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Ex libris :
b journal of the USF Library Associates.
n Vol. 6, no. 1 (summer 1984).
p Summer 1984
Tampa, Fla. :
USF Library Associates.
c summer 1984
Exhibits -- The cigar industry and its art -- Major acquisitions -- A brief history of Florida in the 1830s -- Associates events and activities -- The sentimental album -- University of South Florida Library Associates.
University of South FLorida.
USF Library Associates.
Ex Libris: Journal of the USF Library Associates
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Exhibits EXHIBITS of rare and unusual items from the Univers ity's collections are displayed in the Library on a continuing basis. Display areas ar e located in the first floor lobby and on the fourth floor both in the lobby and the Special Collections reading room. SUMMER SEMESTER First Floor Lobby: "Color Lithography in the 19th C entury American Printing" The development of color lithography brought vivid polychromatic illustrations to American books and other printed items in the mid t o late 19th century. Until the introduction of this relatively inexpensive color p rinting process, color illustrations on a large scale were prohibitively expensive. This exhi bit portrays the impact of color lithography on American printing using literary wor ks, gift books, children's books, advertising and greeting cards, and a variety of ot her printed items drawn from the Library's collections. It will remain on display fr om April 30 to August 10, 1984. Fourth Floor Lobby: "Dethroning King Alcohol: The Temperance Movement i n America" One of the major moral movements of 19th century Am erica was the long campaign to ban alcoholic beverages from the nation. Beginning as a reform movement among individuals concerned with the evil social and mora l effects of drunkeness, the drive against "demon rum" gathered force throughout the c entury, to culminate in the disaster of America's "noble experiment," the Prohibition er a of the 1920's. The often militant crusade for national temperance was reflected widel y in the literature of the period, not only in tracts but also in fiction for adults and c hildren. The temperance theme even, by the early 1900's, made itself felt in the dime nove ls read by America's boys. This exhibit will examine America's preoccupation with the evils of "King Alcohol" through nrnr rr WINTER SEMESTER First and Fourth Floors: "Acting Editions of American Plays, 1790-1890" In the days before television and movies, the theat er played a much more prominent role in the lives of Americans than it does today. Theaters were a feature of any community of decent size, while traveling companies of thespians brought entertainment to rural communities throughout the nation. To feed the demand of the popular theater, publishers produced a flood of farces, melodramas, and tragedies in the form of small, paperbound acting editions of British and American plays. The exhibit for Winter, 1984 will feature acting editions of the plays that brou ght romance and excitement to 19th century American audiences. In addition to printed scripts, manuscript copies of plays performed in American theaters will also be include d. The materials comprising the exhibit, including many items bearing handwritten n otes and alterations by early players, reflect the tastes and interests of an earlier, les s cosmopolitan America. The exhibit will remain on display from September 1 to December 31, 1984.
CONTENTS Exhibits ................................Inside Fro nt Cover The Cigar Industry and Its Art .................... .....1 Major Acquisitions ................................ ...........4 A Brief History of Florida in the 1830's...................................... ................7 Associates Events and Activities .................. ...9 The Sentimental Album ............................. ....11 Cover: Turn-of-the-century cigar box label featuring the T ampa Bay Hotel. Programs, activities, and services of the Universit y of South Florida are available to all on a non-discriminatory basis, without regard to ra ce, color, creed, religion, sex, age, national origin, or handicap. The University is an affirmative action Equal Opportunity Employer. Ex Libris Vol. 6, No. 1 Ex Libris is published by the USF Library Associates, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Please address suggestions and comments to J. B. Do bkin, Executive Secretary, USF Library Associates, USF Library, Tampa, Fla. 33620. Not printed at State expense. Except as noted, illustrations in Ex Libris are reproduced from works in the Special Collections Department of the University of South F lorida Library. Photography is by the photography department of USF's Division of Educati onal Resources.
