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The sunland tribune

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The sunland tribune
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English
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Tampa Historical Society
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Tampa Historical Society.
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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History -- Periodicals -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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usfldc doi - S57-v06n1_80-000
usfldc handle - s57.v06n1_80-
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THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE Volume VI Number 1 November, 1980 Journal of the TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Tampa, Florida HAMPTON DUNN Editor * * Officers 1979-1980 KEN MULDER President RANDY STEVENS Vice President WARREENE CANNON Secretary MRS. LOIS LATIMER Treasurer Board of Directors Nonita Henson (Mrs. William) Sharon Rice (Mrs. Robert) Richard Clark, Sr. Mrs. M. L. Elliott Thompson Charlie Spicola Bob Leonard Mrs. John (Kathryn) Parrish Don Whittemore Ms. Sheila McDevitt Mrs. Lisa (A.M.) Barrow Hampton Dunn Mrs. Thomas (Harrison) Giddens Tony Pizzo Ms. Jan Raber DR. L. GLENN WESTFALL Executive Director * * Headquarters 245 S. Hyde Park Avenue Tampa, FL 33606 On Our Cover Occupying a unique position in Tampa's journalistic hall of fame is Wallace Fisher Stovall, founder of The Tampa Tribune. Read about his contributions to the community and state in Hampton Dunn's "Those HellRaisin' Tampa Newspapers", starting on Page 36 of this issue. Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION 7DEOHRI&RQWHQWV THE HACKLEY GRANT, THE FORT BROOKE MILITARY RESERVATION AND TAMPA 4 By James W. Covington, Ph.D. RECIPIENTS OF THE D. B. McKAY AWARD 10 IGNACIO HAYA, PIONEER CIGAR ENTREPRENEUR 12 By L. Glenn Westfall, Ph.D. TAMPA FROM SHELL MOUND TO MODERN TOWN 16 By Kenneth W. Mulder THE CIGAR THAT SPARKED A REVOLUTION 32 By Tony Pizzo THOSE HELL-RAISIN'TAMPA NEWSPAPERS 36 By Hampton Dunn "CIGARS THAT'S MY BUSINESS" 54 By Earl J. Brown THE STORY OF TAMPA'S FIRST DENTIST 60 DR. EDWARD DINUS NEVE By Ruben Moreno, D.D.S. TAMPA'S LITTLE MOTHER 63 By Ruth Vincent Novack 'IMPLOSION' BLASTS BAY VIEW HOTEL 68 TO SMITHEREENS DAVIS CAUSEWAY REVISITED 72 By George T. Davis MEET THE AUTHORS 80 WHAT HAPPENED IN TAMPA ON JULY 15,1887 82 OR THEREABOUTS By Joseph Hipp TAMPA HOSPITALS 96 TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY MEMBERSHIP 100 ROSTER, 1979-80 LIST OF ADVERTISERS 109 TAMPA PASTIMES 112

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The Hackley Grant, The Fort Brooke Military Reservation and Tampa By JAMES W. COVINGTON, PH.D. The circumstances that brought about the purchase of the first privately owned lots in Tampa were indeed most unusual. When the Transcontinental or Adams-Onis Treaty had been in the process of negotiation between the United States and Spain, some persons in the Spanish court prevailed upon King Ferdinand VII to grant tracts of land to three royal favorites: The Count of Punonrostro, the Duke of Alagon (both grants on December 17, 1817) and Don Pedro de Vargas on January 25, 1818.1 When John Quincy Adams and Luis de Onis y Gonzalez discussed the treaty by which Spain relinquished Florida, they decided Article VII should stipulate that all royal grants made before January 28, 1818 in the ceded area which was Florida should be regarded as if Spain still owned the area. Of course, those made after that date would be declared null and void.2 Actually Onis would have been willing to nullify all land grants made by the Crown after 1802 but Adams let this point slip by and would soon discover that much of Florida would remain under Spanish control in private hands.3 SCENE IN RESERVATION GROUNDS . at Tampa's Fort Brooke. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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It was Henry Clay, Speaker of the House of Representatives, who discovered the error made by Adams and insisted that corrections be made. Clay discovered that if the treaty had been approved in its original form, much of American Florida would remain in foreign ownership. Accordingly Adams informed Minister to Spain George W. Erving that the United States would not ratify the treaty unless the King of Spain nullified the grants.4 Acting under American pressure the Spanish representative body known as the Cortes annulled the grants on October 5, 1820, and on October 24 of the same year King Ferdinand VII approved the action of the Cortes. When speculation reached Spain that the grants would be nullified, parts of the grants were assigned to American citizens in the hope that they could influence members of Congress and gain some profit from the aborted transaction. Richard S. Hackley, former consul of the United States at Madrid, claimed that he had proposed a contract for half of the grant to the Duke of Alagon on January 1, 1818, and the two had signed a contract for the transaction on May 22, 1818.5 The Duke of Alagon grant included the central part of Florida extending from the Suwannee River to Lake Okeechobee. Since Hackley's wife was the sister of Governor Thomas M. Randolph of Virginia and Hackley knew many important people including former President James Madison, he had considerable political clout.6 PRESIDENT JAMES MADISON . friend of Richard Hackley. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION JOHN QUINCY ADAMS Goofed on Florida Treaty. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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"Old" Tampa Bay In July, 1822 Hackley sent S. S. Seymour to look over his prospective land holdings.7 THE LAYOUT OF FORT BROOKE IN 1838 Fort Brooke was one of the largest military establishments in the United States when this map was made in January, 1838. Legend: I-Judge A ugustus Steele's home and out-buildings. 2-Indian dwellings. 3-James Lynch's home and store. 4-United States cemetery. 5-Hospital buildings. 6-Sutler's store. 7-Bakehouse. 8-Commissary buildings. 9-Horse sheds. 10Quartermaster buildings. 11-Principal wharf. 12-Carpenter's shop. 13-Allen's store. 14-Flag pole. 15-Blacksmith shop. 16-Ordinance department buildings and Major Frazer's redoubt. 17-Clothing department. 18-Uncovered marquees. 19-Prisoners'pen. 20-Major Frazer's quarters. 21-Leut. McCrab's quarters. 22-Capt. Evan's quarters. 23-Covered marquees. 24-Horse shelter. 25-Barracks. 26-Uncovered marquees. 27-Horse shelter. 28-Cemetery. 29-German Dragoons. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Entering the bay known at that time as Bahia de Espiritu Santo faced on the left by which some called "old" Tampa Bay and others Buffalo Bluff and on the right Mangrove Bluff, Seymour moved into Hillsborough Bay and River.8 He noted the huge swarms of fish in the bay-large numbers of sheephead, bass and mullet. In addition, there were many manatees and turtles. After noting the names of the rivers flowing into the bay which included the Hillsborough, Manatee and Alafia, he proceeded ten miles up the Hillsborough. Although Seymour saw no Indians, there probably was an active village at Thonotosassa and an abandoned one at present day Plant City. He did meet a Black-Indian who had lived in the neighborhood for five years. There were no Cuban fishing ranchos in Tampa Bay but Seymour had learned one had been there probably on Mullet or Egmont Keys but the fishermen left when the United States acquired Florida. Seymour had written such an excellent report concerning the commercial possibilities of the thick forests and bounties of seafood that Hackley dispatched his 25 year old son, Robert, to Florida. Some time in November, 1823, Robert Hackley made a landing at the juncture of Hillsborough River and Hillsborough Bay and began laying the foundations of what he hoped would be a profitable plantation. According to Hackley there were only Indians, alligators, panthers and wolves on the land but no white settlers.9 Since he had brought with him spades, hoes, a plough and a work force of 16 white men Hackley proceeded to clear the land of trees and underbrush and assemble a frame PRESIDENT ANDREW JACKSON Established Fort Brooke. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION JOHN JACKSON ... Surveyed Tampa in 1847. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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dwelling that he had carried by boat from New York City. So far as can be determined, the Hackley building was erected on lots 9-10, Section 24, Township 29 South, Range 18 East. Soon the cattle, oxen, hogs and poultry which had been carried from New York were earning their keep by clearing the Florida vegetation. Officers' Quarters The Hackley plantation was destined not to last very long. In January, 1824, four companies of the Fourth Infantry from Pensacola under the command of Colonel George M. Brooke arrived on the northeastern bank of the Hillsborough River. By March the troops had realized what a comfortable house Hackley had erected and taking advantage of his absence on a trip to Pensacola seized the house from an agent of Hackley named Rhodes and put it to use as officers' quarters.10 It was difficult for Hackley to oppose the claim of the troops for they occupied much of the land he claimed erecting barracks, parade grounds and store houses. The seizure of the land by the troops was not a terrible set-back for Hackley. After the events of February, 1824, Hackley consulted with several attorneys who as late as 1837 declared that his claim to the land was valid. Taking advantage of these opinions Hackley sold some land sited at the mouth of the RIVERS INTO TAMPA BAY ... Hillsborough, Manatee, Alafia. -TAMPA TIMES Map COL. GEORGE MERCER BROOKE ... Commander of Fort Brooke. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Caloosahatchee River to a New York Company.11 In June and July of 1832 another son, William R. Hackley and George W. Murray explored the area in a small sloop named the Associate commanded by Captain William Bunce. By 1837 the remainder of the so-called Hackley Grant was vested in a company known as the Florida Peninsula Land Company and capitalized for $200,000. Shares in the company or land contained within the grant could be purchased from Augustus Steele of Tampa Bay, Lot Clark of Gainesville and four others including Robert Hackley of New York. Within a short time two important sales were made by the Florida Peninsula Land Company which resulted in the development of two illegal subdivisions. Judge Augustus Steele from Connecticut who had helped push through the territorial legislature, the act creating Hillsborough County in 1834 and was county judge, postmaster and deputy collector of customs, all at the same time, purchased 25 acres from Hackley which was lying to the North just beyond the garrison buildings and parade grounds but still part of Federal land. Since Steele was customs officer he was permitted by the military to erect a house in 1830 near the picket line on the Hillsborough River. Steele, a wheeler-dealer, proceeded to lay out in 1838 the Town of Tampa with Water Street 40 feet wide and Tampa Street 60 feet wide and sell lots.12 When John Jackson did the official survey in 1847 he followed the plat made by Steele in marking these two streets. First lots in the town were sold to Captain Rufus D. Kilgore who built the 12 room Tampa Hotel sited on the Hillsborough River just north of the garrison. Records indicate that lots 54 and 55 were sold by Steele to Sarah Kilgore for $150.00 apiece in 1838. Tampa City Born In October, 1838, William Saunders purchased 58 acres of land lying between Hillsborough Bay and the West bank of the Hillsborough River from Hackley for $1,300.00. Several months later this tract of land was sold to Major Donald Fraser, John Monroe and Henry Lindsey. The purchasers contacted Steele who sub-divided part of the land naming it Tampa City. In March, 1839, lots 39 and 40 fronting on the west bank of the Hillsborough River and near its mouth was sold for $60 to Bartholomew Tole, a sergeant from Fort Brooke. Other purchases included lots 35, 36, and 37 by Captain W. W. Morris for $110.00 and lot 41 by Private Thomas Hagin for $60.00.13 Tampa Town and Tampa City lost their holdings when the Federal Courts decided in 1838 that Hackley's claim to the land was invalid. Within a short time Hackley shifted the focus of his attack. Hope had risen in a different direction when Congress in 1826 passed a law which authorized a frontiersman to settle on public land in Alabama, Mississippi and the Territory of Florida, make improvements and be able to purchase the land at a minimum price.14 Robert Hackley began to collect proof of his possession in order to claim the land in court. Judge Augustus Steele certified on August 27, 1834 that he had known Hackley to build a house and cultivate the land. Colonel George M. Brooke testified on November 27, 1834 that he had seized the land from Hackley and one Lorenzo testified that he had seen the 16 hired men clearing the land.15 Accordingly on November 27, 1843 Hackley filed his claim for the land citing the pre-emption law passed in 1826. Little is known of the action taken on the claim but it probably was disallowed at the time. Hackley would die in Tallahassee in 1845 but his heirs would remember the claim. Andrew Jackson Order The government's claim to the land rested upon an executive order that President

