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THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE Volume V Number l November, 1979 Journal of the TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Tampa, Florida HAMPTON DUNN Editor Officers 1978-79 MRS. LESLIE McCLAIN President MRS. JOANNE FRAZIER Vice President MRS. GUELDA GREGORY Treasurer MISS SHEILA McDEVITT Corresponding Secretary Board of Directors Mrs. A. M. Barrow Dr. James W. Covington Hampton Dunn Mrs. Joanne Frazier Mrs. Thomas L. Giddens Mrs. Guelda Gregory Mrs. Samuel Latimer, Jr. Bob Leonard Mrs. Leslie McClain Miss Sheila McDevitt Ken Mulder Mrs. Florence Murphy Mrs. Bettie Nelson Mrs. Kathryn Parrish Tony Pizzo Ms. Jan Raber Mrs, Carmen Toney Don Whittemore * Headquarters 245 S. Hyde Park Avenue Tampa, FL 33606 On Our Cover As distinguished as he looks in this cover photograph, Col. Peter O. Knight is one of Tampa's all time greats. He was a brilliant attorney and president of the Tampa Electric Co. Read Nancy Lee Harms Rachels" interesting biography of Colonel Knight, starting on Page 2 of this issue. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION. Table of Contents PETER O. KNIGHT, PIONEER AND SPOKESMAN FOR FLORIDA 2 By Nancy Lee Harms Rachels THE WORK OF ONE MAN CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE 8 By Dr. Derek Curtis Bok SMUGGLING ALONG THE GULF COAST OF FLORIDA DURING RECONSTRUCTION 14 By Dr. Jerrell H. Shofner HUGH MACFARLANE: WEST TAMPA PIONEER 20 By Dr. L. Glenn Westfall TAMPA'S LONGEST DAY 24 By Hampton Dunn WILL ITS ORIGINAL NAME BE RESTORED TO 'DAVIS CAUSEWAY'? 33 By Hampton Dunn THE DAY TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY HONORED EVANGELIST BILLY GRAHAM 40 TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP ROSTER 1978-79 46 RECIPIENTS OF TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY'S COVETED D. B. McKAY AWARD 47 MEET THE AUTHORS 48 TAMPA CITY HALL ON HISTORIC REGISTER 50 OAKLAWN CEMETERY 'RAMBLE' IS A SOCIETY ANNUAL EVENT 52 HILLSBOROUGH HIGH'S 1909 GRID CHAMPS 55 KNIGHT HOUSE CONTRIBUTORS 56 TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY OFFICERS AND BOARD MEMBERS 56
PETER O. KNIGHT PIONEER AND SPOKESMAN FOR FLORIDA By NANCY L. RACHELS Chairperson History/Political Science/Military Science Dept. Hillsborough Community College Peter Oliphant Knight was born in Freeburg, Pennsylvania, on December 16, 1865. He was the son of James W. Knight, a Pennsylvania lawyer, and Sarah Elizabeth (Kantz) Knight THE ELEGANT KNIGHT MANSION The Peter O. Knight mansion at Hyde Park Avenue and Azeele was a showplace of Hyde Park for many years. Here's an early view. The home eventually became a Jewish Community Center. Fina lly it was demolished and a condominium is now built on the site. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
and a descendant of an early American family-both his great-grandfather and his grandfather, who enlisted as a drummer at the age of 11, having fought in the American Revolution. His father died when Peter was nine, leaving no estate. His mother took in boarders for whom he washed dishes and waited tables. His early education was received in Synder County, Pa., principally at Freeburg Academy. Later he studied law at Valparaiso University in Indiana, receiving his Bachelor of Laws Degree in 1884, before attaining his majority. He practiced briefly in the Supreme Court of Indiana. Lawyer At 18 Shortly after his graduation Mr. Knight went to Fort Myers where his mother had sought a mild climate. At the age of 18 he became the first lawyer to try a case in that community, then an isolated fishing village. He brought about the incorporation of Fort Myers in 1885 and became its first City Attorney. The following year he was elected Mayor. On August 24, 1886, Mr. Knight married Miss Lillie Frierson, daughter of Maj. Thomas S. Frierson, South Carolina planter and large slave holder before the civil war. The happy young couple were married in Atlanta. It took them 41/2 days to reach Fort Myers from Atlanta. They left Atlanta by train and made their way to Jacksonville. They were compelled to remain there one day to catch a boat going up the St. John's River to Sanford. There they took a train, a little narrow gauge railroad (the Plant system) to Bartow and remained overnight. The next day they caught another little narrow gauge train and went to KNIGHT'S 'HONEYMOON COTTAGE' The cottage at 245 Hyde Park Ave. where yo ung lawyer Peter O. Knight brought his bride to live before the turn of the century today is the headquarters of the Tampa Historical Society. The cottage was acquired in 1977 "due to the generosity of the Knight family and other members of the community. THE ELOQUENCE OF COLONEL KNIGHT Col. Peter O. Knight was an eloquent speaker. In October, 1914, he won a silver loving cup as champion speaker at a Rotary Club Southern Division meeting in Jacksonville in a contest limited to five minutes on the subject, "Why My City Is Best." His closing remarks were: ". When the sun rises in the morning it first casts its orbs upon Tampa. When it does so a smile of admiration and satisfaction overspreads its countenance. As it slowly wends its way through the heavens towards the west it is reluctant to set, fighting against disappearing, fearful that it will never see that splendid spot again. "If I had the time and were to go on and give you all the reasons why Tampa is not only the best city in the South but the most superb city in the Universe, I would simply have to bankrupt the English language. ."
Cleveland (near present Punta Gorda). They had to remain there overnight and the next day left by steamer for Fort Myers. Shoot 'Em Up Days Although he remained in Fort Myers only five years, Mr. Knight's accomplishments there were many and varied. His life in this wild country was filled with stirring events, including hot political campaigns, murders and threats of death and horsewhippings which KNIGHT BROUGHT US THE STREET CARS Col. Peter O. Knight, who was president of the Tampa Electric Company, always was proud of the fact TECO provided mass transportation with street cars-and the fare was only W This photo, made in 1918, shows a trolley on Lafayette St. (now Kennedy Blvd.). The avenue already was double-tracked. The odd-shaped building at right is the First Baptist Church. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION IT'S PETER O. KNIGHT IN CAPS AT THE TRIB Jerry R. McLeod, former Sheriff of Hillsborough County and before that an executive on both Tampa newspapers, tells this one: The owner of The Tampa Tribune for many years was Col. W. F. Stovall. Editors and reporters, o f course, had to follow his wishes on "style" concerning capitalization, punctuation, etc. The Colonel liked the "down" style, meaning that few words were capitalized. "The Tribune uses the lower case-only Jesus Christ and Peter O. Knight are capitalized!" he would shout.
PETER O. KNIGHT STATION For years, the Peter O. Knight station of Tampa Electric Company was on the west bank of the Hillsborough River about where The Tampa Tribune plant is now. Named in honor of Col.. Peter O. Knight, the power plant added one more smokestack after this photo was made -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
forced the young lawyer to follow the custom of always being armed. In 1887 he started a movement which led to the separation of the Fort Myers area from Monroe County and became the first County Attorney of Lee County. In 1888 he was elected the County's first delegate to the State Democratic Convention and the following year was elected to the legislature in a heated election which swept the Knight's faction slate into office over the Hendry slate. Brilliant Speaker Already a clever leader, the young Legislator made his debut in Tallahassee by forming a bloc which put into office its choice for Speaker of the House. As chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, he became a close friend of Gen. Joseph B. Wall, brilliant Tampa jurist and chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee. General Wall was impressed by his colleague's keen, incisive reasoning, his convincing logic and brilliant forensic eloquence and as soon as the session of the legislature ended asked him to come to Tampa to form a partnership. This Mr. Knight did on Oct. 22, 1889, entering the second phase of a career that was to stamp him as a man of marked ability and place him high in the esteem and respect of the legal fraternity and business world. Held Offices in Tampa Although regarded as an important figure in Florida and Hillsborough County politics, the pioneer held only two public offices in Tampa, serving first as County Solicitor and then as State Attorney. While holding the latter office he decided to seek no further political honors, convinced that he could serve the interests of his nation, state and county better as a private citizen than as a public official. His belief that he could wield more influence if not connected in any capacity with any political organization or enterprise proved well-founded in later years when he quietly sponsored many successful candidates for municipal, county and state offices. An Able Attorney Although unknown and virtually penniless when Mr. Knight came to Tampa, he became one of the country's ablest attorneys. As a business man and executive he was associated with a long and varied list of companies organizing or sponsoring many of them. Mr. Knight helped organize the Tampa Suburban Company in 1892, which was acquired by Tampa Electric Company, of which he served as president from 1924 to 1946. In 1894 he helped organize the Exchange National Bank of Tampa and the next year, the Tampa Gas Company. Included among the companies he helped organize or sponsor were Tampa Hardware Co., Tampa Phosphate Co., Tribune Publishing Co., Florida Brewing Co., Tampa Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Ybor City Land & Improvement Co., Sanchez & Haya Realty Co., Tampa Terminal Co., Tampa Union Station Co., Brooksville State Bank, Lee County Bank, Hernando County Bank, First Savings & Trust Co., and the Exchange Bank of Winter Haven.
Proud of Contributions Mr. Knight was most proud, however, of his contributions to Tampa at two periods which he considered critical. He persuaded the Seaboard Air Line Railway to purchase Seddon Island, thereby establishing Tampa's first harbor terminal. And through his efforts the great engineering and financial firm of Stone and Webster finished the development of Davis Islands, transforming unsightly mud flats into an exclusive residential section. He became a director of Davis Islands, Inc. and because he was instrumental in carrying negotiations for a municipal airport site on the southeastern tip of the islands to a successful conclusion the City named the airport in his honor. A land and seaplane base, it is now known as Peter O. Knight field. Ran Hog Island Shipyard Governmental recognition of his abilities came to Mr. Knight during World War I when he was selected as vice president and general counsel of the American International Shipbuilding Corp., the principal project of which was the operation of Philadelphia's Hog Island shipyard. But when, after two years, his service no longer was needed he returned to Tampa rather than remain in the circles of big business. During the Harding Administration, an official of that administration revealed years later, Mr. Knight was offered a place on the bench of the United States Supreme Court but, adhering to his early resolution, refused this great honor. "A Private Citizen" He was urged often by friends to become a candidate for Governor, United States Senator and other offices but consistently declined, expressing a preference to remain in the background "to do what I can as a private citizen." Highly regarded as an authority on Florida industrial, financial and civic development, Mr. Knight brought Tampa nationwide publicity through interviews published in large publications. An astute observer of affairs, he was long outspoken on big issues of the day, national as well as local. He spoke to many organizations and was very active in the Chamber of Commerce on both the local, state, and national level. Always Peter O. Knight was the spokesman for Florida. He was widely quoted in such newspapers as the Wall Street Journal, New York Evening Post, Philadelphia Enquirer, Christian Science Monitor, etc. To many, Peter O. Knight was Florida's leading and perhaps most useful citizen, certainly the state's most consistent booster. Bibliography "Colonel and Mrs. Knight Celebrate Golden Wedding Anniversary Today" Tampa Daily Times. August 25, 1936. "The Exchange in Review" Exchange Bank News. 1962. "Peter O. Knight Services Friday" Tampa Daily Times. November 27, 1946. "Teco News" October, 1969.
1906 PUBLICATION PRAISED KNIGHT Following is an excerpt from the chapter on "The Lawyers of Tampa" from the book, Twenty-Four Years in the Woods, On the Waters and In the Cities of Florida by Henry A. Peeples, published in 1906 by Tribune Printing Company, Tampa, in the Hampton Dunn Collection: PETER O. KNIGHT "And still they gazed and yet the wonder grew, that one small head held all that Peter knew. Peter O. Knight, who is a comparatively young man today, was born in 1865. His father died when he was nine years old. He was the only child, living with his widowed mother in Indiana. At an early age he graduated from the Valparaiso Law School. He moved from Indiana to Fort Myers, Fla., which was then in Monroe County, Key West being the county seat. Soon after moving there, and before he was of age, he was instrumental in having the county divided, and Fort Myers incorporated. He was immediately elected the city's first Mayor. That year the Democrats nominated him, without his knowledge, for the Legislature, but he had to decline on account of his not being of age. He married a daughter of one of South Carolina's bravest and most highly esteemed veteran gentlemen, Captain T. D. Frierson, of Sumpter, S.C. Peter now enjoys life with his wife and two little sons at his elegant mansion in Hyde Park, where many friends are often royally entertained and made happy by Peter's smile and hearty hand-shake and the unfeigned welcome of the wife that always follows under all conditions the aristocracy of her State. Peter O. Knight came to Tampa in 1889 and was the first Prosecuting Attorney of the Criminal Court. He resigned that position to accept the position of State's Attorney for the Sixth Circuit, and later resigning that on account of his immense law practice. I will mention a few of his duties, legally, fraternally and socially: President of the Tampa Investment and Securities Company; Vice-president of the following companies: Tampa Steam Ways Company, Tampa Tribune Publishing Company, Ybor City Land and Improvement Company, Street Railroad Company, and Electric Light Company. Also director and attorney of all the above companies.
Director and attorney for the following companies: Tampa Gas Company, Exchange National Bank, Florida Brewing Company, Plant City, Arcadia and Gulf Railway, Tampa Building and Loan Association, Tampa Hardware Company, Tampa Ice Delivery Company, Warnell Lumber and Veneer Company, and Tropical Ice Company. Attorney for the following: Seaboard Air Line Railway, Tampa Water-Works Company, Havana-American Cigar Company, Southern Bell Telephone Company, Ybor City Building and Loan Association, and a number of other institutions. A member of the Knights of Pythias, Woodmen of the World, Elks, Thirty-Third Degree Mason, Knights Temple. PETER O. KNIGHT AIRPORT Tampa got a modern airport as a WPA project in the late 1930s. It was named Peter O. Knight Airport in honor of the city's outstanding citizen. This photo of the Administration Building was made in July, 1938. The city was proud of this facility. Plane passengers could get a five minute ride into downtown Tampa for $.25 cab fare. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
Member of Cherokee Club, Crescent Club, Spanish Casino, German Club, Sons of American Revolution, and Military Order of Foreign Wars. This last membership he has by reason of the fact that his grandfather, Richard Knight, was in the war of 1812 as a captain.