THE CIGAR INDUSTRY AND ITS ART By Dr. L. Glenn Westfall DURING the last three decades of the 19th century, the emerging industrial revolution in the United States resulted in the cre ation of a mass market economy and the use of new advertisement techniques. A new class of capitalists relied upon millions of newly arriving immigrants to serve as a labor force and purchase products. Most emigres could not afford luxury items but they actively par ticipated in the mass market economy, buying relatively inexpensive items ranging from soaps and elixirs to alcohol and tobacco products. Cigars were an item whose phenomenal growth in sales increased as the industrial revolution progressed. In 1870, during this, the Victorian Era, cigars had already replaced all other tobacco products in volume sales and consumption of the domestic tobacco leaf. Cigars became synonymous with status, a barometer of a male's success and affluence. Cigars were affordable to all smokers, ranging from a few cents for a cheap machine made cigar to several dollars for a fine quality "clear Havana." Regardless of economic situation, males flaunted their status simply by puffing away on a cigar. Tobacco sales underwent two significant changes during this industrial period which revolutionized the sale of cigars. First was the formation of the domestic "clear Havana" industry in Florida. Secondly, sales were augmented with more sophisticated printing techniques used to print posters and cigar labels. Florida's cigar industry emerged as a consequence of the turbulent Cuban civil strife, known as the Ten Years War, 1868-1878. During the War, thousands of skilled Cuban cigarmakers fled their homeland to avoid conscription into the Spanish army. Key West, only ninety miles from Havana, was transformed overnight from a sleepy island village to a bustling bilingual city. Thousands of skilled cigarmakers anxious for employment, as well as an abundance of tobacco from nearby Cuba CIGAR MANUFACTURERS attempted to lure women to smoke cigars, but with little success. An 1885 Sa m Levy brand illustrates a young maiden enjoying the smoke of a cigar. The label is beautifully detailed and enhanced by a gold leaf background behind the maiden. TAMPA MAID was a portrayal of the daughter of a locla Tampa manufacturer. Although the label was not printed in quality detail, it nevertheless is the only existing sketch of his daughter. Family Members wish to have the family member remain anonymous.
were too enticing for manufacturers to ignore. As a consequence, cigar factories were quickly constructed, and by 1885, Key West had been transformed into the thirteenth largest port in the United States. The cigar industry was assured a successful future. Cuban cigarmakers produced cigars from Cuban tobacco, but the finished cigar sold for two-thirds less than finished cigars imported from Cuba. Imported clear Havanas had to pay a high import tax. Key West's humid climate was virtually identical to Havana. Since Cuban cigars were acclaimed the finest in the world prior to the 1868-78 Civil War, domestic clear Havanas from Key West created a veritable economic boom in the American cigar market. Faced with a new competitor to domestic cigars, irate northern manufacturers responded by either opening branch factories or moving entirely to Key West. Florida's domestic Â“Clear Havana" industry expanded into Tampa's Ybor City, West Tampa, Jacksonville, and Ocala, and by 1900 cigar manufacturing was the State's leading industry. Florida's phenomenal cigar sales were assisted through sophis ticated sales and promotional schemes, promoted, in part, by lithographic compani es. In the early 1800's Germans had perfected new print ing techniques of chromolithography, but the process was too costly a nd the demand too small for its use in advertisement art. While the industrial age emerged in the United States, Germany underwent serious economic disruption when Otto von Bismarck initiated political unification of Germany in 1870. Numerous skilled German lithographers migrated to New York in search of economic stability where they were immediately employed by lithographic companies such as George Schlegel, Schumaker-Ettlinger, George Harris and Sons, Krueger, Moehele, as well as Heywood-Strasser and Voight, to mention a few. By 1875, the traditional woodblock printing process was being replaced with chromolithography. German lithographers stimulated a veritable renaissance in American advertisement posters and labels. Chromolithography (or stone litho-graphy) allowed the use of numerous brilliant PROMOTING A SPANISH THEME in cigar sales could no more adequately be portrayed than by immortalizing Cervantes as a brand of clear Havana cigars. The association of naything Spanish with a cigar was synonymous with excellent quality, and lithographers went to extremes in order to relate cigar brands to Spanish subject matter. THIS EXQUISITELY DETAILED cigar label entitled Â“Puro de TampaÂ” is illustrative of the attention given to detail by the lithographer. Romantic scenes often accompanied the main figures of a label, such as the portrayal of Havana harbor in the left side of this specimen. The color of this label is outstanding, with each detail of the flowers shaded to make them appear three dimensional.
