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Dr. John P. Wall Mayor of Tampa, 1878-1880 (See John Perry Wall Man of all seasons By James M. Ingram, M. D., Page 11)
THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE JOURNAL OF THE TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY HAMPTON DUNN, EDITOR TABLE OF CONTENTS FORT SULLIVAN by Dr. James W. Covington ......................................................................................... 2 RESTORING THE NAME OF CAPE CANAVERAL by Judge James R. Knott ............................................................................................ 4 JOHN PERRY WALL, A MAN FOR ALL SEASONS by Dr. James M. Ingram............................................................................................... 9 SOME PETITIONS RELATING TO TAMPA FAMILIES AND THE DISPOSAL OF FORT BROOKE LANDS, 1882-1883 by Dr. Martin M. LaGodna .......................................................................................... 20 WHEN BILLY SUNDAY, SISTER AIMEE AND BABE RUTH ALL SHOOK UP TAMPA AT THE SAME TIME IN 1919 by Hampton Dunn ....................................................................................................... 24 EDUARDO MANRARA, THE CIGAR MANUFACTURING PRINCE OF THE NATION by Tony Pizzo ............................................................................................................. 31 TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP ROSTER 1974-1975 .................................................................................................................. 38 TAMPA "TOWN" SEAL FOUND, USED IN EMBLEM ........................................ 41 TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY NOTES .............................................................. 42 THE COVER The old Cherokee Club, one of the most exclusive men's clubs in the South, later became famous as El Pasaje Spanish Restaurant. The festive scene on our cover was captured in the middle thirties. The handsome building, erected by the Ybor City Land and Improvement Co., was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 (Read "Eduardo Manrara, The Cigar Manufacturing Prince of the Nation," by Tony Pizzo, Page 31) VOL. II, NO. 1 OCTOBER, 1975
Fort Sullivan By JAMES W. COVINGTON, Ph.D. In 1929, the Daughters of the American Revolution placed a marker in honor of Fort Sullivan along the old military road which was the thoroughfare from Tampa to Kissimmee. Actually little was known about Fort Sullivan but local tradition indicated the location of the structure somewhat near Plant City in that approximate area.1 Recently evidence has been found in the Military Records at the National Archives in Washington D.C. to indicate some of the fort's history but not its exact location. When Zachary Taylor succeeded Thomas S. Jesup in command of the Army of the South during the Second Seminole War, he submitted to Washington a plan approved on January 23,1839 which would divide Northern Florida into squares and place a small post in the center of each square to provide protection against the Indian raiders.2 In harmony with the containment policy, Taylor ordered forts be established in a line extending from Tampa Bay or Fort Brooke to Fort Mellon on the St. John's River. This line of fortification included sites at an old Indian settlement known as Hickapusassa, Cross, Davenport and Cummings.3 Seeds for gardens to be planted were provided so that each fort would be self-sufficient. Company G of the Third Artillery under the command of Captain Hezekiah Garner were sent to garrison Fort Hickapusassa which was soon known as Fort Sullivan in honor of the late Assistant-Surgeon Wade Sullivan, Medical Staff, United States Army.4 In line with orders from Fort Brooke Fort Sullivan was officially established January 20, 1839.5 In his first letter to Washington which was dated February 22,1839, Garner noted that the road leading westward to Tampa and eastward to Fort Cummings was good and that several Indian towns in the neighborhood had not been occupied for at least twelve months. He saw the abundant supply of game including deer, turkey and fish and had planted corn and beans in the fertile soil. Garner believed that the gardens could provide food sufficient for the wants of seventy-five or eighty men.6 According to the post returns, the roster never numbered over fifty men but for brief periods the post had visitors that swelled the ranks.7 On March 4,1839 Garner reported the arrival of the Second Regiment of Dragoons for duty.8 The isolation of the post caused Garner to become negligent in the writing of reports and he had to be reminded to send in the monthly reports and summaries of activities. Since there was no medical officer attached to the place, sick persons were sent back to Fort Brooke at Tampa Bay. Soon Fort Sullivan began to take the form of an isolated military post deep in the Florida wilderness. It was situated in the middle of a small pine barren area with small grassy lakes, marshes, cypress hammocks and with a nearby stream running within two hundred yards away believed to be a tributary of Hillsborough River. The fort itself was made of pine logs one hundred and ten feet square with two blockhouses at the diagonal corners constructed of limestone. A small map drawn by Lt. William A. Brown showed the enclosed fort, attached stables, target range, Tampa-Fort Cummings road, Indian trails and two large gardens .A nearby well containing water with a sulphurous odor and iron taste supplied the water needs of the fort. So far as can be determined, men from Fort Sullivan did not engage in a single engagement with the Seminoles and General Taylor decided to abandon the fort. In Special Order 128 dated
October 25, 1839, forts Davenport, Cummings and Sullivan were ordered abandoned and Major William L. McClintock of the 3rd Artillery was ordered to take the garrisons to Fort Brooke.9 When Garner realized the fort was to be abandoned, he wrote to Washington requesting a transfer to the Quartermaster Corps. Finally on November 5, 1839 Fort Sullivan was decommissioned and Garner and his men marched to Fort Brooke on the same day.10 Actually the Seminoles had retreated southward and there was little need for additional forts near Fort Brooke. Fort Sullivan was part of a general plan to capture or defeat the Seminoles by placing forts throughout Florida but it failed just like the plans to use blood hounds and friendly Indians failed. About the Author Dr. JAMES W. COVINGTON When James W. Covington showed up for his first teaching job at the University of Tampa 25 years ago, he thought he would not be here long. But here it is a quarter of a century later and he continues as a Professor of History, loves the University, the state of Florida and everything about his work and living. A native of Missouri, Dr. Covington earned his Ph.D. at the University of Oklahoma, doing his dissertation on Indian relations. He developed a fondness for the colorful history of the Indians in this effort and has continued to study them to this day. He writes about them, too, and only recently helped them to form an Indian Historical Society. Parallel to his interest in the Indian tribes, he also is interested in the military affairs of the United States during the Seminole wars. He is an authority on old Fort Brooke here in Tampa, and in this issue of The Sunland Tribune he tells us about Fort Sullivan near present day Plant City. Dr. Covington, president of the Tampa Historical Society, is author of five books, including a definitive account of Southwestern Florida. He also has co-authored a history of the University of Tampa. And, the professor also has authored 50 or more scholarly articles. One of his important achievements was serving as Historian for the Apollo Launch Facilities at the Kennedy Space Center. Dr., Covington also is interested in anthropology, and just this year began offering a course in the subject at the University. This, in addition to the history courses he teaches. He is past president of the Florida Anthropological Society. 1 W.P.A. Papers Hillsborough County Historic Sites, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida, no page number. 2 John K. Mahon History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842, (Gainesville, 1967), 249. 3 General Order Number 9, Headquarters Army of the South, February 9,1839. Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, Register 75, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
4 Hezekiah Garner had been commissioned a captain in July, 1838 and died in October, 1841. Francis 0. Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army to March 2,1903, I (Washington, 1903), 447. 5 See Roll 617-1544 Records of the Adjutant General's Office, Letters received, AGO 1839 Microcopy 567, hereafter cited as R.A.G.O. 6 Garner to Adjutant General Jones, February 22, 1839 G 49. ibid. 7 Post Return of April 30, 1839 G 105. ibid. 8 Garner to AAG Jones, March 4, 1839 G 61. ibid. Garner to AAG Jones, September 1, 1839 G 196. ibid. 9 Special Order 128, Army of the South, October 25,1839. Records of the Secretary of War, Register 75. 10 Garner to Jones, November 5,1839 G 244. R.A.G.O.
CIRCUIT JUDGE JAMES R. KNOTT of West Palm Beach (left) and Hampton Dunn, president of the Tampa Historical Society, look over a historic silver piece from the USS Tampa during the 1974 annual meeting. Judge Knott was given the D. B. McKay Award for his work in having the name of Cape Canaveral restored. TAMPA TRIBUNE Photo Restoring the name of Cape Canaveral Response of Circuit Judge James R. Knott, of West Palm Beach, Upon Receiving the D.B. McKay Award from the Tampa Historical Society at Tampa, Fla., on November 14, 1974 Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: The honor of being referred to as leader of the movement to restore the name of the Cape means a great deal to me. Some day I plan to write a piece on "Restoring the Name of Cape Canaveral," with all the details. Fortunately for you here tonight, I haven't gotten around to that yet, and this will be only a summary. As they always say at the Emmy and Oscar awards in an agony of self-effacement, I wouldn't be here tonight if it were not for people like your own Hampton Dunn, whose perseverance and dedication in his writings were so important throughout the ten-year period of our effort to
restore the name. Of course we are profoundly grateful to our Legislature and our Congressional delegation for their energetic and indispensable work. The Canaveral question became an issue of the will and preference of the people of the State of Florida and their rightful concern for the preservation of their historical heritage, as against the understandable pride of the family which occupied political center stage in the United States and their countless friends and sympathizers after the dreadful assassination of President Kennedy. The issue was a political one, requiring action by the government. It was also strongly emotional, and involved ambivalent feelings. These factors called for an approach which would assure that no lack of respect for the late President was involved. Most Ancient Place Name Our task was to rouse the United States Government from indifference to a matter not concerned with war and peace or with serious economic and social problems facing the country. This was accomplished by demonstrating its significance to the people of Florida and the nation; by showing the need to rectify a violation of our sense of history, continuity, tradition and identity all brought about by arbitrary fiat in consigning to oblivion the most ancient place name on the Atlantic coast. Within ten days after President Johnson had announced the change of name to Cape Kennedy in his message to Congress on November 28, 1963, the directors of the Florida Historical Society passed a resolution calling for the restoration of the name of Canaveral and for the retention of the name of the Kennedy Space Center. Newspaper editorials to that effect began to appear. An organization in the Cape area called the "Missile, Space and Range Pioneers," with 700 members limited to the early astronauts and the engineers and others associated with them, took a vote which showed they favored restoring the Canaveral name by ten to one. Newspaper polls there showed that 93 percent of the citizens felt the same way. When Mrs. Marjory Stoneman Douglas, of Miami, spoke before our Historical Society in Palm Beach and suggested that it would be more appropriate to change the name of Cape Cod to Cape Kennedy, the applause was loud and prolonged. This brought home to me the strength of public sentiment on the question. As our efforts progressed, historical societies and civic groups throughout the state passed resolutions favoring the restoring of the Canaveral name. The Florida Legislature formally urged action by Congress, conditioned, however, upon the consent of Senator Edward Kennedy. Sudden Hearing Senator Spessard Holland sponsored a bill in the U.S. Senate to restore the historic name, and after it had been pending for some time, I suddenly received a telegram from him that within four days a hearing on the bill would be held in Washington by the Senate Interior Committee. It fell upon me to assemble a representative group of Florida citizens to testify at the hearing and then to notify the Senator of those expected to appear. Hurried telephone calls over the state on my part were not altogether successful, in view of the short notice, inconvenience and personal expense incident to the Washington trip; each of us had to pay his own way. One hoped-for star witness from the Canaveral area, then sojourning in a western state, said his financial condition was such that he could not go unless his expenses were paid; by the time of our third long