THE WORK OF ONE MAN CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE By DR. DEREK C. BOK President Harvard University Text of speech by Dr. Derek C. Bok, President of Harvard University, and grandson of Edward Bok, builder of Lake Wales' Singing Tower. It was delivered Feb. 1, 1979, on occasion of DR. DEREK C. BOK ADDRESSES ANNIVERSARY CROWD PhotobyHAMPTONDUNN
the 50th anniversary of the dedication of the tower. It is a great honor for me to speak to you today on behalf of Edward Bok, the man responsible for this tower and the sanctuary that surrounds it. Of all the gifts he made, the sanctuary is the one that mattered most to him. How he would have loved to be here today-and how pleased he would have been to learn that millions of people have come to the sanctuary over the past half century to look and listen and perhaps to find themselves again. How delighted he would have been to discover that after a half century filled with depression, war, and unprecedented courage, the bells still play magnificently and the gardens are, if anything, even more beautiful than they were when he looked upon them for the last time. As most of you know, the idea of this sanctuary did not originate in the mind of Edward Bok, nor even in the United States, but on a tiny island in the North Sea-a place so barren and desolate that even the birds could not find shelter from the winds. To that island came a young man to serve as mayor. And every year for fifty years he planted trees and shrubs and plants until the barren island was transformed into a sanctuary for the birds and a place of beauty for artists and visitors of every kind. Grandmother's Admonition His wife bore thirteen children on that island and to all of them she said: "As you go out into the world, I want each of you to take with you the spirit of your father's work, and each in your own way and place do as he has done and make you the world a bit more beautiful and better because you have been in it." The woman who spoke those words, of course, was Edward Bok's grandmother, and this sanctuary is his attempt to re-create on this high ground what his grandfather accomplished on that island in the North Sea. MRS. CURTIS BOK, The American Foundation, and Kenneth D. Morrison, Director, Mountain Lake Sanctuary, at anniversary celebration. -Photo by HAMPTON DUNN A MOTTO TO LIVE BY Edward Bok's grandmother admonished her offspring, "Make You the World a Bit Better or More Beautiful Because You Have Lived in It. Certainly Bok carried out the spirit and letter o f this Motto, shown here on a plaque at the Singing Tower. -Photo by HAMPTON DUNN
But what manner of man was Edward Bok? What meaning can we take from his life and the sanctuary he left us? Looking back, Edward Bok seems a little quaint, a bit antique, rather out of fashion. We cannot imagine his autobiography winning the Pulitzer Prize today as it did in 1921. But during his lifetime, he captured the attention of the American public, not only as a writer and publisher but also as the embodiment of Horatio Alger. The Horatio Alger story that helped make up the American dream was perfectly realized in Edward Bok. Arrived Penniless He arrived in this country at age six, without any money. He left school at age thirteen to support his parents and worked as window washer, baker's helper, messenger, reporter, and eventually as the editor of the leading women's magazine. Although he married the boss's daughter, no one ever doubted that he achieved success by his own merits. Nor could his achievements be described as a cheap commercial success, for he used his editorship to fight continually for a higher quality of life-pressing for better sanitation, conservation, honest advertising, better architecture. Though his magazine depended on pleasing women, he did not shrink from speaking out on uncomfortable subjects and unpopular causes. He wrote on venereal disease-when that was not a subject to be raised in polite society. He attacked women's clubs for being trivial. He even opposed women's suffrage, and opposing the right of women to vote was not an easy thing to do for the editor of a women's magazine. BELLS ARRIVE IN LAKE WALES Fifty one years ago, Sept. 11, 1928, five flat cars of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad rolled into Lake Wales carrying a strange cargo: 123, 000 pounds of bells that were almost as carefully guarded as a Presidential Special. They were assembled as the largest carillon in the world at The Singing Tower. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
His editorials provoked much controversy and provoked many petitions for his resignation, but circulation continued to grow and grow, and eventually he amassed a fortune. At age fifty-six, however, he retired in order to devote himself to serving others-and it was in this period that he conceived and built the tower and the sanctuary. "Life is Simple" Throughout his life, Edward Bok preached a few basic maxims. They were anything but complicated, because as he often said: "Life is simple; it is only people who make it seem difficult." His precepts were few: Work hard to fulfill your talents, to provide for your family, and, above all, to be of service to others. Be scrupulous in honesty and integrity, for your good character is the most important legacy you leave behind. THE PRESIDENT DEDICATED TOWER President Calvin Coolidge was the guest of honor when Edward Bok's Singing Tower was dedicated on Feb. 1, 1929. Shown here from left, President and Mrs. Coolidge and Mr. and Mrs. Bok. The President, they called him "Silent Cal, was a man of few words, but the day he came to Lake Wales, he was so impressed with it all, he made one of his longest speeches, some 3,500 words. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
Love America for allowing you, and many others, the opportunity to progress and succeed according to your merits. Be an idealist; be slow to criticize and quick to see the good in others. Above all, recognize the power that lives in you, the individual. As he once wrote: "It was only one snowflake that began the storm; it was but one grain of sand that started the cyclone. It is you who are potent; you who are mighty-not others; not everyone else-but you." From the vantage point of 1979, this philosophy seems definitely quaint and out of date. The maxims are too simple, idealistic to the point of seeming banal. Success is not simply a matter of hard work and clean living. The migrant worker, the abandoned wife on welfare, the jobless adolescent in the ghetto-none of these has an equal opportunity to rise to fame and fortune. If honesty and integrity are so important, why are so many people in high places so careless with the truth? And how can one be so idealistic in a world of atomic bombs, of Watergate, of Viet Nam, of violent crime, and widespread unemployment? If Bok Were Alive In truth, life is not simple-it is a big bloomin' buzzin' confusion with huge problems and billions of people crowded together on a planet where none of us can be sure of our ability to know how to resolve our problems, let alone make much of a difference. Despite these doubts and complications, I suspect that Edward Bok would still stick to his convictions if he were alive today to express them. He would put them differently, of course, for no one ever had a shrewder grasp of his audience. But he would not have been surprised or shaken by the arguments of the realists and the pessimists. He knew that hard work didn't always bring national success; he saw failure and disappointment all around him. He knew that there was evil in the world for he campaigned continually against it. He understood that America wasn't perfect, for he often wrote of its shortcomings -its slums, its waste, its preoccupation with material things. But he was not an academic scholar building complex theories to account for each detail. He was a publicist. He believed in moving people-lots of people-and so he preached the simple message that he felt the country and its people needed in order to keep moving forward so that we could eventually solve our problems. Unshakable Conviction And so, despite the hardships of the world-the suffering, the injustice, the corruption-despite Watergate and Viet Nam, he would have clung to his idealism because he knew that without faith, without optimism, without a belief in the good of others, without a love of country, there could be no trust, no willingness to sacrifice for others, no hope for the future, no respect for authority-and ultimately no possibility of social betterment and reform. Above all, he would have clung to his faith in the individual and in the ability of each human being to make a positive contribution, for he knew that once we lose faith in our power, as individuals, to make a difference, all hope of progress will inevitably come to a halt. In the end, it is this faith in human beings, this unshakable conviction in the responsibility that each of us bears toward our fellow man, that gives the real meaning to our celebration.
This tower, this sanctuary, this beauty that millions have enjoyed over the years are not only important in themselves. They are Edward Bok's way of saying that the work of one man can make a difference to enhance the lives of others. And so, if there is any message we can take from this celebration, it is the message that ultimately gave birth to the sanctuary: "Make you the world a bit more beautiful and better because you have been in it." If each of us can succeed in ways great and small to honor that maxim, the world cannot fail to be better for it.
SMUGGLING ALONG THE GULF COAST OF FLORIDA DURING RECONSTRUCTION By DR. JERRELL H. SHOFNER Chairman, Department of History University of Central Florida, Orlando Text of paper delivered at annual meeting of Tampa Historical Society in November, 1978, by Dr. Jerrell Shofner, Chairman, Department of History, University of Central Florida, Orlando. During the 1860s the United States government enacted an extensive array of taxes which remained on the books for years after the Civil War ended. Included among them were import duties on foreign cigars and liquor. Because of extensive trade and transportation ties between Cuba and Florida's west coast communities, there was abundant opportunity for enterprising individuals to earn a few extra dollars by smuggling in varying quantities of both liquor and cigars from the Caribbean island. From Florida ports the contraband could be reshipped to interior cities where it could be resold on the black market. Steamers and schooners carried large numbers of cattle from Tampa, Punta Rassa, and Manatee for sale in Cuba. Other schooners were transporting lumber from Cedar Keys to Tampa to the same destination. Fishermen from the Tampa Bay area also sold their catches there. And the New Orleans, Florida, and Havana Steamship Company-Florida Mail Line-made regularly scheduled trips stopping at all points along the Florida coast. Treasury department efforts to stop what is considered a raid on the national treasury caused secret agents to be sent to Florida to assist the regular customs officials and gather information leading to convictions of violators. Apparently the combined efforts of the regular customs force and the secret agents were unsuccessful in stopping the smuggling, but both groups did their best, and-perhaps more important in the long run-in reporting their activities, furnished some excellent accounts of life around Tampa Bay and along the Gulf Coast during the turbulent years of post-Civil War Reconstruction. St. Marks Fades Key West and St. Marks were the headquarters of respective customs districts, but their significance differed vastly insofar as surface transportation was concerned. Following the Civil War, St. Marks ceased to be an important seaport; during the eighteen months between July 1873 and December 1874, for example, only about a dozen vessels stopped there. Key West, on the other hand, was a bustling place. Vessels from anywhere in the world could stop at the customs station there, having their cargoes inspected and sealed, and then sail anywhere on the Gulf Coast without further interference from customs officials. Additionally, the island town was served by the Clyde and Mallory steamship lines, both of which sailed on schedule between the Atlantic seaports and the Gulf ports as far west as Galveston. The Florida Mail Line vessels also stopped at Key West. Cattle boats such as the Governor Marvin, Southern Star, the Emily, and the Bell sailing from Punta Rassa, Manatee, and Tampa did not stop at Key West, but were supposed to be handled by the customs officials at the mainland ports. Sometimes that was more theoretical than practical.
In some cases avoidance of the import taxes was more a question of convenience than a desire to cheat the government. In 1866, Agent J. D. Weed wrote the Secretary of the Treasury about the problem. There were three sawmills at Tampa Bay sawing about 45,000 feet per week, six mills on the Withlacooche River, seven on the Suwannee, and seventeen at Cedar Keys sawing about a half million feet per week, all of which was going to the Caribbean islands or to Mexico. He knew of fifty vessels which were then loaded with lumber and on their way to foreign ports. Each of these typically returned with from $500 to $3,000 worth of goods. They were usually willing to pay the duty at the place where they arrived, but they did not want to go all the way to St. Marks to do it. Unfortunately, the government was unable to place personnel at each of the tiny ports from which they operated. Weed also noted that, while it was unlawful for vessels of less than thrity tons to carry foreign goods, several were doing so. They were catching fish along the Florida coast and taking their cargoes to Cuba for sale. They also brought back taxable goods. "If they should be driven into smuggling," Weed SHOFNER GUEST OF TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Leslie McClain, left, incoming president of Tampa Historical Society, chats with outgoing president Dr. Glenn Westfall, center, and guest speaker Dr. Jerrell Shofner at the society's annual banquet at Palma Ceia Golf & Country Club in November, 1978. TAMPA TIMES Photo by Bill Serne
prophesied, "their knowledge of the reefs would make them almost impossible to catch." 1 The Busiest Port The busiest port in the St. Marks district was Cedar Keys, the Gulf terminus of the Florida Railroad which was revived in 1866 to carry cargoes across the peninsula from and to Cedar Keys and Fernandina. Treasury Agent Parks described the port as a railroad terminus where steamers stopped regularly-thus creating an unbroken line of transportation between Havana and New York. "After merchandise is safely landed at Cedar Keys it is safe from inspection and not liable to seizure. Therefore, it is vital to have an energetic collector with a good boat here. The nature of the coast here is such that he needs to be a good seaman, too.2 The steamers Alliance, Tappahannock, Margaret and Clyde of the Florida Mail Line were frequently compelled to anchor several miles below the town because of low water and the irregular channel from the bar to the town. Small boats immediately headed out to them, "so it is important that the collector hurry if he is to be the first on board." Parks estimated that there were from fifty to seventy-five vessels permanently located at Cedar Keys and nearby, mostly of small size. Some were spongers and many were engaged in oystering, while others were busy hauling cedar. All of them were capable of meeting the steamers and taking off taxable goods before the collector could reach them.3 Rumors of Smuggling Parks found rumors widespread about the town of tobacco and cigars being smuggled contrary to law. There were several inland settlements between Cedar Keys and Tampa which could not be easily visited by customs officials. Many of the captains of the small boats said they were inclined to smuggle and plans for such activity were discussed freely on the streets and everywhere. A favorite plan was to have the Havana steamers tie the goods on buoys to be picked up later by the local vessels and taken to the inland settlements for resale. Everyone agreed that the customs officers were easily eluded, while the greatest restraint on smuggling was the fear that neighbors might betray the M. 4Tampa was still a small village, described by a treasury official as "at the head of a bay of the same name, forty miles from its mouth. Vessels run up within four-five miles of the town and discharge cargoes into lighters." Since the larger ships, such as the Governor Marvin, sometimes arrived at night, the collector feared that they were unloading contraband goods before he had a chance to find it.5 STAGE COACH SERVED TAMPA For a long time during its developing years, Tampa was served by stage coach. Here's an advertisement published in July, 1855, telling all about the fine service. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