colors, detailed embossment and metallic highlights in advertisements. Cigar manufacturers were one of the first industries to u se chromolithography in advertisements. The nation's tobacco shops, saloons and country stores were soon emblazed with brilliantly colored, detailed posters which adulated qualities of cigar brands. Since Florida promoted the sale of domestic clear Havanas, the State's cigar manufacturers promoted brands and pictorial themes of a Spanish nature. This was immediately a success with the buying public since anything Spanish was synonymous to an excellent smoke. Northern manufacturers responded by producing cigars with Spanish names but made from domestic tobacco. Florida firms filed several lawsuits against northern manufacturers who infringed on their brand names. A number of foreign cigar manufacturers engaged in outright piracy of brand names or pictorial themes from Florida firms. A study of American cigar lithographic posters and labels printed from the 1870's to World War I reveals the popularity of Spanish names and scenes in cigar sales. The Spanish theme quickly lost popularity, however, in the early 1920's. Mass-produced, machine-made cigars, and cigarettes encroached into the clear Havana market. Manufacturers found it difficult to maintain large staffs of skilled hand-rolled cigar makers, since lesser quality was further changing America's smoking habits. Although efforts had been made to lure women to cigars, cigar smoking never became a popular feminine pastime as did cigarettes. Lithographers also promoted less expensive photolithographic printing for advertisements, and a decline in the quality of advertisements was quite evident. The March 1933 Fortune Magazine summarized the demise of the clear Havana cigar when it stated, "A maker no longer wants the loveliest bosom in Old Castile. He wants a snappy Emblem and a name no hick can forget. And it's a different business." Advertisement art as a form of historical documentation is a relatively unstudied area in the Florida cigar industry. Thousands of unused lables and posters once stored in CUBAN, a favorite theme of clear Havana manufacturers, gives a panorama of the Cuban countryside surrounding a distinguished Don, perhaps a wealthy landowner orcigar manufacturer. It was not uncommon for manufacturers to portray members of their families, their mistresses or friends in cigar labels. DONNA TAMPA was an early 1900 Â’s Tampa label of the Don Alvarez Company. It illustrates both the detailed use of chromolithography as well as the use of metallic highlights on the medallions surrounding the lovely senorita and tropical countryside in the background.
warehouses are now collectors' items and are increa singly difficult to obtain. The labels portrayed in this article are but a few of thousand s which give an insight into the significance of the Spanish theme in label art and allow us to appreciate the talented skills of the unknown artists who made them..
MAJOR ACQUISITIONS SINCE THE LAST issue of Ex Libris, the Library's research collections have continued to develop in an encouraging manner, than ks in large part to the continued support received from the Library Associates. In ad dition to the steady growth of our major collections, several particularly notable acq uisitions of both books and manuscripts have taken place. These outstanding acquisitions ar e noted below. LeBlanc Dime Novels A group of 2,002 American dime novels was acquired from Mr. Eddie L. LeBlanc, publisher of Dime Novel Round-Up. Readers of Ex Libris will recall that Mr. LeBlanc has taken a benevolent interest in the development of o ur collection for some years past. The dime novels acquired, consisting of both the early Beadle-type publications and a variety of later formats, filled in many gaps in our previo us holdings. The acquisition of this highly significant addition to our collection was m ade possible through funds provided by the Library Associates. The 2,002 items represent o nly a portion of a larger body of dime novels which Mr. LeBlanc would like to see come to USF. Acquisition of the full collection, in addition to our already extensive ho ldings, could make the USF Library a leader in the dime novel field. Bringing the collec tion to our library will, however, require considerable financial resources which, in the absence of state funds, must come from private sources. Gift Books and Annuals Through funds made available by a member of the Ass ociates Board of Directors, a collection of over 200 additional 19th century Amer ican gift books and annuals were added to the Library's holdings. This generous dona tion moves the Library a long way towards completion of our holdings of many major se ries, giving us one of the leading collections of this type of