distance conversation, I had decided that his testimony in any event might be less than persuasive because his voice showed that he and John Barleycorn were boon companions. A suitable group was finally assembled. Former Governor and Supreme Court Justice Millard Caldwell, Chairman Adam G. Adams of the Metropolitan Dade County Historical Board, Mrs. Frances Ann Jamieson, president of the Florida Association of Women Lawyers, and I appeared with our two Florida senators before the Interior Committee and testified for the bill. But Robert Kennedy had recently been murdered and Teddy had just been through his Chappaquiddick experience, and the bill failed to pass. While Ted Kennedy had stated publicly that he would not oppose the measure but would "let the people of Florida decide the question," he privately indicated his opposition, according to Senator Holland, saying that passage of the bill so soon after Chappaquiddick would make it appear that he was being chastised by Congress. Thus are our political idols motivated solely by impersonal considerations in their grand designs for the public good! Since it was within the power of the President to restore the name, we believed that that stone should not remain unturned and asked "Bebe" Rebozo to investigate the possibility of Presidential action. To no one's surprise, he reported that he was unwilling to burden Mr. Nixon with the matter. Enter Senator Jackson We waited for time to go by. When the 1972 Florida presidential primary came along, Senator Henry Jackson, chairman of the Interior Committee, was a candidate, together with Senator Muskie and others. I met with Senator Jackson and discussed with him the earnest concern of our voters regarding Canaveral. As Jackson traveled throughout the state, others gave him the same message in different localities. Ultimately Jackson announced publicly that he favored restoring the name, and that his committee would hold hearings on a new Senate bill for that purpose. Again, a number of us went to Washington. Senators Gurney and Chiles, former Chief Justice Alto Adams of the Florida Supreme Court, John Harrison, president of the Historical Association of Southern Florida, Mrs. Lucien Proby of Miami, Mrs. Ada Coates Williams of Ft. Pierce, Rudy Sobering, of Lake Worth, and I all testified before the Senate Interior Committee. We presented letters from the presidents of 28 Florida colleges and universities, all living past presidents of the Florida Historical Society, the mayors of all the major cities in Florida, the president of the Florida Senate and the speaker of the House, the president of the Florida Bar and the president-elect of the American Bar Association (who happened to be Chesterfield Smith), resolutions of the Governor and Cabinet and all the local historical societies, together with scores of newspaper editorials and magazine articles and finally, letters from six former governors of Florida. Incidentally, all but one of the former governors asked that the wording of his letter be furnished for him, and since each letter had to say the same thing in a different way, their wording required some verbal exercise. Senator Muskie's Outburst Senator Jackson's Interior Committee reported the bill out favorably. Jackson got a good vote in Florida. But Senator Muskie's Florida vote was a great disappointment to him and in an angry
outburst he announced with a flourish of publicity that the Canaveral bill was an insult to the memory of President Kennedy and that he would oppose it on the Senate floor and call for a roll call vote. We had several of Muskie's leading Florida managers and supporters write him about the matter, which seemed to quiet his protests. The bill passed the Senate without a dissenting vote on July 21, 1972. We felt we had won the battle then. There were no Kennedys in the House of Representatives, and the House was expected to fall into line. But we were wrong. Congressman "Tip" O'Neill, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Majority Whip in the House, got a telephone call from Mrs. Rose Kennedy asking him to kill the measure in the House. O'Neill got in touch with California Congressman George P. Miller, chairman of the House Science and Astronautics Committee, to which the bill had been referred. As luck would have it, Mr. Miller happened to be a devoted and ardent admirer of President Kennedy; we were told by some California people that he even had a picture of Kennedy over the mantle in his living room, with a sort of eternal light shining over it. Chairman Miller was only too happy to follow Tip O'Neill's suggestion about the matter, and he immediately proceeded to remove the bill from the calendar, so that it could not be considered by his Committee during that session. Letters to the Editor Thus the bill "died in committee," as the saying goes. More time passed, and with still another session of Congress, the bill needed to be passed once again by the Senate as well as by the House. Congressman Miller, who was very elderly, got defeated for reelection. Senator Jackson said there was no use for the Senate to continue passing the measure without promise of favorable action by the House. So we decided to address ourselves to the problem of Congressman O'Neill through writing letters-to-the-editor about his opposition for publication (we hoped) in all the Boston newspapers. Toward generating expressions of national sentiment, similar letters were to go to other papers in leading cities throughout the country, including the Wall Street Journal, which had previously carried a front page article on the controversy about Cape Canaveral. This, by the way, was the first and only time my name ever appeared on the front page of the Wall Street Journal. These letters pointed out that a practice of renaming historic sites could have resulted in Boston Common becoming "Garfield Common," and that the people of Massachusetts might have reservations about changing the name of Plymouth Rock to "Kennedy Rock." The letters were to be signed by President Johns of Stetson University, who was also president of the Florida Historical Society, and by former Governor Caldwell. The letters were ready to go out. And if all else failed, we had plans about taking legal action. Meanwhile, though, we had been encouraging the Florida Legislature to take further steps. On April 16, 1973, the Florida Senate, by a vote of 37-0, and on May 8,1973, the Florida House, by a vote of 88-1, passed a bill restoring the name "Cape Canaveral" for all official state use. Governor Askew signed the bill into law on May 28,1973. On request of our Congressional delegation the Board of Geographic Names, in Washington, agreed to consider restoring the name of Cape Canaveral. Since the purpose of the law creating the Board was to achieve uniformity of geographic names, they were now in the position of deciding whether to maintain a name (Kennedy) which plainly violated the principle of uniformity through conflict with the official Florida name of Canaveral.
Victory at Last This Board had kept itself informed about all our efforts. They had representatives at the Senate committee hearings and heard the citizens of Florida speak in earnest tones about the preference of our people. It was announced that they would meet on October 9, 1973. We publicized this fact and urged people to write them. After receiving nearly 2000 letters about Canaveral, of which only 16 expressed opposition to restoring the name, there was scarcely any doubt about the action the Board intended to take. Their executive secretary assured me that he did not believe it necessary for us to make another trip to Washington to attend their meeting. The poor fellow probably felt that he'd seen enough of me, anyway. The Board restored the name. They stated that their action was taken to bring Federal usage into agreement with that of the State of Florida, and further, was "based on overwhelming support from the residents of Florida." So now, when an -airline pilot tells us that we are flying in view of "Cape Canaveral" as many of them continued to do after its name was changed to Cape Kennedy we know he's not just saying it wishfully, but that his words are confirmed by the maps! About the Author JUDGE JAMES R. KNOTT James R. Knott, senior judge of the Circuit Court for Palm Beach County, is a native of Tallahassee. He became circuit judge in 1956, succeeding the late Judge Chillingworth, who was murdered by drowning at sea. Judge Knott served two terms as president of the Florida Historical Society, and is now a member of its Board of Directors. He was president of the Historical Society of Palm Beach County for eleven years, and is now president emeritus. He is a trustee of the Henry Morrison Flagler Museum, in Palm Beach, and recently received the D. B. McKay Award for contributions to Florida history from the Tampa Historical Society, for leading the movement to restore the name of Cape Canaveral, our most ancient landmark. His family has had a long association with this state, his grandfather having been a volunteer with the Federal troops in the Seminole Indian War in 1836. His father was an officer of our State government over a period of some 45 years, serving as State Treasurer and State Comptroller. He was also our first State Auditor (1895), and was Democratic nominee for Governor of Florida in 1916. Judge James R. Knott
PAST RECIPIENTS OF THE D. B. McKAY AWARD For Distinguished Service in the Cause of Florida History. Frank Laumer, 1972 Dade City, Florida Author of book, Massacre! For his thorough research and excellent book on the 1835 Dade massacre that took the life of Maj. Francis Dade and almost an entire detachment of 100 foot soldiers from Fort Brooke-Tampa. State Senator David McClain, 1973 Tampa, Florida For his courageous, statewide fight to save the State Capitol in Tallahassee. Circuit Judge James R. Knott, 1974 West Palm Beach, Florida For his successful ten year struggle, on a state and national level, to restore the name Cape Canaveral to the bulge on Florida's East Coast which was changed to Cape Kennedy after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963.
John Perry Wall A Man for All Seasons By JAMES M. INGRAM, M.D.* A current Broadway play recreates the incredibly versatile career of Cardinal Thomas Woolsey in the Royal Court of Elizabethan England. The play's title, "A Man for All Seasons", is singularly apt for its subject, and is equally descriptive of the life of John Perry Wall Tampa's most versatile physician. The circumstances of his birth portended that he was to be no ordinary man. John Wall was born while his family was "under siege by the Seminole Indians ill on September 17, 1836, just south of the St. Mary's River, near present day Jasper, Florida. His parents, Mary H. and Perry Wall, were pioneers, migrating southward by wagon train from Georgia into Territorial Florida during the Second Seminole War. The Wall family settled on a homestead near the site of the attack, and lived there for nine years. In 1845, lured by generous land grants of the Armed Occupation Act of 1842, the family again moved southward to establish and defend a homestead in the highlands of Hernando County, just north of Brooksville. Statehood was achieved by Florida that same year, amid continuing Seminole hostilities. "Chinsegut Hill" In these surroundings the family prospered, eventually building their estate, which was later called "Chinsegut Hill." This beautiful and perfectly "preserved mid-century Florida mansion still dominates the rolling countryside from its highest point, and is now a biological experiment station for the University of South Florida. Young John Wall received his early education in the local schools and aspired to practice the law; however, his father contended that medicine was "a more congenial and profitable" profession.1 His father's wish was dutifully honored, but the son's subsequent life was to evolve into a curious milieu of medicine, law, journalism and politics. He was graduated from the Medical College of South Carolina in 1858, returning to Florida only briefly before the outbreak of the Civil War. Volunteering as a Surgeon, he was assigned to Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond, which served the Florida troops in the Virginia area. While there, he returned briefly to Brooksville and married nineteen year old Pressie Eubanks, daughter of a wealthy planter, and took her back to Richmond for about a year. Dr. Wall's daily log book of his years as a Confederate Surgeon, written in fine, delicate longhand, is preserved in Bradenton by his family. In addition to many medical descriptions, it provides a vivid picture of life in wartime Richmond. It also gives firsthand accounts of the tragic explosion of the Richmond Arsenal and of the construction of the first ironclad warships of the Confederacy.2 Unfortunately for the historian, many pages of the journal portray only the anguish of a lovesick bridegroom, lamenting the paucity of letters from "my own sweet, dear, darling, precious Pressie" and pouring vitriolic abuse on the plodding postal service of the
Confederacy. Chafing under hospital routine and the military discipline of the nearby Surgeon-General, Dr. Wall requested and was assigned duty with troops. He first served with the Eighth and then later with the Fifth Florida Battalion, ending the war as a Major in the Fifth Battalion stationed in Florida. Moves to Tampa After practicing briefly in Brooksville, Dr. Wall and his family moved in 1869 to Tampa, an isolated, unpolished, cattle-shipping port of 1,500 inhabitants. Here, in the course of a busy practice in 1871, he boarded the steamer H. M. Cool from Cedar Key, to treat a cabin boy critically ill with yellow fever. The cabin boy recovered, but Dr. Wall contracted the disease. From him it was carried to his family, and within a few days both his wife Pressie and their two year old daughter had died of the fever. This tragedy and the events that followed were to affect his life profoundly. Already interested in communicable disease and problems of public health, he now devoted most of his time to the study of yellow fever. By 1873 he had reached the firm conclusion that yellow fever was carried by the mosquito, almost certainly, he thought, by the far-ranging "treetop mosquito," later to be identified as the Aedes aegypti.3 Without prior knowledge of the vector or virus, he came to this conclusion by three observations: (1) Both the mosquito and the disease Photo from Hampton Dunn Collection Chinsegut Hill, estate of Dr. Wall's family, built about 1850 on the highest point of land just north of Brooksville, is now a biological experiment station of the University of South Florida.