There was a stagecoach which carried the mail through the interior by way of Brooksville to the railroad station at Gainesville. The Tampa Board of Trade was already organized and advocating better mail facilities for the city by 1870, but the collector was suspicious that smuggled goods were being transported over that route to the railroad station from whence it could be reshipped either to Fernandina or into Georgia 6 Tampa in 1875 An 1875 visitor described Tampa as possessing two hotels, several boarding-houses, churches, stores, barracks, and communications with the outside world by stage coaches and mail steamers. Its population was estimated at about 600, chiefly engaged in the cattle trade, with the export of both cattle and hogs to Cuba being profitable businesses.7 With singular lack of foresight, one of the treasury agents about the same time declared emphatically that I am prepared to state that the means of transportation to and from Tampa are so limited and uncertain that people are leaving there and going to other places. And from the fact that there is no business, or any other inducements to bring transportation there, most undoubtedly there will be no more, at least, not enough worth naming for many years to come .... it seems to me that of necessity, that port must continue 8 to go backwards for years to come. Earlier J. D. Weed had recommended that the customs office at Tampa be abolished entirely and an inspector be stationed at Egmont Key from which point he could "keep watch over all vehicles entering the bay."9 Cattle For Cuba At Manatee, forty miles from Tampa, there was no collector, despite the fact that steamers frequently loaded cattle there for shipment to Cuba. Agent John C. Dutch, noting that 800 families had moved to the Manatee area in early 1867 and that the cattle trade was increasing, saw "urgent necessity of an increased force of customs officials to prevent smuggling." He recommended the purchase of two sailboats and sufficient personnel to permit them to patrol the many inlets along the coast near Tampa Bay.10 Punta Rassa was not a town at all, but only a station of the International Ocean Telegraph Company which ran from Cuba up the Florida peninsula. There was an 800 foot cattle wharf built by Jacob Summerlin, Frank Hendry, and others engaged in the Cuban cattle trade from that point. Near the wharf were large pens for holding the cattle, and on the water end of the pier was a house where the stockmen and drovers stayed when at the point waiting to load." 11A visitor in the 1870s commented that "the mosquitoes are so thick you can't camp out. Even cattle and horses have trouble."12 The Key West customs office reported that between July 1871 and July 1872 eighteen vessels, totalling 2,901 tons, with combined crews of 183 men, carried 18,349 head of cattle valued at $301,846 from Punta Rassa to Cuba. He lamented that an inspector was sorely needed there since the person stationed at Charlotte Harbor was never able to visit the point.13 Outwitting The Agents As the place least often visited by customs officials, Punta Rassa offered the greatest opportunity for uninterrupted smuggling, while Cedar Keys had perhaps the most systematic procedure for outwitting the customs personnel, but no port on the Gulf
was beyond the suspicion of the watchful treasury agents. Even Key West had its peculiar problems. In addition to suspected collusion between ship crewmen and customs officials who had authority to inspect and bond vessels, there were also unusual ways by which the duties were sometimes evaded. Frank Wicker complained of a French woman who debarked at the island city with 11 many pieces of fine lace sewed into her clothing and did not declare it." Deputy Collector J. C. Whalton, a Catholic, apprehended her, but when he saw her beads "he broke right down. Her baggage was approved and sealed by F. W. Morena, one of the wealthiest and most influential Catholics here. It would seem that justice was thwarted by Catholicism.... It is this clique that causes trouble."14 The smuggling problem first came to the attention of customs officials in 1866 when a report was received that thirty-five vessels, formerly engaged in the Confederate blockade-running business, were outfitting for smuggling. They were ostensibly preparing to kidnap Negroes from the Gulf Coast and transport them to Cuba for resale into slavery, and then bring back cigars and liquor for sale in the United States.15 Secret agents began to be assigned in small numbers to the Gulf Coast at that time. One of the more active of them was J. Harry Jenks who apprehended Archibald McNeil, master of the Southern Star, a cattle boat, who was trying to avoid customs duties by declaring large quantities of gin and wine as part of the ships stores.16 Within a few months he had also seized the Margaret Ann and Seadrift whose captains were allegedly smuggling. He was also watching for the opportunity to capture the schooner Bell, a cattle boat operating out of Tampa, and the schooners Science and F. W. Waller, both of which were fishing vessels out of Tampa Bay.17 Pursuing 'Mr. Madge' Jenks' major target, however, was a mysterious "Mr. Madge" who was reputed to be smuggling large quantities of untaxed cigars. In 1868 Jenks asked to be relieved of an assignment a St. Marks and be detailed as a secret agent to pursue "Mr. Madge." The reassignment was granted, but Jenks was never able to apprehend the enigmatic smuggler. His investigation was interrupted when he was stabbed and severely wounded by unknown assailants at Cedar Keys in late 1968.18 Attention turned to Tampa when Jenks reported a new cattle corporation being formed in Tampa by John Henderson. He and nine partners had allegedly collected 10,000 head of cattle which they were planning to carry to Cuba and exchange for goods to be smuggled into the United States. One of the partners was John McKay, part owner of the Governor Marvin, whose appointment as customs collector at Tampa had recently enraged some of the local Republican leaders. Endorsed by Republican United States Senator Thomas W. Osborn, McKay had been appointed without the approval of local partisans. The Hillsborough Republican Executive Committee was soon filling the mails with testimony that he was a former Confederate who had publicly opposed the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments. Key West Customs Collector Frank Wicker, who handled much of the Republican patronage in South Florida, reported his belief that McKay was above suspicion, explaining that the local Republicans were miffed because their recommendations had been ignored in favor of McKay. He applauded the Tampa native's excellent administration of the customs office, but still recommended that he be replaced to pacify the local people. Without any evidence ever being produced against him, McKay was
shortly removed from the position by the Grant administration.19 Tampa's McKay Watched Treasury Agent A. C. Leib was convinced that McKay and most members of his large and highly respected family were engaged in smuggling at Tampa. For months he attempted to gather evidence against them. He and Jenks identified one John Machardo in Havana who was allegedly a "smugglers' broker." By watching him they hoped to follow contraband goods from Cuba and intercept them at the Florida ports. This tactic was to be McKay's undoing. Hot on the trail in 1868, Leib overlooked the fact that a McKay ran the Tampa telegraph office. He reported disgustedly, "The telegraph beat me on the matter of the Governor Marvin, but I will get affidavits. I shall get evidence on the McKays, showing their connection with the smuggling since the close of the war." So far as the record shows, he never did.20 In mid-summer 1869 a much wiser Leib reported laconically, "Yellow fever raging at Key West. Quarantines up all along the coast. It is better at stopping smuggling than I am."21 Tough For Agents Even when they captured the goods the agents encountered difficulties. When the Cedar Keys customs officials confiscated seven cases of liquor from the Havana steamer in 1872, W. N. Marks, owner of the line, complained that the merchandise should be returned since it belonged to the Bornio brothers, large shareholders in the firm, and loss of their tax-free liquor would irritate them. The liquor was not returned.22 Agent M. H. Hale gathered sufficient evidence at Cedar Keys to convict Albert E. Willard of smuggling. He also had enough evidence to go to court against Lewis Roux, the freight agent for David Yulee's Florida Railroad at Cedar Keys. But, it was an endless task. A few days after these successes, Frank Wicker complained that "the last trip of the S. S. Havana carried more cigars than were taken by any steamer on the line on any previous trip 23Hale reported that Customs Agent Starkweather and his assistant were doing their best at Cedar Keys but that sometimes vessels remained at the port for two days on account of low water. When that happened it was difficult to keep an agent on board at all times, because quite often a second steamer would arrive in the channel before the last one left. When that happened, he said, they "are visited by boats from the shores and (this) makes matters very difficult." Another serious problem was that the owner of the New Orleans, Florida and Havana line "winks as if he is not himself involved in this unlawful traffic."24 Action In Pensacola Agent T. Pearson reported in late 1872 that "smuggling goes on at Pensacola just as at every other Gulf port. Things are hidden in small packages about the ship, in water tanks, under the ballast, etc." Agent Park affirmed that the same was true of Apalachicola. But Pearson added a caution which could probably be applied to all of the reports from these self-interested federal agents. He wrote, "But do not believe all the reports of such, for many are made by officeseekers, thinking this will give them an appointment.25 Some of those who engaged in smuggling had a higher regard for the customs officials than those people had of themselves. W. H., Heiss wrote Edward M. L'Engle that "it is not safe to send Cuban cigars via Cedar Keys as ... the Customs House folks at that place are 'shure shots.'26 That was a sometime thing, however, for in 1875 Agent Pearson accused Cedar
Keys Customs Collector Isadore Blumenthal of collaborating with the smugglers at that port.27 Not Serious Infraction Despite the efforts of these exuberant treasury agents, smuggling of untaxed liquor and cigars continued for years after the end of the war. It was in violation of a law which Gulf Coast dwellers did not respect, enacted by a government with which they had recently fought a war and lost. Many of the ship crews-sometimes aboard the same vessels-had become experienced in running the federal blockade during the war and saw little difference in what they were doing after 1865. The opportunity to make a few extra dollars by smuggling on their return trips from Cuba was not regarded as a serious infraction by those engaged in it, or even by most of their neighbors. In such a situation the law was exceedingly difficult to enforce. As Agent Leib said, yellow fever, which could stop all vessel movement, was much better at preventing smuggling because it stopped all trade. The petty smuggling along the Gulf Coast gradually subsided in the later years of the nineteenth century as Floridians recovered from the devastation and adversity of the Civil War and its aftermath. Meanwhile, the zealous treasury agents, in attempting to justify their positions and impress their superiors, wrote voluminous reports which incidentally gave us excellent insights into life along the Gulf Coast during a period for which other records are exceedingly scarce.
NOTES 1 T D. Weed to Hugh McCulloch, April 17, 1866, Records of the Treasury Department, Microfilm 97H, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, Gainesville, Florida. 2 Agent Parks to Henry Johnson, August 11, 1874, Box 358, Special Agents Reports, Records of the Treasury Department, Record Group 36, National Archives. 3 Parks to M. H. Hale, April 4, 1872, ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Frank N. Wicker to George S. Boutwell, October 25, 1870, Box 423, Special Agents Reports, RG 36, NA. 6 Tampa Florida Peninsular, February 5, 1873. 7 Frederick Tench Townshend, Wild Life in Florida (London, 1875), p. 47. 8 T. Pearson to H. S. Johnson, May 3, 1875, Box 361, Special Agents Reports, RG 36, NA. 9 J. D. Weed to Hugh McCulloch, September 22, 1866, Microfilm 97H. 10 John C. Dutch to Customs Bureau, September 19, 1867, ibid. 11 George H. Dacy, Four Centuries of Florida Ranching (St. Louis, 1940), p. 5 7. 12 Townshend, Wild Life in Florida, pp. 1943-46. 13 Wicker to Boutwell, August 8, 1872, Microfilm 97H. 14Wicker to Boutwell, July 13, 1872, Box 423, Special Agents Reports, RG 36, NA 15 Tallahassee Serni-Weekly Floridian, March 23, 1866. 16 J. H. Jenks to N. Sargent, July 21, 1867, Box 280, Special Agents Reports, RG 36, NA. 17 Jenks to Sargent, July 10, 1868, Microfilm 97H. 18 Jenks to Sargent, October 11, 1868, Box 280, Special Agents Reports, RG 36, N 19 Wicker to Boutwell, November 15, 1871, January 24, 1872, Box 423, ibid. 20 A. C. Leib to N. Sargent, March 14, 1868, Box 298, ibid; Jenks to Sargent, October 6, 1868, Microfilm 97H.
21 Leib to Boutwell, July 20, 1869, Box 298, Special Agents Reports, RG 36, NA. 22 Frank N. Wicker Report, October 11, 1872, Box 423, ibid. 23 Hale to Boutwell, September 28, 1872; Wicker Report, October 11, 1872, Box 423, ibid. 24 Hale to Boutwell, September 28, 1872, Box 423, ibid. 25 T. Pearson to Secretary of the Treasury, October 4, 1872, Box 360; Park to Bluford Wilson, April 28, 1876, Box 358, ibid. 26 W. H. Heiss to Edward M. L'Engle, February 8, 1873, Edward M. L'Engle Papers, Southern Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 27 T. Pearson Report, November 13, 1872, Box 362, Special Agent Reports, RG 36, NA.
HUGH MACFARLANE: WEST TAMPA PIONEER By DR. GLENN WESTFALL Department of History Hillsborough Community College The last quarter of the nineteenth century was one of the most dramatic times of change in American History; when the 1890 census declared the frontier was officially closed, the nation was the world's largest industrial giant. Immigrants arrived by the hundreds of thousands annually, filling cities and farmlands in the North, East and West. The South, still suffering from the ravages of the Civil War and Reconstruction, was predominantly agrarian, but historians have given little attention to the industrial development which emerged in the South. It has been only in the last decade that historical researchers have seriously studied southern economic development, and an area of surprising interest has been Florida's tobacco industry and its entrepreneurs. By 1900, cigar production lead all other Florida industries in the number of laborers employed, salaries paid to workers, and state revenue collected. When the 1868 Cuban Civil War erupted, several major cigar manufacturers fled to Key West and New York, and later, to Jacksonville, Pensacola, Marti City (Ocala) and the Tampa Bay area. While Don Vicente Martinez Ybor and his business friend Ignacio Haya initiated Tampa's cigar center, Ybor City, another lesser known but nonetheless significant individual who furthered Tampa's economic growth was Colonel Hugh Macfarlane. A Success Story Macfarlane's life was a success story; his departure from Scotland to his settlement and pioneer efforts in the Tampa Bay area, signified the immigrant whose dream for success in America became a reality as well as an invaluable benefit to his city, state, and COL. HUGH C. MACFARLANE ... His Life a Success Story.