material in the United States. Alicia DuPont Estate A number of very rare 18th century American childre n's books were acquired a few months ago. These curious works originally came fro m the estate of Alicia DuPont. The prize of the lot is a miniature volume bound in 18t h century polished calf entitled Dramatic Dialogues for the Use of Young Persons, "by the author of The Blind Child." It was published in Boston by W. Spotswood in 1798, an d consists of a gathering of brief playlets, originally published separately. Each sec tion includes a separate title page and an engraved frontispiece. French Literature Helen Walters of Dade City presented the Library wi th an interesting collection of early 20th century French literary works, consistin g primarily of limited editions in presentation bindings. Included in this generous gi ft were signed presentation copies of works by Colette and Gide. American Almanacs Also acquired were a considerable number of early 1 9th century almanacs,
compendiums of astronomical, weather, and farming d ata. Spiced with wit and wisdom aimed at the rural population of an earlier America these little booklets were, along with the Bible, often the only reading material availabl e in many American homes. Of particular note is our acquisition of the manuscrip t working papers used by Dudley Leavitt, author of The Farmer's Almanac, in preparing a number of his immensely popular works. These original calculations and note s range in date from 1830 to 1854, and provide valuable insight into the compilation o f 19th century almanacs. The papers are in Leavitt's hand, and many of them are initial ed "DL". The collection consists of seven separate documents and 53 leaves bound into a small volume, the binding of which is made of 1822 New Hampshire newspaper. Interestin gly, one of the newspapers forming the binding bears a notice relating to the Adams-Onis Treaty by which the U.S. acquired Florida in 1821. Robinson Donation Mr. Wallace Robinson of St. Petersburg, a long-time benefactor of our library, presented us with several interesting groups of mat erial, including a number of 19th century children's books and an extensive collectio n of colorful 19th century American chromolithographed advertising cards and brochures. Mr. Robinson also gave to the Library an interesting and nostalgic collection of Florida restaurant menus dating primarily from the 1940's and 1950's, a type of Flo rida ephemera not often encountered. Antiquarian Book Catalogs The Library gained a major resource for antiquarian book research when Mr. Michael Slicker of Lighthouse Books, another long-time frie nd of our Library, presented us with a collection of over 5,000 early 20th century rare bo ok dealer's catalogs. These difficult to come by works, many of them heavily illustrated, pr ovide invaluable bibliographic information on rare books, manuscripts, and other a ntiquarian items. Much of the collection once belonged to eminent bookman George Parker Winship, long-time librarian of the Widener Library at Harvard. Many o f the catalogs were compiled by leading experts in the field of rare books and cont ain extensive notes and annotations. The Special Collections staff is currently arrangin g the catalog collection and preparing a subject card index. Booksale Donations In addition to gifts of books for our own collectio ns, the Library also received a number of large collections designated specifically for the Associates' booksale. Mr. Tom Brasser of Brasser's Books in Seminole once more ma de available several thousand good used books for the sale, continuing the generous su pport he has given us for past years. Another continuing contributor to the Associates' b ooksale was Mr. Jim Bledsoe, who again this year gave us a fine selection of novels and other books for the sale. Tampa Directories Mr. Charles C. Whitaker II, of Tampa, presented the Library with a collection of 147 early Tampa and Plant City directories. This splend id donation filled in many gaps in our holdings. Included in the donation were 1899, 1901, 1914, and other very scarce Tampa directories that will prove invaluable for local hi story research. Already these items have