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Andrew Jackson issued on December 10, 1830 which established Fort Brooke and its boundaries as being 256 square miles.16 The government's claim to the land did not rest on solid ground. As early as June 6, 1828, Colonel Brooke had warned Washington that several persons had settled near the fort and were selling whiskey to the soldiers and Indians and cutting wood. By July, 1829, he admitted that he could do little about the problem for there was no civil court, and he would not use the troops to drive the intruders off until ordered by superiors. Commissioner Hayward of the United States General Land Office warned President Jackson that the Fort Brooke area had not yet been surveyed by his office and these intruders could claim land under the act of May 29, 1830. Under this act any settler who had cultivated land in the public domain in 1829 could claim up to 160 acres by paying $1.25 an acre.17 Actually some settlers had erected buildings on the land by 1829 but had not cultivated any crops or known their rights in the matter. Such settlers included William G. Saunders who opened a general store at the foot of present day Whiting Street in 1828. Other business ventures established on the government land included a harness repair and-shoe shop, laundry, blacksmittery and ship repair yard. Such practices of laying out towns on Federal land was commonplace along the frontier. Until 1844, one who wanted to build a town would select a site that had promise as a townsite, lay out the town and sell lots. Sometimes a large town was filled with inhabitants before the Indians had sold their rights to the land or before it had been surveyed or purchased from the government.18 Fort Brooke Intruders By 1838 the Federal Government became concerned with the illegal subdivision and intruders upon the Fort Brooke military reservation but action was virtually impossible. Federal law stipulated that the United States Marshal had the power to remove the intruders and Marshal Joseph Sanchez at St. Augustine had been directed twice to take action. His deputy, however, refused to remove the illegal settlers when requested by the commanding officer unless the County Judge instructed him.19Of course, Judge Augustus Steele would not give such orders to remove people from land he had sold to them. There were so many complaints against Steele's conduct as postmaster and revenue collector that the Secretary of War recommended his removal in 1839. After leaving Tampa when Hackley lost his bid to the Alagon grant land, Keys where he claimed Depot Key under the terms of the Armed Occupation Act of 1842. Several persons including Hackley tried to claim the Fort Brooke land under terms of the Armed Occupation Act but were denied such claims for the act stated that claims had to be two miles or more from a fort. On January 21, 1845, Colonel William Worth reduced the Military reservation to four miles square and, after approval by President James Polk, Hillsborough County obtained 160 acres of the reservation. Colonel Worth thought he was doing only an act of kindness to the citizens of Hillsborough County when he ordered the reduction of the military base. When the legislative council of the territory of Florida in 1845 placed the site of the courthouse within the limits of the garrison, Worth protested "it was infinitely better to abandon the post and valuable buildings therefore avoiding collisions in which irrespective of the original merits, the military are sure to be the sufferers.20 120 Although Fort Brooke was not to be abandoned for 30 years, it would steadily decline in use by the military from that time. When permission had been given to Hillsborough County officials t erect a courthouse on land formerly occupied by the troops, it was necessary to plat the town

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of Tampa and sell lots in the town so that funds could be made available for erection of the building which cost $1,368. Accordingly, the sale of lots with prices ranging from $25 to $83 a lot was held on April 5, 1847.21 This sale would represent the first legal transaction from government to private ownership of the Fort Brooke land. The military still retained title to sixteen square miles and would use the buildings as a secondary base during the Third Seminole War 1855-1858 and at its conclusion would decommission the place. James McKay rented the military reservation land on December 4, 1860 but it was occupied by Confederates during most of the war. Since the military showed little interest in keeping the land after the Civil War, the buildings were deserted from 1869 to 1880. In 1877 the reservation was reduced to 148 acres. Heirs File Suit When the land was transferred from the War Department to the Interior Department in 1883 the land was available for, civilian occupation for the first time in 60 years. Most people believed that the tract would be transferred to ownership by the City of Tampa. However, with the assistance of United States Senator Wilkinson Call, a Gainesville physician Dr. Edmund S. Carew obtained homestead rights to the best tract which included a building known as the officers' quarters and others soon filed for available tracts.22 When troops had occupied the reservation from 1880 to 1882 Daniel Mather and A. Ross had used a place known as the officers' quarters as a bakery to supply bread to the troops and Carew and his wife moved into this building, the only one standing on the tract in April, 1883. This building would remain near the present day CrossTown Expressway bridge until the 1920s. The heirs of Hackley filed a suit for the land at the Land Office at Gainesville on October 14, 1887. Many of the homesteaders had sold their property to the Florida Central and Peninsular Railroad and with the help of the railroad other homesteaders fought a legal battle with the Hackley heirs that lasted many years. In 1905 the Supreme Court ruled that since the pre-emption act was passed in 1826, it did not apply to Hackley for he had settled the land in 1823. Furthermore, he had no right to claim land that was designated a military reservation. However, a careful reading of the act passed in 1826 indicates "any person who did on or before January 1, 1825 actually inhabit and cultivate a tract of land situated in the territory of Florida which tract is not rightfully claimed by any other person ... shall be entitled to right of pre-emption.23 123 Since Hackley cultivated the land in 1823, was removed by the soldiers and the Government did not claim the land until 1830, his heirs should have received some compensation.

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FOOTNOTES 1 T. Frederick Davis, "The Alagon, Punonrostro and Vargas Land Grants," Florida Historical Quarterly XXV (October, 1946) 175-190. 2 Phillip C. Brooke, Diplomacy of the Borderlands: The Adams-Oriis Treaty of 1819 (Berkeley, 1939), passim. 3 Samuel F. Bemis, John Quincy Adams and The Foundations of American Foreign Policy (New York, 1949), 336. 4 Ibid. 337. 5 Anonymous, Petition of Samuel Lawrence and other Citizens of New York for Confirmation of their Title to Land in East Florida purchased from Richard S. Hackley (New York, 1824), 9. 6 See President James Monroe to Governor Andrew Jackson, May 23, 1821. Clarence C. Carter, ed Territorial papers of the United States XXII Territory of Florida 1821-1824, (Washington, 1956), 55-57. 7 Richard S. Hackley was born in North Carolina but had lived in Virginia for many years. In May, 1821 he was appointed Surveyor and Collector of the Revenue at St. Augustine. Adams to Jackson May 22, 1821 Territorial Papers, 50-52. 8 Anonymous Titles and Legal Opinions thereon of Lands in East Florida belonging to Richard S. Hackley Esq. (Brooklyn, 1822), 10. 9 Evidence in letter from Hackley, cited in Scott vs Carew, January 3, 1905, Supreme Court Records, National Archives, Washington, D.C. 10 Disposition of George M. Brooke in Scott vs. Carew 11 John L. Williams, Territory of Florida, (New York, 1837), 289. 12."Karl H. Grismer, Tampa: A History of the City of Tampa and the Tampa Bay Region of Florida, (St. Petersburg, 1950), 89. 13 Clerk, Hillsborough County Day Book, Hillsborough County from 1837, 1, 5 Copy of Hillsborough County Records in Hillsborough Historical Commission Library. 14 See 19th Congress, First Sesson, Chapter XXVII Statute passed in April 22, 1826. 15 Scott vs. Carew 16. See footnote citing endorsement by Jackson in creating the reservation: Clarence C. Carter, ed., Territoria1 Papers of the United States XXIV "Territory of Florida, 1829-1834," (Washington, 1959), 23. 17. United States Statutes at Large, 420. 18 Everett Dick, The Lure of the Land: A Social History of the Public Lands from the Articles of Confederation to the New Deal (Lincoln, 1970), 264 19 Carter, Territorial Papers of the United States XXVI "Territory of Florida 1839-1845," (Washington, 1962), the Adjutant General to Josiah Vose September 22, 1842, 542-543 20 William J. Worth to the Adjutant General January 21, 1845, ibid, 997-98. 21 Grismer, Tampa, 108. 22 Ibid, 168 -169.

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23 See Act of April 22, 1826 as cited in footnote 14.

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1972 FRANK LAUMER 1973 STATE SEN. DAVID McLAIN 1974 CIRCUIT JUDGE JAMES R. KNOTTRECIPIENTS OF THE1977 DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON 1978 HAMPTON DUNN 1979 WILLIAM M. GOZA 1975 GLORIA JAHODA 1976 HARRIS H. MULLEN 1980 TONY PIZZO

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IGNACIO HAYA, PIONEER CIGAR ENTREPRENEUR By DR. GLENN WESTFALL Department of History Hillsborough Community College In the past decade, investment of foreign capital in the United States has received much publicity, but most Americans are not aware of the role which foreign investors have played in the economic development of our nation. In Florida, both Cuban and Spanish capital were instrumental in making Florida's cigar industry the State's leading business enterprise by 1900. One of the leading entrepreneurs, a Spaniard, was Ignacio Haya. INTERIOR, IGNACIO HAYA HOME, 1895 ... In Hyde Park, at 605 Magnolia Ave.

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Born in Escalante, Santanter, Spain, December 8, 1842, Ignacio Haya was the son of landed aristocracy, who rented vast amounts of their estancia to tenant farmers.1 Ignacio was educated in Spain, and at the age of 18, he and his brother, Ramon, left their homeland to begin a new life in the United States.2 They arrived in New York City where Ignacio established a cigar factory with another Spanish immigrant, Serafin Sanchez. While Ramon moved between Cuba and Spain, Ignacio remained in the United States, forming the Sanchez and Haya Cigar factory in 1867.3 The factory was one of the first in the nation to make cigars from the light colored Cuban tobacco called "Clear Havana" in the United States. By bringing raw tobacco from their own tobacco fields they purchased in Cuba, the firm did not have to pay duty on finished cigars. It produced Cuban cigars in the United States free of import duties. With an abundant supply of Clear Havana tobacco, the firm flourished since there was a continual demand for high quality Cuban cigars. Good quality cigars were marketed through advertisement in the form of cigar labels, cigar box art. The firm's leading label portrayed a popular actress, Fannie Davenport. It remained the most popular 4 label throughout the successful career of the company.4 During the 1870s, cigar workers' salaries remained low because of the overabundance of labor. High production, with little concern for working conditions led to the formation of unions and a succession of devastating strikes. Manufacturers such as Haya began to look to other parts of the nation where they could move their business, free from unions, labor unrest, and congested cities. TAMPA 'DISCOVERED' New manufacturing problems were a frequent topic of discussion with Ignacio Haya and a fellow Key West manufacturer, Don Vicente Martinez Ybor. Haya frequently visited Ybor in Key West during the winter months, to escape the harsh New York winters. During one visit, the manufacturers were joined by New York friends Bernadino Gargol and Gavino Gutierrez, who had just arrived from 'FACTORY No. I' ... Sanchez and Haya firm. PRODUCED FINE BRANDS . Factory Closed in 1976.

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THE IGNACIO HAYA FAMILY Marina Haya, later Frank Ambrose Torre; Ignacio and Fannie Haya, married 1872.