newly adopted nation. Hugh Campbell Macfarlane was born in Pollock Shaws, Renefewshire, Scotland, December 28, 1851. At the age of fourteen, his parents migrated to the United States, arriving first at Fall River, Massachusetts. They soon resettled about 100 miles north of St. Paul, Minnesota, where Hugh attended St. John's College. He then moved, alone, to Boston, where he was employed as a newspaper reporter before enrolling full time as a law student at Boston University. Upon graduation, he was admitted to the Massachusetts bar, and opened law offices in Fall River. Soon after opening practice, Macfarlane married a girl known only as "Miss Brown" by family members. The marriage was a short one; after giving birth to a son, James, the couple were divorced, and Hugh decided to begin a new life by moving to New Orleans. It was in the sunny Southern city that Macfarlane first heard about Tampa, a tiny coastal village along Florida's west coast. Stories of the village evidently intrigued him, since he decided to move to the sleepy Gulf Coast settlement in 1884, when he was thirty three years of age. Macfarlane arrived at a crucial time to Tampa's history; it was on the verge of transforming into a major southern port with the arrival of the cigar manufacturers Ybor, Haya and other leading producers of fine quality cigars. Macfarlane quickly blended into the local political activities, joining prominent Tampans in organizing the Tampa Board of Trade, May 7, 1885. Unquestionably, the Board's most important accomplishment was its inducements to lure cigar manufacturers to Tampa. As a member of the Board of Trade, Macfarlane heard the MACFARLANE RESIDENCE IN WIEST TAMPA
THE MACFARLANE FAMILY. Hugh Macfarlane, Frances Pettingrill Macfarlane, and their two children, Mary and Howard. requests for information concerning Tampa's climate, transportation facilities and local support to their industries. His legal advice and assistance made him a well respected member to Tampa's "Old Guard" families on the Board. Appointed Attorney The energetic Macfarlane wasted little time in his new hometown. By 1887, he was appointed Tampa's city attorney for a three year term. In 1890, his legal abilities were honored when Governor Henry Laurens Mitchell appointed him as the state's attorney for the sixth judicial circuit, a great honor to be bestowed upon a Florida newcomer. With his career as a successful attorney assured, Macfarlane diversified his involvements in Tampa by investing in real estate and the cigar industry. While serving as city attorney, Macfarlane witnessed the tremendous growth and incredibly rapid transformation of Tampa into a world renowned cigar center. The recently completed Plant railroad gave Tampa markets access to the nation; expansion of shipping interests, and the phenomenal expansion of Ybor City's immigrant population convinced him to capitalize on real estate investments and cigar making. He purchased two hundred acres of land which was nothing more than a combination of marsh and wilderness in the late 1880's. Located on the west bank of the Hillsborough River, the acreage was quickly transformed into West Tampa, the area's second industrial community. After surveying
MACFARLANE ERECTED FORTUNE STREET BRIDGE To enable residents of the new West Tampa community to go quickly back and forth to Tampa, Hugh C. Macfarlane and his associates late in 1.892 erected an iron drawbridge over the Hillsboro ugh River at Fortune Street at a cost of $30,000. -Photo by HAMPTON DUNNthe land, it was divided into realty subdivisions. Macfarlane and associates then constructed an iron drawbridge in 1892 over the Hillsborough River. Known as the Fortune Street Bridge, and constructed at the cost of $30,000, it was the lifeline of prosperity for the new community. He next financially assisted the Consumers Power and Light Company to implement the construction of a streetcar line. With subdivided land and access to Tampa, Macfarlane was prepared to compete with the rival Ybor City. He devised a plan to make West Tampa more appealing through the offer of free factories to manufacturers wishing to settle in his community. (Ybor offered only ten-year free leases to manufacturers who delayed payment on their factories.) Leases were given to manufacturers, provided they agreed to bring specific numbers of workers with them who would either rent, lease, or purchase their homes from Macfarlane. West Tampa Booms The young businessman also took advantage of labor unrest between Cuban laborers and Spanish factory owners in Key West. Because of its proximity to Cuba, Key West was a hotbed of rumors concerning atrocities against
native Cubans by Spanish authorities. Key West Cubans reacted by striking or protesting in Spanish owned factories. Capitalizing on the strife, Macfarlane and several businessmen arrived as a delegation to the island city, offering a new location for a cigar center, free from the dissension of Key West. As a consequence, West Tampa boomed. By 1895, more than 2,000 persons, mostly Cubans, resided in West Tampa. It was incorporated as a city that same year, avoiding incorporation into the Anglo controlled Tampa until 1924. West Tampa was a community dominated by Cubans; its first mayor was Fernando Figueredo (who was later the treasurer for the island of Cuba.) Howard Avenue (named after Macfarlane's second son) was a thriving street, with Cuban shops, social clubs and cigar homes surrounding it. There was another surge of prosperity in 1899, when ten leading clever Havana manufacturers from Havana located in West Tampa, bolstering its economic development, population, and stature as a cigar center. Macfarlane Park After West Tampa's success, Macfarlane devoted his time between real estate interests and law practice, serving as the top criminal lawyer of the state. He always maintained a personal interest in the laborers and citizens of West Tampa, giving generously, often without publicity, to both individuals and organizations. In 1908, he contributed forty acres of drained land for the formation of Macfarlane Park. In 1912, he diligently assisted to receive assistance from his fellow Scottish immigrants' foundation for the construction of two Andrew Carnegie libraries, one in Tampa, the other in West Tampa. His community participation included membership in several fraternal orders: the West Tampa Board of Public Works, Port Commissioners, and a life member of the Rocky Point Golf Club. In addition, he maintained membership in local, state and national bar associations. Soon after his arrival to Tampa, Hugh Macfarlane married Frances 1. Pettingrill. They had two children: Howard P. and Mary E. (Hoyt). His son from his first marriage, James, occasionally visited Florida, but maintained his residence in Fall River, Massachusetts. Enriched His Community The family grew and prospered together in Tampa, becoming important in both economic and social circles. Hugh maintained his prosperous legal career throughout his lifetime and was noted as a gifted orator, "whose appearance in the courtroom brought an aura of respect from all present." Mr. "West Tampa" remained active in law until his death at his residence January 7, 1935. His obituary fondly described him as having the "canniness of a Scot, the resourcefulness of an American, and the genuine wit and wisdom of a Florida Cracker." Indeed, his life as a Florida Pioneer enriched not only his local community but also his state and nation.
TAMPA'S LONGEST DAY Now It Can Be Told: The National Guard's Official Report on City Election, Sept. 3, 1935 By HAMPTON DUNN Tampa has just gone through another quadrennial Mayoralty election. This one was a mild, patty-cake affair, compared with many we had back in the pre-World War 11 days. The hottest election of 'em all occurred on Tuesday, Sept. 3, 1935, following a turbulent Labor Day weekend and during one, of the city's most violent tropical storms. And a "hot" election in that era meant just that "hot" votes, fraudulent registrations, stolen ballot boxes, cannon manned by National Guard troops, reckless display of machine guns, sawed-off shotguns and a whole arsenal THE MORNING AFTER This was the front page of the Tampa Morning Tribune the morning after the hectic City election of Sept. 3, 1935. -Photo fromHAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
of weapons by an army of special City Police and special Sheriff's deputies. Showdown Clash This was the showdown clash between two political factions. The two camps were headed by old pros-then incumbent Robert E. Lee Chancey and Ex-Mayor D. B. McKay. There had been a "warmup" contest four years before, and tensions and bad feelings had continued to build up as the battle for power raged onward. Election Day 1935-44 years ago-brought an eyeball to eyeball confrontation of the City and County adversaries. And it was a day in which there was a display of naked, brute force. All of which gave Tampa a bad name throughout the nation. It was the infamous day in history when this city hit rock bottom. There was very little good about those "good old days. Besides the Mayoralty candidates, the two top characters in the day's events were Hillsborough County Sheriff Will C. Spencer and Police Chief R. G. Tittsworth. Troops Turned Out And Gov. David Sholtz and State Adjutant General Vivian Collins ordered out the National Guard to keep order. Col. Homer W. Hesterly was Commanding Officer of the 116th Field Artillery, with headquarters in Tampa. (By the way: When it was all over and the smoke of battle had cleared and the winds of the storm had calmed and the National Guard troops went back to being civilians, it was determined that Mayor Chancey had been reelected by a margin of 4,241 votes. (The mess triggered a cleanup movement by the good citizens of the community.) Here, for the first time, is published the official narrative of the day's happenings, as recorded by Colonel Hesterly in his report to General Collins. He wrote the report in the same calm, cool and firm way, in which he directed the troops during that crisis. The report was made available to me by today's State Adjutant General, Maj.-Gen. K. C. Bullard, whose headquarters is in St. Augustine. General Bullard is a former Tampan and served as Hillsborough County Tax Collector prior to his appointment to the Florida National Guard's highest position. He's an alumnus of the 16th FA. Colonel Hesterly's Report On with the story: HEADQUARTERS COL. HOMER W. HESTERLY ... you kept your feet on the ground.' -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
116TH FIELD ARTILLERY FLORIDA NATIONAL GUARD TAMPA, FLORIDA October 5, 1935. SUBJECT: Report of Active State Duty. TO: The Adjutant General, State of Florida, State Arsenal, Saint Augustine, Florida. 1. The following report covering the activities of troops called into active state duty by letter of the Adjutant General, Florida, dated September 3, 1935, later confirmed by paragraphs I and 2, Special Orders No. 209, AGO. Florida, September 5, 1935, is submitted: 2. Threatened disorders in connection with the municipal election of the city of Tampa caused considerable alarm among citizens and officials, resulting in the sheriff of Hillsborough County calling on the Governor for the assistance of the National Guard. The need for troops was announced by the sheriff several days in advance of the election and the Adjutant General reached Tampa the evening of 31 Aug. '35, to observe the situation and report to the Governor as to the true state of affairs. 3. Threats of disorder, inter-factional strife, fraudulent election practices, ballot box stuffing, stealing and switching; dissatisfaction on the part of many citizens with the activities of the election officials; rumored importation of hundreds of outside gunmen as special officers, and many other more subtle influences portended a trying day for September 3, election day. The Adjutant General conferred with many officials, candidates, and citizens, besides the Governor's office; and, on September 2nd, the order was issued for the mobilization of the Tampa units of the National Guard to be held in readiness at the Armory in Benjamin Field for use in emergency, especially to quell disorders. GOV. DAVID SHOLTZ 'I Am Proud -STATE PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVES
4. The Guard was called to aid the "civil authority", and a very interesting and, at times, confusing situation arose in this connection. There appeared to be, (and formal legal opinion of attorneys conflicted on the point), two overlapping bodies in power. The "Election Board" of the City of Tampa is a duly constituted body empowered by a special act of the state legislature to conduct municipal elections and said act attempted to give full power to act, including the policing of the elections. This police power in fact, if not at law, overlaps the power of the sheriff, the superior constitutional officer of the county to enforce the law and maintain order. The election board called on the city police department under the chief of police, to furnish the "police power" of the board. This apparent overlapping of authority to police the polls was the root of the trouble, which resulted in the calling of the Guard. This report takes no part of or interest in the under-lying causes of this condition, nor the other conditions which affected the participation of the Guard in the operations of the day. The remarks immediately following are purely expository and are set forth for the information of the Guard and for its assistance in possible subsequent similar developments. Further, these facts are generally known to the townspeople who are prone to shut their eyes to the conditions, and hence the remarks herein are merely expression of what is common knowledge and not the expression of any partisan party. The Guard must oftentimes step into a situation where the real issue is beclouded by conditions, and this makes its position the most difficult and its activities fraught with greater possibility of subsequent adverse publicity and criticismoftentimes by the ones it is faithfully undertaking to serve. 6. Be the underlying factors what they may: the election board, armed by the chief of police and his force, augmented by about 1154 special police imported into the city for the day, were interested in seeing that the conduct of the election was in accordance with the dictates of the election board, and they were obviously supporting one group of candidates. The sheriff's department, on the other hand, with an estimated five hundred special deputies likewise deputized for the day, was supporting the other interests, and hence was opposed to the city police force. Ostensibly, the sheriff's men were to prevent irregularities in the election, which, it was claimed, the underlings of the election officials were interested in perpetrating in favor of their candidate. This appeared to be essentially the situation, and this is the problem the Guard confronted. Doubtless affidavits in any number could be secured, defending both sides. However, conflicting the factors, the Guard had its work cut out for it. 7. So the order read "called out in aid of the civil authority": this is, or course, the sheriff. The sheriff's office was accusing the election officials of every degree and brand of irregularity and undertook to take steps to stop or prevent these irregularities. The Guard was called on to perform many duties which are not within the province of the Guard under existing orders; and careful consideration of the many and varied demands made on the military, was given, to determine just how far the force of the State could be utilized. Generally the Guard furnished the force while the sheriff's deputies armed with warrants made arrests under the muzzles of the rifles and pistols of the military. The Guard declined to make arrests, take or hold prisoners, enter polling places, handle election paraphernalia, to vote in uniform, to police polling places (the duty of the election officials), or, of