become heavily used by USF urban anthropology resea rchers. They provide a wealth of demographic, geographic, and social data useful in a wide range of fields. Marti-Maceo Club Archives On February 1, 1984, Tampa's AfroCuban society La S ociedad Union MartiMaceo placed its records on indefinite loan in the USF Sp ecial Collections department. See the events section for further details. Avellanal Papers In sheer bulk alone, the most notable acquisition o f the past year has been the papers of the late Lt. General Jose Luis Avellanal-Jimenez former owner of Tampa's historic El Pasaje Hotel. After the General's death in January, 1982, the heirs of his estate authorized the USF Library to take permanent custody of any pa pers of historical significance in the El Pasaje building. The result was hundreds of boxe s of papers that form a valuable resource for Tampa historical research. The bulk of the papers documents the careers of General Avellanal and his father, Dr. Jose Ramon Av ellanal. Dr. Avellanal was one of Tampa's most respected physicians, the founder of o ne of the city's first public health services, and a figure of major significance in the community's history. The General himself was an extremely colorful character in his own right, whose activities from boyhood onward make a fascinating story. In additio n to the thousands of letters and other documents, the collection includes scores of early Tampa and Ybor City publications, many not known to exist elsewhere in the community. As a bonus, a mass of records and working papers of the Tampa office o f the Federal Writers Project of the Depression era were also found in the El Pasaje bui lding, which had served as the agency's headquarters. Included in this body of materia ls are multiple revisions of an unpublished WPA guide to Tampa, together with repor ts on diverse aspects of the city and its people. Also present are WPA materials on L akeland and other Florida areas. Guaranty Title Company Maps Guaranty Title Division of Lawyers Title Insurance Corporation donated to the USF Library a large collection of maps and plats showin g Tampa in the first half of the 20th century. Included in the gift were two editions of the Sanborn insurance atlases for Tampa, one covering 1915-25, the other 1933-55. The se large folio volumes show literally every building in the city, color coded t o show type of building (frame, brick, concrete, etc.) and a variety of additional informa tion. These extremely hard to come by atlases are invaluable mines of historical data abo ut Tampa and are already proving to be very useful additions to our local history resource s.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF FLORIDA IN THE 1830's By J.B. Dobkin Most of the Florida territory in 1830 was a vast an d empty place. The census of that year gave a total population for the territory of o nly 34,730 souls, of whom 18,395 were white and 16,335 non-white. The nonwhite figure was comprised of free and slave black residents only. By 1840 the state total was 54,477 of whom 27,961 were white and 26,516 were non-white (no Indians included). In addition to the sparseness of the total populati on there was a concentration of Florida residents in a few northern counties of the territory. For example 6,494 people lived in Leon County in 1830 and 10,713 (19.66% of the total) resided there in 1840. Settled Florida was a plantation society in the 183 0-40 decade with nearly all of her population in the northern agricultural counties. T his slave-utilizing plantation economy is reflected in the fact that fully 48.7% of the po pulation was recorded as non-white in 1840 as opposed to a non-white total of only 15.8% in the census of 1970. In the mid 1830's there were also about 4,000 Indians in Flori da and nearly all of these were in the lightly settled areas of the peninsular. The non-Indian population of territorial Florida was closely tied to the plantation economy of the lower south. Practically all of the slaves legally brought to Florida plantations came by way of a single Savannah, Georgia merchant. Despite the agricultural development of the northern border countries, Florida remained a frontier country long after this decade (1830-1840). The peninsula remained relatively empty and primitive, with a number of pre-Civil War maps showing large parts of southern Florida as Â“unknown and unexplored.Â” No towns of measurable size existed on the peninsula south of St. Augustine. Even the wreckerÂ’s center of operations, the Florida Keys (Monroe County) held only 500 people in 1830 and had grown to just 688 in 1840. Pensacola, Tallahassee, and St. Augustine were the main towns and were rivalled only by the county seats of the plantation area suc h as Quincy, Monticello, and Madison. Some industry in the guise of small cotton manufact uring plants existed in this area prior to the Civil War but expired with the end of that c onflict. The earliest of these mills was chartered in 1835 but did not begin operation in Ar cadia, near Milton, until some years later. A mill in Madison during the 1840's and 1850 's was typical of cotton spinning operations in that period. Thirty white boys and gi rls from ten to eighteen years of age earned from eight to fifteen dollars a month as wor kers. Most of the yarn made was sold locally and woven into cloth by slaves and housewiv es. Map of Florida, 1834.