were prevalent in the summer months and both disappeared with the first frost. (2) Adults whose work did not take them outside at night, when mosquitoes were most numerous, were rarely infected. (3) Children, who were generally kept in at night, with the exception of children of doctors and nurses, were usually spared. He was the first American to make these remarkably accurate observations and, conclusion. The mosquito had been incriminated as a vector by Daniel S. Beauperthuy, a native of Guadeloupe who settled in Venezuela, in 1854, but he had considered yellow fever a variety of malaria. Because of this basic error, his work had received little attention. It is not known whether or not Dr. Wall was aware of Beauperthuy's work. This was never mentioned in Wall's prolific writing on yellow fever, though he was generous in recognizing the work of others. For his conclusions on the mosquito, Wall received nothing but ridicule from the medical profession and especially from the lay press. The sanitarians held sway for more than two decades, and the most widely accepted opinion was that yellow fever would disappear with the elimination of filth. It was not until Carlos Findlay's proclamation in Cuba in 1881 against the mosquito, and later Walter Reed's final proof in 1900, that Dr. Wall's early conclusion was accepted. During this period, Wall, as health officer, had maintained yellow fever in Tampa to a notable minimum by mosquito protection alone.4 A 'Hell-Raiser' Throughout his adult life, Dr. Wall had suffered one regrettable weakness, a progressive overindulgence in alcohol. Even by the loose moral code of a frontier town, he was known as "a hard drinker and a Hell-raiser.' The death of his beloved wife and daughter only increased this problem. Nevertheless, by 1872 he had successfully courted Miss Matilda McKay, the chaste and lovely daughter of Captain James McKay, a prominent shipmaster and exporter. Small wonder that when. Dr. Wall approached the venerable Captain, asking for his daughter's hand, he was met first with stunned silence, then violent refusal. Given quickly to understand that the problem was his alcoholism alone, Dr. Wall swore never again to touch another drop if Miss Matilda would be his. In the face of direst predictions, and weathering provocative tests in which he was surreptitiously offered his favorite poison, Mint Juleps, by his doubting sister, Julia, he rejected alcohol completely. The couple was married, and to the best knowledge of every historian,5 his oath was never broken. He accomplished a one day cure of alcoholism, a rare and difficult feat in any age. Photograph of Dr. Wall in 1874, at age 38. Photo from Hampton Dunn Collection
In this forthright decision, Dr. Wall shared in the strong personal characteristics of his entire family. His sister, Julia Wall Friebele attracted only moderate notice in her simultaneous roles as pillar of the Methodist Church and a chain smoker of the finest Havana cigars. His brother, Joseph Baisden Wall, was a state's attorney, and later a judge and state senator. One day, during a brief trial recess, he stepped outside the front door of the courthouse, which now is the site of the Marine Bank. He noticed that the lynching of a white man was in progress under a large oak tree, known locally as the "Hangin' Tree," on present day Kennedy Boulevard. Observing that the members of the mob were unable to properly fashion a hangman's noose on the end of the rope, Joe strolled over and accommodatingly and expertly tied the knot, then returned to his duties in the courtroom.5 Personalities in the Wall clan did not lack for color. Addresses A.M.A. At this point, probably aided by his abstinence, the most varied and productive period of Dr. Wall's life began. His photograph around 1875 shows him to be slim, wiry, and of medium height, with sandy hair and a neatly trimmed mustache. He was quick of motion and speech, and his alert gaze reflected his energy and wits. As Health Officer of Tampa, his chief interest and concern remained in the field of communicable disease. In November, 1875, then a delegate to the American Medical Association meeting in Baltimore, he delivered one of the major addresses. It was entitled "Climatological and Sanitary Report of Florida",6 a curious subject indeed by modern standards for presentation to such an audience. Yet, the Civil War was only ten years past, and Florida, with a population of only 187,000, was largely a vast wilderness which no one seemed able or inclined to use. Employing a remarkably broad vocabulary, Wall described the advantages of the topography, water supply, and climate. Together with Dr. Abel Baldwin,7 Wall gave the first proof, by extensive temperature observations, that the, summers as well as the winters were milder in Florida than farther north on the continent. The paper received wide recognition and was reprinted in several medical and popular publications. The subtle blend of scientific fact and hard-sell pitch for tourism and real estate, used by both Wall and Baldwin, would have warmed the heart of any Chamber of Commerce of today. In the same year, 1875, Dr. Wall attended the second meeting of the year-old Florida Medical Association, representing the "South Florida Medical Society" and presenting a paper on epidemic disease.8 An occasional glimpse of Dr. Wall's everpresent and often acid wit appears in the history of these days. When asked by a relative why he had become an Episcopalian instead of remaining in the Baptist or Methodist church of his family, he dryly replied, "I joined the Episcopal Church because it doesn't interfere with either my politics or my religion.5 What Florida Needs Writing in his favorite sounding board, The Semi-Tropical,9 Dr. Wall displayed great foresight for the state. In his article entitled "Southwest Florida", also in 1875, he enumerated Florida's chief needs: people for immigration, investment capital, disease control, harbor channels, land drainage, roads and railroads. On his own, he mapped out the exact routes used today by almost
every modern rail line and major highway. His impatience with the delay in developing railroads and mail service to the West Coast was recorded with a bitter pen. His estimation of land use and land values of the various regions was extremely accurate, except for his opinion' that the area from Bradenton south to the Florida Keys would never be "fit for anything else but grazing cattle." During these years the Wall family occupied a house on the half block now occupied by the Tampa Terrace Hotel and the Tampa Federal Savings and Loan Bank. This plot, bounded by present day Kennedy Boulevard, Florida Avenue and Madison Street, contained the home, a large stable, and a separate office building for Dr. Wall. From this office, he carried on a very active private practice for over twenty years, a background easily overlooked among his many accomplishments. The only surviving child of his first marriage to Pressie Eubanks was John P. Wall, Jr. who grew up in this home, was educated as a lawyer, and practiced all of his life in Tampa. Of the children born to Matilda McKay Wall, only one, Charley Wall, survived. He was to become one of Tampa's most colorful citizens. Dr. Wall was asked to deliver the "Annual Oration," on the subject of his choice, to the Florida Medical Association Meeting of 1877. This address, covering many aspects of medical practice, gives, perhaps more than any other the deepest insight into his character and the best cross section of medical knowledge of his era. It was certainly no whitewash of the profession. Wall held low regard for most medical therapy, particularly the value of the drugs then available.10 "Our stock of positive knowledge, as to the effect of drugs, is really much smaller than our professional vanity may be willing to confess. Is there any evidence that the average duration of life has been lengthened by our superior skill in the treatment of disease? On the other hand, is there not considerable ground for the belief that thousands of lives have been sacrificed by the exhibition of our remedies?" Cites Medical Advances He deplored the lack of scientific approach in evaluating therapy of all kinds and urged his colleagues "to glean the small grain of truth from the abundance of chaffy errors." He considered the prospect of preventing diseases far more promising, claiming that "we are much better prepared to exercise our knowledge in their prevention than their cure." The physician's image, as seen from the patient's eye, he found a bit too bright: "the truth is, the public faith in us as physicians far exceeds our ability a fact whose recognition on our part. is likely to do more good for the advancement of the science of medicine than all of our boasted medical erudition." On the positive side, he was fascinated by the possibilities of several new developments, particularly the recent use of the thermometer for the accurate measurement of fever. He lauded the perfection of "the hypodermic administration of remedies as another advance in practice, little if any, inferior to the use of anesthesia in surgery." He considered two new gadgets, the ophthalmoscope and laryngoscope, to have some promise. The greatest advance in surgery, he thought, was "the practice and teachings of Mr. Lister in the use of antiseptic dressings which strengthen the probability of correctness of the germ theory in the causation of disease." Now his activities began to increase in scope and momentum. He became associate editor of the Sunland Tribune, predecessor of the present Tampa Tribune, in 1878, writing chiefly for his own
amusement in the editorial pages. He delighted in controversy, and usually had arguments in progress with several other papers in the state. Dr. Wall so infuriated Colonel Frank Harris, editor and owner of the Ocala Banner, that the colonel challenged him to fight a duel. The challenge was accepted, but Dr. Wall stated that under the code, as the challenged party, he had the right to name the place and weapons for the encounter. He named Mrs. Bunch's Cowpens, near the Tampa slaughter pens on Six Mile Creek, as the place and shovels as the weapons. The state roared with laughter and no more was heard of the duel.5 Mayor of Tampa Later, as editor of the Sunland Tribune, Dr. Wall wielded his editorial scalpel on H. A. Crane, a former Confederate quisling, and later editor of Key of the Gulf, in Florida's largest town, Key West. Making a play of Crane's name, Wall called him "Old Yellow Legs" and the nickname remained with him until his death.5 From 1878 to 1880, Dr. Wall served as mayor of Tampa, concentrating particularly on increasing the maritime trade of the city. His portrait hangs appropriately in the City Hall among the mayors, rather than with his colleagues in the Medical Library. On completion of his term, he founded the Tampa Board of Trade, later the Chamber of Commerce, and became its first president. Here he was a strong leader in Tampa's three most important commercial developments. First was the construction in 1883 of the railroad from northeastern Florida to Tampa by GOV. FRANCIS P. FLEMING Brother A Yellow Fever Victim JOSEPH Y. PORTER, M.D. First State Health Officer, 1889-1917 Photos from Hampton Dunn Collection
This hand-engraved memorial resolution was presented by the Florida State Medical Association to Dr. Walls family. It now hangs in Tampa General Hospital.
H. B. Plant. The second was the settlement by Vincente Martinez Ybor and a large colony of Cuban and Spanish cigar makers in an area east of the city, which is now Ybor City. Third was the development of the phosphate industry, which began with the discovery of phosphate in the mouth of the Hillsborough River11 during the deepening of the channel by the government dredge Alabama in 1883. These accomplishments, together with his unending efforts to deepen the ship channel from Tampa to the Gulf, resulted in a marked similarity between the overlapping lives of Dr. Wall and Dr. Abel Baldwin of Jacksonville.12 The year 1885 found Wall at the zenith of his multifaceted activities. In a single year he served as President of the Florida Medical Association, a representative in the state legislature, and a delegate to the Third Constitutional Convention of Florida. On the floor of this convention, after years of unsuccessful effort, he led the final campaign to establish, in the state constitution, provisions for a state Board of Health. His most often quoted speech was an almost identical one presented before both the medical society and the convention. "The duty of preserving the health and lives of its citizens from the causes of disease is as incumbent on the state as that of suppressing rapine and murder ... One has no adequate conception of how much sickness and consequently death, are preventable ... The time is surely coming when preventative medicine shall have reached such a degree of perfection that the occurrence of epidemic disease will be felt as a gross reproach to the community which it assails.13 Sand Hills Hospital, near Jacksonville, was used for the isolation of yellow fever patients during the epidemic of 1888.
Yellow Fever Problem The Board of Health was authorized by the convention of 1885, but was not actually created because of the lack of money. The legislature of 1887 chose to ignore its constitution. Thus was perpetuated the system of individual community health control begun by the first Territorial Governor, Andrew Jackson, in 1821, when he created a Board of Health in the first ordinance governing his new headquarters of Pensacola. Subsequently, it had been the desire of each community to establish its own health authorities, regulation, and methods. As transportation improved, yellow fever increased to become the state's major health problem and its greatest barrier to economic progress. Epidemics appeared almost every summer in coastal towns in spite of constant pleading by Wall and others for statewide regulation. Only the infamous "shotgun quarantine" by volunteer citizen-guards kept the fever out of inland communities.14 Finally, when medical problems became political issues, Dr. Wall's most cherished dream was accomplished. During the gubernatorial campaign of 1888, the most severe yellow fever epidemic yet to appear swept through the state. The candidates, led by democratic nominee Francis P. Fleming of Jacksonville, were presented by individual community quarantine, enforced by shotgun from campaigning in many counties. A few days before the November election, which was won by Fleming, his brother, attorney Lewis I. Fleming, died of yellow fever in Jacksonville. Political and public sentiment was at a peak, and Dr. Wall relentlessly pressed the governor-elect for action. Immediately after his inauguration in February, 1889, Fleming called Florida's first special session of the legislature. There could be no delay until the regular session in the summer, for fear that the epidemic would return. Despite considerable opposition, a State Board of Health was established and financed, and severe penalty was set up for violation of quarantine and other health laws. Dr. Wall's one-man crusade of fifteen years was now successful. He was recognized, both immediately and to the present time, as the "father of the State Board of Health." "Far Ahead of His Time" His close friend, wealthy and energetic Dr. Joseph Y. Porter, was appointed the first State Health Officer, his first of seven productive and distinguished terms. Dr. Porter later wrote of Wall in his history of the State Board of Health "this ... stands as a lasting memorial to a man (Dr. Wall) of superior mental attainments and who, far ahead of his time, was looking forward to the future wel fare and commercial prosperity of his state.15 Victory in the Legislature did not slow the frantic pace of Wall's life. He returned to Tampa to enter still another civic controversy. Henry B. Plant, having completed his railroad five years earlier, was embarking on his most grandiose and least practical venture. On the west bank of the Hillsborough River, he was laying out the foundation of a huge, almost unbelievable, Moorish castle, over two blocks long, and to be topped by 13 silver towers or minarets. It was to be the Tampa Bay Hotel, the epitome of subtropical resorts. But to the natives, it would have looked far more at home in Arabian Nights than among the sand-choked streets of Tampa. When the projected size and luxury of the new hotel were compared with that of the town, it appeared to them to be a clear case of the tail which would wag the dog. Popular sentiment was that of amusement and skepticism. Fearing that public ridicule might prevent the erection of this opulent oasis in the wilderness, Wall and other members of the Board of Trade exerted every effort to
defend and support the hotel. It was completed, and was a monumental financial flop; but it made Mr. and Mrs. Plant happy, brought the rich and famous to town, created the most distinctive feature of Tampa's skyline, and eventually provided a campus for the University of Tampa.16 Weds Third Time In October, 1893, Dr. Wall, by then an authority on yellow fever, was called by the Surgeon-General of the United States to consult in the management of yellow fever at the Maritime Hospital in Brunswick, Georgia. While there, he was summoned home because of the illness of his wife Matilda. He arrived only a few days prior to her death in November, 1893. Six months later he followed his father's example and took a third wife, marrying Miss Louisa Williams of Virginia in May, 1894. There were no children from this brief marriage. At the annual meeting of the Florida Medical Association on April 18,1895, Dr. Wall was invited again to be the guest speaker. The meeting was held in the hall of the East Florida Seminary, forerunner of the University of Florida, at Gainesville. An eyewitness account of the evening session is preserved in the Proceedings of the Florida Medical Association:17 "Dr. Wall entering the hall, and it being a few minutes of the hour set apart for the consideration of his paper, the order of business was suspended, and to a very marked attention on the part of his confreres, the gentleman commmenced reading his paper on 'Public Hygiene in the Light of Recent Observations and Experiments.' It was observed that he read with great difficulty and under suppressed excitement, the stress under which he seemed to labor being so great at times as to cause him repeatedly to pause and to sip water." Even then, his sense of humor did not fail. With the quip that "high tones and toney meals do not seem to agree with me," he tried to continue. "He had proceeded but a short distance, but eight or nine minutes having elapsed since he entered the hall, when he reeled and fell, striking the floor ." He was dead before the presiding officer could reach him. Though likely due to coronary occlusion, the exact cause of his death was never established. "Nature's Nobleman" It was an age when public mourning was emotional and effusive; when journalism was florid, laschrymose and unabashed. A special train of three cars, draped in black and carrying an escort of over twenty medical leaders, carried his body back to Tampa. Along the hundred mile route, the engine whistle sounded long mournful blasts at regular intervals, a signal ordinarily employed during the winter to warn citrus growers of a freeze moving down from the North. In tribute, all businesses in Tampa closed for two days after the train's arrival.3 Newspapers of the state, even the Ocala Banner, competed in paying him eulogy. His own Sunland Tribune apparently felt no impropriety in describing the details of his widow's grief, or the features of his embalmed body and its good state of preservation. The Tribune hailed Dr. Wall as "a learned physician, a ripe scholar, a magnanimous man, a true friend of the poor, and one of nature's n oblemen.18 The memorial resolution passed by the Florida Medical Association on the day after his death was inscribed on a window-sized wall plaque, elaborately hand-lettered and decorated, and containing his portrait. This plaque now hangs in Tampa General Hospital, a gift from his descendants.