course, to take orders from any but proper military sources or from the sheriff direct. It is interesting to note that throughout the day a constant stream of demands, some right fantastic, came pouring into military headquarters, compliance with which would have been impossible in some cases, and in others would have been entirely unsound from a tactical standpoint and which would have reduced the effectiveness of the armed forces to the vanishing point. 8. The Adjutant General issued general instructions while the details of operation were, properly, left entirely up to the troops commander, and it can be stated that the troops commander received the fullest support from the Adjutant General. 9. It is obvious from the foregoing that the military establishment were confronted with a very unusual situation. There was no mob, no rioting body, no threatened invasion, no anarchistic demonstration. Strange as it may seem, the National Guard found itself supporting one political body against another, both ostensibly properly constituted and duly empowered each to perform the same job, but on opposite sides of the political fence. Its job included preserving order, and this involved protecting the public from irresponsibles enlisted in either or both factions; it involved supporting the sheriff in making raids on establishments where persons were on whom warrants for arrest had been issued; and this included a number of precincts where the precinct officials at the tables were put under arrest. In some instances, petty officials of the city were involved. On top of that, the military found later in the day that it would have to decline to assist in certain operations which, it was felt, fell without the jurisdiction of National Guard activity under its general instruction. 10. It became apparent that there was a very conflicting situation. It should be stated that the actual conduct of the election was in no sense within the scope of the military operations. What went on around the polls under authority of the election board and their properly appointed officials, was not the business of the Guard, and only when called on by the sheriff to support his men in some operation, raid, or arrest, did the Guard take a hand itself. Many false rumors about guardsmen "taking ballot boxes" and "entering polling places with machine guns", etc., were circulated. Orders on this class of activities were clearcut and definite and well observed. OPERATIONS 11. The tactical employment of troops can be definitely classified in several phases as the day developed: 1. Day before election. Mobilization at 8:30 P.M. 2 Sept. '35. 2. Prior to 9:00 A.M. Command held in readiness at Armory 3 Sept. '35. 3. 9:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. Reconnaissance and patrols. 3 Sept. '35. 4. 2:00 P.M. 3 Sept. to 2:30 A.M. 4 Sept. '35. a. Strategical dispositions of force and b. Support of sheriff's deputies in raids and arrests. MOBILIZATION. 12. The order for mobilization was broadcast from Station WDAE at 6:00 P.M. and repeated at subsequent times. The customary telephone system of spreading word was used
as well. By 8:30, the hour of mobilization, approximately 60 percent of the command was on the field in uniform. By midnight approximately 90 percent were present for duty. The strength for duty on September 3, election day, for the post was as follows: Strength Report, September 3, 1935 Organization: OFFICERS E M AGGEGATE Strength Present Strength Present Strength Present Regtl staff 6 5 0 0 6 5 Staff 1st Bn 4 3 0 0 4 3 He. Bury & C in 1st Bn 3 3 36 34 39 37 Battery "A 4 3 67 64 71 67 Battery "B 4 4 68 62 72 66 Battery "C" 4 4 65 60 69 64 Med Dept Det .3 3 22 22 25 25 Attached 2 2 1 1 3 3 30 27 259 243 289 270 ELECTION DAY OPERATIONS 13. An intelligence section in civilian clothes began operation as soon as the order for mobilization was given, and continued to gather information and report it to the troops commander until the troops were dismissed. Prior to 9:00 A.M. Force in readiness. a. Contrary to the special formations planned for regular riot duty the batteries were held intact, and were formed into squads within the battery in accordance with the riot duty formations, consisting of Rifle squad, Strong arm squad, Machine gun squad (1 section) each in command of an officer, the captain commanding. b. Gas detail from all batteries armed with special equipment from state arsenal, was assembled into on gas squad under a lieutenant. This detail was held at the Armory throughout the day ready for emergency service in any part of the city. Equipment consisted of three gas guns with gas shells, gas grenades, gas masks, pistols. c. Regimental Commander was in command. d. Regimental staff formed into observation patrols ready to move out on reconnaissance as soon as need for troops should be in prospect. The order "in readiness" required holding troops at the Armory. e. One officer, properly selected for coolheadedness and understanding of law, was placed in the sheriff's office as coordinator between the sheriff's office and troops headquarters with special duties of securing from the sheriff his instructions; and, for the protection of the Guard, he secured, when deemed advisable, signed orders covering the demands of the sheriff. 14. 9:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M., September 3: During the forenoon and through noon, and after the order to take active part in the support of the sheriff was received, the dispositions were made with a view of establishing contact patrols of negligible force and of officers of sufficient experience to prevent unwarranted, alarming reports and preclude too hasty action in participating in the anticipated disturbance. The regimental executive was assigned a portion of the city, the regimental plans and training officer a portion, and the battalion commander with a small force was dispatched to certain critical points, such as particularly unruly precincts. These patrols reported by phone at thirty minute intervals, giving Headquarters and the Regimental Commander a clear picture of the situation and the sentiment as the election wore on. This set-up afforded several important accomplishments: a. Regimental Headquarters was constantly advised of the situation
throughout the city as every polling place was covered. b. The presence of officers at the precincts, in succession, had a very quieting effect. It did not stop the irregularities of the election organizations but it dampened the ardor of the irregulars, some of whom were underworld characters and ex-lawbreakers under arms on both sides. c. It afforded an excellent opportunity to develop clearly a plan of action when the troops were compelled to take more definite action. 16. During this period, the sheriff made no particular demands calling for participation of the troops in any workable tactical plan. He did insist on having the troops parcelled out by details to each precinct, 29 of them-"to stop repeating and prevent officials from stuffing ballot boxes" and perform the duties of deputies. This the commanding officer steadfastly declined to do. The correctness of his decision in denying this subdivision of his force was justified in tactics, and particularly, in subsequent developments. It is felt important to stress the insistence which the sheriff used in demanding this division of force, and the responsibility the commanding officer necessarily took upon himself in declining the request of his proper source of orders, the sheriff. The commander of troops necessarily assumes that responsibility; he takes the position that the sheriff could request him to support the deputies, but the method to be used is for the troops commander to decide. The troops participating in this phase was important, though not conspicuous. 17. 2:00 P.M., September 3 to 12:30 A.M., September 4: During the afternoon and night, the principal activities of the troops took place. As a matter of fact, the entire force, except a small reserve, was out about the city throughout the afternoon and right through the worst of the hurricane. The operations in general consisted in: a. Strategical and tactical dispositions. b. Active support of raids and arrests by sheriff's deputies. c. Guarding of polling places to prevent disorders and irregularities such as stealing, or switching, of ballot boxes. FORT HONORS HESTERLY A WPA project in the late 1930s provided Tampa with a first class military armory. It was named Fort Homer W. Hesterly, commanding officer of the 116th Field Artillery. He was in charge of troops, then operating out of old Benjamin Field during that hot City election in 1935. -Photo by HAMPTON DUNN
It is notable that support was given the sheriff in effecting several raids in which warrants for the arrest of the precinct officials were served and the officials removed from the polling place; in three instances the deputies took the ballot boxes also-as evidence. The election officials complained bitterly about the removal of the ballot boxes and in subsequent raids the troops were compelled to prevent the sheriff from taking the ballot boxes without a court order, which, after investigation, was decided by legal counsel to be necessary before the Guard could properly assist the sheriff in such an act. One of the most critical situations of the day occurred at one precinct where the deputies demanded the box as well as the arrest of the officials, and when it was refused, a very tense situation arose, near midnight, into which the Guard stepped to very good effect; the deputies got their officials and the election board retained their ballot box. 18. In any of the raids pulled resulting in the arrest of the officials, the Guard took no active part in the service of the warrants leaving that entirely for the deputies to do. The troops did not enter a polling place, take any prisoners, or interfere in any way with the legal procedure of the election. Without exception, they merely supplied the display of force under which the deputies performed their duties. 19. The manner of performing the raids was conventional. The troops would move into position surrounding the object of the raid; machine guns mounted on antiaircraft tripods were set up in trucks and were stationed at strategic points covering the windows and openings of the establishment. Foot troops, armed with rifle and bayonet and pistol and. riot sticks, accompanied the deputies as closely as deemed necessary, to give them ample and certain protection. The deputies entered the places and made the arrests, after which the troops commander might detail an armed convoy to accompany the deputies and prisoners to the jail. The machine guns on antiaircraft tripods are not particularly well adapted to this service, in so far as the security of the gun squad is concerned, as snipers could very easily cripple the crew. The moral effect, however, was most excellent. The ability to sweep the surrounding area with fire in all directions, to cover windows an housetops against snipers-and, too, the very daring of so mounting the guns, had a very salutary effect. All raids involving arrests were conducted in essentially this manner. 20. The gas detachment was held at the armory in reserve for an emergency where it might be necessary to empty a building or break up a concerted disturbance between the henchmen of the two hostile factions. In the disturbance at midnight, above referred to, it appeared for some time as if the troops would have to force an entrance to the polling place, to assist the deputies in making arrests. In this case the gas detail was dispatched there to neutralize the force of some hundred-odd special police housed in the polling place for the purpose of repelling the attack of the deputies. Strict orders had been issued by the chief of police to allow no one to take the ballot box at any cost. The Guard succeeded in gaining the arrest of officials by the deputies, and at the same time preserved the box for the police, not having any authority from the court to take the box. 21. At about three o'clock in the afternoon of September 3, it had become evident there would be armed participation by the majority of the troops. This was
particularly true in light of the fact that we were to aid the sheriff in his raids and arrests. It was impossible to foretell what the reaction among the large force of special police might be. Hence it was decided to make a strategic move and threaten the "centers" of greatest tension and irregularity. These were on opposite sides of the city but on the same through street and scarcely more than a mile apart. However, it made a very nice disposition, together with the other battery being used in a succession of raids. A battery was detailed to each of these points with orders to make a show of force in the vicinity of these particular polling places; to report to the principal deputy on duty, assist him in any reasonable demands, locate immediately a telephone and contact troops headquarters, leaving on duty two men at the phone, and await developments and orders. 22. It developed that the presence of these two forces so advantageously disposed, also had a very dampening effect on the irregulars of the police department, and tended to calm the situation over a wide territory. 23. Threats of impending clashes in other sections and at troublesome precincts caused a further disposition of force to cover closely a wide territory. The two battery commanders were directed to dispatch a fourth of their batteries to two additional precincts, each in command of an officer with instructions to immediately report to headquarters by phone, establishing contact and detailing two men to remain at the phone (telephone men and, of course, a messenger); to report to the principal deputy and assist him in any reasonable mission, and keep in close telephone contact with his battery commander. 24. We now had these several units in the field in close communication: a. One battery assisting deputies in a succession of raids. b. Two batteries, less detachments, covering centers" of unrest. c. Four platoon detachments stationed at as many precincts and in close communication with their battery commanders. d. Roving officer patrol observing and reporting on the territory not otherwise covered. e. A reserve and a gas squad at the Armory. f. Command post and message center at Headquarters (Armory). g. Liaison officer in the sheriff's office. h. The Adjutant General at his hotel in touch with the State and leaders of both factions, with the press and public. An organization chart as in force, is appended showing the dispositions and chain of command during the afternoon's activities. 25. A most notable feature is the extreme mobility of the command with the trucks. The batteries used their own equipment, which was ample. The patrolling was done in headquarters station wagons. No effort was made to be secretive and boldness was the custom. In a very few minutes' time, a battery could be dispatched from one precinct to another and, while the officer in command was perfecting dispositions, a detail was contacting head quarters and a new phone number was noted on the diagrams at headquarters. It was understood that instantly a phone went out another would be resorted to. In this man ner, a comparatively small force covered a wide territory to the discomfiture, it is safe to say, of the irregulars
who were causing such disturbance as went on. 26. During the tour of duty a complete message center was in operation at the Armory. With our own equipment the phone from the boxing arena was run into the headquarters; the instrument from the officer's club was cut in on the regular phone as an extension; and the interphone system on the post made contact with the outside phone from Regimental Headquarters. The operations of the day were conducted in an improvised office on the ground floor where there was ample space for the organization to operate without disturbing the regular headquarters of the post. The message center made a record of all incoming and outgoing messages, particularly orders directing troop movements, and a chart was kept showing the pecinct number, detachment, officer in command, and telephone number at all times. This was, of course, changed as the day wore on and orders were issued moving forces. 27. A map of the city was placed on a plane table and pins with appropriate tickets showed the dispositions at a glance. One command telephone line was restricted to the use o the Executive in receiving orders from the sheriff's office and in issuing orders and contacting the moving forces This line had an extension from the message center with an instrument on the Executive's desk so that he could hear al incoming messages and so the Sergeant Major could get without loss of time, outgoing messages and record them in the diary. 28. During the hours when it was in operation in the heat of the activity of the afternoon and early evening, the organization worked to perfection; and one would have thought it had been in operation indefinitely. Late in the day, however, the telephones began to fail, and in the midst of the storm the operations were transferred to Post Headquarters where a phone was still in operation. Fortunately, this phone held on until 11:00 P.M. where all phone communication went on. The midnight operation above noted was handled through couriers. 29. Coupled with the high mobility, the morale and spirit of the men was superb. Not only was the attendance phenomenal, but the willingness of the command, officer and man alike, to fare forth on this most uncomfortable mission, facing criticism and discomfort as well as the unbated fury of the tropical hurricane, not to mention some hazard before hundreds of unorganized and undisciplined gunmen was a display that the Florida National Guard may well be proud of and upon which the State of Florida may rest with full assurance of unquestioned and unflinching service from her soldiers, in any emergency. 30. It is noteworthy that, after the troops took active part in the operations of the day, not a report of disturbance was recorded. Credit must be given in this for the advent of the terrific storm, which very effectively cooled the ardor of the participants which, otherwise, might have led to hilarity and trouble; and for the fact that special police officers had been instructed that the orders of the military force were supreme. 31. Although there has been criticism from all sides, it seems to be generally conceded that the National Guard acquitted itself with distinction. To use the words of Governor Sholtz to the troop commander: "You men did a good job, you kept your feet on the ground, I am proud of your regiment". (Signed) HOMER W. HESTERLY
Homer W. Hesterly, Colonel, 116th Field Artillery, Commanding. A TRUE COPY VIVIAN COLLINS, The Adjutant General, Florida.