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Tampa. After telling the industrialists about Tampa's economic potential, the four gentlemen made a quick visit 5to Tampa to see for themselves.5 Haya was so impressed that he later sent his partner Serafin to meet with the Tampa Board of Trade to discuss the possibility of moving their industry there. Sanchez arrived July 15, 1885, met with the Board, and an enthusiastic editorial in the "Tampa Morning Tribune" stated "The benefits that would enure to Tampa from the establishment of such an industry cannot be too deeply impressed on our citizens.6 The stage was thereby set for the beginning of Tampa's leading industry, thanks to Sanchez and Hayas' inquiries. YBOR BUYS LAND Don Vicente Martinez Ybor purchased the first land, 40 acres, approximately two miles northeast of Tampa. Haya allowed Ybor to take the first step in real estate, once he was convinced of its success, he purchased land, forming the Sanchez and Haya Real Estate Company. Haya then constructed a two story wooden factory at the corner of Seventh Avenue and 15th Street. During construction, he visited a local Tampa banker, Thomas Taliaferro, to inform him that he and Sr. Ybor need an institution of credit to facilitate the transactions involving purchases, sales, collections, and wages for their employees. At first, Taliaferro was unsure about the success of the cigar business in Tampa, but when Haya assured him that initial salaries would amount to more than $10,000 a month, Taliaferro, who was planning to move to Jacksonville, now decided his future was in Tampa. Thanks to the influence of Sr. Haya, he became a successful Tampa banker, and founder of today's First National Bank7 Sr. Haya not only convinced Tampa businessmen of the success which the cigar business would generate, but he was also the first manufacturer to produce cigars in Tampa. Although he and Sr. Ybor completed the construction of their factories at the same time, Haya received the title of "Factory Number One" because he used tobacco which had already been stripped of its stems in making the first cigars; (it was also stated that he was first because a strike at the Ybor factory hindered the production of cigars).8 Sr. Haya and his partner not only made a fortune from the production of cigars, but they also developed a real estate business, the Haya and Sanchez Real Estate Company, which induced other manufacturers to move to Ybor City. Real estate proved to be a profitable business enterprise for the Latin manufacturer and his associate.9 FAMILY LIFE While he was living in New York, Haya married Fannie Miledoler in 1872. Fannie was

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related to the prestigious William Steele family of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and the marriage brought considerable family wealth to his business.10 The couple resided on Calffon Avenue, near Fulton Avenue in Brooklyn.11 They had one child which died at birth. The bereaved couple returned to Spain and there adopted two year old Marina, a daughter of Ignacio's brother Ramon. Marina returned with her new parents to New York, and was known only as the daughter of the family, never the daughter of Ramon. After Ybor City was founded, the Hayas moved to Florida, first living in Ybor City proper, near the recently completed railroad line which connected to Tampa. Mrs. Haya used the trolly on a regular basis, but was also consistently late for its departure. A niece regularly held up the trolly until she arrived, and this soon became a joking custom of Ybor City. One of the trolly cars was named the "Fanny" because of this incident. 12 1ST WOMAN EXECUTIVE The Haya's later purchased the commodious Gumby home, located at 605 Magnolia. It remained the family residence for the remainder of the life of Mrs. Haya. In 1929, she was induced to sell the Magnolia property for the construction of apartments, but she insisted in moving the house. Consequently, the massive three story structure was cut in half and moved to 706 Brevard, where Mrs. Haya remained until her death. This was one of the earliest recorded movings of a house in Tampa. Marina Haya married Ambrosia Torre in 1908. Mr. Torre was a salesman for tobacco leaf in New York; he moved to Tampa, opened a cigar factory, and produced the Americus brand of cigars. The couple raised five children in Tampa: Ambrose, Ignatius, Marion, Joseph (Joe), and Fannie.13 Throughout the development of the cigar industry in Tampa, the Haya's not only employed hundreds of workers but also contributed to the overall development of Tampa through good works. At the death of Mr. Haya, Fannie became Tampa's first woman executive of a large corporation. In 1928, she donated a large tract of land on the Hillsborough River to the City of Tampa as a park. 14 HAYA'S CONTRIBUTIONS TO TAMPA Throughout his manufacturing career, Ignacio Haya was noted as a humanitarian, who was concerned about the welfare of his workers.15 One of the reasons for moving from New York was to give workers better living conditions. The workers' homes, still found in Ybor City and West Tampa, were far superior living quarters to the tenement houses of New York. Haya was also instrumental in supporting the social lives of his workers in the formation of the Spanish Casino, an organization devoted to the recreation and entertainment of cigar workers. Haya was president of the organization and contributed generously to its construction and maintenance. Haya's role in the evolution and development of Tampa was adequately summarized in his May 11, 1906 obituary: The death of Ignacio Haya removed one of the conspicuous figures of the growth of Tampa and of its great industry ... Mr. Haya was one of Tampa's great "Captains of Industry." In addition to being a businessman of acumen and revenue, he was a man of kind heart and charitable nature. No appeal for aid ever reached him without response.

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Only a few days ago, he cheerfully gave $1,000 to sufferers from the San Francisco disaster. The Tribune, speaking for the people of Tampa, pays tribute to the career of this strong man who has gone from among us so suddenly. Men like Ignacio Haya make a city great and Tampa cannot have too many of them.16

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LIST OF SOURCES 0ral Interview, July 11, 1980. 131bid. "Tobacco Leaf, January 14, 1928, p. 14: also, ORAL INTERVIEW, July 11, 1980. "'Ibid. 16Tampa Tribune, May 11, 1906. 1 Karl H. Grimmer, A History of the City of Tampa and the Tampa Bay Region of Florida, Ed. D. B. 2 McKay. St. Petersburg: The St. Petersburg Printing Company, Inc., 1950, p. 342. 3 Also, oral interview with Thomas Vance, July 11, 1980, Tampa, Florida. 4 Ramon later returned to Spain to oversee the family estate. During the Spanish American War, he served in the Spanish Army in Duba while Ignacio supported the American cause. 5 Tobacco, September 30, 1915, p. 98 6 Ibid., The "Fanny Davenport" label printed in 1878 remained the same for the Tampa Factory, which added the words "Factory Number I" to the label. 7 Jose Rivero Muniz, "Los Cubanos en Tampa," La Revista Cubana, LXXLV, La Habana, 1958, p. 12. 8 Board of Trade Minutes, Vol. 5, July 15, 1885, p. 7. Also, Tampa Morning Tribune, July 16, 1885. The newspaper gave a glowing account of the potential which the industry would give to Tampa, allowing work for over 125 persons. This was undoubtedly exciting to Tampans who saw the potential of developing their sleepy coastal community to a large town. 9 Grismer, A History of the City of Tampa and the Tampa Bay Region of Florida, p. 338. Also, Muniz, "Los Cubanos en Tampa, p. 15-16. 10 Durward Long, "The Historical Beginnings of Ybor City and Modern Tampa," Florida Historical Quarterly, (July, 1966, p. 34-36). 11 The Sanchez and Haya Real Estate Company remained a major source of revenue and owned most of the East Broadway (Seventh Avenue) buildings, the heart of the commercial and residential area of Ybor City. 12 Oral Interview, Thomas Vance and Fannie Vance, July 11, 1980.

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13 Ibid 14 Tobacco Leaf, January 14, 1928, p. 14: also, ORAL INTERVIEW, July 11, 1980. 15Ibid. 16Tampa Tribune, may 11, 1906

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TAMPA FROM SHELL MOUND TO MODERN TOWN By KENNETH W. MULDER "History is everything man has ever said, thought, or done. It is not required that the person, the word, or the act be importantonly that it happened. Robert Harvey Robinson, world renowned author and historian, many years ago gave us this definition.1 Charlton W. Tebeau, Professor Emeritus, University of Miami History Department, Author, and Lecturer (one of the best on Florida history) states that a local Historical Society is the fountainhead of state, national and world history, as all historical events occur first somewhere locally.2 The Historical STONE CROSS AND PRE-COLUMBIAN HEAD Ancient Artifacts from Hillsborough River. Text of a lecture in the series A Tampa Tribute, Hillsborough Community College, Dale Mabry Campus, Humanities Building, Room 118, Wednesday, June 11, 1980, 7:30 P.M. Sponsored by the Tampa Historical Society.

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Society serves to document and perpetuate this local history. The study of Florida history involves most of the sciences: geology, ethnology, astrology, geography, biology, archaeology, and anthropology. The languages of French and Spanish are also helpful in the study of Florida history. TAMPA AND SPAIN Tampa, the Tampa Bay area, and the entire west coast of Florida history is directly tied to Spanish history. First hand knowledge is found in the Museum of the Americas located in Madrid, Spain3, a huge four-story fortress, guarded inside and out by machine gun carrying guards. It houses artifacts, maps and records; gold, silver, jade, jewelry, and hand-carved figures from Mexico, Peru, Chile, Yucatan, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Cuba. Proudly displayed are these priceless treasures in their original form, proof of the Conquistadors explorations, pacifications and complete annihilation of these ancient tribes: the Arravaks, Caribs, Mayas, Aztecs, Payas, Habanas, Incas, Caloosas, Timucuans, and many more of the aboriginal people that occupied this part of the new world since before Christ. For thousands of years, their culture grew, flourished and prospered; then came the Conquistadors. In 40 short years, the Spanish destroyed most of them. What Indians were left went back into the forests and jungles, no longer bound together in great cities and tribes. The Spanish were brutal, cruel and final. Atrocities comKEN MULDER ADDRESSES THE LECTURE SERIES Display of Florida Artifacts Pleases Audience. -Photo by NELSON MEDINA

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mitted against fellow human beings are unbelievable. MISSING TREASURES Madrid's Museum of the Americas proudly and boldly displays their treasures in huge rooms, all identified by the various conquered countries and tribes4. Missing are treasures found in Florida upon the landing of Ponce de Leon, Diego Muruelo, Cordova, Pineda, Narvaez, De Soto, Menendez, de Ayllon, and others who came to explore Tampa Bay and Florida. We were especially interested in the explorations of Hernando de Soto. My wife and I had taken some beautiful shell tools and shell artifacts from the Tampa Bay area to compare and see if the ones they had displayed were similar for dating purposes. Our Museum guide took us to the great circular stairwell that ascends to three floors. The entire stairwell was a colored map of the new world, both North and South America. Lined routes designated the trips of Ponce de Leon, Pizarro, Cortez, Columbus, and other explorers, but very little was mentioned of De Soto's or Narvaez' trips through the Tampa Bay area. Our Spanish guide explained that the Spanish people considered Hernando de Soto, Captain General and Governor of Cuba, who led the greatest sea armada of ships and men to the new world in North America, a complete failure because he died PONCE DE LEON SEARCHES FOR THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH

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in our country. He never came back; never brought any gold or silver back as these other great explorers. GIFT TURNED DOWN

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I had a briefcase full of mint-finished shell tools, carved shells and Indian artifacts personally collected from all over the west coast of Florida. Showing them to the Museum officials, I said I would like to present them as a gift. Perhaps some of De Soto's men, Ponce de Leon, Narvaez, or Menendez walked over these very shell implements or saw the Indians using them. I wanted to present a gift from the Tampa Historical Society and from the people in Tampa, to be added to this great collection of new world treasures. These were the only treasures that belonged to these ancient people since they had no gold or silver of any consequence.5 The Museum officials politely refused. They did not want them. Due North from the port of Havana, Cuba, lies the Dry Tortugas. North of this midway point lies the most beautiful deep harbor in the world, so said the early explorers.6 Historians confirm they were describing Tampa Bay (called Espiritos Santos when first sighted and explored by De Soto). The Spanish had been in the Caribbean, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, South America, Mexico, and the Yucatan many years before Ponce de Leon came to Florida. RAIDED THE FLORIDA KEYS Slave traders (operating illegally) seeking human labor for plantations and the mineral mines in Hispaniola (Haiti), Puerto Rico and Cuba had sailed north many times from Havana raiding the Bahamas, the Florida Keys and the east and west coast of Florida hunting indians for slaves.7 The islands, channels, winds and tides were well-etched maps in the minds of the ship DE SOTO MARCHING THROUGH THE WILDERNESS TAMPA BAY TO MISSISSIPPI RIVER

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captains and the pilots-not written down. There was no evidence to hang them if they should be caught.8 They had captured, tortured and killed many aboriginal natives whose names were changed forever when Columbus discovered the new world landing in San Salvador, in the Bahamas. Thinking he was in India, he called the natives "indians", and indians they are called today. The hostility of the indians to the first landing of Ponce de Leon was indicative of the hatred they had for any and all white men. Upon landing, he met an indian who understood Spanish, who had escaped from Cuba and brought to Florida news of the cruel treatment of the Spanish. Ponce de Leon's patent from the King of Spain read differently from the others.9 No priest came with him on this voyage, no tradesmen, no settlers, no surgeons; only fighting men. Gold, silver and slaves were his quest. He was also seeking the "fountain of youth." FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH Captured slaves from the Florida mainland and the Bahamas were taken to the Caribbean and to Cuba. They told of springs that held life-giving powers on the land to the north. "It would make you feel young again," they said. The aboriginal slaves also spoke of the "River Jordan" as having the same life-giving water. The "fountain of youth" was truly in Florida, but Ponce de Leon did not find it. Rather, he did, but he didn't know it. The fountain of youth the Indians told of was a combination of the artesian wells and springs full of sulphur and other mineral elements helpful to digestion and body ailments. The drinking of the sulphur water from rivers and springs helped keep the insects (mosquitos, "no see'ems", and flies) away from the Indians who were always nearly and we all know that if you feel good, you feel young. The indians were strong, healthy people. They were much larger than the Spanish and fierce fighters who were never conquered. As recently as 50 years ago, in the excavation of a mound on Long Boat Key, two skeletons were uncovered. One was seven and one-half feet and the other eight feet long.10 No gold or silver of any consequence was found by Ponce de Leon; only trinkets from wrecked Spanish ships along the Florida Keys and the west coast that the Indians had salvaged. On his third trip to the west coast of Florida, the Indians-the Caloosas and Timucuans-fought him fiercely and he died in Cuba from a wound of an Indian arrow made of a Florida fire-hardened reed and a shark's tooth point; complete failure as a Conquistador.11 INDIAN SHELL MOUND FORT BROOKE 1842