Today Dr. Wall's grave may be found in small, historic, century-old Oak lawn Cemetery, a half block island of cedar-shaded tranquility in the heart of busy Tampa. The quiet scene provides placid contrast with the hurried pace of Dr. Wall's life. He was physician, scientist, naturalist, industrialist, journalist, politician, humorist and crusader. He was a man for all seasons. Grateful acknowledgment for aid in preparation of this biographic sketch is given to James E. Wall, Jr., and Herbert G. McKay, both descendants of Dr. Wall., and to historian-journalist Hampton Dunn, all of Tampa. *Presented before the Hillsborough County Medical Association, Tampa, May 3, 1966. About the Author JAMES M. INGRAM, M.D. James Mayhew Ingram is a native of Tampa and was graduated from Hillsborough High School in 1937. He attended the University of Tampa and Duke University. He was graduated from Duke University Medical Center in 1943 and interned at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1944. He served in the Army and was assigned to Walter Reed General Hospital and Rodriguez General Hospital in Puerto Rico. He was in private practice in Tampa from 1951 to 1970, and served on the faculty of the College of Medicine at the University of Florida from 1962-70. Dr. Ingram was professor and chairman of the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at the College of Medicine, University of South Florida from 1970 to present. His hobby is medical history and he is a frequent contributor of articles on the subject to the Journal of the Florida Medical Association. His article on Dr. Wall was published in the Journal. 1 Stringer, Sheldon, Necrology, Proc. Fla. Med. Assn. 23rd Session. 2 Wall, John P., Daily Logbook, 1861-62. 3 Wall, James E., Jr., personal communication. 4 Grismer, K. H., Tampa, pp. 153-154. JAMES M. INGRAM, M.D.
5 McKay, D. B... Pioneer Florida, pp. 435-443. 6 Wall, John P., The Semi-Tropical, January, 1876. 7 Baldwin, A. S. Proc. Fla. Med. Assn., February, 1876. 8 Proc. Fla. Med. Assn., 1875. 9 Wall, John P., Southwest Florida, The Semi-Tropical, February, 1876. 10 Wall, John P., An Oration, Proc. Fla. Med. Assn., April, 1877. 11 Shockley, Philip M., Pictorial History of Tampa Bay, 1951. 12 Day, Samuel M., Medical Leadership, Jou. Fla. Med. Assn. 52:7, July, 1965. 13 Merritt, Webster, Duval County Medical Society, 1853-1953. 14 Cochran, Jerome, Sketches of Yellow Fever on the West Coast of Florida. 15 Porter, Joseph Y., Jou. Fla. Med. Assn. 12:1-3 July, 1925. 16 Tampa's Centennial Year, 1855-1955, Tampa Centennial Commission. 1955. 17 Sweeting, C. B., Proc. Fla. Med. Assn., 1895. 18 Sunland Tribune (Tampa), April 19, 1895.
U.S. MILITARY RESERVATION at Fort Brooke, looking southwest, in 1880. Photo from "Yesterday's Tampa" by Hampton Dunn Some Petitions relating to Tampa families and the disposal of Fort Brooke lands, 1882-1883 By DR. MARTIN M. LaGODNA With the end of Indian hostilities in South Florida long since concluded and the withdrawal of all federal troops from the South in 1877, the U.S. War Department began the deactivation of many southern military posts. Among them was Fort Brooke at Tampa which had been established in 1824 and is considered to be the founding of Tampa as a town. The question of what to do with the federal lands associated with the fort brought forth many petitions, and genealogists have another resource in the names on the petitions. Two such documents are in the Special Collections at the University of South Florida Library, Tampa. In 1882 the last federal troops departed from Fort Brooke, according to local historian Anthony P. Pizzo in his book Tampa Town, 1824-1886 (Miami: Hurricane House, 1968), and in 1883 the War Department deactivated the old fort. Its 16 square miles of reserved land on Tampa Bay became open for private development. At the same time Henry Bradley Plant was completing his Jacksonville to Tampa railroad. Many citizens feared the fort lands along the bay would fall to
the railroad or manufacturing establishments served by the railroad. The first petition deals with this fear. TO THE HONORABLE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES IN CONGRESS ASSEMBLED THE PETITION OF THE CITIZENS OF THE TOWN OF TAMPA IN THE COUNTY OF HILLSBOROUGH IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. The petitioners show that they are citizens of the said town of Tampa. That at the present time existing on the Southern boundary of the said town are about 160 acres of land which is known as the Fort Brooke Reservation being a plot of ground now used as a Sanitary Station for the troops at Key West. It is understood that this land is about to be abandoned by the Military Authorities of the United States as a Military Station and your petitioners are informed and believe that efforts are being made by persons who are desirous of acquiring the same to have said lands transferred from the Department of War to the Department of the Interior so as to vest the same in the public domain and then purchase the said reservation for speculative purposes or otherwise. Or that Railway Companies which are building roads out of the immense grants of lands made to them for that purpose by the State of Florida are desirous of absorbing said reservation for their purposes and your petitioners show that the said grounds occupy a position of great beauty and now and always would afford a place of recreation for the inhabitants of said town as a park and as there are ample lands without defacing or cutting these lands into lots in the neighborhood for building purposes. Your petitioners therefor pray that the said lands be either retained by the Military Authorities intact or should they be handed over to the public domain that your honorable body will pass an act vesting the said lands in the said town of Tampa on condition that said land is retained unsubdivided as a park of public pleasure ground for the inhabitants of said town forever giving to the said town however the right to allow certain slightly public buildings to be erected thereon in such a manner as to not detract from the beauty and usefulness of said grounds. And your petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray. November 13th 1882 H. L. Crane, W. J. Campbell, J. K. Spencer, Jno T. Lesley, Henry Brummett, Wm. C. Brown, R. B. Thomas, Thos. A. Carruth, H. J. Madsen, Joseph Hawley, C. A. Harrison, Thos. E. Jackson, John Jackson, R. A. Jackson, Henry Allen, H. B. Whitehurst, Geo. Alexander, C. L. Friebele, Chas. F. Garrett, J. B. Furman, Otto Kammerer, J. H. Leonardy, W. J. Allen; A. P. Brockway, W. J. Knight, D. Ghira, Frank Ghira, W. G. Ferris, E. W. Ferris, H. L. Branch, M. A. Branch, G. E. (Haynsworth), John Darling, E. A. Clarke, Duff Post, W. A. Givens, D. B. Givens, L. F. McLeod, 0. G. Wood (W. Goat), (F. A. Tim), (Gas. Fergur), W. T. Gordon, S. T. Hayden, J. J. Hayden, W. T. Hines, A. H. Hayden, G. W. Hayden, T. T. Smith, D. S. Buchanan, U. Sinclair Bird, C. Perkins, H. R. Benjamin, A. J. Bulloch, J. H. Krause, John P. Wall, Jas. Williams, Mary Williams, (R. Mugge), Bertta Hahn, John L. Elliott, (J. M. Eddins), Jos. A. Walker, A. Stillings, John Miller, A. W. Cuscaden, S. B. Casby, Wm. T. Haskins, P. H. Collins, D. K. Fisher, W. E. Haile, B. Leonardy, (Herrmann Weissbred), F. P. Kennedy, Jas. McKay, John Long, F. W. Bosworth, (M. Loant), T. A. LeBel, (? Howard), Henry Brumwick, Jas. Jackson, E. Durham, D. Jameson, B. A. Coward, John Culbreath, W. P. Culbreath, Jas. H. Culbreath, H. C. Culbreath, P.
P. Culbreath, Asa Morgan, (W. Pope, Cu ? ), J. A. Campbell, H. Seling, D. Isaac Craft, H. M. Craft, T. W. Jones, T. F. Hampton, Geo. L. Calloway, Jacob Vogt, J. C. Guild, Matthew Hooper, Henry E. Wells, J. L. Haskins, R. B. Canning, H. M. Chapman, A. Niel, Sam Clay, Parkins Bods, J. A. Magbee, D. B. McKay, H. Proseus, J. A. Proseus, E. Tibery, S. W. Warns, J. H. Dorsey, James He. Wells, Mrs. E. C. Dorsey, L. S. Wells, W. T. Bolben, F. S. Lewis, Henry Brandon, Eola Morris, W. H. Ferris, James H. Holmes, Sallie M. Randolph, Anne McKrause, Josie W. Weissbred, Willie M. Robles, Charles F. Binkley, Joe H. Culbreath, Henry J. Krause, L. Blanche Henderson, Cornelia C. Pickett, W. H. Bulloch, James S. Hooper, Daisy Wall, Annie E. Hale, Alta E. Holmes, (Cora ? ), Cora L. Bulloch, Mamie T. Collins, Maggie F. Campbell, Lizzie Chekine, Julia T. McKay, Harry C. Parcell, Ronnie Hayden, Samuel Wells, Fannie Wells, Eva C. Haddon, Clarence Hill, ( ? ), ( ? ), Lizzie Bulloch, Stella Morrison, Mrs. M. Cuscaden, ( ? ), F. C. Binkley, C. Binkley, Mrs. E. C. Dorsey, G. B. Sparkman Mayor of Tampa, C. W. Wells, R. W. Wells.* A second petition a year later, in 1883, was much simpler in its plea because it merely sought relief for an elderly citizen who had been living on the reserved fort lands and may have been threatened with eviction. TO THE HONORABLE THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED STATES CONVENED: The undersigned citizens of the Town of Tampa, County of Hillsborough and State of Florida respectfully represent that Louis Bell a citizen of the United States and residing in the Fort Brooke Reservation adjoining said Town of Tampa that said. Louis Bell has resided in said Reservation for many years, that he has been in the service of the United States for serving in the Mexican and Seminole Wars, that he is now old and infirm and unable to work for a living, that he has a dwelling, out houses, fruit trees and a garden in the premises from which he derives a scanty subsistence, that said Louis Bell is an honorable and worthy citizen and has always been true and faithful to the government of the United States. Your petitioners therefor pray that your honorable bodies grant to the said Louis Bell such relief in the premises as you think meet and just, allowing him possession of the land he now occupies as a home in the event that the Fort Brooke Reservationis sold: the age and record of the valuable services of this old man will be found in the War Department and many of the old Army officers who served in the war aforesaid knew him personally. And your petitioners shall ever pray &c. K. Krause, Ja. H. Hickman, M. Weissbred, John L. Binkley, A. J. Bulloch, J. T. Magbee, E. Tinny, J. A. Proseus, A. Grillion, C. A. Masters, J. H. Krause, Joseph Grillion, I. G. Haynsworth, J. R. Swingly, E. A. Clarke, (? S. Gedelius), W. H. Givens, R. R. Thomas, W. G. Ferris, Josiah Ferris, C. L. Friebele, Chas. F. Garrett, J. A. Campbell, W. H. McFeely, I. J. Raine, Joseph Hawley, Matthew Hooper, Eliza Hooper, H. P. Kennedy, J. M. Dorsey, E. C. Dorsey, E. Delaunay, John Cole, F. C. Binkley, Kate Binkley, C. Perkins, J. C. Field, Thos. W. Perkins, Wm. Mahn, R. Mugge, D. Ghira, F. Ghira, B. Leonardy, D. S. Buchanan, (W. J. Baden), M. Govengreen, R. A. Jackson, Josh Cardy, J. B. Jackson, Herrmann Weissbred, Chas Wright, J. W.