Florida's first railroad was completed in 1836 and was, in the beginning, a mule drawn string of coaches running on iron sheathed wo oden rails. This was a 23-mile line from Tallahassee to St. Marks. Within a fairly brie f time steam engines were brought in when the success of the road seemed assured. Anothe r line of only nine miles length opened later in 1836 using steam power from the out set. This was the rail line connecting the Apalachicola River and St. Josephs Bay which wa s abandoned at an early date because the shallowness of connecting water routes denied it economic viability. This line was constructed by the Lake Wimico and St. Jos eph Canal and Railroad Company. While many canal projects were proposed and even ch artered in Florida during the 1830's none were brought to completion. Rivers were cleared of snags and made navigable as water routes remained the primary form of transport for Floridians. The steamboat appeared early on Florida's rivers and lo ng remained the only feasible means of travel upstream. The greatest contribution to road-building in the t erritorial period came from the armed forces in the Seminole War (after 1835). As t hey pushed the Indians farther southward down the peninsula they opened trails alm ost anywhere that teams drawing wagons could penetrate. Florida ended the decade of the 1830's embroiled in a costly war with the Seminoles. The publicity that attended the numerous raids made on white settlers greatly inhibited growth in both East and Middle Florida. The territo ry moved closer to statehood at the same time that consolidation of the plantation, sla ve-oriented economy that took place during the decade cast her into the role of a candi date for the southern Confederacy. Though the Civil War was still a generation away, t he men of influence in the state were voicing sentiments that were to become only too fam iliar in the dark days of the 1860's. The Comte de Castelnau wrote an essay during his vi sit from France to America that began in 1837. This work was titled "Essai sur La F lorida Du Milieu" or, Essay on Middle Florida. This work gives a detailed picture of the Florida frontier as it appeared to the eyes of a titled European. The following passag e is selected from a description of Castlnau's visit to Monticello and gives us an idea of the brutality that characterized that time and place. "The village is built almost entirely of wood, and the difficulty of getting boards has delayed its prosperity; about one hundred and fifty people live there. On that day they were holding court in a log house, and a rain had c ome so that the judge was for two hours exposed to the water that poured in abundantl y between the poorly joined beams. This place is famous for the quarrelsome spirit of its inhabitants... During the day that we spent there we were present at several fights and s aw several heads bruised. As for bloody noses ... one might consider them universal. Sometimes they fight with their fists, but generally with a pistol, a bowie knife or iron covered cudgel. The entire village seemed to be fighting ... farmers were amusing them selves by lashing unfortunate slaves, laughing to split their sides at their contortions and cries..."
ASSOCIATES EVENTS AND ACTIVITIES Fifth Annual Library Associates Book Sale THE annual Associates book sale was held on Novembe r 6-8, 1983 in the University Center ballroom on the USF Tampa campus. With nearl y 20,000 volumes on hand, this was in terms of sheer number of books the largest s ale to date. With all volumes priced at twenty-five cents for paperbacks and fifty cents fo r hardcovers there were many real bargains to be had. The sale opened on the evening of Sunday, November 6 with the tradition preview session open only to members of the Library Associa tes. The Associates who took advantage of this opportunity had first crack at th e thousands of fiction and non-fiction books on the sale tables. The public portion of the sale opened on Monday, November 7 at 9:00 a.m., and did a very healthy business until closing time at 9:00 p.m. Although thousands of books had been sold, a respectable num ber still remained on hand when the sale resumed on Tuesday morning. The sale officiall y concluded at 4:30 p.m., with book hunters browsing the depleted sale tables to the en d. Staff for operating this year's sale was provided b y the student association of the USF school of Library, Media and Information Science. I n return for the students' participation, a portion of the profits from the sa le went to the association to support its activities. A number of Associates members also hel ped with the sale, notably Mr. Jim Bledsoe, among others. Particular thanks goes to Dr William Scheuerle and his son Ramsey, and to Mrs. Catherine Camp for their invalu able assistance in sorting and arranging books on the sale tables. A special debt of gratitude is also owed to the many friends whose contributions of unwanted books in ne ed of homes made the sale possible. Among the many donors, special recognition should g o to Mr. Tom Brasser