WILL ITS ORIGINAL NAME BE RESTORED TO DAVIS CAUSEWAY? By HAMPTON DUNN What in the heck is the name of that span across Old Tampa Bay, linking Tampa and Clearwater? It was built by the late Capt. Ben T. Davis back in the depression years of the early 1930s and was christened "Davis Causeway." But shortly after his death in 1946, the Florida State Road Department, which had acquired ownership of the facility, used this project as a way to honor its Road Board member from the First District Courtney W. Campbell, later a U.S. Congressman, and now deceased.' A confused public calls it all combinations. The American Automobile Association (AAA) maps designate the development as "Courtney Campbell Causeway." A marker at the entrance to the bridge-road calls it "Courtney Campbell Parkway." Tampa's municipal beach at the east end is formally named "Ben T. Davis Memorial Beach." Grandson is Crusader With a strong movement on to clear up this confusion in the name, one letter writer to the newspaper has suggested that it be called "Davis-Campbell Causeway" to satisfy the heirs of both names that have been honored in the past. (That might lead to a new debate: Which name should come first, Davis or Campbell?). But George T. Davis, grandson of the courageous builder of the Tamp a-Clearwater link, continues to push to have CAPTAIN BEN T. DAVIS ... Relaxing on a swing. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
AERIAL VIEW OF DAVIS CAUSEWAY when it was first opened in the 1930s. The radio tower is that o f Radio Station WFLA, and the station's engineer, Joe Mitchell, lived in one of the homes in the foreground. PHOTO FROM YESTERDAYS CLEARWATERBY HAMPTON DUNN
the causeway known by its original label, i.e., "Davis Causeway." He has no objection to the beautification project along the roadside being designated to honor Campbell. (Apparently the only "legal" action on the name was a resolution adopted by the old State Road Board referring only to the flowers and shrubbery along the way, and naming that "Courtney Campbell Parkway.") Mrs. Hixon Writes The grandson has picked up formidable support for his crusade to assure the name of Captain Davis in posterity. Among those who have written letters to the editors of the newspapers are Mrs. Curtis Hixon, widow of Tampa's Mayor Hixon, who wrote: "Countless residents have benefited down through the years from this historical accomplishment and I feel confident that the greatest majority of them would highly endorse the proposed change", and Milton H. Davis, Sr., brother of D. P. Davis, builder of the fantastic Davis Islands in Tampa but no relation to the bridge-building Davises, who wrote: "Both my brother and I were personal friends of Captain Ben Davis. The hours we spent with the Captain listening to his plans about the building of Davis Causeway-a dream that he so decently struggled to achieve under most difficult circumstances." In 1973, the late June Connor, pioneer citizen and prominent banker, wrote The Tribune: "Thank you for the editorial welcoming back good old Cape Canaveral! "Now if we can give Davis Causeway back to Captain Davis, and have our own Lafayette Street restored, it would be fine. I also hope that people will forget the absurd renaming of good old 7th Avenue, which has been 'La Septima' to thousands for as long as Tampa was laid out. Broadway it From The Tampa Tribune, Oct. 6, 1968
DAVIS CAUSEWAY The Quick, Safe Route Across Old Tampa Bay Accurate Map of Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties, Showing Main Highways, Bridges, Towns, Ferries, Beaches, Bays, Airports and Golf Courses. Use Davis Causeway for Safety and Comfort. Save Time, Gas, Money and Avoid Accidents. Built by B. T. Davis and opened to traffic June 28, 1934. Spans beautiful Old Tampa Bay from west shore of Hillsborough County to east shore of Pinellas County. 9 miles long from shore to shore. Roadway 24 feet wide, smooth, straight and well marked. Connects Tampa and Mainland with Clearwater, St. Petersburg, Indian Rocks, Pass-a-Grille and other Gulf beaches. TOLL RATES PLEASURE Auto and Driver 0.25 Extra Passengers, each 0.05 Children under 12 years Free House Trailers, per thousand lbs. 0.05 Minimum 0.15 Trailers under 1000 lbs. 0.05 Motorcycles 0.10 Extra Passenger, each 0.05 COMMERCIAL Truck and Driver, per thousand lbs. gross 0.05 Minimum 0.25 Extra Passengers 0.05 ROUND TRIP 0.50 Passenger Cars and all Passengers DAVIS CAUSEWAY PROMOTION FLYER This excerpt from an advertising brochure urged motorists to use the fine new Dais Causeway facility connecting Tampa with Clearwater. The toll was 50 cents for a round trip of passenger car and all passengers. Photo from YESTERDAYS CLEARWATER BY HAMPTON DUNN
never was in size, and La Septima is not only poetic, but truly historic here in Tampa. "At least Dad Gandy's bridge still has his name!" Another Voice A year before that letter was printed, there was one from John M. Coram of Tampa. He wrote: ". When the late Courtney Campbell, as a member of the State Road Department, used his influence to have the Road Department provide the recreational facilities, the Road Department changed the name of the causeway to Courtney Campbell Causeway, which was not proper, for he contributed nothing to the building of the causeway, only his influence with the Road Department. The Road Department paid for TOLL GATE ON CLEARWATER SIDE The Davis family resided in the apartment above the toll house. The man seated at the table was taking a traffic survey when the causeway was first opened. PHOTO FROM YESTERDAY'S CLEARWATER BY HAMPTON DUNN CAPTAIN DAVIS AND GRANDSONS Capt. Ben T. Davis and grandsons, Ben C. Davis, left, and George T. Davis, seated on running board of famous Davis Causeway car known all over the state because of the Florida State Flag on the door PHOTO FROM YESTERDAY'S CLEARWATER BY HAMPTON DUNN
DEDICATION OF COURTNEY CAMPBELL PARKWAY The State Road Board under Gov. Millard F. Caldwell turned out in late 1947 to dedicate the Courtney Campbell Parkway left to right are Herman B. Fultz, Miami; Robert T. Carleton, Orlando; Chairman F. Elgin Bayless, Tallahassee; Courtney W. Campbell, Clearwater, and S. Kendrick Guernsey, Jacksonville. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION the construction of the recreational facilities. ." Coram noted that "the bridge properly should carry the name of its builder." A Masterwork Builder June 28 is the anniversary of the opening of Davis Causeway in, 1934, marking the realization of Captain Ben's dream and the overcoming of what seemed to be insurmountable obstacles. He had started the project in the halcyon days of 1927, but soon it came to a screeching halt, brought to a standstill by first, the Florida real estate boom collapse, and, then, the mighty national depression. But in 1932, Davis resumed his goal by obtaining a $600,000 loan from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), part of the "New Deal" alphabet. With the money he'd borrowed
from faithful friends, Davis invested $900,000 in the span. When Davis first started work on the project, many West Coast residents were calling him a "dreamer." When the causeway was completed 31 months later, the doubters were referring to Captain Davis as "a masterwork builder." Gets Mike Fright Came the big day for the opening, there were ceremonies sponsored by Corita Davis, daughter of the builder. The (I toll gate" for the moment was a garland of flowers strung across the traffic lane and this was cut by a group of Tampa beauties including Elizabeth Sharpe, Mary Fernandez, Becky Price, Mary Catherine Mickler, Robie Webb, Mrs. Sallie G. Bannon and Kathleen Simpson. Speakers for the significant affair were former Gov. Doyle E. Carlton and then Mayor R. E. L. Chancey. Captain Davis, the intrepid builder, made one of the shortest dedication speeches in history, in two sentences: "I've never faced a mike before. I'd rather get out and build another bridge than make a speech." Governor Carlton heralded the opening of Davis Causeway as "the writing of another chapter in the development of Florida." The Davis family turned the toll gate house into a home. A reporter once asked Davis if the cars didn't keep him awake at nights, and he replied: "I would have a lot more trouble sleeping if I didn't hear them." A friend once jested that Davis "wanted to be near the money." Toll Was 35 The toll was 35 for car and driver and 5 per passenger. At the time it was one of the nation's longest over-water fills, stretching for 91/2 miles. The main bridge was 3,510 feet. It shortened the drive to Clearwater from Tampa by 10 miles and gave Tampans a quick way to get to the Gulf beaches. The causeway had no sooner been opened as a tollway than agitation began to get it free. The 1935 Legislature passed a law (Chapter 17280) which gave the State Road Department the power to purchase, lease or otherwise acquire toll bridges of the type of Gandy Bridge and Davis Causeway (Gandy Bridge had been opened in 1924). In November, 1938, the Davis firm announced in a letter published in The Tampa Daily Times: "It is our disposition to cooperate with the State if it desires to acquire our enterprise. We are at present satisfied with our investment and have no desire to sell it, but if the State wants it we are prepared to negotiate a sale or lease on fair and reasonable terms. "Model PR Example" BEN T. DAVIS BEACH Capt. Ben T. Davis is not entirely forgotten on the causeway he built. The City of Tampa operates the Ben T. Davis Municipal Beach on the Tampa side Photo by HAMPTON DUNN
Next day, The Times editorially lauded the position of the Davis company as "reasonable and realistic." The agitation to turn Davis Causeway toll free was a follow up to the big fight then going on to make Gandy Bridge toll free, the latter because of "high tolls." The Times editorial concluded: "It is clear that if the operators of Gandy Bridge would take an equally reasonable attitude toward public appeals for lower tolls and eventually a free bridge, this public need could be promptly fulfilled without any hardships being imposed on anyone. The (Davis) Causeway operators have set a model example for public relations." But it was not until a few years later, during World War II, that both Gandy Bridge and Davis Causeway were to become toll-free. That happened at the height of the war, and at the height of a heated political campaign in which then Senator (now Congressman) Claude Pepper was in the fight for his political life, seeking reelection to the Senate where he was one of the main spokesmen for President Franklin D. Roosevelt. His chief opponent was J. Ollie Edmunds, President of Stetson University. Moving swiftly just days before balloting, the U.S. Navy Department declared that a free bridge would contribute to the war effort. Under the vast powers of the Second War Powers Act, the government moved to seize Gandy Bridge. MacDill Airmen Ignoring the political effects of the takeover, it was noted that airmen stationed at MacDill Air Force in Tampa needed to go to the Gulf beaches for recreation, while, conversely, many MacDill airmen lived in Pinellas County and commuted to the giant, busy air base. Just six weeks before, Davis Causeway had been taken over by the State Road Department. The price paid for the long causeway and the 3,510 foot bridge was $1,085,000, of which the Federal Works Administration paid half and the State Road Department paid the remainder. Pepper was reelected Senator, his big margin in Tampa Bay being the Key to victory. He was defeated the next time around, in 1950, by George A. Smathers. Captain Ben (his title was honorary) moved to Harlingen, Texas, and developed a big ranch there before his death in 1946. He was buried in Harlingen. "Great Builder" Lamenting his death, The Tampa Tribune editorialized: "Captain Davis must be recognized and remembered as one of Florida's great builders. His name will stand beside that of Gandy as a constructive genius who provided the public with quicker and easier means of communication." Besides this great achievement, Davis had a remarkable career. He came from a long line of famous men. He was a direct descendent of President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy and George T. Davis, the Attorney General for the Confederate States. His grandfather grafted the famous Ben Davis apple in Kentucky. Captain Davis was the first graduate in engineering from the University of New Mexico. In his early days, he built the first railroads in Mexico, and he was one of five men who originated and developed the exclusive Chapultepec Heights subdivision of Mexico City. All wharves in the port of
Tampico were constructed under his supervision. "Got Money, Left State" The controversy over the name change boiled during the 1973 Florida Legislature, but nothing was resolved. The Campbell side of the argument was presented by his former law partner, J. Rex Farrior, Sr., and by the widow of Courtney Campbell, who lives in Clearwater. A newspaper reporter quoted Farrior as saying, "What Courtney did was for the love of his community and the people of his district. Courtney was able with continual persuasion to get the other four (Road Board) members to let him use the maintenance fund to build the parkway and widen and resurface the road pavement. By contrast, Farrior was quoted, "Mr. Davis went in purely as a commercial venture for profit. After he got his money, he left Florida."
THE DAY TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY HONORED EVANGELIST BILLY GRAHAM World famed Evangelist Billy Graham was back in Tampa, here to conduct a Florida West Coast Crusade at Tampa Stadium. Actually, he was returning to the scene of his Bible college days and the launching of his world-wide preaching. For three years, culminating with his graduation in 1940, Billy Graham attended the Florida Bible Institute at Temple Terrace, now Trinity College at Dunedin. His first attempt to "save" sinners was preaching on the sidewalks of Tampa's notorious Skid Row. So it was, the Tampa Historical Society, in cooperation with the Tampa Ministers' Association, decided to erect a historical marker commemorating the evangelist's start here. It was erected on the grounds of the new State of Florida Office Building at Franklin DEDICATORY PRAYER FOR MARKER A dedicatory prayer by Dr. W. T. Watson closes ceremony dedicating historical marker to the Reverend Dr. Billy Graham. Left to right, foreground, are Dr. Watson, Dr. Graham and Tampa Historical Society representative Hampton Dunn. In background are Gov. Bob Graham, Mayor Bill Poe and Mrs. Ruth Graham -TAMPA TRIBUNE Photo by Dan Fager.
and Fortune Streets, once the center of Tampa's Skid Row. The evangelist himself, his wife Ruth, Crusade Musical Director Cliff Barrows, Gov. Bob Graham, Mayor William F. Poe, and numerous dignitaries were on hand that Monday, March 19, 1979, to dedicate the marker in the presence of a large crowd. Here is a play-by-play account of that exciting event: HAMPTON DUNN Master of CeremoniesGather round, folks, the Tampa Historical Society and the Tampa Ministers' Association are ready to dedicate a very important historical marker. So if you will come to order, we'll call on the Reverend Billy Barber, pastor of the First Baptist Church, for our invocation. Mr. Barber. THE, REVEREND BILLY BARBER -May we pray, praise us God, our Father; we are so thankful for the privilege of pausing this afternoon to affirm in the presence of these guests and these who share in a very special time your providence through the years and especially the marvel of your grace, that causes men to be called to special places of responsibility and your Kingdom's work upon this earth. We are thankful, our Heavenly Father, for all that has taken place in the years past. We are grateful for what we experience now in these moments here this afternoon. But with great anticipation we look forward to what you will continue to do in the life of the one in whose honor we are here today. Because he but manifests the One in whose name we pray, and ask your blessings upon this occasion, even the name of Jesus Christ, our Savior and our Lord. Amen. MR. DUNN -Join me in the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag: "I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." I am pleased to present the President of the Tampa Historical Society, Mrs. Leslie McClain, for a greeting. MRS. LESLIE McCLAIN -Welcome. As President of the Tampa Historical Society this year, I would like to welcome each of you to participate in the ceremony. Tampa Historical Society was first an idea in 1884. It was suggested in an editorial of The Sunland Tribune, which is a predecessor of the current Tampa Tribune. Tampa Historical Society is currently carrying on a historical marker program, and only two of these honor individuals. One was Francis Bellamy, a Tampan who wrote the Pledge of Allegiance which we have just said, and the other is our guest today. We want to thank Gov. Robert Graham for allowing us to erect this marker on the grounds of the new State Office Building. It is also the site of the old Saratoga Bar here in the THE BILLY GRAHAM MARKER -Photo bv HAMPTON DUNN