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NARVAEZ PASSED THROUGH Redheaded, red bearded, and one-eyed Pamphilo Narvaez came next. His landing was historically documented somewhere between St. Petersburg and Clearwater, near John's Pass. He marched east over land to Phillipe Park (Tabaggo). There he caused more bitter hatred among the Indians by ordering his swordsman to cut off the nose of the chief and feed his aged mother to his greyhound dogs alive.12 He marched inland, probably towards the mouth of Tampa Bay, following the Hillsborough River or the Anclote River northeast, then northwest to Appalachicola. He and his men killed their horses to make a boat of their hides. Using their clothes for sails, they sailed to New Spain in Mexico. He too, gave up and died at sea. A complete failure-no gold, no silver, no conquests; but his chronicler, Cabeza de Vaca and other survivors gave us the first known description of Tampa Bay. He wrote, "The port of which we speak is the best in the world. At the entrance are six fathoms of water and five near the shore. It runs up into the land seven or eight leagues."13 The description of Tampa Bay. Next, came Hernando de Soto. From Spain to Cuba came the greatest sea armada ever assembled for the new world exploration and conquest. De Soto knew of Tampa Bay. Cabeza de Vaca had returned to Spain with his revelation of the Narvaez expedition. De Soto met with him many times and offered him a position in his expedition. De Vaca declined, saying he would never serve under another leader. He wanted his own conquest and petitioned the King of Spain for a province in South America. De Soto spent over a year in Cuba preparing for the voyage north to Florida, gathering supplies, men, horses, mules, and dogs. He left his young bride, Isabella, behind in Havana and sailed north to the Dry Tortugas, then north to Tampa Bay to conquer Florida, to find gold and silver, christianize the Indians for the Catholic Church, and begin a Spanish colony on the great river (Mississippi). STONE CROSS IS NEWS. Bob fellows, feature reporter for Tampas WTVT, Channel 13, interviews Don (Curley) Grey, who discovered and recovered Spanish cross carved in flint stone from the east bank of Hillsborough River in 1977. Discussion filmed at Tampa Historical Society Lecture Series. Photo by NELSON MEDINA

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Map No. 3. Tampa Bay to illustrate the landing of De Sotos army as indicated in the present report. Course of the vessels . . . Route of the army

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Four historical narratives were written about De Soto's campaign. Three historians were with the explorers from the beginning to the end: (1) De Soto's secretary, Rodrigo Ranjel, (2) Fernandez de Biedma, the royal official factor, and (3) Knight of Elvas, who anonymously published the first account. Fifty years after the expedition, Garcilaso de la Vega (The Inca) interviewed the survivors and wrote his account, a 643 page romantic novel. The three narratives written by the historians who accompanied De Soto were all brief but to a remarkable degree, support and confirm each other regarding the land fall of the ships.14 There are some variances because they were written at different places during the expedition. In the beginning, each states that they traveled north from Cuba to the land called Florida. The land fall was due north of the Dry Tortugas which places the landing on the west coast of Florida. They each confirm they traveled eight to ten days, leaving and landing. This sailing time places the land fall at Tampa Bay calculating the miles and speed of these ancient ships of the 1500s. INDIAN SIGNAL FIRES All three narratives also state that on the land fall they sighted a giant shell mound high above the mangrove trees, which puts the landing on the coast or beach.15 Anchoring the ships the first night off the coast, campfires could be seen up and down the entire coast-signal fires of the Indians on the high mounds on both sides of the Bay, informing other villages of the coming of the Spanish. The hunters now became the hunted. The landing, of De Soto was somewhere on the east side of Tampa Bay (possibly at Shaw's Point at the mouth of the Manatee River). At least, the Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission, 1939, concluded this was the site of the landing.16 The huge shell mound that was once there is now the National Historical De Soto Commemorative Monument to this event. The beautiful park is open daily to the public. DE SOTO DIES With an army of over 1,000 men, including slaves to help with the supplies, armament and weapons; and with over 300 Appaloosa horses, 300 pigs, mules, and greyhound fighting dogs, this sight alone was frightening to the indians. Some had never seen a horse, pig, mule, dog; or men with shiny breast plates or pointed metal helmets. But, march they did. From a point somewhere on the east side of Tampa Bay, a trip began that would last over three years and 3,000 miles for De Soto through Timucan territory (northern Florida) and areas now known as nine of our other southern states. De Soto died, but the exploration continued under the command of Luis de Moscoso. They marched another 1,000 miles in the thirteen months before they sailed down the Mississippi, into the Gulf and southwest to Tampico, Mexico, failing to establish even one colony. This march was also the beginning of the wild hogs and horses in Florida, as many escaped from the expedition. Seeds from oranges dropped by the marching army were also the beginning of the wild sour oranges in Florida. The tall spikes carried by the foot soldiers would catch and tangle in the delicate lace grey fern that hung from the lowhanging oaks, magnolias, pines, and hardwood trees; and would forever change the name of this native Florida air plant to "Spanish Moss". A NEW WORLD Little gold or silver were found; only some heat-scarred pearls damaged from cooking

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oysters in open fire. But De Soto opened a vast new world which neither he nor his men had any idea of the vastness larger than all of the old world. From the three narratives of documented evidence of this new land, the countries of Europe (England, Holland, France, Portugal, and Germany) translated them and used them to encourage colonization of the new world in the 1600s and later. De Soto's contribution was really the unlocking the door of the new world in North America and the doorway was Tampa Bay in 1539. The size of De Soto's marching army of men and animals necessitated fresh water. Heading north from Shaw's Point along the east side of Tampa Bay, they had to cross the Little Manatee, Bullfrog Creek, the Alafia, Palm River, and then to the mouth of the Hillsborough River (and things have not changed much on the mainland in 440 years). Advancing scouts advised De Soto that the Hillsborough River ran north by northeast, exactly toward his destination of Ocala where the indians around Tampa Bay had told him much gold could be found. In the Tampa Bay area, he found Juan Ortiz, who had come from Cuba to search for Narvaez, was captured, and lived among the indians for twelve years as a slave.17 He became a valuable scout and interpreter for De Soto's campaign. He, too, died on the long march and was buried near the Mississippi River. INDIAN SHELL MOUND FORT BROOKE 1842 A VALUABLE FIND Positive evidence of this march is the Spanish cross carved in pure flint, found recently on the east side of the Hillsborough River near Temple Terrace by Don (Curley) Gray, member of the Tampa Historical Society. The everpresent need for water for animals and man was provided by our Hillsborough River in 1539. A picture of this cross was take to Spain last year and was examined and authenticated by the Museum officials in Madrid. The circle around the cross was the frame (the custom in the 15th and 16th centuries) as we today frame pictures with a rectangle. This was probably the marking of a campsite. Perhaps this is where they buried a lot of the armor, tools and supplies before the march to Ocala, as the three narratives state they did. Unfortunately, the site where the cross was found can never be further excavated as it is now covered with approximately 300 apartment units. However, this is truly a valuable find for the Tampa Bay area. FIRST MENTION OF TAMPA Five miles south of the site of the stone cross, where the Columbus Drive Bridge crosses the Hillsborough River, was found the stone carved head by another of our members, Santo Randazzo. It too, is an artifact of pre-Columbian art, carved by man, some time back in our area's history. Two cultures, worlds apart, meeting at Tampa, hundreds of years ago. The first mention of our city, Tampa, is in the Memoirs of Fountaneda (1575). He was a ship-wrecked Spanish lad who spent 17 years among the Indians of the Tampa Bay area. He wrote of many villages; one, a large village called "Tanpa".18 Early mapmakers changed the spelling to "Tampa". S. T. Walker and C. B. Moore mapped over 75 mound sites in the Tampa area in 1879. Their map shows the indian mounds that were present at the time of the DeSoto expedition. Observe that their locations are now the

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neighboring cities of Ruskin, Tarpon Springs, Crystal River, Clearwater, Safety Harbor, St. Petersburg, Pass-a-Grille, Gibsonton, Palmetto, Bradenton and Terre Ceia. These large mounds were found up and down both sides of the entire Tampa Bay area; any one of which could have been the landing site of De Soto in 1539. FEW MOUNDS REMAIN In Tampa's early history, as well as each of these neighboring cities, the first man-made structure was these shell mounds built by early Indian tribes many years before Christ. There were three different types of mounds built. The smaller kitchen midden were living areas covered with thatched huts, for sleeping, cooking and eating. The burial mounds resulted from laying the dead on the ground and covering them with shell and earth. As more died, they were laid over those previously buried (with their treasures of shell jewelry, pottery, tools and weapons) and covered with more shell and earth. Ceremonial mounds, built of shell and earth, were taller than the others, towering over the surrounding land and water. They were T-shaped, with a ramp leading up to the elongated top which always faced east. Today, only a few Timucan mounds remain. Cockroach Mound, near Ruskin is 56 1/2 feet tall and is the largest remaining in Florida. Shaw's Point in Bradenton, Phillippi Point in Safety Harbor, Terra Ceia and Crystal River are four mounds which have been preserved as historical landmarks of this area's history. Most of these mounds still have enormous Gumbo Limbo trees on them which were sacred to the aboriginal natives. From these trees they used the leaves for tea (medicinal), the red seeds for decorations, the sap for gout, the burning of the green limbs for incense. The sap from the trees also caught red birds which they traded with the Cuban fishermen. The wood they used for canoes and rafts for collecting shell fish, corks for fishing nets, bowls, tables and many other items necessary for their every day life.19 GUMBO LIMBO TREES In 1897, Frank Hamilton Cushing excavated the worldacclaimed Key Marco mound site. Artifacts were excavated from muck beds still intact in form, color, and design from an early Caloosa village. Many were carbon dated 300 A.D. and earlier.20 The book, The Material Culture of Key Marco Florida, depicts the artifacts from this site, including pictures of hand-carved items of Gumbo Limbo wood: bowls, fish net corks, stools and float boards. These artifacts are now in the Smithsonian and in the Florida State Museum. At the entrance to the De Soto National Monument at Shaw's Point, Bradenton, stands an impressive grove of giant Gumbo Limbo trees where an immense shell mound once stood. For over 440 years, the exact spot of De Soto's landing has baffled historians, but the Memorial at Shaw's Point commemorated the landing somewhere in Tampa Bay. The carved cross is positive proof of a Spanish campsite, marking the route of an advancing army of De Soto or another Conquistador who followed the Hillsborough River northeast towards Ocala and the interior of Florida because of the need for fresh water. FROM MOUND TO TOWN Somewhere back in time, the site that was to become the city of Tampa, began with a shell mound on the northeast side of the mouth of the Hillsborough River. The mound was begun by a naked aboriginal native (named by Columbus, an indian) as he ate his first shell fish and discarded the shell. He ingenuously invented a hammer by putting