of Brasser's Books in Seminole as a long-time supporter of the A ssociates' annual sales. Preparations for the sixth annual book sale are und erway, with several thousand books already on hand. Since the book sale is a maj or source of support for the Associates' activities, continued support in the fo rm of book donations is a vital necessity. Anyone with unwanted books that they would like to see put to a good use is urged to call Mr. J.B. Dobkin or Mr.Paul Camp at 974-2731 in Tamp a. Books donated to the Associates will not only generate badly needed supp ort for the Library, but will also find their way into the hands of readers who will apprec iate them. All such donations are, of course, tax deductible. Second Annual Tony Pizzo Lecture in Tampa History On the evening of October 27, 1983, the Associates held a reception in the Special Collections department of the USF Library in Tampa. The occasion of the event was the second annual Tony Pizzo Lecture in Tampa history. This year's speaker was Dr. Glenn Westfall, biographer of Ybor City founder Vicente M artinez Ybor and professor at Hillsborough Community College. Dr. Westfall spoke on the history and significance of the Tampa cigar industry. An added feature of the e vening was the opening of a major exhibit of cigar box art and memorabilia of the han d cigar industry. Featured in the exhibit along with items from USF's collection were r are and sometimes unique cigar labels and other cigar art from the collection of Mr. Thom as Vance of Tampa. The exhibit also included cigar industry memorabilia and photographs from the collections of Tony Pizzo,
Dr. Glenn Westfall, and Paul Camp. The evening was both entertaining and educational. Socializing and refreshments followed Dr. Westfall' s presentation, during which participants had the opportunity of examining the e xhibits at leisure. La Union Marti-Maceo Reception On the evening of February 1, 1984, the Associates sponsored a reception in honor of Tampa's Marti-Maceo Club in the Special Collections department of the Library. The occasion was the deposit of the Club's archives on indefinite loan with the USF Library. La Union Marti-Maceo is an Afro-Cuban mutual aid so ciety established in Ybor City in 1900. Since its establishment, the Marti-Maceo Club has served as the center for the life of Tampa's AfroCuban community, a group often terme d a "minority within a minority." The Club's archives, containing organizational reco rd books, photographs, architectural drawings, and other documents, will provide scholar s with valuable historical insight into Tampa's Afro-Cuban community. It is a group with a unique cultural heritage little known outside its own confines. The keynote speaker for the evening was Dr. Louis P erez of USF's Department of History. His remarks, particularly those relating t o General Antonio Maceo, were very enthusiastically received by the large audience. Ge neral Maceo is the black hero of the Cuban war for independence whose name the Club bear s. Also speaking at the reception were Juan Mallea and Richard Menendez, MartiMaceo o fficers, and Mr. J.B. Dobkin, USF Special Collections Librarian. Upon conclusion of the formal program, refreshments were served and guests had a chance to examine an e xhibit of selected items from the Marti-Maceo archives displayed in the Special Colle ctions reading room. The event was attended by 150 persons who, from all appearances, enjoyed the evening immensely. Special thanks for the success of the reception is owed to Dr. Susan Greenbaum of the USF Anthropology department, whose work in organizi ng the event was invaluable. History of Books and Libraries Class USF Special Collections Librarian J.B. Dobkin offer ed his popular course in the history of books and libraries again during the Fal l semester. Offered for academic credit to students through USF's Department of Library, Me dia, and Information Studies, the course is open to members of the Associates without charge on a non-credit basis. Held in the Library's Special Collections department, the c ourse utilizes actual specimens of rare and unusual books from the USF collection to illust rate the development of books and printing over the centuries. In addition to the his torical development of books and libraries, the course covers such topics as the phy sical book (types of bindings, bibliographic terms and so forth), the antiquarian book trade, book collecting, and other topics likely to interest bibliophiles. It provides an excellent opportunity for Associates members to learn more about the fascinating world o f books. The course is scheduled to be offered again in January, 1985. Any Associates i nterested in attending are encouraged to contact Mr. Dobkin at 974-2731. Another course o pen to Associates members is Mr. Dobkin's course in special collections administrati on, which would be of interest to those wishing to know how a rare books department operate s. This course, which is available without charge to Associates, will be offered in th e fall, 1984-85 semester, in September.
