortuitous circumstances. In 1973 the library had purchased th e contents of the John Jay Bookstore in Boston. This miscellaneous collection of books t urned out to be particularly rich in American fiction of the 19th Century. Other factors influencing our decision in this matter were the relative unpopularity of this vast body of literature at the time; also that little collecting in this specific area had been do ne in our state or region, and finally, the relatively low cost of much of this material. Our first efforts were made in the area of adult fi ction, and much progress has been made in that specific body of writing. Using Lyle W right's three-volume bibliography of American fiction, we have in recent years gathered a remarkable proportion of the identified works in this vast area. Along the way it became evident that juvenile ficti on was closely interrelated by authorship, theme, and interest, and we ventured in to that area. From the chapbooks of the early 1840's to the dime novels of the end of t he century, we have been fortunate in amassing a collection rivaled in few locations in A merica today, and one which still promises rapid growth. An idea of the scope of this collection is difficult to comprehend without examining the tens of thousands of items of Americana that comprise it. From dime novels and chapbooks to American Sunday School Union publications, acting editions of plays, adult fiction and poetry are only a few of the categories in which we now collect. We trust that in its totality we can eventually build this collection into the most complete body of American 19th Century literature in existence. With a judicious program of planned acquisitions and relevant gifts, this dream could be achieved within a very few years. But the reality of financial exigencies makes that goal difficult to attain. Rapidly rising interest in this literature is engendering an equally rapid price rise, and only swift action on our part can enable us to achieve even a modicum of our stated aims. We do not have delusions of grandeur. Old Grimes, by Albert G. Green (1802-1868). Published in 1867, this first separate edition of Green’s poem is notable for its illustrations by Augustus Hoppin. Its dark brown cloth binding is embellished by an ornamental title in gold.

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We will never have the treasures of the Barrett Col lection at Virginia or the masses of manuscript at the University of Texas, but we can b uild a research collection of 19th Century Americana without peer in its completeness. Some literary manuscript has already been obtained, and as the book collection b ecomes relatively complete, this will become our primary area for development. We encourage expressions of interest in this import ant segment of the library collections. While much of this 19th Century materi al is fragile and rare, all of the holdings are available for scholarly use by any qualified researcher. To aid in research, special detailed bibliographies are being prepared that give access to many facets of the collection. The following abbreviated description of the collection should help to give a reasonably comprehensive overview to the reader: First let us consider the children's literature we have acquired and some of its high spots. In the area of chapbooks and toy books we have been able to obtain in excess of 300 items to date. These have come from many sources and we hope to be able to add many more as they become available. The first large group of chapbooks was purchased in New England during summer trips through Vermont, New Hampshire, southern Maine, and Massachusetts. Later a group of American chapbooks was purchased from a collection in the hands of Blackwells of Oxford, England. Most recently over thirty early examples were obtained from Red Horse at Ybor Square here in Tampa. These slight and fragile pamphlets have recently le d the almost precipitous rise in juvenile book prices, and we need to be most carefu l shoppers in making additional selections from dealers' stocks and catalogs. We ha ve been unable to find any other southern library that has achieved such a degree of depth in their chapbook holdings. While we have been most catholic in our collection of 19th Century children's literature, we make a particular effort to find exa mples of the works of those authors who achieved notable success in this field-from Jacob A bbott and Samuel Goodrich on through W. T. Adams (Oliver Optic) and Horatio Alge r, to such major powers in boys' writing as Edward S. Ellis and Charles A. Fosdick ( Harry Castlemon). We have 140 of 193 identified titles of Ellis, and 56 of 60 Castle mons, to pick two of the more voluminous authors. The girls are well represented in the works of Isabella Alden (Pansy), Louisa May Alcott, Margaret Finley of Elsi e fame, and numerous others. Christmas stories, temperance tales, and many indes cribably sweet and noxious calls to Originally purchased as a serial in The Hearth and Home Eggleston’s famous novel was published in book form in 1871. This is the title page of the first edition.