Canning, ( ? ), Jno T. Lesley, Francis M. Robles, H. S. Snodgrass, (Duff Yost), Thos. P. Kennedy, W. J. Allen, James Henry, Philip,Collins, (Robert Gommary), H. R. Benjamin, Geo. L. Calloway, Orlando D. Thayer, E. P. Holmes, A. Ross, Dan Mather, (George F. Barslow), (Copl 3rd Arty), Frank W. Hess, Capt. 3rd U. S. Arty, Adolphus Russel, U. S. Sch. Matchless, Edward S. Millar, 2nd Lt. 3rd U.S. Art., William McCarthy, Charles Kavanagh, James Johnstone, James Shaw, John J. McCarthy, Vincent S. Rol, William Moran, John Neaven, Thomas McDairmant, Laeo Schnurr, John Shelly, Edward Robinson, (William Hnitte), Albert Kherle, James Jennings, ( ? ), Frank 0. Ferris, James T. Magbee. Thus from the Fort Brooke reservation petitions genealogists have another source of Tampa family names of the 1880s, and historians have information about the social consciousness of Tampa citizens regarding public land use in a developing southern town. Parentheses and question marks are used to denote illegible names or letters. About the Author MARTIN M. LaGODNA, PH.D. Martin M. LaGodna is Assistant Professor of History and Director of the Oral History Program at the University of South Florida. He specializes in state and local history, oral history, and historical administration. Having served as Assistant Director of the American Association for State and Local History, he has a continuing interest in the work of historical societies. He received his Ph.D. in American history from the University of Florida in 1970. He has compiled and edited one book and written several historical articles and book reviews. His most recent project is co-authoring a book of biographies of Florida governors for publication in the spring of 1976. He is married and the father of two children.
The Mayor Met the Evangelist at 7 A.M. When Bill Sunday, Sister Aimee and Babe Ruth all shook up Tampa at the same time in 1919. By HAMPTON DUNN The dusty sawdust trails of ebullient Billy Sunday and curvacious Aimee Semple McPherson crossed in Tampa in the bouncy spring of 1919. At that time the colorful ex-baseball player, the Rev. Dr. William Ashley Sunday, was regarded as "the greatest revivalist in American history, perhaps the greatest since the days of the apostles." He was 54 years old. BILLY SUNDAY IN TAMPA ORANGE GROVE. This photograph was made during the 1919 Tampa campaign as Billy Sunday visited the Lee& Edwards citrus grove at Lake Thonotosassa. Left to right are Sunday's choir leader, Homer Rhodeheaver; A. F. Turner, secretary of the Tampa Y.M.C.A. and his little daughter Frances; Ben Bostain; Billy Sunday; W. G. Brorein, founder of the Peninsular Telephone Co.; Mac Parker, reporter for The Tampa Morning Tribune, and. L. W. Lee. Photo from "Yesterday's Tampa" by Hampton Dunn
Billy Sunday Photograph by Carl Blakeslee, made in April, 1919, during the first campaign of Mr. Sunday. Headquarters and Tabernacle were located on the area just south of the Lafayette Street bridge. Photo from "Yesterday's Tampa" by Hampton Dunn Sister Aimee Semple McPherson wowed em in Tampa in 1919, then went on to national fame at her Angelus Temple in Los Angeles. Marse Joe McCarthy, manager of the New York Yankees and Babe Ruth in St. Petersburg.
On the other hand, the ambitious young Sister Aimee was just a barn-storming novice with an old jalopy, a tent, a "message", and a flair for press-agentry she billed herself as "The World's Most Pulchritudinous Evangelist." Everything was "the most" in those days, the period which was the lull between storms between the dark, drab days of World War I and the bright, happy footloose days of the "Roarin'20s" then just about to begin. This was an era when Floridians, like Americans everywhere, wanted to kick up their heels, craved excitement and demanded large doses of thrills in everything: jazz music, sexy shows, sensational newspapers, booze orgies, extreme flapper dress, noisy real estate promotions, and religion. "Evangelist With Sex Appeal" Looking backward, the Tampa newspapers of the day were filled with glowing reports on flamboyant Billy's capture of the city, but no mention is made of the lady sometimes billed as the "Evangelist with Sex Appeal." It was a biographer of Sunday, William G. McLoughlin, Jr., who revealed about the pair of preachers hitting Tampa at the same time. In his book, "Billy Sunday Was His Real Name", the biographer recorded that Sunday was "hostile to her (Aimee's) sensationalism, her flowing robes, and her tendency to melodramatize her sex." But, he wrote, Sunday did not object to the Four Square doctrines of "God's Greatest Saleswoman" or to her "faith healing." In fact, Sunday's wife, affectionately known as "Ma" Sunday, told the author "Mr. Sunday sometimes wished he had the gift of healing." "According to his wife," McLoughlin recounted, "Sunday refused to allow Mrs. McPherson to sit on the platform during his campaign in Tampa, Florida, in 1919, when she, too, was holding a revival in that city and was being escorted to the bathing beaches by Rhodeheaver." "The Little Office Girl" Rhodeheaver was Homer Rhodeheaver, the great gospel singer and trombonist just back from France where he sang for the troops who had gone "over the top." "Rhody" was a member of Sunday's team which gripped Tampa for four emotion-filled weeks in March and April in 1919. (Sister Aimee herself claimed to be no healer but "only the little office girl who opens the door and says, 'Come in."' She was blunt in asking her followers to fill the collection pans with "quiet money," i.e., currency not coins. After leaving Tampa, she took her tambourine and tent to Los Angeles, opened up famed Angelus Temple and became wealthy and newsworthy). The impact of the controversial Billy Sunday's visit on the Florida West Coast was foretold from the outset of the campaign. Billy told the throngs which packed his tabernacle tent near Plant Field that he knew Tampa was "a good town" because the Mayor met him at the railroad station and because a group of top businessmen sacrificed and got up to greet his train at 7 A.M. When this happens, Billy happily reported, "Then there's something doing." The Mayor at the time was the late D. B. McKay, a newspaper publisher and thrice Chief Executive of the city.
Did No Harm in World Contemporary reports of the evangelist's visit indicate that he did indeed shake up the city like it had never been before, or possibly since. Sunday had paid a previous visit to Tampa, in 1914, his purpose avowed to the Rev. W. J. Carpenter was to see what he "could do with the immoral and negligent in Tampa." A list published in 1914 showed Sunday had held revivals in Daytona Beach, Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Tampa. He also made an encore appearance in Tampa in 1924. When the effervescent Sunday died in Chicago in 1935, The Tampa. Tribune recalled his visits to Florida, and editorially mourned, "It can be said that Billy Sunday did no harm in the world and did much good." This may sound like a cautious statement, but it was quite a concession because of the controversy which swirled around the balding head of the evangelist who had been characterized "as everything from a rabble-rousing, moneymaking mountebank to an anointed apostle of God." "Money-making is one of the first things people who don't know Sunday talk about" was the way Dr. Sol C. Dickey, manager of the Winona Lake Bible Conference explained it to a group of Tampans preparing for the Sunday campaign. Billy Sunday Ma Sunday
Tampa's "Love Gift" Dr. Dickey outlined that Sunday took only the offerings of the last day of the campaign. After expenses were raised, no other offerings were taken. Some of the last day's collections were right hefty, such as the one in New York where Sunday visited a short time before coming to Tampa. The offering amounted to $120,000, and Dr. Dickey said in that situation Sunday took nothing for himself and split the $120,000 on a 50-50 basis, giving half to the Red Cross and the other half to the Y.M.C.A. The "love gift" on the last day of the Tampa crusade was $6,094. Billy pounded hard on getting money to meet expenses. There had been a rumor around town that the City Council had appropriated $2,000 and that a $10,000 purse had been made up as a guarantee. At one point in the Tampa meet, he shouted, "The fellow who said I had to be guaranteed so much before I came here was a liar and he knew it when he said it! The same old lies of the whiskey-soaked bunch I have been fighting for years. "And because a man gets a little money for preaching, people say he is a damn grafter." Dempsey Becomes Champ Sunday recounted the compensation of men in other lines of work Jess Willard, for instance, who would draw an enormous purse for standing up before Jack Dempsey. "And," Sunday predicted, "I think Jack will knock the tar out of him at that." The evangelist also mentioned the names of Charlie Chaplin with a million dollars for eight pictures, Doug Fairbanks, Mary Pickford and others. (Billy's prognostication was correct: On July 4,1919, in Toledo, Dempsey became heavyweight champion by knocking the tar out of Willard, who failed to answer the bell for the fourth round). In a special appeal to women for money, the evangelist suggested: "If your old husbands don't give you anything, go through his pockets tonight and I'll pray for the Lord to forgive you." As collections dragged, Sunday chided Tampans saying that when the campaign "in the little bit of a town of St. Augustine" had progressed as far as it had in Tampa, the people there had given $500 more than had been given in Tampa it and the tent was a lot smaller at that." "Pusillanimous and Parsimonious." Of the Tampa crowds, Billy cooed: "Fine audiences, but gee! you're a stingy bunch and your offerings are pusillanimous and parsimonious." He also hurled barrages at the man and the woman "riding in limousines and dropping nickels in the collection plate," and beseeched them to "Tote fair with God." Local leaders also thumped for financial support. One with the distinguished lawyer, W. F. Himes, who said, "I do not consider whatever offering is given Mr. Sunday is given to him alone. I consider it also an offering to God, and if your giving is in proportion to the good he has done it
will be a magnificent offering. It is my privilege to say that the greatest revelation of Jesus Christ I have ever known, I have heard from Mr. Sunday here." The Sunday party lived in style while campaigning in tropical Tampa. They stayed at the nearby plush Tampa Bay Hotel and the former athlete would sprint from Plant Field to his quarters to keep in physical shape. The reporter for The Tribune described Sunday as "the most contagious individual that ever pounded the carpets of the halls of the Tampa Bay Hotel." Once during his stay he preached to his fellow guests at the palatial inn and when the season ended, the management permitted Sunday to continue to use his room until the campaign closed. The Cheapest Tipper A not-so-complimentary description of the evangelist at the Tampa Bay was written by the sarcastic Westbrook Pegler in 1942. It went like this: ... A headwaitress in the old Tampa Bay Hotel said he (Sunday) was the cheapest tipper she had ever seen and she had waited on many ball clubs which don't run a high score in that respect. It was a good furlong from the kitchen to Sunday's big round table, where he fed his staff, and the little girls would lug in great tonnage of those heavy old-style hotel plates and the boats which went with the American plan meals and cover much mileage in the course of three meals a day. The headwaitress said Bill's standard tip was a dime a head, although, in his store, if the people didn't shower down he would give them the devil for a lot of cheap skates trying to mooch their way to heaven." Sunday, who had starred in professional baseball before his conversion, maintained his identity with the sport. Often he'd rush from his tent to Plant Field, and there he'd umpire the Spring training games of the big leaguers. He also tossed the first ball from the pitcher's box that led the way for the Boston Red Sox to clout a 5 to 3 victory over the New York Giants. Longest Home Run It was during that game a historic event took place. Babe Ruth, then "a youth to fortune and to fame unknown," smacked out the longest home run on record. The ball traveled 587 feet and the record stands to this day. When the ball was returned to the Big Bambino, he autographed it and gave it to his pal, Billy Sunday. The night after the big game, and home run record, according to The Tampa Tribune, the next day, Sunday would preach with such appeal 300 would give up their wayward ways and answer his call. In the quaint news writing style of the day, Staff Writer Mac Parker would put it this way in The Tribune's page one, lead story the next day: "Another cargo of spiritual life preservers was tossed to the masses by Billy Sunday at his two sermons yesterday and 300 eager hands clung to the lines again last night. For a solid week he has been anchoring buoys to mark the rocks and dangerous places In men's and women's lives, great black and white striped buoys, and slowly but surely the way has been working down the straight and narrow path toward salvation. Many are turning from the roads leading to the
swamps and the dungeons and the pits of hell to march this new road Billy Sunday has pointed out." The tempo of the times was not overlooked by the preacher. "America," he cried, "is becoming absolutely nuts over pleasure, and everything's a joke from marriage down. Hear me, when out of every 12 marriages in the U. S. seven wind up in divorce, there's something rotten somewhere. The little girl in short dresses knows more about sin than her 75-year-old grandmother. She's got her backed off the boards and pawing for air." Sunday raked church members and leaders as well as the unsaved. One night he ripped into them, saying, "What we want is stewards that will stew and not make a muss of the stew; and deacons who will deac for Jesus Christ, and church dignitaries that will dig for God, and not for the devil." God's Worst Enemy Sunday saved his heaviest blows for the "damnable, hellish, vile, corrupt, iniquitous liquor business." He claimed that in New York City "this Godforsaken whiskey gang raised $500,000 to get me. I say to them 'Come on, you God-forsaken, weasel-eyed, white-livered, black-hearted gang of thugs. Come on. I defy you.' I've put them out of two million dollars worth of business. I ask no quarter and I give none. None. Absolutely none. None whatever. None." A year after leaving Tampa, Billy Sunday preached the mock funeral sermon for "John Barleycorn" at a celebration in Norfolk, Va., marking passage of the 18th Amendment. "Good-bye John," he snarled. "You were God's worst enemy. You were Hell's best friend ... the reign of tears is over. The slums soon will be only a memory. We will turn our prisons into factories and our jails into storehouses and cribs. Men will walk upright now, women will smile and the children will laugh. Hell will be forever for rent." Long after leaving Tampa, Sunday's "image" in the community was favorable. After his death in November, 1935, The Tampa Tribune penned an editorial obituary which summed up the feeling of Sunday's friends: "We believe that Billy Sunday's service, however his contemporaries may have criticized or condemned it, will receive that heavenly reward the Master promises those who do His work on earth."