THE SENTIMENTAL ALBUM IN the slower-paced times of 19th Century America t here was much visiting between friends and family. The groups thus brought togethe r made their own amusements. Music and amateur theatricals were a part of the life of every "genteel" family. This was the Victorian age and expressions of sentiment were fre ely forthcoming on all occasions. One of the best surviving sources of the sentimenta l effusion that characterized the young ladies of the 1840-1880 era is the album. The se were usually slim, leather-bound, and highly decorated blank books in which friends c ould inscribe their thoughts, quite often in verse of less than epic quality. Here are a few examples of such sentiment taken fro m albums in the USF 19th Century American Literature collection. They range from the mildly humorous to the deeply emotional. Religion is the most constant ele ment that binds them together. From the album of Mollie McCord of Ohio the followi ng pasted-in sentiment from a Civil War soldier. Friend Mollie, Not having the opportunity to write in your album, I except (sic) the kind solicitation to write a scrip, to be kept the same as though it were on the pages of that treasure (your album). Friend Mollie the position I now occupy (though of noble principle) is a trying one, deprived of the society of friends and dear ones th at I once loved, and happy to say love still, is a sacrifice of no little consiquense (sic ). Though I may have no one to pity me, no one to speak even a word of consolation. May you always be surrounded by true friends and ev en lovers. May the troubles of this world never disturb your p eace but may you ever retain that cheerful spirit which is so pleasant to enjoy. And now Mollie when I am far away, think of him who is now engaged doing the will of one who is worthy. Written on a log Oct. 16, 1864 Your friend. J. W. Van Gundy In the album of Jennie Couch of Connecticut are man y brief entries typified by the following. To Jennie Remember me however brief These simple words may seem to be In hope or fear in joy or grief But oh in heaven remember me. Mary Jane Everett New Canaan, June 4th, 1860 From the album of Margaret Beck of Indiana. To cousin Maggie
"An original something, fair maid you would one win To write-but how shall I begin ? For I fear I have nothing original in me excepting original sin. Dec. 22, 1855 Mollie The album of Hattie Clemons of Abingdon, Illinois h as few brief entries. The following stanzas, dated 1862, are among the least tedious. To Hattie What shall the pinings of my heart be, For one in her youthful years; Shall I wish her prosperity, sunshine and ease, Exemption from sorrow and tears; Ah, no, my desires shall regard the chief-good, Which alone can give rest and true peace; A heart to love Jesus, a will all subdued, The spirit of meekness and grace; A life marked with deeds of kindness and love, A hope that her sins are forgiven, The smile o f her Savior, -affections above; And light on her pathway to heaven. E. J. White Abingdon, Illinois, March 14th 1862 One of the earliest albums we have is that of Ellen Walcott of Lancaster (Ohio?). It contains verses based on an acrostic of her name an d truly sententious stanzas but also a lock of hair and the following words dated August 2 9, 1851.
"there are a thousand nameless ties which only such as feel them know Of kindred thoughts, deep sympathies, And untold fancy spells, which throw O'er ardent minds, and faithful hearts, A chain whose charmed links so blend, That the light circlet but imparts Its force in these fond words my friend. Sallie Perhaps the most elaborate album we have belonged t o Maria Andrews of Lanesville, Mass. Its cover is hand painted in oils and inlaid with mother-of-pearl. Among the many brief sentiments of affection and esteem in Maria's album are the following words of Sarah E. Andrews, dated Lanesville, July 14th, 1861 "Should sorrow o'er the brow Its darkened shadow fling, And hopes that cheer thee now Die in their early spring; Should pleasure, at its birth, Fade like the hues of even, Turn thou away from earth, There's rest for thee in heaven." Sarah E. Andrews At the bottom of the page another hand has written "Died April 1862".
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA LIBRARY ASSOCIATES Any person who wishes to help in furthering the goa ls of the USF Library Associates is eligible to become a member. Regular, sustaining, p atron, corporate, and student memberships are available on an annual basis. (Sept ember 1 to August 31). Student memberships are open only to regularly enrolled stu dents of the University of South Florida, and are valid only so long as the member r emains a regular USF student. Life memberships are also available to interested person s. Membership in the Associates includes a subscriptio n to Ex Libris, a journal of articles and news about Associates activities, libr ary developments, and other topics likely to be of interest to Bay area bibliophiles. The member is also entitled to attend all Associates functions and, in addition, is eligible for book loan privileges at the University Library, subject to prevailing library regulations. So, if you are interested in helping us to obtain a better library for the University and its community, and want to participate in the many services and activities offered to members by the Library Associates, please use the m embership blank below and become one of us today.