heart of Skid Row. And here, the now world famous Evangelist, The Reverend Dr. Billy Graham, preached for three and a half years in the early days of his career while attending Bible school in Tampa. We are ever so honored that he could be here with us today, the day of this dedication of the monument commemorating the beginning of his outstanding career in God's service. We thank him for attending and we thank you all for attending. MR. DUNN -Thank you, Leslie. I don't think Skid Row had a heart, I think this might have been the center and hard core of it. The marker is a joint project with the Tampa Historical Society and the Tampa Ministers' Association, and we are pleased that the president of the Ministers, the Reverend Billy Barber, pastor of the First Baptist Church, is here and will bring us greetings from the Ministers. THE REV. MR. BARBER -Thank you, Mr. Dunn, Governor Graham, Dr. and Mrs. Graham, and Mrs. McClain, and guests and friends. When some months past, Mr. Dunn called and told of the interest of Tampa Historical Society in placing a marker here, I knew that there must have been some reason that he was calling to ask my opinion about it other than the interest historically. And I talked with him for about five minutes and rapidly discovered what it was. So, I am happy to announce to you today, Dr. and Mrs. Graham, that that beautiful marker that will be unveiled in a few moments was paid for, not by the churches, not by businesses in this community, but out of the pockets of preachers. And I see some of them standing faintly, leaning against poles all around here today. Because when it was announced to these gentlemen that there was the possibility of planting here before the entrance way to this beautiful new State Office Building, a reminder to all the thousands who will be passing this way, that in the marvelous providence of God, He reached down and touched the life of a young man now in his adult years, of course, has literally touched the lives of millions the world over. And it is of great interest to us that all will be reminded of the fact that God is still at work in human history, when they read the memento of this beautiful marker to be unveiled here today. Now, Dr. Graham, I don't want this to sound like an obituary or anything, because I highly suspect that in the words and the spirit of the poet, that if we will but do it, we can grow old with him, because no doubt the best is yet, to be, and it is a joy for the ministers of the City of Tampa to have a part in this occasion here this afternoon. God bless you for many, many years to come. MR. DUNN -I'd like to introduce a couple of our guests here at the platform. First, Mrs. Graham, Mrs. Ruth Graham, the wife of Billy Graham. Mrs. Graham. Seated next to Mrs. Graham is Dr. W. T. Watson, who is president of Trinity College in Dunedin, Florida, but formerly called Florida Bible Institute, and it was out in Temple Terrace and Dr. Watson was president of the Florida Bible Institute at the time Billy Graham was a student out there and I think we can give him a lot of credit for discovering Billy Graham. Dr. Watson. We'll continue with our program now, and call on the Mayor of Tampa, the Honorable William F. Poe, for a few words. MAYOR WILLIAM F. POE -Thank you very much. Governor Graham, Dr. and Mrs. Graham, guests, ladies and gentlemen. I would first like to particularly give greeting to Governor Graham. It's my first opportunity since he has been in office to do that. And
Tampa is very, very proud of our Governor, and he's doing an outstanding job for all of our citizens. And I would like to particularly thank him as a member of the Legislature and as Governor, for allowing this great building to our right, our new State Office Building, to be built here in Tampa. I think all of you know that it is the result of this building that much of the area that was called Skid Row has now been cleaned up and Governor Graham was a big part in doing that. So we appreciate that very much, Governor. And we want one more (building), Governor. No, that's not so. That's not so. That's us politicians, isn't it? It's my pleasure to welcome Dr. Graham, Dr. Billy Graham, his wife, and I am particularly proud, I think over six years ago a group of Tampans prayed and worked and did everything they could to get someone to say that Dr. Billy Graham's Crusade would come to this West Coast of Florida. And six years ago it didn't happen, and five years ago, and four years ago, and perhaps our prayer power was not enough. But anyway, we kept working and praying and hoping and now starting next Wednesday, we're going to have a great crusade throughout the whole West Coast of Florida and hopefully it will be a blessing for not only the whole West Coast of Florida, but for all of our country. And we are very, very proud to have this crusade in Tampa and we are particularly proud that Dr. Graham has come back to Tampa, and Hillsborough County, to be with us for the Crusade, but in addition for the marker, historical marker, dedication. Dr. Graham, I know in addition to having preached here, he preached many places in downtown and other areas including the foot of the Sulphur Springs bridge, and he was an Evangelist then, and his message was passed through all our community, and we are very, very proud of it. So, Dr. Graham, on behalf of 300,000 citizens of the City of Tampa, we give you our love. MR. DUNN -We are particularly privileged today to have the Governor of Florida, who was introduced over at the luncheon this noon as "our popular Governor of Florida," the Honorable Bob Graham, he's the first half of the Bob & Billy Graham twins. So, first we would like to thank you, Governor Graham, for permitting us to put the plaque right here on State property here at our new State Building, and we would like to hear from you at this time. GOVERNOR GRAHAM -Mr. Dunn, Dr. and Mrs. Graham, Mayor Poe, reverent clergy, fellow Floridians. At the luncheon I introduced Dr. Graham as being Cousin Billy,
but we can now elevate him to Brother Billy with no snide connotations to that particular terminology, I'll be pleased to do so. Dr. Graham indicated to me that when he was here last, and this was the site of the Saratoga Bar, he was thrown out of the bar three times as part of his early ministry. Dr. Graham, I think I can say that the chances of you being thrown out today are considerably reduced. To me it is very appropriate that we are celebrating two events simultaneously. First, we are celebrating the inauguration of this great Crusade which will continue to influence this community as the preparation for it has already had such a penetrating effect on so many thousands of people. Second, we are using this opportunity to give permanent recognition to a part of the history of this city and of this state, which deserves to be permanently recognized. Many people question whether there is any history to our state. Because, although we are the oldest inhabited state in the North American continent in terms of western culture, we are still a relative youthful community. Some question, can you have an historical event that deserves recognition which occurred only 40 years ago. I say, yes, the more so, because we not only have the opportunity to celebrate an event which will be recognized for generations to come in terms of its significance to this city, to this community, but to the spiritual life of the world. But at the same time have the opportunity to personally know the personality who made this event possible. That is what is so exciting about the history of our state, is that because of its very newness, we are in a very real sense a participant in this historical event itself. So, Dr. Graham and Mrs. Graham, we appreciate your returning to Tampa to give us this opportunity to share in your personal witness for Christ and at the same time give us an opportunity to recognize today and for all time, your special contribution to the history of our state. MR. DUNN -In the mid-1930's and the late 1930's, Tampa, as the rest of the nation, was going through a very severe economic depression. Those were some interesting times here in our town and it was about that time that Billy Graham and Hampton Dunn got to this town about the same time. At that time, I was really the greenest cub reporter they ever had down at the old The Tampa Daily Times, and one of my duties was being church editor. And it became my pleasure to come across that name the first time, except it wasn't Billy Graham then, it was W. F. Graham, if you will, and W. F. Graham, we put his picture in the paper and in the church pages. I understand that was the very first time that he got it in the press. I also understand it's been in there quite a few times since then! We are thrilled that Billy Graham would take time to come here this afternoon and be with us as we dedicate this plaque commemorating his early days in Tampa when he did preach right here on Franklin and Fortune Streets, up and down the street, and had an impact on our town at that time, and ever since. Since then he has reached and talked to 50 million people. So, Billy Graham, we are grateful that you came, we would like to hear from you. THE REVEREND DR. BILLY GRAHAMGovernor Graham, Mayor Poe, Mr. Dunn, Mrs. McClain, Dr. Barber, distinguished guests that are here today, this is one of the times that I am almost speechless because I had not expected this when I came to Tampa three or four days ago and discovered it after I arrived. It is true that I did my first preaching on this street. There was a mission down here about a
block or two, I have forgotten the name of it, I think it was Franklin Street Mission was the name of it. And I preached there on Saturday nights to about 50 or 60 people, sometimes 20 people, sometimes 10 people, and then I would go up and down this street and wherever a crowd that I could get four or five people to listen, I would preach. On Sundays, primarily seven and eight and 10 times a day I would preach just as loud and just as strong as I do now if I am in a stadium. And when I came to this bar on several occasions, they asked me if I would move out of the front because people couldn't go in. And some of them didn't want to go in after what I told them was going to happen to them when they got in. So those memories come flooding back, and to stand here today on this occasion and to have this marker to commemorate those days which I never dreamed would ever happen, of course, and I want to thank the Governor and Mr. Dunn and Mrs. McClain and Dr. Barber and all of those who have participated, and when he said that the preachers paid for it, it must be a very small marker, but I just can't imagine a collection among preachers, that's never happened I don't think, probably in the history of America. But that in itself ought to have a marker! But the people that I have preached to in those days remind me of a story that I have told quite often. About several years ago I got on a plane coming from New York to Charlotte, N.C., and a big fat man got on the plane and he was cursing and swearing and he was drunk, he was pinching the stewardess. They got him in his seat and when the plane got airborne he decided he would go help the pilot fly the plane. The co-captain had to come and put him back in his seat and he was swearing and using terrible language, and the man sitting across from him was the Mayor of Charlotte, N.C., Mayor John Belk, of the Belk stores, you have them here, I think, in Florida. And the Mayor leaned over and he said, "You know who's sitting behind you?" And this fellow said, "No, who?" He said, "The preacher, Billy Graham." And he said, "You don't say." And he got up in front of everybody, and said in a loud voice, he said "Are you Billy Graham?" And I admitted I was and he said, "Put 'er there, your sermons have sure helped me." So I don't know whether my sermons in those days helped anybody on Franklin Street or not. But it gave me tremendous experience, and I'm going to tell you what I told them in those days. I told them, first of all, that there was a God, and a God that loved them, no matter how bad their lives had been, that God loved them. Secondly, that they had broken God's law which is called sin. And that all that's sinned and come short of the Glory of God. And thirdly, I told them that Jesus Christ came into the world to die on the cross for their sins, and that He roseagain from the dead and He was alive and that He was coming back to this earth again sometime. Then I told them that they had to do something about it. I said, you, personally, must repent of your sins, you must by faith receive Christ as your Saviour. And you must trust Him. And you know I haven't changed my message in all these years. Because that's the basis of the message that I preach today. I preach it a little bit differently, and after traveling around the world many times and meeting many people and reading lots of books, and being married to a beautiful wife who does a lot of reading, I have learned to put a lot more to it than it, but the basic message is still the same. That men need to be born again if they are to see the Kingdom of Heaven.
I stood on this street corner and had all kind of experiences that I don't have time to tell you about today, but I remember up here about a block away, there was a man that was, I would say that was, I wouldn't say he was drunk but he was close to being drunk and he was a lawyer, and he was escaping through alcohol. All the things that had gone wrong in his life, and I remember kneeling down and that man accepted Christ as his Saviour. About 10 years ago I received a letter from that man and he reminded me of that, and he was a lawyer somewhere here in Florida, I think it was Leesburg, but I am not sure. And I heard recently that he had died. But I have that letter at home about that man, that made his decision right here on Franklin Street that changed his life. We saw many such people make their commitment here because the Bible says, "My word will not return boy." There's power in the word of God, whether it's preached by a simple student from a little school out here in Temple Terrace that used to be way out in the country, in fact, I can't find it. Now when I go out there, I have to follow the river around, and go to the Temple Terrace Golf Course where I used to caddy 18 holes for 250. And that was about three or four hours work. I wasn't worth it, but, and that's where I learned to play golf, crosshanded. I don't know who taught me that. But 1, so many experiences come back here as I stand on this spot. And I want to thank Dr. W. T. Watson for all the encouragement he's been to me through the years since I left here, and especially today I want to thank the Governor, who's made it possible, and I would like to say to the Mayor, I don't know what building you are talking about that you still need, but, Governor, I think we ought to get it for him. And then I would like to say to my good friend, Billy Barber, my appreciation for the part that he has had in this, and Earl Hartman, who has been the, sort of one of the kingpins of our coming here to Tampa, to all who represent the clergy of all denominations, Catholic, Protestant, and all the ethnic groups that are represented in the Crusade, I want to say thank you, and God bless all of you. And even you that are watching up there from upstairs, and you that are watching from this mission over here, I don't think the mission is there, it was there then, it might have been, but I don't remember if it was, they never invited me to preach over there. Thank you and God bless all of you. MR. DUNN -Thank you, Dr. Graham, and now we come to a very important moment of the unveiling of the historical marker. Those preachers gave till it hurt. Doctor, we've got a pretty nice plaque there, and we're going to open it, we're going to ask Mrs. Graham if she would, to do the actual unveiling, and we'll ask Dr. Graham and Mrs. Graham and Governor Graham, and Mayor Poe, to step over to the plaque at this time and we'll have an unveiling, and then after that we'll have a dedicatory prayer by Dr. Watson. The plaque reads: "BILLY GRAHAM BEGAN HERE On the sidewalk in this Franklin Street neighborhood, the Reverend Dr. Billy Graham 40 years ago launched hi worldwide Christian evangelistic crusade, exhortin derelicts, drunks and 'Skid Row' bums. Since then he ha preached to more people than any other person, reachin millions. Dr. Graham attended Florida Bible Institute a Temple Terrace, graduating in 1940. While a student here Dr. Graham heard the 'call,' and prayed, 'O God, if you want me to preach, I will do it!' Erected 1979 by the Tamp Historical Society in cooperation with the Tampa Ministers Association during the Billy Graham Crusade in Tampa." So, we officially dedicate this plaque in honor of Dr. Billy Graham. Thank you. We call now on Dr. Watson to give u
our dedicatory prayer. DR. WATSON -Shall we pray. Our Father, we give Thee thanks that we live in a country and a state and a city where such a service as this is possible. We thank Thee not only for the change in the area here, in buildings and land but we give Thee also thanks for the changed lives which have taken place. These lives have been changed because o the power of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. We thank Thee your Lord, that You still lay Your hands upon men and women and use them in Thy service. Keep Thy hand forever, we pray, till Jesus comes on your servant. And now Father, grant we pray, that this marker shall stand as an eloquent testimony to those who see it in days to come, that what God has done in this place and through His servant Somehow, Lord, we pray that it will be a modern Ebenezer witnessing for the Lord. So we dedicate it to be in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Amen MR. DUNN -That concludes the ceremony. Thank you for participating.