About the Author HAMPTON DUNN Hampton Dunn is a native Florida "Cracker," having been born and reared in Citrus County. He attended Mercer University in Macon, Georgia, and the University of Tampa. For 22 years he was on the staff of The Tampa Daily Times, starting as a cub reporter, and was its Managing Editor when the newspaper merged with The Tampa Tribune in 1958. He was author of a popular political column, "Palm Tree Politics." During World War II, Dunn was on leave from his paper and served overseas in the Mediterranean Theatre with the U.S. Air Force. He was decorated for his services in covering the war front as a public relations officer, and held the rank of Major when the war ended. Hampton Dunn for two years was a political commentator and news analyst on Television Station WCKT-TV in Miami. He returned to Tampa after that as an executive of the Peninsula Motor Club (AAA), and is now vice president of the organization and editor of its monthly magazine Florida Explorer which goes to the 260,000 AAA members. A prolific free lance writer, Dunn is the author of eight books on Florida history including "Yesterday's Tampa," now in its fifth printing. He writes a weekly historical column for The Tampa Tribune Tampa limes and contributes to numerous newspapers and magazines. His journalistic efforts have brought many awards to Dunn. In 1946 he received the Associated Press Award for writing the best news story in Florida, for his coverage of the Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings invasion of-privacy trial. He was the 1970 winner of the Florida Historical Society award of merit for excellence in presentation of Florida history in the media for his monthly articles in Florida Trend Magazine, for which he wrote more than 10 years. In 1974, Dunn was given the Florida Award for Distinguished Service in Florida History by the Peace River Valley Historical Society. Other honors included the Torch Award of the Citrus County Chamber of Commerce, the Jefferson Davis Medal of the Florida Division of United Daughters of Confederacy, the Outstanding Service Award of the Dick Pope Chapter of Florida Public Relations Association, and the Cooper-Taylor Award for Traffic Safety of the Jaycees in 1974. Hampton Dunn is active in many historical groups. He is past president of the Tampa Historical Society, and served as a charter Trustee of both the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board and the Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board, state wide agencies, by gubernatorial appointment. Hampton Dunn
He is in demand as a public speaker and averages a lecture a day, many times on Florida historical subjects. He is on the board of the Hillsborough County Museum. Also active in numerous civic organizations, Dunn is a past president of the downtown Tampa Rotary Club and past District Governor of Rotary International District 696 covering the Florida Suncoast.
Eduardo Manrara "The Cigar Manufacturing Prince of the Nation" By TONY PIZZO Member of the Advisory Council to the Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties, Division of Archives, History and Records Management At 8 o'clock in the morning on May 2, 1912 a spring day in Gotham, N.Y., Eduardo Manrara, surrounded by his wife, daughter, and four sons met his final hour. The end had come to the business and financial titan of Tampa in his seventieth year. Manrara had been the real "mover and shaker" in converting Tampa from a village into a modern city. The day after Manrara's death, The Tribune editorialized: "Tampa Loses a Friend... He was probably more than any other man responsible for Tampa's start citywide. He found it a mere hamlet, and he helped establish here an industry that gave Tampa its first solid foundation and made it industrially important. In practically all of the enterprises which took part in the commercial awakening of the city, Mr. Manrara had a leading, if not the leading, part. He became a staunch believer in Tampa from the time of his first visit, and he knew no limit in efforts for its upbuilding ... In the history of Tampa, the name of Manrara will always occupy a prominent place." It is regrettable that sixty-two years after Manrara's death, his memory is but an echo nothing more tangible. Nevertheless, Manrara passed this way, and because he did, and because of his contribution to our community, we are deeply indebted to him. In later years his contemporaries referred to Eduardo Manrara, the protege of Vincente Martinez Ybor. The young man from Puerto Principe, Cuba, became an industrial and financial leader of pioneer Tampa. The first "horseless carriage" was brought to Tampa by Manrara in 1901. The above scene is at the intersection of Franklin and Zack.
Manrara as "the man forgotten by history." It is hoped that his memory will be resurrected from the abyss of time, and his name placed on its deserving pedestal among the great men of Tampa. Joins V. M. Ybor Eduardo Manrara was born in Puerto Principe, Cuba, in 1842. After studying in local schools, he became a clerk in a banking house. This experience would in later years hold him in good stead. Vincente Martinez Ybor, the tobacco tycoon of the time, became acquainted with the much younger Manrara in Havana, and immediately recognized his exceptional talents in finance and commerce, as well as his rapport with people. The acquaintance led to a life-time partnership in business between the two men. Because of the political upheaval caused by the start of the Ten Year War in 1869, and Ybor's life being in constant danger for his sympathetic views in the cause of Cuban freedom, Ybor was prompted to move his Principe de Gales factory to Key West, Florida. Ybor was so pleased with the thirty year old Manrara, that in 1872, he took him in as a member of the firm. At the same time he took in his son, Edward R. M. Ybor, as an associate. Ybor and Manrara were the perfect business combination. Their most famous brand was El Principe De Gales, which had world-wide fame, and other superfine labels were Flor de Madrid, La Perla, and El Triunfo. Since the move to Key West, Ybor was followed by other cigar manufacturers. By the middle of the 1870's Key West had become a leading Havana cigar manufacturing center in the nation, and the largest community in Florida, with a population of eighteen thousand. By 1885, the labor and political agitators were causing continual disturbances among the cigar-makers, threatening the production of cigars. The situation reached such serious proportions, that Ybor began to consider moving his factory elsewhere. Ignacio Haya, who owned a factory in New York, happened to be visiting Ybor at the time, and was considering moving his factory to a Manrara's Ybor City home after remodeling. It was located at the rear of El Bien Publico Clinic on Ninth Avenue. It was razed by Urban Renewal in the 1960's. (Photo by the author) The Ybor City Land and Improvement Co.'s first office building. This attractive, gingerbread frame edifice was constructed in 1887, on the Southeast corner of 14th Street and 9th Avenue. The A. A. Gonzalez Clinic and Hospital now is located on the site. Notice entrance to cellar at left. (This old print is from the author's private collection.)
more suitable climate. Eduardo Manrara, who hated to make boat trips from New York to Key West, had just arrived in Key West after travelling, for the first time, by rail via Tampa. While waiting in Tampa to embark for Key West, Manrara had noted Tampa as an ideal location for making cigars. At this point, Gavino Guiterrez, a good friend of both Ybor and Haya, appeared on the scene. Guiterrez had just visited the village of Tampa to examine the feasibility of processing jellies and guava paste there. Gutierrez came away highly impressed with the future potential of the area. Consequently, Ybor, Haya and Manrara talked with Gutierrez about the little town of Tampa. Gutierrez enthusiastically pointed out that Tampa had an ideal climate, with the proper, and necessary humidity for the manufacturing of cigars, that Tampa now had rail connections with northern markets, and was only a day away from Cuba, the source of tobacco and working hands. His reasoning impressed Ybor, and Haya, and they and Gutierrez came to Tampa to look into the possibilities of establishing a cigar city. "Sleepy Little Tampa" After proposals and counter proposals between the Tampa Board of Trade and Ybor, a tract of land that "was nothing but a series of alligator holes, a little high ground, and dense growth of pine, oak, palmetto and underbrush" was purchased from John T. Lesley, the land baron of Hillsborough County, for five thousand dollars. Ignacio Haya and his partner, Serafin Sanchez, Sr., made ready to move from New York. Ybor returned to Key West to prepare to move his Principe de Gales from the Island. Eduardo Manrara, young, and very energetic, came to Tampa and immediately set plans in motion for the development of the greatest clear Havana manufacturing center on American soil. Gavio Gutierrez, who was a civil engineer, was retained to survey the land, and plat the town. Later The Tribune commented, "Little thought the inhabitants of sleepy little Tampa of the deep meaning conveyed by the arrival of Eduardo Manrara in 1885. This was the most momentous event in the history of that time." The coming of Manrara, continued The Tribune, "made it possible to call Tampa, the Havana of the United States, and 'made it great." THE MANRARA BUILDING The brick building above was the second home of the Ybor City Land and Improvement Co. Notice the sign on the veranda. In 1925, Dr. Jose Ramon Avellanal converted the building into El Bien Publico Clinic. In 1939, Dr. A. A. Gonzalez purchased the clinic, and at a cost of $75,000, remodelled the building into a 45-bed clinic and hospital. This board and batten house was one of the first residences constructed for cigar workers by the Ybor City Land and Improvement Co. It was located on the north side of Seventh Avenue near Thirteenth Street. It was demolished in the late Thirties. Notice "FOR SALE" sign in the lower righthand corner.