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good behaviour add some minor categories of writing We have received a great deal of verse written for 19th Century American children. H owever, because of the great Shaw Collection of Childhood in Poetry at Florida State University, we have avoided systematic collecting in this area. Among the, most voluminous of children's publishers in America before the 20th Century were the American Tract Society and the Ame rican Sunday School Union. Many hundreds of their publications and those of other r eligious bodies are found in the collection. From chapbooks and toybooks through various t ypes of miniatures and illustrated story books, we have obtained these usually didacti c bits of our literary history. While many of these slight books reprint writings of English authors, there remains much by native American writers. In children's periodical publications we have concentrated our acquisition efforts on those items produced prior to 1875. The dominance of Harper's Young People, St. Nicholas, and Youths' Companion at the end of the century can be contrasted to the dozens of popular juvenile journals in the decades of the 1850's and 1860's. They vary greatly in content, style, and format from such religious oriented papers as The Child at Home published by the American Tract Society to truly entertaining and informative journals of which Merry's Museum, the Peter Parley Magazine edited by S. G. Goodrich, and Oliver Optic's Magazine are excellent examples. We have copies of the first Southern Journal designed for young readers, The Southern Rosebud published in 1833-34 at Charleston, South Carolina, and The Hive, a New England juvenile published at Salem, Massachusetts in the 1820's. The long list of journal titles includes such names as Youth's Dayspring, The Scholar's Leaf, Forrester's Playmate, Boys' and Girls' Journal, and literally dozens of others. A chronological perusal of some of these papers and m agazines gives the reader an excellent view of the change of content and illustr ation from the purely religious and didactic to the instructive and entertaining. The r ise of the amusement factor in American juvenile periodicals might well be a thesis title f or work done in our collection. The American Dime Novel and its successors The Nick el Library and the Story Paper form an important if little noted part of American juvenile literature. The House of Beadle and Adams began publication of dime novels i n 1860 with their edition of Malaeska or The Indian Bride of the White Hunter. While these violent tales were designed for adult readers, they were soon taken up by the young. The publishers knew they had found a winning formula, and the dime nove ls proliferated and prospered until well after the end of the 19th Century. We are prou d to be the custodians of some 8,000 Elaborate embossed binding from The Parlour Scrapbook (1837). Bound by Gaskill, Philadelphia.

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of these colorful and very American survivors of a more naive era. Among the more important series titles we hold are Tip Top Weekly (the Frank Merriwell stories), Boys of Liberty, Nick Carter, and Frank Reade, the science fiction series that provided the inspiration for Jules Verne's 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea. Many of us are old enough to remember the day when children took elocution lessons and were prepared to recite a memorized piece for c ompany in the family parlor at their parents' bidding. In 19th Century America the recit ation book, or "speaker," was a best seller, with the house of Dick and Fitzgerald being the most successful publisher. We have gathered nearly 200 of these items with such t itles as the Komikal, Dialect, and Stump Speakers. There are still many additional speakers that we ho pe to locate and acquire for the University of South Florida collection. The adult belle lettres collection has been approached with the hope of eventually gathering an exhaustive collection of all 19th Century American works in original editions. We know that it will not be possible for us to purchase many of the items due to rarity or cost. Hopefully some of these gaps will be filled by donors, making our goals more easily attainable. In no way can we hope to obtain a number of the greatest rarities; however, the breadth of the collection already makes it a basic tool for the study of 19th Century American literature. For some authors such as Timothy Shay Arthur, we now rank second only to Yale in the coverage we have achieved. We continue to seek out both the monographic works of Arthur, and we have identified over 250 of these, and the periodicals he edited such as Arthur's Home Magazine and Children's Hour. We have multiple editions of many of the more important works, and an in-depth study of this segment of the collection yi elds a clear picture of the publishing world of the mid-19th Century. The poets are well represented, and in many cases n early all book appearances have been obtained. The names of Lydia Sigourney and Nat haniel Parker Willis may no longer be heard in the household, but they were giants of American literature. We pay homage to them and their fellow poets with overflowing she lves of their works. Though many of the literary stars of our last century have long si nce lost their lustre, they remain our heritage and cannot be overlooked. They are the bui lding blocks of our literary tradition. Many of the volumes bear authors' signatures or pre sentation inscriptions, and thus give the reader a sense of nearness to those long stille d hands and long silent voices. In the field of drama we have collected some 1,000 examples of acting editions of plays used in American theatres. Some of these bear 18th Century imprints, but the The first edition of one of the most important early 19th Century American poems.