Tampa Historical Society MEMBERSHIP ROSTER 1978-1979 Aaron, Patrick Adler, Mr. and Mrs. Haskett T. Allen, William K. Altman, Mr. Fredric Winton Anderson, Mr. and Mrs. Davis G. Anderson, Mrs. DeLane Anderson, Mr. and Mrs. Win. P., Jr. Armstrong, Mrs. Colby C. Ayala, Mr. and Mrs. R. Gabe Barclay, Edward S. Barritt, Mr. and Mrs. W. J., Jr. Bearss, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Belcher, Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Bellows, Mrs. Anne D. Bevis, Mr. and Mrs. H. Wayne Billingsley, Dr. Baxter Black, Mr. and Mrs. Walter, Jr. Blackburn, Rep. and Mrs. Ed Blain, Mr. Lester M. Blanford, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. T. Boone, Mr. Daniel, Sr. Bowen, Mark Bowman, Mr. and Mrs. Donald D. Brandon Junior Woman's Club Brill, Mrs. Noni Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. Bruton, Judge and Mrs. J. D., Jr. Burrows, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur E. Bushnell, Mrs. Byron Byrd, Mrs. Helen N. Cannon, Ms. Warrene Carlton, Mrs. N. Burton Carlton, Mr. and Mrs. Doyle Carnes, Miss Mary Carte, Mr. and Mrs. Ballard, Jr. Carte, Mrs. Virginia Cavanagh, Dr. David E. Cheshire, Dr. and Mrs. Richard Christian, Mr. and Mrs. Mack T. Church, Mr. and Mrs. George Cimino, Mr. and Mrs. Peter Clarke, Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Clarke, Miss Karen Clarke, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. D. Coles, Mrs. A. P. Cooper, Mrs. Ruth Ley Copeland, Dr. and Mrs. James W. Copeland, Mr. and Mrs. Win. H. Corum, Dr. Lewis T. Corum, Ms. Molly C. Crawford, Mr. and Mrs. Bertram Culbreath, Mr. M. O. Curtis, Mr. and Mrs. G. David III Davin, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Davis, Mr. and Mrs. Sam F. de la Parte, Mr. and Mrs. Louis Degni, Mr. and Mrs. Michael Delaney, Mrs. A. E. and Brion W. Del Re, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Dickerson, Daisy Stubbs Dodson, Mr. and Mrs. Eugene B. Dunn, Mr. and Mrs. Hampton Durrance, Judge and Mrs. Carl C. Edenfield, Mrs. Robt. G. Ekman, Mr. and Mrs. Dursie Elliott, Mrs. M. Leo Elliott, Mr. and Mrs. Lynwood Ennis, Mrs. Freddie D. Estes, Mr. and Mrs. James L. Falk, Mrs. David A. Ferman, Mr. and Mrs. J. L., Jr. Ferman, Mr. and Mrs. J. L., Sr. Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. Lester P. Fitscher, Mr. and Mrs. Thorl J. Foecking, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Fouts, Mr. and Mrs. Fred
Fowler, Mrs. Cody Frazier, Mr. and Mrs. J. Warren Frey, Mr. Roscoe Frisbie, Mr. and Mrs. Loyal Fusilier, Mr. Dennis Gallagher, Judge and Mrs. Daniel Garcia, Mr. and Mrs. Manuel Garcia, Mr. Manuel M. Gardner, Mr. and Mrs. James H. Garrison, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest M. Giddens, Mr. and Mrs. Tom Gooding, Mrs. Charles T. Goring, Ms. Helen F. Grable, Mrs. Warner Grant, Mrs. Ben, Jr. Grantham, Mr. and Mrs. William E. Greening, Mrs. J. N. Gregory, Mrs. Donn Gregory, Mr. and Mrs. James A. Griffin, Mr. and Mrs. Jack Grimaldi, Mr. A. J. Groll, Mr. and Mrs. Roger Guinta, Mr. and Mrs. Frank V. Guinta, Mr. and Mrs. Richard S. Hair, Mrs. Collette J. Hall, Mrs. D. R., Jr. Hamilton, Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Hamner, Mr. John M., Jr. Hamner, Mrs. William E. Hampton, Mr. and Mrs. Hiram P. Handley, Mrs. C. V. Hankins, Mr. and Mrs. M. S. Hanson, Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Hart, Mr. Gene Hawes, Mrs. L. M. Hawes, Leland M. Healy, Mr. and Mrs. Charles T. Hearne, Mr. and Mrs. James, Jr. Henderson, Mr. Otto Lee Himes, Mr. and Mrs. John R. Hobbs, Mrs. W. Frank Hoedt, Mr. and Mrs. Win. H. H. Hoedt, Mrs. Win. H. H. Holtsinger, Mr. Clarence Howze, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. D. Hunter, Mrs. W. Finlay Ingram, Dr. and Mrs. James M. Jeffery, Mrs. Brooks Jones, Mr. and Mrs. John Arthur Jones, Sister Marie, O.S.F. Jones, Sister Rosanne, O.S.F. Keen, Mrs. Nell Greening Keen, Mrs. J. Velma Kickliter, Ms. Patricia King, Mrs. Julia L. King, Mr. Rex Kiser, Mrs. Lawson P. Klintworth, Mr. and Mrs. C. Verne Knight, Mr. and Mrs. Peter O., Jr. Knight, Mrs. Richard E. Koerner, Lt. Col. and Mrs. P. C. Krusen, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. A. LaGodna, Mrs. Martin M. Latimer, Mr. and Mrs. Sam Leary, Mr. and Mrs. Fred D. Leonard, Mr. and Mrs. Marston C. Lesley, Mr. and Mrs. John T. Lindeman, Mr. Dennis Linebaugh, Mr. and Mrs. C. David Linebaugh, Mrs. Leila M. Lowry, Lt. Gen. and Mrs. S. L. Lucas, Mrs. E. B. Major, Mrs. Marie Winton Medina, Mr. and Mrs. Cesar Merchant, Ms. Sara Lesley Midulla, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph D., Sr. Miller, Mr. and Mrs. Kent S. Mixson, Col. and Mrs. M. C. Moak, Mrs. D. L., Sr. Moody, Mr. and Mrs. Ashby M. Mormino, Dr. and Mrs. Gary R. Morse, Mrs. C. Farley Moseley, Miss Dorothy M. Mulder, Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth W. Mullen, Mr. and Mrs. Harris H. Murphy, Mr. and Mrs. Pat McAbee, Ms. Bessie Ruth McClain, Mrs. Leslie McCloskey, Dr. and Mrs. Paul McGill, Mrs. J. Maurice
McKay, Mr. and Mrs. Herbert G. McKay, Mr. and Mrs. Howell A. McKell, Dr. and Mrs. Thomas E. McWhirter, Mr. and Mrs. John W. Napoli, Miss Elia Nelson, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Newman, Mr. Millard Newton, Mrs. V. M., Jr. Ogden, Mr. Richard C., Jr. Olson, Mrs. John K. Olson, Mr. and Mrs. Lester K. O'Mara, Ray Oser, Mrs. Phyllis G. Osterweil, Mr. and Mrs. John Wm. Owen, Mr. and Mrs. Homer Edwin Owrey, Mrs. R. H. Pachler, Maj. Gen. and Mrs. F. T. Parrish, Mrs. John Passetti, Mr. and Mrs. Louis O. Peeler, Mr. Scott L., Jr. Perdigon, Dr. and Mrs. G. J. Pieper, Mr. and Mrs. John H. Pizzo, Dr. Anthony J. Pizzo, Mr. and Mrs. Anthony P. Pizzo, Mr. and Mrs. Paul R. Plyler, Mr. and Mrs. Dwight M. Pollard, Mr. and Mrs. Merrill Pons, Mr. Emilio Powell, Mrs. Evanell K. Price, Mr. and Mrs. C. M., Jr. Raber, Ms. Jan Randell, Mrs. Gladys R. Ray, Mr. Randy W. Reynolds, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. H. Robb, Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel C. Rositer, Mr. and Mrs. W. Pat Rossman, Mr. and Mrs. Charles W Rubio, Dr. and Mrs. Mauricio Rush, Mr. Warren H. Salomonson, Miss Frieda Salzer, Mrs. W. W. Savage, Mr. and Mrs. W. O. Schiestt, Marinette Segars, Miss Stephanie Segars, Mr. and Mrs. William E. Sloan, Mrs. G. Dexter Smith, Mr. and Mrs. H. Mason Smith, Mrs. Justine S. Smith, Mrs. Margaret V. Smoak, Dr. and Mrs. Philip L. Sparkman, Mr. and Mrs. Lamar Spicola, Mr. and Mrs. Charles, Jr. Srodes, Mrs. Louise H. Stallings, Mr. Norman, Jr. Stephens, Mrs. N. B. Stevens, Mr. and Mrs. Carl L. Stevens, Mr. and Mrs. Randolph Stowers, Mr. and Mrs. Richard Suarez, Ms. Conchita Taffe, Mr. John Tanner, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Tanner, Mr. and Mrs. Steven Thomas, Mr. and Mrs. Robt. Thomas, Mr. Wayne Thompson, Mr. and Mrs. G. A., Jr. Thornton, Ms. Lynne Toffaletti, Lt. Col. Edith (Ret.) Toney, Mrs. James B. Traina, Dr. and Mrs. Ernest Truett, Mrs. Gibbons Van Landingham, Mr. Kyle Vasey, Dr. and Mrs. Frank V. Vega, Mrs. C. C. Vildibill, Dr. and Mrs. Harry D. Wall, Mr. J. Edgar III Ward, Mr. and Mrs. David E. Ware, Mrs. John D. Warshaw, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Wells, Ms. Sharon Werndli, Mr. and Mrs. Phil Westfall, Dr. Glenn Wharton, Mr. and Mrs. Paul R. White, Mr. and Mrs. Morris Whittemore, Mr. and Mrs. Donald Whittemore, Mr. Donald, Jr. Winter, Mr. Herman C., Jr. Woodward, Dr. and Mrs. H. E. Wooten, Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Worthington, Mrs. Agnes R.
Ybor, Mr. and Mrs. Rafael Martine Yeats, Mr. and Mrs. Victor B. Young, Mrs. T. Roy Young, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas R., II
1972 FRANK LAUMER 1973 STATE SEN. DAVID McLAIN 1974 CIRCUIT JUDGE JAMES R. KNOTTRECIPIENTS OF THE TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETYS COVETED D. B. McKAY AWARDFor Distinguished Contributions To Florida History1977 DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON 1978 HAMPTON DUNN 1979 WILLIAM M. GOZA 1975 GLORIA JAHODA 1976 HARRIS H. MULLEN
MEET THE AUTHORS NANCY LEE HARMS RACHELS was born in Sterling, Illinois. She has lived ind Florida for 23 years. She received a B.A. and M.A. from Florida State University,114 and is presently working on a doctorate from the same institution. For the last',, eight years she has been a professor of history at Hillsborough Community College. In addition, she is presently the chairperson of the History/Political Science/ Military Science department. DR. DEREK CURTIS BOK has been president of Harvard University since 1971. A native of Pennsylvania, he earned degrees from Stanford University, Harvard Law School and George Washington University, was a Fulbright scholar at the University of Paris, and has honorary degrees from Harvard, University of Illinois, Princeton University and Yale University. He is the grandson of Dr. Edward K. Bok who gave Florida its famous Singing Tower. DR. JERRELL H. SHOFNER, a native of Texas, earned his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. from Florida State University, and now is Professor at the University of Central Florida. His historical writings have won many top prizes. His books include Nor is It Over Yet: Florida in the Era of Reconstruction, 1863-1877 and History of Jefferson Coun ty, Florida, 1818-1976. He currently is president of the Florida Historical Society. DR. L. GLENN WESTFALL is charter faculty member of Hillsborough Community College and Past President of the Tampa Historical Society. He is currently Executive Director of the Society. Dr. Westfall has been active in both historic research and preservation efforts throughout the state, and has prepared papers at State, National and International Conferences. HAMPTON DUNN, a native Floridian, is the prize-winning author of more than a dozen books on Florida history. He was editor of The Tampa Daily Times, a commentator of Television Station WCKT-TV, Miami, and is an executive for the Peninsula Motor Club (AAA). He was one of 76 Floridians chosen as Florida Patriot by the Florida Bicentennial Commission. He serves as Trustee of the Historic Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board and was Charter Trustee on similar boards at Pensacola and Tallahassee.
TAMPA CITY HALL ON HISTORIC REGISTER Tampa got a new tower annex to its historic City Hall in 1979, but the attractive old building continued to serve the public. The original City Hall is on the National Register of Historic Places. Built in 1914, the architects were Bonfoey and Elliott. The wedding cake structure is topped by a clock tower where Hortense the clock has kept generations of Tampans posted on the time, sometimes not too accurately. Photo at right shows City Hall under construction. Photo below was taken in 1922. The street car was turning north off Lafayette Street (now Kennedy Blvd.) onto Florida Avenue -Photos from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
TAMPA PASTIMES "TAMPA'S WORST FIRE ," according to TFD historian Lt. Edgar Gray, was the one that swept through a large portion of Ybor City on March 1, 1908. And here's an action photo, given to us by Reggie McAteer, the auto tag man, whose father, Capt. T. G. McAteer, was on the TFD for 33 years before his retirement in 1932. Captain McAteer was stationed at No. 4 on a hose wagon and his was the first company to answer the auxiliary alarm at 9:33 a.m. The address was 1914 12th Ave., a twostory woodframe, used as a boarding house. The fire originated on the wooden shingles. In spite of valiant efforts of the fire crews, the fl ames grew larger and sparks ignited surrounding houses. It spread to engulf everything from 20th St. to 16th St. and 12th Ave. to Michigan Ave. (now Columbus Drive), a total of 55 acres. The five-hour blaze consumed 171 cottages, 42 two story frame buildings, five cigar factories and five brick stores. Total damage was estimated at more than $1,000,000. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
OAKLAWN CEMETERY 'RAMBLE' IS A SOCIETY ANNUAL EVENT The Tampa Historical Society sponsors a "do-it-yourself" cemetery at historic Oaklawn Cemetery once a year. Here are some of our members hard at work and resting a spell. The Society also erected a historical marker to perpetuate the significance of the downtown burying ground. -Photos by HAMPTON DUNN DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON MRS. LESLIE McCLAIN
MRS. CARMEN TONEY.
HILLSBOROUGH HIGH'S 1909 GRID CHAMPS One of Hillsborough High School's first championship football teams was the aggregation of 1909. This classic photo, taken on s teps of the Tampa Bay Hotel, turned up recently. Among those on the team was Maj.-Gen. Sumter L. Lowry, a member of the Tampa Historical Society. Shown on the front r ow, left to right, are David Sherril, Frank Winn, Stanley Asp, Bill Chambers, Alec Shaw, captain, Robert Nelson, Ray Shawl and Theron Smith. Second row, Prof. Fritz Bucholtz, coach, Melvin Asp, Sumter Lowry, Frank Bowyer, Dudley Towne, Kelly Jones, Galvin Elliott, and Jim Coarsey. Back row, Sim Sparkman from whose estat e this photograph came.
KNIGHT HOUSE FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION of the TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Victorian SocietyLifetime Membership The David Falk Foundation Mary Irene McKay Falk The Junior League of Tampa, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Peter 0. Knight, Jr. Lykes Bros., Inc. Herbert G. McKay Anthony P. Pizzo Saunders Foundation Solon Brinton Turman Stapleton Gooch, Incorporated Zoe King Walker L. Glenn Westfall, Ph.D. Patron of The Knight House Amaryllis Garden Circle Exchange National Bank of Tampa Tom Carver Leslie McClain Pepsi Cola Bottling Co. of Tampa Mrs. Jean Lykes Rankin Tampa Crown Distributors, Inc. T. Roy Young, III Contributor Aboly Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. Benn Winifred G. Davis Dorothy R. Downs Ferman Oldsmobile, Ferman Chevrolet and Ferman Family Founders Garden Circle Mrs. Harrison Giddens Mrs. Jane Cralle Hall Mrs. Sara K. Hobbs Frederick Jamison Lt. Gen. Sumter L. Lowry, Ret. Mrs. David R. Murphy, III Phosphate Rock Export Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Rice, Jr. Bruce Robbins Fred T. Rodgers Mrs. Dale Rodriguez A. R. Savage and Son J. Thomas Touchton Donor Mrs. John Annis R. A. Bagby, M.D. Mrs. R. S. Belcher Raphael Bentschner Walter Black Insurance, Inc. Helen Campbell Michael L. Carrere Nannie Christian Mrs. B. W. Council H. L. Culbreath Mrs. Nancy C. Curtis Mrs. Louise Ferguson Sylvia E. Frazier Susan Gillen Golf View Garden Club Dorothy Grable L.M. Hawes Family Dr. & Mrs. Linus W. Hewit Mrs. T. Paine Kelly C. Verne Klintworth Mrs. Richard Knight Mrs. Elizabeth Linebaugh Mrs. Lesley May W. F. McLane Mrs. Ralph Millsap Mrs. Anne Mullis National Society of Colonial Dames of America In The State of Florida, Tampa Committee E. K. Nelson Millard Newman S. J. Newman Elizabeth W. Pope Patten Printing Company Mrs. Edward O. Savitz Southeast Bank of Tampa Gloria Sparkman Charles Spicola George R. Thompson Construction Co. Mrs. W. L. Van Dyke, III Harry, D. Vildibill Mr. & Mrs. James R. Wackerman
WESTFALL MAPS PROGRAM FOR STATE HISTORY MEET Dr. L. Glenn Westfall, executive director and past president of the Tampa Historical Society, is busy these days putting together the program for the next annual meeting of the Florida Historical Society. The convention is set for May 2-3, 1980, at the Langford Hotel in Winter Park. A workshop of the Florida Confederation of Historical Societies is planned for April 30-May I at the same place. One presentation for the Florida Historical Society will be a paper on "The History of Tourism in Florida" by Hampton Dunn, a founder and past president of the Tampa Historical Society and author of a dozen books on the state's history, is in the travel business as an executive for the Peninsula Motor Club (AAA). Dunn noted that Florida's first "tourist-was a man named Ponce de Leon, who discovered the state in 1513 while exploring the new world.
Tampa Historical Society 1980 Officers and New Board Members PRESIDENT Mr. Ken Mulder VICE PRESIDENT Mr. Randy Stevens SECRETARY Warreene Cannon TREASURER Mrs. Lois Latimer NEW BOARD MEMBERS Nonita Henson (Mrs. William) Sharon Rice (Mrs. Robert) Richard Clark, Sr. Mrs. M. L. Elliott Mr. Charlie Spicola TWO YEAR TERM Mr. Bob Leonard Mrs. John (Kathryn) Parrish Mr. Don Whittemore Sheila McDevitt ONE YEAR TERM Mrs. Lisa (A. M.) Barrow Mr. Hampton Dunn Mrs. Harrison (Thomas) Giddens Mr. Tony Pizzo Ms. Jan Raber