Negotiations for bringing other factories were at once commenced. This project soon began to show such wonderful development, that on October 10, 1886, Manrara spearheaded the formation of the Ybor City Land and Improvement Company. The officers of this corporation were Vicente Martinez Ybor, President; Eduardo Manrara, Vice President; George T. Chamberlain, Secretary and Treasurer. Peter 0. Knight, the twenty-one year old legal prodigy was retained as attorney for the firm. Builds El Pasaje The Ybor City Land and Improvement, Company, to encourage factories to move to Ybor City, donated land, a large three story cigar factory building, and a fine residence for the firm manager, to the following cigar manufacturing companies: Lozano, Pendas & Co.; Trujillo and Benemelis; Gonzales, Mora & Co.; Arguelles, Lopez & Bro.; Jose M. Diaz & Bro.; and Creagh, Gudnecht & Co. These factories were built in modern style and fitted with elevators, fine tile bath-rooms and brick cellars. During the first year of the development of the settlement, the Ybor City Land and Improvement Company built a building for its offices on the site of the A. A. Gonzalez Clinic, a bank building, a hotel, the Cherokee Club, now called El Pasaje, and one hundred and sixty-seven cottages for cigar workers. These homes were rented or sold on the installment plan. This was the beginning of the homecredit-plan, and the first development of an instant town in the history of Florida. Ybor City emerged as a separate settlement boasting a system of water-works, fire department, police department, sanitary department, and street cars. More than half a million dollars had been spent by the Ybor City Land and Improvement Company to develop Ybor City. The success of Ybor City changed Tampa, from a predominantly agrarian, small port town to an industrial center. "The Ybor City Land and Improvement Company", wrote the Tribune, "had been the greatest vital power that has aided in the The Tampa Street Railway Co., established by Ybor and Manrara in 1886, was the first common carrier in the history of Tampa. The passenger cars were built in Tampa by C. E. Purcell. The line connected the little hamlets of Tampa and Ybor City. Eduardo Manrara is shown standing in business-suit, and derby. Tam pans referred to the railroad as "the dummy line," and Yborcitenos called it "el tren urbano." The first accident victim, and there were many, of the mini-train was a highly prized bird-dog owned by E. P. Gibson. A scene in 1892, of sandy Seventh Avenue, looking west from Sixteenth Street. The unique Moorish type frame building was the first club-house of El Centro Espanol. The rail-line had just received its new Philadelphia factory-built coaches, replacing the "homemade" cars shown in the earlier photograph.
advancement of this section of the state, and more especially in the growth and prosperity of Tampa." During the fabulous eighties, Tampa got its first street railway. This transportation system was financed by the immense funds of Vicente Martinez Ybor and Eduardo Manrara. The company was called the Tampa Street Railway. The line commenced operations in 1886, with C. E. Purcell as general manager. It connected Ybor City, running through a scrub area, to Tampa proper. The line was three and one-half miles long; three feet three inches gauge, and owned eight small cars and three wood-burning steam engines. The fare was five cents and it ran 4t on a once in a while" basis. Side tracks were run to the doors of every factory in Ybor City, and cigars and tobacco were hauled to and from the railroad depots and steamship wharfs. After the railway started operations, the Tampa Tribune. gloated; "Tampa can now take its place among the most progressive cities of America." Annexed In 1887 Ybor City was annexed into the City of Tampa in 1887, and was designated, for political purposes only, as the Fourth Ward. In 1894, Manrara organized the Ybor City Building and Loan Association as an adjunct to the Ybor City Land and Improvement Company to provide cigar workers an opportunity of obtaining homes and becoming property owners. The association met with remarkable success. The funds extended by the Association, contributed greatly in the beautifying of Ybor City with fine cottages, handsome residences, business buildings, and halls, and quarters for fraternal and benevolent societies. The Ybor City Building and Loan Association was headed by Emilo Pons as President. He had served for a long time as the superintendent of the Ybor-Manrara Co. The Exchange National Bank of Tampa was organized in 1894, with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars. One of the men to govern its destinies was Eduardo Manrara, who served as president for several years. A branch bank was established in Ybor City, a few years later. The Tribune referred to Manrara, the president of the Exchange National Bank, as "the largest manufacturer of clear Havana cigars in the world, and a man of great enterprise, and integrity." After the death of Edward R. M. Ybor, a son of Vicente Martinez Ybor, the cigar company became known as V. M. Ybor and Manrara. When the elder Ybor died in 1896, Manrara became the sole proprietor of the factory and continued investing and improving land and property in Ybor City. Heads Tampa Gas Co. The Tampa Gas Company was organized in 1896, with Manrara being the heaviest investor, and its first president. This. firm which furnished gas for illuminating, fuel The Principe de Gales (The Prince of Wales) cigar box label as redesigned in 1899 by the Ybor-Manrara Co. shown above is the first tin-cigar-box used in Tampa history. (Author's collection)
and power purposes started out with a plant and equipment unexcelled in the South. The street lights flickering with bluish flame, Tampans began to enjoy the most popular and cheapest source of illumination in America at that time. Again Tampa moved ahead because of Manrara, this time into the gas-light era. Manrara's tobacco earned fortune was wisely invested in a variety of enterprises of immense benefit to Tampa. His keen foresight, energy, and perserverance, kept the community constantly developing and up-grading the quality of life. In 1896, Manrara organized the Florida Brewing Company. Its officers were Eduardo Manrara, President; E. W. Codington, Vice President; Hugo Schwab, Secretary and Treasurer (son in-law of Vicente Martinez Ybor); A. C. Moore, General Manager. The company had a capital stock of two hundred thousand dollars. The brewery building was one of the finest in America, and the first in Florida. It's design was based on the plans of the Castle Brewery in Johannesburg, South Africa. Today, as incongruous as it may seem, the brewery, located on Fifth Avenue and Thirteenth Street, serves as a leaf tobacco warehouse. The company marketed the following brands: Florida Special, Export and Bohemia. The brewery became an immediate success with large sales in Florida, Georgia, and selling more beer in Cuba than any brewery in America. With the advent of prohibition, the brewery converted to the production of "near beer." First "Horseless Carriage" In 1899, the Havana-American Company, a consolidation of cigar factories in Tampa, New York, Chicago, New Orleans, and Key West, was organized with a capital of ten million dollars. Eduardo Manrara was elected Vice President and General Agent of El Principe de Gales was famous throughout the world. The mark is now owned by the American Tobacco Co. Shown above is a typical "Vitola" of the 1890's, and below a close-up of the cigar band. The Exchange National Bank was organized March 26, 1894. Eduardo Manrara was elected president a few months later and served until 1903. Today, the Exchange National Bank is one of the great financial institutions of the Southeast.
the corporation. This gigantic organization was intended to eventually consolidate nearly all of the clear Havana cigar factories in the United States. In 1901, the Duke Tobacco Trust, worth more than a half billion dollars, made an active entry into the cigar business, and the Havana-American Co. was sold to the American Cigar Company. Throughout the years, Manrara's business activities kept him travelling between Tampa, Havana, and New York. He kept a home in each of the cities. In Tampa, he lived on Nineth Avenue between the 14th and 15th Street on the south-side, near the center of the block. Mrs. Manrara preferred to live in New York, and when she was not in Tampa, Manrara made the Cherokee Club his headquarters. Manrara has the distinction of bringing the first "horseless carriage" to Tampa in 1901. Whenever Manrara drove his car down the streets of Ybor City, the excitement of the people bordered on pandemonium with shouts, "the devil wagon!, the devil wagon!" The populace could not understand why a man of such serious conduct could become involved with such a ridiculous contraption. With his usual foresight, the man who brought the first "devil-wagon" to Tampa, knew that the automobile was here to stay! Manrara lived during "the time of the titans." This was the period at the close of the century when business buccaneering spawned by the post Civil War years was being replaced by the ascendance of responsible business leaders who believed that business and industry had larger purposes than accumulating wealth. Eduardo Manrara belonged to this breed of men, and Tampa today is better because of him.
About the Author ANTHONY P. PIZZO Anthony P. Pizzo was born and raised in Ybor City, the colorful Latin Quarter of Tampa. Love of history and heritage has kept Tony constantly involved in such matters as research, article writing and historic embellishment projects around the city. He is largely responsible for the placement of 30 historical markers around the Tampa area. His Latin background and associates plus his meticulous attention to detail and ability to dig up intriguing new facts and situations qualify him richly for his favorite subject early Tampa. His contributions to this city have not gone unnoticed or unrecognized. He was appointed first chairman of Ybor City Redevelopment Commission and in 1956 was named Tampa's Outstanding Citizen. In addition he was the first president of the Ybor City Rotary Club, he was one of the organizers of the Pan-American Commission, the fore-runner of the World Trade Council of Tampa. Also helped organize and served as first president of the Tampa Historical Society. Served for three years, 1972-75, on the board of directors of the Florida Historical Society and is presently serving on the following: The Advisory Council to the Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties', Division of Archives History and Records Management of the State Department of Florida; Chairman of the Hills borough County Historical Commission; the Barrio Latino Commission; Board of Tampa General Hospital Foundation; Board of Hillsborough County Humane Society; Board of Davis Island Civic Association; BiCentennial Commission; and Board of Hillsborough County Museum Committee. In 1952, the Cuban Government awarded him, La Cruz de Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, the highest honor paid by that government, for his efforts in creating Marti Park on the historic site of 8th Avenue and 13th Street. In 1973 Ton was resented with the Medal of the Order of Merit by the Italian Republic for his civic contributions reflecting on the rich culture and heritage of the Tampa Italians. In 1974, the American Association for State and Local History presented Tony with the The National Award of Merit for, "the many years of service and major contributions to an appreciation of the history of Florida and the Tampa area. The award was presented during the yearly convention of the Florida Historical Society at the University of Florida. Anthony Pizzo
Tony is the author of "Tampa Town"., and is a graduate of Stetson University, who has also honored him. He and his wife Josephine have two sons, Paul and Tony, and reside on Davis Islands. They are members of the University Club, Palma Ceia Golf and Country Club, and the Tampa Yacht and Country Club. Tony is listed in "Who's Who in the South and Southeast" "Men of Achievement" and "Community Leaders and Noteworthy Americans.
Tampa Historical Society MEMBERSHIP ROSTER 1974-1975 Mrs. A. Lee Adams (Lillie Wall)* Mr. & Mrs. Charles J. Adler* Mrs. L. E. Altman* Mrs. M. F. Altman* Mrs. W. P. Anderson (Sarah H.)* Mr. & Mrs. Wm. P. Anderson, Jr.* Mr. & Mrs. Benard F. Arenas Mr. & Mrs. Colby C. Armstrong Mrs. Alfred S. Austin Miss Patricia Aaron Mr. Ralph J. Baum* Mr. G. Emery Baya Mr. J. Ryan Beiser* Mr. & Mrs. Wayne Bevis Mr. William Bevis Rep. & Mrs. Ed Blackburn Mr. & Mrs. Lester M. Blain* Mrs. J. S. Brengle Mr. & Mrs. Harold A. Brown Mr. P. Patrick Brown Judge & Mrs. James D. Bruton* Mrs. Byron Bushnell* Mr. John Carbonneau Mrs. Doyle Carlton, Sr.* Dr. David E. Cavanagh Mr. & Mrs. Troy A. Chapin, Jr. Miss Margaret L. Chapman* Mr. & Mrs. George R. Chavez Mr. & Mrs. John A. Chilldon Mr. & Mrs. J. D. Clarke, Jr.* Miss Karen Clarke* Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Clarke* Mrs. A. P. Coles* Mr. & Mrs. William H. Copeland* Mr. W. Hampton Copeland Mr. Ted Couch Mr. & Mrs. W. B. Council, Sr.* Dr. James W. Covington* Mrs. G. David Curtiss, III Judge Paul W. Danahy, Jr.* Mr. Al Dato Mr. & Mrs. Sam F. Davis* Dr. & Mrs. David M. Delo* Mrs. Robert Del Re Mr. Louis J. Diaz Mr. & Mrs. Eugene B. Dodson* Mrs. Lula J. Dovi* Mr. & Mrs. Hampton Dunn* Judge & Mrs. Carl C. Durrance* LCDR & Mrs. Fredrick S. Ealer Mr. & Mrs. James L. Estes, Jr.* Mr. & Mrs. Horace H. Everett* Mrs. David A. Falk* Dr. & Mrs. J. Brown Farrior* Mr. & Mrs. J. L. Ferman, Sr.* Mr. & Mrs. J. L. Ferman, Jr.* Mr. & Mrs. Gabriel Fernandez Mr. Elliot C. Fletcher* Mr. & Mrs. Jerry Fogarty* Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Ford, Jr.* Mr. Cody Fowler* Mr. Dennis D. Fusilier* Mr. Roscoe Frey Mrs. Loyal Frisbie Mr. Charles F. Gabriel Mr. Manuel M. Garcia Mrs. Rosalind Garcia Mr. & Mrs. Victor Garcia Mr. James H. Gardner Mr. & Mrs. Ernest M. Garrison Col. Melvin Garten* Mr. J. F. Gasthoff, Jr.* Mr. & Mrs. Frank V. Giunta* Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Giunta Mr. Ceasar Gonzmart, Jr.* Mrs. J. N. Greening* Mrs. Don Gregory Mr. A. William Gibbons Mr. & Mrs. A. J. Grimaldi* Mr. Robert J. Grindey