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majority are printings of works popular in the 19th Century. Some of these are quite rare, with no other copies recorded. Together with manusc ript records of performances in American theatres, the manuscripts of the 19th Cent ury playwright Dion Boucicault, and our outstanding collection of theatrical costume bo oks, this forms a small but important collection in the thespian field. We do not attempt to duplicate long runs of periodi cals held in the University general collection, but we do seek out early literary perio dicals often ephemeral in nature and difficult to locate. Some titles such as General D. H. Hill's Land of the Free published in Charlotte, North Carolina have regional as well as literary interest and are highly valued in the collection. One class of literary publications that has grown to considerable proportions is the American Gift Book and Annual. Over 200 of these lavishly bound and illustrated works of both a general literary nature and special interest titles such as The Odd Fellows Annual, Sons of Temperance Annual, and the Know Nothing have been gathered. Using the standard bibliography in this field we find that we have a number of very interesting examples of Gift Books that are unknown to bibliographers. The contents of these works include first appearances of works by Poe, Longfellow, Whittier, Washington Irving, and numerous other American luminaries. Thus they have both literary and artistic significance. In addition to the Boucicault manuscripts scripts mentioned above, we have many literary letters and notes, as well as unpublished fragments and a full length unpublished historical novel with the title The Sisters by the Harvard author, T. B. Parsons (Theophilus). While many of the letters are mere social notes, some of them give considerable i nsight to the personality of the author. All of our efforts to amass a truly fine collection and make it available for scholarly use are pointless unless it proves to be of benefit to scholars and researchers in the field of American literature. Our efforts are gradually s hifting from acquisition of materials to spreading an awareness of the collection in our ins titution and service area. We hope that cooperation among the libraries of Florida will ser ve to avoid costly duplication and provide a base for research that will prove benefic ial to student and scholar alike. Numerous publications are needed to bring word of t he collection to those who might find it important to them. Certain aspects of this literature have little or no bibliographic control. Working from our collection and other sour ces, it would be possible to produce the first complete bibliographies of both boys' and girls' series books of the 19th Century Many deluxe editions of mid -nineteenth century American books were ornamented with elaborate color dedication, title or contents pages. The Specimen seen here is vivid with green, blue, red and metallic gold. It is from a literary annual entitled Leaflets of Memory (1849).

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United States. This is only a single example of the task that lies ahead. We invite all of our Associates and friends to help us make this a brightly shining star in the firmament of our research capabilities.

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Associates' Events &Activities Third Annual Library Associates Book Sale Since the last issue of Ex Libris, the third annual Library Associates book sale was held. The sale began on the evening of Monday, Nove mber 3, 1980 with the traditional preview session open to members of the Associates o nly. The public portions of the sale took place on the following two days. A special tha nks goes to the following persons who generously gave of their time and effort to make th e sale a success: Pat Thornberry, Mary McCahon, Mark Thompson, Jim and Louise Shelton, Tom Brasser, Dorothy Swearingen and her husband, and Aldyth Potts. A particular deb t of gratitude is owed to Mr. Jim Bledsoe for not only working at the sale, but also spending many hours beforehand helping to price and sort books. We have already begun collecting books for next yea r's sale, and would welcome any donations. Giving unwanted books to the Associates is a handy way to help our Library, as well as seeing that good books and people who wi ll read them come together. And, of course, such gifts are tax deductible, no mean cons ideration these days. We hope that the Library's friends will continue to provide the gene rous support that has made past sales so rewarding. For further information about donating i tems for the sale, please call Mr. J. B. Dobkin at {813) 974-2731 or 2732. Russel B. Nye Dinner On the evening of March 17, 1981 the Associates spo nsored a dinner in honor of Dr. Russel B. Nye of Michigan State University. Dr. Nye at that time serving as distinguished professor of American Studies at USF, is one of the pioneers in the study of popular culture in America. A Pulitzer prize winner Dr. Nye spoke on the topic "Eight Ways of Looking at the Amusement Park: A Study in A merican Culture." The dinner was held at 7:00 p. m. in the faculty dining room on th e fifth floor of the Student Services Building at the University of South Florida Tampa C ampus. Dr. Nye's topic was particularly apt, as he is currently preparing a televisio n special on American amusement parks for the Public Broadcasting System, first of a proj ected eight-part series. The evening was, as one might expect with a speaker of Dr. Nye' s stature, both entertaining and informative. History of Print Making Program Mr. Hans E. Rohr, noted bookman and authority on pr ints, will be visiting the Bay area in May. Through the good offices of Mr. Michae l Slicker of Lighthouse Books, Mr. Rohr will be guest speaker at a program for the Ass ociates, speaking on "Old Prints and How They Were Made." The program, which will be cosponsored by the Tampa Museum, will be held on Monday, May 11 at 7:00 p.m. in the Special Collections reading room on the fourth floor of the USF Library. Born i n Austria, Mr. Rohr came to America in the 1940's, and for decades has been involved in the European and American antiquarian book and print trade. He is an erudite and interesting speaker who should be able to provide much useful and entertaining inform ation to Bay area print collectors, book lovers, and graphic arts enthusiasts alike. Th e program will be complemented by an exhibit of materials on the art of book illustratio n that will be on display in the reading room and adjoining lobby area. The program is free to Associates members, and no