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a stick through a conch shell and cracked open a giant oyster. He ate it to sustain life and threw down the two empty halves. He found a horse conch in the shallow water near the river, knocked a hole in it with his hammer, carved out the meat with a shell knife he made, ate this, and discarded the shell near the oysters. He then ate some clams; the next day, some scallops. The next week, more shell fish, and the mound grew shell by shell. Hundreds of years passed and other aboriginal natives came and found shell fish and ate them. This was the beginning. COULD THIS BE? The years change rivers, islands and sand bars. Hurricanes can and do close passes and wash away beaches many times. But, could this mound at the mouth of the Hillsborough River be the one described in De Soto's narratives over 400 years ago? Marching on the east side of the Hillsborough River, De Soto and his men could have observed this mound. Pedro Menendez and Narvaez could have observed it on their trips. Francisco Celli saw it when he came up the bay from Cuba in 1757 to map Tampa Bay and the Hillsborough River (as documented in his written journal). Renegade pirates saw it, lived on or near it, divided their loot and were murdered on it.21 Half-breed Spanish-indian and Cuban fishermen knew of it; lived on it or near it. They dried and cured their catches of mullet and mackerel to sell to Cuban fishing and trading ships that came to Tampa Bay. OUR FIRST SETTLER Robert Hackley arrived at the mound on the northeast side of the Hillsborough River in 1823 He saw it, cleared land around it, and started his plantation near it-our first settler!22 Col. George Mercer Brooke, in 1824 saw the shell mound near the clearing of Hackley's plantation and confiscated the property and mound for the U.S. Army's cantonment, Fort Brooke. Early drawings of Fort Brooke show the Indian shell mound still intact in the 1840s The mound is shown with a giant Gumbo Limbo tree with a ladder leading to the top for use as a lookout by the soldiers. Early settlers knew of the mound, and after the Army withdrew, they expanded the settlement of Fort Brooke, hauling the shell from the mound in ox carts for road beds. The last mound in this area (Bullfrog Creek) was used as a foundation in building the Tampa Bay Hotel (now the University of Tampa). The mounds are no longer here in Tampa. They are gone forever; but in building the mound, one shell at a time, man was doing something that made history. It was Tampa's beginning. The beginning of my town, your town, our town; a long time ago.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Buckingham Smith (Translator), NARRATIVES OF DE SOTO IN THE CONQUEST OF FLORIDA, (Gainesville 1968) Karl H. Grismer, TAMPA: A HISTORY OF THE CITY OF TAMPA AND THE TAMPA BAY REGION OF FLORIDA, (St. Petersburg 1950) Karl A. Bickel, THE MANGROVE COAST, THE STORY OF THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA, (New York 1942) Florence Fritz, UNKNOWN FLORIDA, (Coral Gables 1963) Emma Lila Fundaburk and Mary Douglass Fundaburk Foreman, SUN CIRCLES AND HUMAN HANDS, THE SOUTHEASTERN INDIANS, ART AND INDUSTRIES, (Luverne, Alabama, 1957) Rolfe F. Schell, DESOTO DIDN'T LAND AT TAMPA, (Ft. Myers Beach 1966) Irwin R. Blacker, THE BOLD CONQUISTADORES, (New York 1961) JONATHAN DICKINSON'S JOURNAL (or GOD'S PROTECTING PROVIDENCE) Edited by Evangeline Walker Andrews and Charles McLean Andrews (Stuart 1975) FONTANEDA'S MEMOIRS, 1575, Translated by Buckingham Smith, Washington 1854, (Reprinted Coral Gables 1944) J. W. Foster, LI.D., PRE-HISTORIC RACES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, (London 1873) Walter Buehr, THE SPANISH CONQUISTADORES IN NORTH AMERICA, (New York 1962) Jack Beater, TALES OF SOUTH FLORIDA PIONEERS, (St. Petersburg Date Unknown) Carita Doggett Corse, FLORIDA, EMPIRE OF THE SUN, Florida State Hotel Commission, (Tallahassee 1930) THE FLORIDA HISTORICAL QUARTERLY, Ferdinand DeSoto Issue, Vol. XVI No. 3, January 1938, The Florida Historical Society, (DeLeon Springs 1977) Albert Manucy, FLORIDA'S MENENDEZ, CAPTAIN GENERAL OF THE OCEAN SEA, (St. Augustine 1965) Hampton Dunn, RE-DISCOVER FLORIDA, (Tampa 1969) Charlton W. Tebeau, MAN IN THE EVERGLADES, 2,000 YEARS OF HUMAN HISTORY IN THE EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK, (Coral Gables 1968) Jack Beater, PIRATES AND BURIED TREASURE ON FLORIDA ISLANDS, (St. Petersburg 1959) Carita Doggett Corse, FLORIDA'S SILVER SPRINGS, (Publisher Unknown) William G. Truesdell, A GUIDE TO THE WILDERNESS WATERWAY OF THE EVERGLADES NATIONAL PARK, (Coral Gables 1969) Charles B. Cory, HUNTING AND FISHING IN FLORIDA, (Boston 1896), Reprinted through American Environmental Studies (Boston 1970)

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THE FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGIST, Vol. 33 No. 1, March 1980, (Coral Gables 1980) Rolfe Schell, 1000 YEARS ON MOUND KEY, (Ft. Myers Beach 1962) Garcilaso de la Vega, THE FLORIDA OF THE INCA, Translated by John Grier Varner and Jeannette Johnson Varner, (Austin, Texas, 1962) MYSTERIES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD, National Geographic Society, (Washington 1979) Sidney Lanier, FLORIDA: ITS SCENERY, CLIMATE, AND HISTORY, (Philadelphia 1876) UPDATE, Historical Association of Southern Florida, Vol. 3 No. 5, June 1976, (Miami 1976) THE WORLD OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, National Geographic Society, (Washington 1979) FINAL REPORT OF THE UNITED STATES DE SOTO EXPEDITION COMMISSION, January 3, 1939; U.S. Government Printing Office, (Washington 1939) Marion Spjut Gilliland, THE MATERIAL CULTURE OF KEY MARCO, FLORIDA, (Gainesville 1975) THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE, JOURNAL OF THE TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Vol. I No. 1, July 1974, (Tampa 1974) "Appeal from the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (Florida), Scott v. Car-, Argued November 1904-Decided January 1905' TAMPA BAY IN 1757: FRANCISO MARIA CELFS JOURNAL AND LOGBOOK, PART 11, Edited by John D. Ware, (Publisher Unknown) Gloria Jahoda, THE RIVER OF THE GOLDEN IBIS

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FOOTNOTES 1 Tebeau, Chariton W., History is Where You Find It", Update, Historical Association of Southern Florida, Vol. 3 No. 5, (Miami, June 1976), p. 20 2 Ibid. 3Visited personally by the author, May 1979 4Ibid. 5Fontaneda's Memoirs, 1575, Translated, Bucki ngham Smith, Washington, 1854, (Reprinted, Coral Gables, 1944), p. 11 6Grismer, Karl H., Tampa: A History of the City of Tampa and the Tampa Bay Region of Florida, (St. Petersburg, 1950), p. 23 7Fontaneda's Memoirs, p. 62 8Grismer, Tampa, p. 19 9Bickel, Karl A., The Mangrove Coast: The Story of the West Coast of Florida, (New York, 1942), P. 30 10Ibid, p. 15 11Friu, Florence, Unknown Florida, (Coral Gables, 1963), p. 29 12Grismer, Tampa, p. 23 13Ibid 14Boyd, Mark F., "The Arrival of DeSoto's Expedition in Florida", The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVI No. 3, (DeLeon Springs, January 1938), p. 210 15Fina Report of the United States DeSoto Expedition Commission, January 3, 1939; U.S. Government Printing Office, (Washington, 1939), p. 124, p. 135 16Swanton, John R., "The Landing Place of DeSoto", The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVI No. 3, (DeLeon Springs, January 1938), pp 148-151 17Grismer, Tampa, pp 28-29 18Fontaneda's Memoirs, p. 51 19Gilliland, Marion Spjut, The Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida, (Gainesville, 1975), pp 59-60, 161 20Gilliland, Key Marco, pp 257-258 21Brooke, Jr., Col. George Mercer, "Early Days at Fort Brooke", The Sunland Tribune, Vol. I No. 1, (Tampa, July 1974), p. 8 22Appeal from the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (Florida), Scott v. Carew, Argued November 1904-Decided January 1905, pp 100-114

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FEBRUARY 24, 1895, the date picked by the Cu ban conspirators in Havana to launch the "War Cry Viva Cuba Libre. The date coincided with the traditional carnival celebrations, and the Spanish authorities certainly would be caught of f guard. THE CIGAR THAT SPARKED A REVOLUTION By TONY PIZZO Millions of Tampa cigars have gone out into the world as ambassadors-of-good-will to be smoked into puffs of fantasies, but the most famous cigar ever rolled in Tampa went out, not as a Corona or a Queen, but as a liberator to spark the Cuban Revolution of 1895. This cigar cost thousands of lives, but won independence for Cuba. American school children, when studying the Spanish-American War, learn about "A Message to Garcia," but the school children of Cuba, when studying the history of the Cuban Insurrection of 1895, are taught of a more important message: "A Message to Gomez." CIGAR OF LIBERTY The Cigar of Liberty made in Tampa carried the Message to Gomez that sparked the flames of revolution. For years, this cigar stood as the symbol of friendship and goodwill between Tampa and Cuba. Sketch by Rodolpho Pena Mora

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The story of the cigar that went to war starts Jan. 29, 1895, at the residence of Gonzalo De Quesada, secretary of the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York City. Jose Marti, the leader of the Cuban crusade for freedom, called a secret meeting of the revolutionary junta at the Quesada home. Present were General Jose Maria (Mayia) Rodriguez, representing Generalisimo Maximo Gomez, and General Enrique Collazo, representing the Revolutionary Junta of Havana. Among the Cuban patriots taking part in the historic junta was Emilio Cordero, who in later years would become a prominent leader in the cigar industry of America marketing his popular brand-Mi Hogar. Cordero was late arriving at the meeting, and found the junta was stalemated on the decision of whether or not to launch a revolt on the APPEARANCE OF THE BATTLESHIP 'MAINE' AFTER THE EXPLOSION . A wrecking boat hoisting one of the great guns from the wreck -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION MIGUEL ANGEL DUQUE DE ESTRADA Miguel Angel Duque de Estrada is shown as he appeared at the time of the transcendental mission. Estrada was a brother-in-law of General Enrique Callazo, one of the great Cuban military figures. After the Cuban Rebublic was established, Estrada was appointed Captain of the Cuban National Police.

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island. Cordero was faced with the most serious decision of his life. After much soul searching he broke the tie vote by voting for war and gained immortality. UPRISING ORDERED "In view of the propitious situation and the clamoring of the islanders to take the field," Marti, Rodriguez and Collazo signed the long awaited order for the uprising. With the momentous decision made, the dangerous mission of delivering the order to the Cuban leaders was the next task at hand. The historic document was written in longhand on a single piece of white paper. Quesada, with the message in his pocket, booked passage on the first train for Ybor City, the center of Cuban revolutionary activities. On the train, Quesada met Horatio Rubens, an American attorney serving as advisor to the Cuban Revolutionary Party, and he confided: "I am sleeping on dynamite! I have the orders for the uprising! They will go by messenger to Havana." At the Ybor city railroad station, Quesada was met by Fernando Figueredo, the chief of the partido (party) in Ybor City, Theodore Perez, Martin Herrera, the brothers Blas and Estanislao O'Halloran and other Cuban patriots. NEST OF INSURGENTS Ybor City, the new and promising cigar center, had become a nest of insurgents. These THE INVASION OF CUBA . United States soldiers embarking on transports at Tampa, Fla. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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cigarmakers were red hot rebels ardently supporting the cause of Cuban independence. Each week they contributed one day's pay Dia de La Patria for the purchase of war material. Many guerilla-fighters were out-fitted and sneaked into Cuba from here. Quesada conferred with local leaders on means of smuggling the message into Cuba. Someone suggested concealing it in a cigar. Late one night, a few members of the local revolutionary junta met at the O'Halloran Cigar Factory and Blas O'Halloran rolled five Panetela cigars-all identical. The one concealing the message, the historic "Cigar of Liberty," was distinguishable by two tiny yellow specks on the tobacco wrapper. JUAN GUALBERTO GOMEZ Juan Gualberto Gomez was a mulatto intellectual, educated in Paris, and a fervent Cuban patriot. Gomez received the memorable message, and spearheaded the Cuban uprising o f 1895. BLAS O'HALLORAN Blas O'Halloran was the Tampan who made the historic cigar that concealed the famous "Message to Gomez. THIS CHAVETA often called a tobacco knife or Cuban blade, was used in making the cigar which concealed the message which sparked the Cuban Revolution of 1895. The revolver was given to Jose Marti by Generalismo Maximo Gomez for protection in the event he was attacked. Marti disliked carrying firearms, and gave the gun, as well as a diamond ring and pocketknife to his close friend in Tampa, Atanislao Fernandez O'Halloran. -Courtesy of SORIANO FAMILY