Mr. & Mrs. Angelo Guida Mr. & Mrs. John A. Guyton, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. D. R. Hall, Jr.* Lt. Comdr. & Mrs. M. B. Halsey, Ji Mr. John M. Hammer, Jr.* Mrs. William E. Hamner* Mrs. C. V. Handley Mr. M. S. Hankins Mrs. S. R. Hanson* Mrs. R. D. Hardwick* Mr. J. L. Hart* Mr. Leland Hawes, Jr.* Mrs. Charles T. Healy Mrs. Ruth T. Hendry* Mr. & Mrs. William E. Henson* Miss Karla Henson* Mr. Kirk Henson* Mr. James W. Hingley* Mrs. W. Frank Hobbs* Dr. & Mrs. Richard S. Hodes* Mr. George M. Holtsinger* Mr. & Mrs. Brooks P. Hoyt Dr. & Mrs. James M. Ingram* Mr. & Mrs. Brooks Jeffery Sister Marie M. Jones O.S.F.* Sister Rosanne Jones O.S.F.* Mr. & Mrs. George D. Joseph Junior League of Tampa* Mrs. William T. Keen* Dr. Carol Keller* Mrs. Lawson P. Kiser Mrs. Arthur R. Knauf (Lucille Trice)* Mr. & Mrs. P. 0. Knight, Jr.* Mr. Richard E. Knight* Mr. & Mrs. Arnold C. Kotler Mr. & Mrs. William A. Krusen Dr. & Mrs. Martin LaGodna Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Latimer* Mr. Ralph Lazzara III* Mr. & Mrs. Fred D. Learey* Mr. John T. Lesley* Miss Mary L. Lesley* Mr. Theodore Lesley Mr. Grady Lester Mr. Delphin Uaneza, Jr.* Mr. Phil LoCicero* Mr. & Mrs. Loper B. Lowry Gen. & Mrs. Sumter L. Lowry* Mr. & Mrs. C. David Linebaugh* Mr. David Linebaugh* Mr. Don Linebaugh* Dr. & Mrs. F. Marion Linebaugh* Miss Susan Linebaugh* Mr. & Mrs. Charles P. Lykes* Mrs. John Wall Lykes* Mr. & Mrs. Fred R. Martin III* Dr. & Mrs. Richard A. Martorell* Senator & Mrs. David McClain Miss Shelia M. McDevitt Mr. & Mrs. Herbert G. McKay* Mr. & Mrs. Howell A. McKay* Mr. John W. McWhirter, Jr.* Mr. & Mrs. Cesar Medina* Mr. Aaron C. Melton* Miss Laura Melton* Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Mickler Mr. & Mrs. Joseph D. Midulla* Mr. E. Bradford Miller* Mr. & Mrs. Ashley M. Moody* Dr. & Mrs. Ruben Moreno* Mr. & Mrs. Harris H. Mullen* Mr. & Mrs. David R. Murphy, III* Mr. Pat Murphy Museum of Science and Natural History Mr. & Mrs. Thos. B. Nelson Mr. & Mrs. Millard W. Newman* Mr. & Mrs. Stanford J. Newman* Mr. Al Noto* Mrs. Phyllis G. Oser* Mr. & Mrs. Lester K. Olson* Mr. Fred E. Orr Mr. & Mrs. John Osterweil Dr. & Mrs. B. D. Owens* Mrs. R. H. Owrey Mr. Gene Packwood* Mr. & Mrs. J. Rogers Padgett Dr. & Mrs. J. P. Palori Mr. & Mrs. John R. Parkhill* Miss. Precilla Bellamy Parkhill* Dr. & Mrs. G. J. Perdigon*
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Phillips Mr. Richard F. Pittman* Mr. & Mrs. John H. Pieper* Mr. & Mrs. Anthony P. Pizzo* Mr. & Mrs. Paul R. Pizzo* Mr. & Mrs. Wm. R. Platt Miss Ann Blake Plummer* Mr. Emilo Pons* Mr. Dan A. Polo* Mrs. Evanell K. Powell* Mr. & Mrs. C. M. Price, Jr.* Mrs. B. G. Reeves Mr. & Mrs. Richard W. Reeves* Mr. & Mrs. Stephen H. Reynolds* Mr. & Mrs. W. H. Reynolds* Miss Frieda Salomonson* Mr. & Mrs. Wm. O. Savage* Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Savarese, Jr.* Mrs. Mary L. Searls Mrs. William E. Segars Dr. & Mrs. Arnold C. Shaw, Jr. Mrs. Edward Skyrms Mrs. G. Dexter Sloan (Nell V)* Mr. & Mrs. Armin Smith, Jr.* Mrs. Bernard C. Smith* Mr. & Mrs. B. G. Smith* Mrs. H. Mason Smith (Justine)* Mr. & Mrs. H. Mason Smith, Jr.* Mr. & Mrs. H. Vance Smith Mr. & Mrs. Lamar Sparkman* Dr. & Mrs. Stephen Speronis* Mr. & Mrs. A. G. Spicola, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Leo Stalnaker* Ms. Margaret Stuckey Mr. & Mrs. Edward Spoto Mr. John S. Taaffee* Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Taliaferro* Mr. & Mrs. James F. Taylor* Mr. & Mrs. Charles S. Thomas* Mr. Robert Thomas* Mr. Wayne Thomas* Mr. & Mrs. G. Albert Thompson, Jr. Mrs. Carmen Toney* Mr. & Mrs. J. Thomas Touchton* Mr. R. G. Trezevant* Mrs. Gibbons Truett Miss Nancy Turner Mrs. Walter H. Turpin* Mrs. C. C. Vega Mr. & Mrs. Hewett Walker* Mr. & Mrs. James E. Wall, Jr.* Mr. J. Edgar Wall, III Mr. Herbert H. Wagner Mrs. John D. Ware* Mr. & Mrs. James W. Warren, Jr.* Mr. Marc Warren Mr. Loy Glenn Westfall Mrs. Ullian Wharton Mr. & Mrs. Britt Whitaker Mr. & Mrs. Morris E. White* Col. & Mrs. Roland A. Wilson, III* Mr. David Wolf Mr. & Mrs. James P. Wofford Mr. & Mrs. G. Pierce Wood* Mrs. Fred J. Woods* Mr. & Mrs. Fred J. Woods, Jr.* Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Wooten* Mrs. Agnes R. Worthington* Mr. & Mrs. Thomas R. Young III* CHARTER MEMBERS*
TAMPA PASTIMES OLD GATEHOUSE AND CARRIAGE GATES AT TAMPA BAY HOTEL. (Photo taken in 1898). Photo from Hampton Dunn Collection
Tampa Town Seal Found, Used In emblem Seal Of The Tampa Historical Society The Tampa Historical Society has an official seal and it incorporates a "Town of Tampa" seal from the past that had been virtually lost. According to Anthony Pizzo, first president of the historical group, historian Theodore Lesley discovered the "Town of Tampa" on an old document recording the purchase of some property by his grandfather. Although the wax seal was minute, it had held up over the years and was discernible under a microscope. Artist Gene Packwood used it as a centerpiece in designing the historical society's emblem. The first known seal of Tampa, it depicts a wharf at the mouth of the Hillsborough River, a sidewheeler steamboat, two sailing craft and two other steamships. Bales of cotton, kegs of rum or molasses and an anchor are shown on the dock, while a strange looking palm tree rises at the left. The "Town" seal mentions "Organized August 11 A.D. 1878," which was actually Tampa's second incorporation. First time around, in 1855, the town government went bankrupt.
Packwood's Historical Society design shows not only the 1855 figure but also the 1824 date when Fort Brooke was founded (which gave impetus to the early settlement here). As explained by Pizzo, other panels depict the fishing industry, cattle, oranges and cigars Tampa's earliest industries. Shells on the left of the seal are Timuquan Indian tools, and there is a peace medal given by President Van Buren to Chief Billy Bowlegs after the Seminole Wars. On the right, a Spanish conquistador's sword is displayed alongside the bayonetted rifle of Fort Brooke days.
THE TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Still a young organization, the society nevertheless is making great progress in fostering community pride in our history, and heritage. Among the numerous projects, the following are among the leading accomplishments. THE NATIONAL REGISTER The Society had an important role in placing the first buildings in Tampa's history on the National Register of Historic Places. Most of the pertinent information and documents on the Cherokee club (El Pasaje), the Vicente Martinez Ybor Factory, and the Cuban Club were made available to the Florida State Department from the files of the Society, and many of the members gave many hours of effort and guidance to the project. THE D. B. McKAY AWARD The Society has honored three outstanding Floridians for their excellent contribution to the cause of Florida history. CAPE CANAVERAL The society petitioned the Congress of the United States, and key public officials to support legislation to rename Cape Kennedy to Cape Canaveral. FRANCIS BELLAMY SCHOOL The Society was first to initiate the idea of naming a proposed school building as the Francis Bellamy School to perpetuate the memory of the author of "Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag", and a former Tampan. OLD SEAL OF TAMPA The first seal of the town of Tampa dated 1878, was uncovered by a member of the Society and is now incorporated in the seal of the Tampa Historical Society. HISTORIC OAKLAWN CEMETERY The Society has a permanent committee working on the beautification of the grounds, and the repairing of the brick-wall and monuments of the resting place of many of our valiant pioneers. THE HISTORICAL MARKER PROGRAM 1. The Old Hillsborough County Court House. Franklin and Madison 2. Florida's First Radio Station WDAE Franklin and Zack 3. Francis Bellamy I pledge allegiance Curtis Hixon Convention Center
4. The Birth of Mutual Aid Societies in America, 1887. 8th Avenue and 16th Street THE FIRST SEMINOLE INDIAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY President James W. Covington, was invited by Chief Joe Dan Osceola to travel to the Reservation for the purpose of helping the Florida Seminoles organize an historical society using the charter of the Tampa Historical Society as a guide line. The Seminoles now have for the first time, an historical society. Our members are proud of Dr. Covington, and proud that our Society had the signal honor of playing an important. role in this project. TAMPA'S SESQUICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION Dr. James Covington led the citywide celebration of the Sesquicentennial under the appointment by former Mayor Dick A. Greco. On the evening of Jan. 24, 1974, more than 450 Tampans packed the Host Airport Hotel to attend the Society's Sesquicentennial Dinner at which the featured speakers were Col. George M. Brooke, Jr., whose ancestor was the founder of Fort Brooke, which was the beginning of Tampa, and Joe Dan Osceola, a descendant of Chief Osceola who led the Indian forces in the Seminole wars. The dinner committee was headed by Gen. Sumter L. Lowry. THE CHAPIN HOUSE The society has joined in efforts to rescue and save the Chapin House on Bayshore Boulevard, and also gave important assistance to Sulphur Springs in their fight to save the Arcade Building. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDING SURVEY The Society cooperated with Federal officials by conducting tours supplying historic information and documents in efforts to obtain a Federal grant to do the building study. The grant was obtained, and the study group was assisted by members of the Society during the entire time they were in Tampa. TAMPA AUTHORS Tampans continued to write historical works and other writers wrote about Tampa. Gloria Jahoda wrote the story of the Hillsborough River, "River of the Golden Ibis."; Michel G. Emmanuel, a director of the Florida Historical Society produced the excellent "Tarpon Springs Sketches" which he illustrated and wrote the text. Hampton Dunn has published "Yesterday's Tallahassee", "Accent Florida", a collection of his historical columns in The Tampa TribuneTampa Times, and "Florida Sketches", plus many other books and articles. The late Dr. Frederic H. Spaulding prepared before his death a book that was published by the University of Tampa, "A University Is Born." Dr. Spaulding was the founding president of the University. Tom McEwen published his popular "The Gators", the story of University of Florida football.
THE TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY PRESENTED HELL HARBOR Starring LUPE VELEZ After 46 years members and friends of the Society had an evening of nostalgia and entertainment viewing the first all outdoor-all talking picture made at beautiful Rocky Point. The film was produced by Henry King, brother-in-law of Tampa's Sam Davis and one of our charter members.
Moustaches obviously were in style when this photo of Tampas finest the Police Department was taken shortly after the turn of the century. The Police Chief was J. S. (Jimmie) Jones, second on the front row with a badge and CHIEF on his epalet, and with a moustache. He was with the department from 1903 to 1933. Photo from Hampton Dunn Collection
TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Marker honors Francis Bellamy, author of the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag, and a former Tampan. Six year old Colleen Griffin unveils the plaque at Curtis Hixon Convention Center on Nov. 21, 1974. She's held up by Hampton Dunn, past president, as County Commissioner Betty Castor, who gave dedicatory address, and MacDill Air Force Base color guard look on. TAMPA TRIBUNE Photo by Gary Rings TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY OFFICERS 1974-1975 Dr. James W. Covington, President Mr. Hampton Dunn, Vice President .Mrs. David McClain, Vice President Mrs. Britt Whitaker, Treasurer Mrs. Sam Latimer, Secretary BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mrs. Horace H. Everett Mr. Harris H. Mullen Mr. James L. Ferman, Jr. Mr. Anthony P. Pizzo Mr. Leland M. Hawes, Jr. Mr. A. G. Spicola, Jr. Mrs. William E. Henson Miss Nancy Turner Dr. James M. Ingram Mr. J. Edgar Wall, III. General Sumter Lowry Mr. James W. Warren, Jr. Mr. Herbert McKay Mrs. Thomas R. Young, III.