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reservations are necessary. "Ecology and the Environment" Program As most members of the Associates are probably awar e, the headquarters and library of the Florida Historical Society are located in th e USF Library. Although we do not generally carry Society news in Ex Libris, some of our members might be interested in hearing that the Society will be holding its 79th a nnual meeting and convention in St. Petersburg this year. Environmentalists and history buffs may be interested to hear that the theme for this year's meeting is "Ecology and t he Environment." The meeting will take place at the Bayfront Concourse in St. Petersb urg on April 30 through May 2. The program includes sessions on a variety of ecology/h istory topics conducted by environmental specialists, archaeologists, historia ns, and other experts from throughout the state. Persons wishing more information about t he meeting should contact Paul Eugen Camp at (813) 974-2731. In Memoriam: Margaret Louise Chapman, 1916-1981 The USF Library recently lost one of its oldest and most respected friends with the death of Miss Margaret Chapman at age 62. Miss Chap man came to USF in 1962 to serve as the Library’s first Special Collections Libraria n. She brought with her a unique knowledge of Floridiana, having served since 1958 a s librarian of the University of Florida’s P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History. During her long tenure as director of USF’s Special Collections Department she used her knowledge of Florida materials to build one of the state’s outstanding Florida collections. Through acquisition of many rare and u nusual books she also laid a strong foundation for future development of the Library’s rare books collection. Miss Chapman was the prime mover in bringing the Florida Histori cal Society and its unique research collections to USF, and served as the Society’s exe cutive secretary for almost ten years. She was also responsible for obtaining the papers o f Florida Governor LeRoy Collins and Congressman Samuel Gibbons for the University Libra ry. In 1971 Miss Chapman retired from USF and accepted the directorship of Queens College in Charlotte, North Carolina. Upon resignin g from Queens College, she returned to the home she had maintained in Tampa near the US F campus, where she resided until her death on March 28, 1981. She was interred in Ce dar Grove Cemetery in her birthplace, New Bern, North Carolina. She leaves be hind her as a legacy one of the best collections of Floridiana in existence, and a multi tude of warm memories in the hearts of her many friends. At the request of her family, those wishing to comm emorate their friendship with her may do so through a contribution to the fund establ ished in her honor to acquire Florida materials for the USF collection. Persons wishing i nformation relative to donations should call the USF Library at 974-2721.

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA LIBRARY ASSOCIATES BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mrs. Dorothy Sullivan, President Mr. J. B. Dobkin, Executive Secretary Mr. Laurence Burchell Mr. William L. Johnson Mr. Ja mes Shelton Mrs. Louise Burchell Mrs. Lee Leavengood Mrs. Vivia n Shelton Mrs. Barbara Dalby Ms. Jane Little Mr. Michael Sl icker Mrs. Ann Fluharty Mrs. Lillian Morton Mr. Mike Sn ow Mrs. Mary Lou Harkness Mr. Robert F. Morton Mr. A. Bronson Thayer Mrs. Barbara Johnson Dr. Fred Pfister Mr. William Zewadski Dr. William Scheurle Any person who wishes to help in furthering the goa ls of the USF Library Associates is eligible to become a member. Regular, sustaining, p atron, corporate, and student memberships are available on an annual basis (Septe mber 1 to August 31). Student memberships are open only to regularly enrolled stu dents of the University of South Florida, and are valid only so long as the member r emains a regular USF student. Life memberships are also available to interested person s. Membership in the Associates includes a subscriptio n to Ex Libris, a journal of articles and news about Associates activities, libr ary developments, and other topics likely to be of interest to Bay area bibliophiles. The member is also entitled to attend all Associates functions and, in addition, is eligible for book loan privileges at the University Library, subject to prevailing library regulations. So, if you are interested in helping us to obtain a better library for the University and its community, and want to participate in the many services and activities offered to members by the Library Associates, please use the m embership blank below and become one of us today.


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