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The tobacco-knife, also known as a Cuban-blade, (Chaveta) used in making the cigar was owned by a cigarmaker named Jose Contada. The chaveta is now in the possession of Mrs. Rosario O'Halloran Soriano, the daughter of Estanislao O'Halloran. She also has in her possession a pistol and a ring Marti had given to her father. MOONLIGHT NIGHT A few days later, Quesada, with the five Panetelas well concealed on his person, sailed for Key West. There he was met by Miguel Angel Duque De Estrada, the man chosen to deliver the message to Juan Gualberto Gomez, the insurgent chief of the island of Cuba. On the moonlit night of February 21, 1895, Estrada, with the cigars in his coat pocket, boarded the Mascotte for the seething island. Arriving at the port of Havana, the courier calmly proceeded through routine customs inspection and passed out four cigars to authorities of the port. Estrada, holding the "loaded cigar" in his mouth, pretended to light it. He puffed several times, but the cigar refused to stay lit. Then he picked up his luggage and walked away into history. Soon, the very valuable cigar was safely delivered to Gomez in Habana. He loses no time in his role in the conspiracy, and called a meeting at the residence of Antonio Lopez Coloma, 74 Trocadero in Havana. The order for the uprising called for a date to be set not earlier than the second fortnight in February. Gomez and his fellow conspirators, which included Lopez Coloma, Dr. Pedro Betancourt, Julio Sanguily, and Jose Maria Aguirre, agree on February 24th as the date for the uprising-el grito de Guerra! This date fell on a Sunday, and was the beginning of the traditional carnival celebrations. During this time o fiesta, the Spanish authorities would be engaged in high revelry. Gomez sent a wire to Gonzalo de Quesada in New York saying, "Draft accepted," and signed "Arturo," signifying that all was ready to start la lucha (the struggle). On the morning of February 24, 1895, the rebel war-cry "Viva la, Independencia!" "Viva Cuba Libre!" electrified the island, and the Cuban people embarked on their final struggle against Spanish domination. The five "gritos" were heard at Ibarra, Jaguey Grande, Bayate, Guantanamo and Baire. The uprising at Ibarra was lead by Juan Gualberto Gomez and Antonio Lopez Coloma. The Ibarra revolt failed and Gomez and Coloma were captured by the Spanish. Gomez was banished to Ceuta, the Spanish penal colony in Africa, and Coloma, facing death with valor, was executed before a firing squad at the Fortaleza de la Cabana. A few months later, Jose Marti, the soul of the revolution, was killed at Dos Rios. General Antonio Maceo, the dashing mulatto chieftain, died before the gates of Havana. The revolution continued. Cuba was aflame. REMEMBER THE MAINE! In 1898 the battleship Maine exploded while anchored in the habor of Havana, and the United States declared war on Spain. "Teddy" Roosevelt, his Rough Riders, and General Maximo Gomez, with his gallant Mambises went on to victory and immortality. The Cubans finally attained their Cuba Libre. For many years, until Fidel Castro suspended the festivities, the Cubans continued to celebrate Los Carnavales on February 24th, recalling the Tampa cigar which broke the chain of oppression, while the sentimental smokers of Ybor City, with a penchant for the sobriquet, called for "A Message to Gomez" when purchasing a cigar, honoring the cigar of liberty.

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THE TAMPA TRIBUNE, DAILY & WEEKLY, WHEN FIRST STARTED Colonel Stovall Second from Left. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTIONTHOSE HELL-RAISIN' TAMPA NEWSPAPERS By HAMPTON DUNN Traditionally, throughout the more than 125 years of journalism in Tampa, the local newspapers have been a hard-hitting, aggressive, highly-competitive, hell-raising adversary press. Because of this leadership, much of it highly inspiring, the city has developed soundly from a tiny fishing village to a flourishing, teeming metropolis thriving on a solid base of commerce and industry and tourism. Newspapering in Tampa began quietly in the ante-bellum days preceding the Civil War. Two men, M. Whit Smith and the Rev. Cooley Sumner Reynolds in 1853 began planning the establishment of a newspaper here.1 The town was enjoying a little boom at the time, so publication was delayed by difficulty in finding office space in fast-growing Tampa. 2Finally, in late December the enterprising publishers brought in a small flat-bed press and several fonts of type. Text Of A Lecture In The Series "A TAMPA TRIBUTE" Hillsborough Community College Dale Mabry Campus Humanities Building, Rm. 118 Wednesday, May28, 1980, 7:30P.M. Sponsored by The Tampa Historical Society.

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EX-EDITOR AT HISTORICAL SOCIETY LECTURE Hampton Dunn, for 10 years managing editor of The Tampa Daily Times, is shown answering questions following his lecture on "Those Hell-Raisin' Tampa Newspapers at Hillsborough Community College on May 28, 1980. The talk was one in 6 series sponsored by the Tampa Historical Society, of which D unn is a founder and past president. The bronze nameplate shown behind the speaker was mounted at the entrance of The Times' building at Franklin and Washington Streets for man) years and was recently rescued from oblivion by Dunn. -Photo by NELSON MEDINAOn Jan. 10, 1854, the first issue of the Tampa Herald appeared!3 Smith and Reynolds had ventured this way from around Lake City in Columbia County, Florida. Little is known of Smith, who sold his interest in the Herald in November, 1854, to Dr. J. S. Jones, also of Columbia County. The Reverend Mr. Reynolds was born in Belfast, N.Y., in 1830, attended college and was an ordained Baptist minister. He came to Florida for his health in 1845, the year the peninsula was admitted to statehood. Reynolds must have shed his interest about the time Smith did. From here he had newspaper ventures in Palatka and Key West and in 1857 was in Ocala publishing the Florida Home Companion, a literary magazine.4 Twin Careers

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EDWIN DART LAMBRIGHT . Georgian planted roots here. Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTIONThroughout his life, Cooley Reynolds, a member of the well-known Brandon family, was torn between two callings, his clerical duties first and foremost, and as a writer and publisher, second. After the Civil War, Reynolds turned up in Clearwater and there in 1873 he established the city's first newspaper, the Clear Water Times.5 The preacher publisher founded the Midway Baptist Church, now the Calvary Baptist Church, in 1866. Reynolds, who had come to the state as a very sick man, died in 1901 at the age of 71 years. Also involved in the publishing of Tampa's first newspaper, the Herald, was Henry A. Crane. The newsman left Tampa and joined the Union forces in Key West during the Civil War, while his son, Judge H. L. Crane, served as a Confederate soldier through the conflict.6 When Jones took over the Tampa Herald he changed its name to the Florida Peninsular and in August, 1855, sold it to Simon Turman, Jr., saying in the editorial column that he was forced to sell because "it did not pay sufficient to sup port my family.7 Three years later William J. Spencer bought an interest in the paper. The Indian Terrors In the 1850's, the Third Seminole War, also known as "Billy Bowlegs War", raged in the central part of Florida. Editors of the Peninsular were alert to the terrors of the day and complained about the lack of support from the Federal government. An editorial in 1855 commented on the aroused state of the settlers at the time: The Indians have violated every treaty and now occupy no middle ground they are in an open state of hostility and hurl defiance into our very teeth. It is high time the United States Government, which is the boast of every American, a government which has the fear and respect of all civilized nations, should assert her supremacy in her own Territory, and teach these marauding outlaws that their repeated outrages have rendered forbearance no longer a virtue, and administer rebuke so richly merited that will rid Florida of this non-amalgamating and dangerous population, and enable her to stand out renewed, invigorated and regenerated to compete with her sister states.8

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Advertisements in the pioneer newspapers were as interesting as the news column. Here's one from the Florida Peninsular in August, 1856: "Notice. -The undersigned has several Negroes, washerwomen, cooks, nurses and field hands, for hire or sale. Any person desirous of hiring or purchasing can obtain any information by applying at this office or to the undersigned on the west side of the Hillsborough River opposite Tampa. D. J. Thomas."9 Mr. McKay pointed out in his Pioneer Florida volume the difficulties and discomforts of travel into and out of Tampa, as reflected in an ad in the Peninsular in 1856: "Safe travelling assured U.S. Mail, Palatka to Tampa, via Orange Springs, Ocala, Augusta, Pierceville, etc., by stage. Leave Palatka and Tampa on Mondays and Thursdays; arrive in Tampa and Palatka on Wednesdays and Saturdays. A good and efficient guard has been furnished by the state for the protection of the mails and passengers from Tampa as far as is needed, and stands are provided at convenient places, so that the public can rely on being carried through with comparative comfort and safety. H. L. Hart, proprietor.10 The newspapers of the early days often published poetry. Here was an offering in the TRIBUNE BUILDING ON LAFAYETTE STREET, 1942 .. View from Morgan Street Intersection. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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STOVAL MANSION ON BAYSHORE BLVD. . Recent Junior League Showhouse. Photo by HAMPTON DUNNPeninsular from a rhymester who took a fling at the fashions of the day: "Youngster, spare that girl! Kiss not those lips so meek, Unruffled let the fair locks curl Upon the maiden's cheek Believe her quite a saint Her looks are all divine. Her rosy hue is paint, Her form is crinoline.11 In 1858, the Florida Peninsular busily reported the calamity of the yellow fever scourge which hit the city. There were 275 cases reported in Tampa alone and 30 died. The newspaper reported: "Our city is almost depopulated and presents more the appearance of a church yard than a thriving business place.12 A New Newspaper One editor of the Peninsular under publisher Spencer was Alfonso DeLaunay, who left in early 1860 and was succeeded by Simon Turman, Jr. DeLaunay immediately started to seek backing for a new paper which he got from his brother, St. John DeLaunay, and 0. C. Drew, who became the publishers of the Sunny South which hit the streets on Jan. 29, 1861.13 In the prelude to the Civil War, the Tampa newspapers practiced jingoism, stirring up the Southerners against events nationally. On the election of Abraham Lincoln as President, William J. Spencer editorialized in the Florida Peninsular. "The election of Abraham Lincoln as president . is beyond per-adventure. Will you submit to a black Republican administration? Will you become pensioners of Black Republicanism for the right to hold and protect your property? Will you sacrifice your honor and sell your birthright for a mess of pottage?"14 Turman was a native of Ohio but he was just as fiery a rebel as was DeLauney, a native Virginian. In a December, 1860, issue of the Peninsular, Turman told of Tampa women appearing at a states' rights meeting with blue cockades in their hats, "a token" he said, "of resistance to abolition rule-an appropriate, graceful little emblem that evinces the true spirit of the wearers.15 'War is Inevitable' And then on March 16, 1861, after Lincoln's inaugural, Turman wrote: "War is inevitable. Mr. Lincoln's inaugural address cannot be regarded but as a declaration of war. It is so received and welcomed by all portions of the South. Southern patriots should not rejoice at the prospect nor should they shrink from the maintenance of their rights in consequence of its awful prospect. If we are not prepared now to

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establish and maintain our freedom, time will not gain us strength; and if through a lack of patriotism we miss the goal of Southern independence, the sooner we submit to the condition of serfdom the less galling will be our chains. If war must follow secession, the sooner it is inaugurated the better for the South. When the first blow is struck, the border states will take position with their Sisters who have abandoned the Old Union and then will the Confederate States of America be impregnable. Lincoln may back down from his position but we have no idea such will be the case until he has smelled Southern powder. 16 Because of the war, the Florida Peninsular was forced to suspend publication on May 25, 1861. Publisher Spence enlisted in the Confederate army and became a private in Company F, 1st Florida Cavalry. While serving in Kentucky, he was stricken with typhoid fever and died in Frankfort on Oct. 27, 1862, at the age of 23.17 Resumes Publication During the war the press and type of newspaper were taken into the country so the Yankees could not find them When the war ended, the equipment was brought back to Tampa and publication was resumed on April 28, 1866 by William Spencer's two brothers, John Edward and Thomas K. A couple months later, John Spencer became ill He had contracted dysentery while serving in the 4tt Regiment, Florida Volunteers. He died June 30, 1866. 18 Thomas Spencer carried on the paper, which was Democratic. In 1868, it got a Republican competitor, The True Southerner, claiming to be the "official" paper of the Sixth Judicial Circuit. This was in the Carpetbagger days. The newspaper was short-lived, however. It had little sup port from the populace and no advertising and after the November elections, died a sudden death.19 Whereupon, the Republicans still wanted a newspaper mouthpiece in Tampa for the next national election, in 1872, and so they purchased a controlling interest in the Peninsular. The Democratic editor retired and the new editor, G. R. Mobley, announced that the paper would become Republican. This change of complexion of the newspaper DONALD BRENHAM McKAY . publisher, mayor, historian. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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proved fatal, and the newspaper soon collapsed.20 'A Black Republican' Meanwhile, during the Reconstruction period, there had risen to prominence in the community one James T. Magbee. A native Georgian, he had served in the Confederate army during the war, but after the fighting he became, for reasons unknown, a "black Republican", a 11 scalawag", a Southern turncoat who joined the northern oppressors. Governor Harrison Reed, a Republican, appointed Magbee to be Judge of the Sixth Circuit which covered the West Coast from Brooksville to Key West. DAVID E. SMILEY . Erudite Editor and Publisher of The Times. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Grismer relates an incident which showed that Magbee had few friends among the Democrats in town: . And when he (Magbee) fell dead drunk in the sandy street at Franklin and Washington, on Nov. 16, 1871, a group of townsmen poured molasses and corn over him. The delectable mixture was soon discovered by roaming hogs. They rooted him around until they ripped off nearly all his clothes. Hours later, the judge sobered enough to get up and go home. He suspected James E. Lipscomb of having planned the outrage and charged him with contempt. On the hearing day, Lipscomb went to court armed with a shotgun. He pointed it at the judge and pulled the trigger. But just then E. A. Clarke struck the THE TIMES BUILDING WAS LANDMARK NOW GONE The home of The Tampa Daily Times and Radio Station WDAE was all decked out for Gasparilla when this photo was take, probably, in the 1950s. The structure at Franklin and Washington Streets was the first brick building in Tampa. Originally it was First National Bank. In recent years, after The Times sold to The Tribune in 1958, the building was occupied by the Merchants' Association of Tampa. But now it is gone razed in 1980 to make way for the Tampa Center Project. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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barrel and the load of buckshot went into the ceiling. Although he escaped, Magbee was so frightened that he dismissed the case.21 Under threat of impeachment, Magbee resigned his post in 1874, after serving six years. He then launched into the newspaper publishing business. He called his the Tampa Guardian. The masthead proclaimed it would be "Independent in Everything, Neutral in Nothing." Magbee continued publishing it until his death on Dec. 12, 1885.22 H. J. Cooper and C. H. Baxter carried on the paper until Dec. 8, 1886, when Cooper announced the publication would cease. One employee of Magbee was D. B. McKay, later to become a legend in Tampa journalism, who started as an apprentice in the printing business on the Guardian. "To me," McKay was to write years later, "the old fellow (Magbee) was always kindly and generous.23 'Stolen' Election The Democrats of the county were without a journalistic voice for a couple of years and in 1876 a significant election was coming up. Support was forthcoming to finance Thomas K. Spencer in a new paper. Thus, on March 2, 1876, appeared a new weekly called the Sunland Tribune. A Tampa physician with a flair for journalism, Dr. John P. Wall, was editor.24 Dr. Wall was a member of a pioneer Florida family and was a versatile man of many talents. Editor Wall filled the new newspaper with editorials lauding the Democratic Presidential hopeful, Samuel J. Tilden, and forecast the nation would be ruined if Rutherford B. Hayes, the Republican, were elected. Editor Magbee over on the Guardian was supporting Hayes. It was the 1876 election where the Democrats returned to power in Florida, while at the same time the state went for Hayes in a hotly disputed election in which election fraud charges were plentiful. It's been said Florida was one of the three Southern states where the election was "stolen" for Hayes. Dr. Wall carried on editorial battles with other editors around the state. He so infuriated Col. Frank Harris, editor and owner of the Ocala Banner, that the colonel challenged him to fight a duel. The challenge was accepted, but Dr. Wall stated that under the code, as the challenged party, he had the right to name the place and weapons for the encounter. He named Mrs. Bunch's Cowpens, near the RALPH NICHOLSON ... Came to Tampa with Smiley. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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WHEN NEWSPAPERS PUT OUT EXTRAS . WAR in Headlines 5 Inchees High. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Tampa slaughter pens on Six Mile Creek, as the place and shovels as the weapons. The state roared with laughter and no more was heard of the due.25 A Historical Society? It was the Sunland Tribune that first suggested that Tampa form a Historical Society. In its issue of Jan. 19, 1882, under a major headline, "TAMPA SHOULD HAVE A HISTORICAL SOCIETY WITHOUT DELAY" displayed a story quoting Judge J. G. Knapp of Hillsborough County as follows: Ponce de Leon landed at Tampa Bay and started his march through the wilderness in search for the Fountain of Youth. This is one reason why Tampa should have a Historical Society. We reflect how long will it be before not a vestige of the history (of our past) will remain, unless snatched from irretrievable loss by the men and women of the present day. And we ask and receive no answer. Who shall do it?"26 It was 89 years later, in 1971, before a Tampa Historical Society actually was organized! The Society began a Journal of its own in July, 1974, and named it the Sunland Tribune. The original Sunland Tribune changed its name to The Tampa Tribune on March 1, 1883. It editorially continued to fight for city improvements. With glee, it reported the negotiations that brought the cigar industry to Tampa in 1885. Reported the Tribune: "The benefits that would insure to Tampa from the establishment of such an industry cannot be too deeply impressed upon our citizens. The firm of Sanchez & Haya employs 125 cigar makers and can give employment to any number of little boys and girls as strip pers.27 Panic Stricken City Tampa was swept by another epidemic of yellow fever in 1887. The city was panic stricken. Hundreds fled to the country. Among those who fled was then Editor of the Tampa Tribune, G. M. Mathes. A young printer-reporter, D. B. McKay, was left in charge of the paper he continued to publish it, aided only by two Negroes who furnished the motive power for the press. Several days later McKay wrote: "Our city is desolate and distressfully quiet. Nearly all the business houses are closed and only a handful of our businessmen remain." Tar barrels were placed at each street corner and lighted in the hope that the penetrating smoke would kill the deadly germs. The disease spread, however, and by January, 1888, when the last death occurred, about 750 had lost their lives.28 VIRGIL M. NEWTON, JR. . hell-raisin' M. E. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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The first paper to be published on a daily basis in Tampa was the Tampa Daily News which started in 1887 with 0. H. Jackson as the editor and proprietor.29 Many people called it the Daily Kicker because Jackson was a chronic faultfinder. Mr. McKay recalled that Jackson "'had the ability as a writer and plenty of courage." One controversy in which the News engaged was about the location of the first bridge over the Hillsborough River. F. A. Salomonson and associates applied for the right to erect a toll-bridge at Whiting Street, but the News advocated a free bridge at Lafayette Street (now Kennedy Boulevard). The South Florida Railroad Co. claimed that it owned the foot of Lafayette Street that it was included in the grant of river-front property by the city council to induce Henry B. Plant to extend his railroad to Tampa, but Jackson contended that the council had no legal right to give away city property. He was sustained in this contention by Col. Hugh C. Macfarlane, city attorney, and the city proceeded to build a wooden drawbridge at Lafayette Street. Salomonson and associates abandoned their project.30 First 'Real' Daily McKay once wrote that after Editor Jackson died that he (McKay) bought the little paper, the News, and published it for several months. But he had an opportunity for a business out of town, so he sold the paper to G. M. Mathes. "'Before he (Mathes) had made his first payment," McKay wrote, "without my knowledge or consent, he moved the plant to Ybor City and it was destroyed in the great conflagration which reduced two-thirds of the cigar town to ashes." Tampa got its first "real" daily a short time after the demise of the News. Harvey Judson Cooper, who had been hired by Judge Magbee to refurbish the unsavory Guardian, changed its name to the Journal. Both the Journal and the Weekly Tribune blossomed out as dailies, according to McKay, and led a meager existence until 1893 when a group of businessmen purchased and consolidated the papers as The Tampa Daily Times with Cooper as general manager. The fall before, in 1892, a number of leading citizens of Tampa met to discuss the establishment of a paper that would be a credit to the city and a powerful factor in the development of the South Florida metropolis and surrounding territory.31 Credit for the idea is given to Col. S. A. Jones. The Colonel, an ex-Confederate officer, was the grandfather of George A. Smathers, who served Florida as U.S. Senator for several terms,32 and thus the great-grandfather of Bruce A. Smathers, who served in the Florida Legislature and as Secretary of State. Colonel Jones took ill soon after launching the newspaper idea and moved to Waynesville, N.C. Papers Consolidated At a meeting held Feb. 1, 1893, the amount of capital was fixed at $25,000 and a board of directors was elected, composed of Jones, A. J. Knight, W. B. Henderson, H. J. Cooper and W. A. Morrison. Jones was named president, Knight secretary and T. C. Taliaferro, treasurer. The next day the Tampa Journal was purchased for $3,500 and on the following day the Tampa Tribune was bought for $3,430. Cooper was elected general manager with the munificent salary of $75 a month.33 In the latter part of 1898, The Times was in financial trouble. Cooper called D. B. McKay into his office. The Times was "broke"; there wasn't enough money in the till to pay for an incoming shipment of newsprint. Cooper had

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been offered a job in Cuba and McKay could have the management contract for the amount of Cooper's moving expenses to Havana. McKay walked over to the Court House where he borrowed the needed $500 from former Gov. Henry L. Mitchell, who was then serving as Clerk of Circuit Court. Within a year, The Times was on a sound basis and was speedily buying out the local businessmen who had stock in it.34 It took McKay until 1922 to buy up the last stock and become the sole owner. McKay Interviewed In 1940, 1 interviewed Mr. McKay about the Spanish-American War days in Tampa and he told me this story: "The office of the old Florida Brewery was robbed and the next morning an insignia of the 69th New York Regiment was found on the floor. I published the story including about the insignia. I was working 18 to 20 hours a day then and late that night I was sitting at my desk at the top of the stairs in The Times building. "About 11 o'clock a colonel and chief surgeon came up the stairs drunk as they could be. They wanted to know who published the story. I told them I did and they said, "You have insulted the 69th New York Regiment and we demand an immediate retraction! "That afternoon a soldier had hocked me an old service revolver and it was lying on my desk. I saw the officers reaching for their pistols. I knew it was a matter of who shot first, so I lifted mine off the desk. They didn't run down the stairs they fell down! "The next afternoon while riding out in Ybor City, I had the pleasure of seeing the colonel and the surgeon being arrested for drunkeness.35 Native Tampan During the Spanish-American War period in 1898 there was published for a time in Ybor City a newspaper called El Mosquito, and its purpose was to promote Cuban independence.36 McKay, of course, is one of the giants in Tampa journalism and was a legend in his time. He owned The Times until 1933 when he gave a lease-option to David E. Smiley and Ralph Nicholson, who acquired ownership in 1938. Simultaneous with being publisher, McKay served four terms as Mayor of Tampa, a total of 14 years. McKay was a native Tampan, born in 1868, the son of John A. McKay and grandson of Capt. James McKay, pioneer Floridian. He was a hard-hitting, out-spoken editor who voiced his opinions on the burning issues of the day. He slapped around his rival, The Tampa Tribune, which returned in kind. While he was serving as Mayor, McKay didn't give much time to his paper, in fact in the four-year term ending in 1931 he averaged less than 10 minutes a day around The Times office.37 The Boss Is Back And so, it was a happy day for the Times people one day in 1931, after he had been defeated for reelection by R. E. L. Chancey. The lead editorial in The Tampa Daily Times that day was signed by "The Times Force" and was entitled, ""The Boss is Back." Excerpts from this unusual editorial: "Things were different around The Times plant yesterday. Every employee had his or her regular task to perform, but somehow it came easier. There was an indefinable something in the

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atmosphere that was at once inspiring and invigorating. Something that has been missing for close to four years now. The boss was back. "Only those who know the boss of The Times can know what that means. Someone has said that the people of Tampa are of two classes concerning D. B. McKay. That one of the classes does not know him, and maligns him; that the other of them know him, and loves him. We know him. He is boss; just the same, he is a fine, sympathetic friend. The humblest member of the force can approach him any time, on anything, and be confident of considerate audience... "We know that he is a straight shooter and every son and daughter of us is glad the boss is back. We believe in him. You do too, if you know him as we do.38 Over at the Tribune, the editors welcomed McKay back t the active ranks of publishing and cautiously commended him for his service as Mayor. But it couldn't help taking swipe at the outgoing Mayor: We indulge the hope that, having held for many years the highest honor his city could bestow upon him, the owner and publisher of the Times will make the newspaper an unselfish and unprejudiced power for the upbuilding of Tampa and not permit it to be used as a medium of captious detraction and obstruction to the man and the administration called by the people to succeed him and his .39 McKay came back swinging. In an editorial reply, he thanked the Tribune for its "generous" tribute, but added: . . (The president and editor of The Times resents, however, the last sentence of that article in which the Tribune attempts to prescribe what shall be the editorial policy of The Times as a bit of meddling in something with which the Tribune has nothing to do. "It is the firm conviction of this paper that Mr. Chancey was dishonestly nominated for the mayorship . ." The editorial reassured that The Times would fully cooperate with the new administration, and then added: "In its way The Times shall continue to do its very best to aid in Tampa's growth, progress and upbuilding as it has through all these years. There are reasons. First, its owner was born and reared here, has spent his entire life here and his all and the paper's all are invested here. Second, whenever it fails to do so it will forfeit its right to existence. "Whether it suits in some quarters or not, The Times emphatically reserved the right to formulate and pursue its own policies.40 When McKay was Mayor, he leaned over backwards to be fair to reporters of the Tribune in releasing news from his office. They City Hall reporter for the Tribune was Dudley V. Haddock, who once wrote about the experience stating that McKay was fair. "A lesser man would have taken advantage of the opportunity to hamstring the opposition and it is understandable why old time Tribune

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men retain for him the most profound love and respect. Truly, he was our dearest enemy.41 Fair to The Press Covering the Mayor's office for The Times during some of McKay's service was V. M. (Red) Newton, Jr., who later moved over to The Tribune and became its managing editor. "Red" wrote about it in 1960 on the occasion of McKay's 92nd birthday anniversary: ". . I was covering City Hall for The Times, and Mr. McKay then Mayor of Tampa was leaning over backwards to give first break on important stories to my opposition, the Tribune. "This plainly showed that a newspaperman could hold public office and still be fair and not give his paper any advantage. And it was a real challenge to a young newspaperman to have his publisher as Mayor of the city for I learned to fend for myself in competition...42 Another reporter covering the City Hall during McKay's regime was J. A. (Jock) Murray, now retired and still living in Tampa. I saw Mr. McKay daily, depending on him for the news of the day," Murray was to recall years later. . It would have been easy for a man of shorter stature to have turned the big news breaks to his own paper, and not have to read them in the rival Tribune. But he never did . .43 Throughout the decades during the McKay ownership, The Times was a force in community betterment. It recognized the value of the new automobile fad and saw the need for decent roads in Florida. Therefore, it was in 1909, The Times and the newly formed Tampa Automobile Club joined in sponsoring an "endurance race" of automobiles of the day from Tampa to Jacksonville and back in the hopes it would promote a highway network for Florida. It took four days for the hectic journey but did spark interest in road building.44 McKay was a progressive publisher, always alert to improving communications. So it was that he quickly gave the go ahead" to the installation of a radio broadcasting station in the beginning days of that medium. And thus, WDAE, The Times Radio Station, went on the air Feb. 15, 1922 the first commercially licensed station in Florida.45 Coincident with the arrival of the great economic depression of the 1930s, McKay's Times came upon hard times. He was faced with mounting paper company debts and diminished advertising. He also was despondent for another reason as well: The son he had hoped would take over The Times some day had contracted a fatal disease in South America and died.46 That's when he leased and later sold The Times to Philadelphians Smiley and Nicholson. McKay returned to newspaper work in 1945, this time with the Tampa Tribune which had been his arch-rival during the years as publisher of The Times. Besought to write his memories of Tampa, he started on what was first to be a few columns of personal reminiscences but which, despite his several attempts to break them off, burgeoned into the Pioneer Florida page.47 The voluminous works later were compiled into a three-volume Pioneer Florida history. In 1949, McKay was named County Historian by the newly-created Hillsborough County Historical Commission. He died on Oct. 8,

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1960, at the age of 92, one of Tampa's all-time greats of journalism!48 Powerful Figure A parallel powerful figure in Tampa journalism at the time of McKay's active days was his rival Wallace F. Stovall. He was the father of The Tampa Tribune as we know it today. He was as fabulous in his own way as was McKay in his. Wallace Fisher Stovall himself liked to say he started the Tampa Tribune with "a big idea and a shirttail full of type." For Tampa this turned out to be a modest statement, for Stovall's "big ideas" eventually reached far beyond the Tribune to construction of the city's original skyline. Now Tampa is a new city with a new skyline.49 Born in Kentucky, in 1869, Stovall discovered ink in his veins when at the age of 17, he moved to Florida and became an apprentice printer on The Ocala Capitol. He soon relocated in Palatka and worked first for The News and then The Herald. Before another birthday had passed, Stovall had become a teen-aged publisher by establishing The Lake Weir Independent. Later he returned to Ocala and purchased The Capitol. His next move was to Sumterville, where he published The Sumterville Times. Stovall was only 21 years old when he established The Polk County News at Bartow, but he was a thoroughly experienced businessman. Roots In Tampa After a short stay in Bartow, the young newspaperman put down his roots in Tampa, in 1893, and from then on he grew as Tampa grew, prospered as Tampa prospered. In those days The Tampa Times was the big local paper, master-minded by D. B. McKay, Stovall's first and fiercest competitor in Tampa, with whom he carried on a "30 years war", but later became one of his dearest friends in later life. In the beginning there was not much community interest in the new Tribune as Stovall's big idea had followed on the heels of the purchase and consolidation of the old Tampa Journal and a weekly Tampa Tribune by The Tampa Times. (The first issue of Stovall's paper appeared as The Tampa Tribune, Stovall having preempted the title of one of the recently suspended publications, and The Times quickly sought an injuction to prevent him from using it. At the hearing, however, the Court held that he was within his rights in appropriating it since there was no other newspaper of that name in Tampa upon his arrival.) It was going to cost Stovall $450 to break down his Bartow plant and move the equipment to Tampa and he needed financing quickly. Will Tampa Grow? Reflecting on his youth before he died, Stovall said, "When I got here (Tampa), I was banking on the fact that Henry B. Plant was building his fine big Tampa Bay Hotel, and cigar factories were just moving here from Key West. That was enough for me, but do you know nobody was interested in a new newspaper? And they didn't think the town would grow either." The young Stovall found a friend in Dr. John P. Wall, erstwhile editor of the old Sunland Tribune, who wanted a paper to print his ideas on a new sewer system. Dr. Wall lent Stovall the $450 he needed. Recounting his early hardships in his farewell editorial published on June 18, 1925 the day he relinquished control of the Tribune

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property and, incidentally, became Tampa's first millionaire, Stovall stated: "I started the Tribune as a four-page, six-column, six-day, bobtail, boiler plate daily and worked as editor, solictor, typesetter, pressman and circulating manager, besides holding about every other position in the office, doing more work than all the other force, which included only four, performing from 18 to 20 hours work daily, everyday, for a score of years.50 One of the classic stories of Florida journalism revolves around Stovall as the young Tribune publisher. In those days the status symbol of economic health for a newspaper was the award of delinquent tax lists. Of course, The Times, then the political power in the village, was the usual choice. But Stovall, an astute politician himself, eventually wangled the list for the Tribune. In order to do the job he needed more type for his shop. He ordered it, hoping he would be billed and could pay after he was paid by the County Commissioners for publishing the list. But the shipment arrived C. 0. D., and Stovall did not have the necessary $350 to save the day. Said Stovall: "I went to Peter 0. Knight (a prominent pioneer Tampa lawyer), and he didn't have any money to lend. But he introduced me to some cigar manufacturers, and they loaned me the money for 30 days, and took a mortgage on everything I had." Spades Called Spades The mortgage holders actually wanted $500 at the end of 30 days. The lender obtained a writ of attachment and the Sheriff padlocked the Tribune. What happened next is described by Stovall's biographer, Dudley V. Haddock, a former Tribune reporter: "Once again Wallace offered a demonstration of the kind of stuff of which he was made. Assembling his workers after nightfall, he pried off the lock, entered the plant, drew the shades and went to work upon the next issue of the paper. "Realizing he was in neck deep with the authorities, Stovall concluded he might as well go down with colors flying. He produced a newspaper such as Tampa never before had seen and probably never will see again. He flayed everything and everybody in town from The Times down to the bank and the gentlemen who stuck him with a note for $500 for a $350 loan. He pyred it onto the Sheriff for having applied the padlock and paid his respects to those individuals who had refused to help him. His pent-up wrath, because of the treatment he had experienced since establishing himself in the community, had boiled over. "Appearance of the paper threw Tampa into an uproar. Spades had been called spades, stuffed shirts had been unstuffed, pompous balloons had been punctured, and many of the great had been depicted as not-so-great, after all. Some of his targets seethed with anger and never forgot, but great numbers of other Tampans applauded heartily. He had the nerve to shout loudly what they had long desired to say but dared not.51 Stovall was dragged into court immediately for having broken into his plant, but again found a friend upon the bench. Judge Joseph B. Wall brother of Dr. John P. Wall, who had befriended Stovall upon his arrival in Tampa had succeeded Judge G. A. Hanson

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and when Stovall faced him, all charges were dismissed on the ground that his youth justified leniency! Although he figured he was through, Stovall actually had met his turning point with this incident. Hailed into court, Stovall was freed of charges by a kindly judge who put him on probation because of his youth. The Tribune published the list; Stovall paid his debts, and from then on the only way was up. Stovall wielded his editorial influence to build his community. He obtained a commission form of city government here. He led campaign for acceptance of a Carnegie gift for the public library-which some claimed was "tainted" money. He promoted the State Fair, and his society editor is credited with the proposal for the Gasparilla festival. Stovall pushed for Tampa's port investment. Other projects included the building of Tampa's Union Station and organization of the Old People's Home, the local Humane Society and the Elks Lodge. 'Freak' Transaction Stovall sold out his newspaper property at the height of the Florida "boom" in a "freak" transaction. Biographer Haddock reported that historic event: "Mrs. Lulette Gunby, a long-time acquaintance of the Colonel (Stovall), suggested that he sell the property and, for only $5,000 she finally obtained a 30-day option to purchase it for $1,200,000. The price did not include the building it occupied, which Stovall owned. The Colonel was convinced the option would never be exercised because of the price he had quoted, and many people always will believe he viewed it as an opportunity to pick up $5,000 without risk. Unfortunately, he overlooked the fact that at the time Florida was dealing in big money and that any sum smaller than a million dollars was insignificant. Before the deadline, Mrs. Gunby was successful in organizing a syndicate of which M. W. Lloyd, Tampa realty operator, Dr. L. A. Bize, Tampa banker, and L. B. Skinner, Dunedin and Tampa capitalist, were the principals. "When it became apparent the group was prepared to purchase the property, and an audit disclosed the Tribune would not net less than $400,000 during the fiscal year ending June 30; Stovall offered Lloyd, spokesman to do so, and the Colonel, increasing his bid step by step, finally got it up tp $200,000. Lloyd replied that if he would raise it to $500,000, he would bring it to the attention of his associates. "With that,' the Colonel related, 'I told him to go to hell.52 Stovall then occupied his time with restructuring Tampa's skyline. With his big profits from the sale, he built the 12-story Wallace S. Building, the seven-story Stovall Office Building and the eight-story Stovall Professional Building. He also backed his son, Wallace 0. Stovall, in the establishment of a third daily newspaper for Tampa-the Tampa Telegraph. It ceased publication eight months later. Out-of-State Publishers Stovall tried to buy back the Tribune after the collapse of the boom. He offered $800,000, but lost out to a pair of out-of-state publishers, S. E. Thomason of Chicago and John Stewart Bryan, of Richmond, who paid $950,000.

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In a statement published in 1960, the late J. C. Council, chairman of the editorial board of the Tribune, recited the role of Stovall in the history of the paper. Council noted: "Stovall wrote that his paper was not backed by any ring, clique or corporation', and that it would carry the news 'fearlessly and completely'. It always has. It started as a fighting newspaper; it still is. Some have called it a crusading newspaper." The old "Colonel" died in 1950 at the age of 81. Writing the editorial tribute to Stovall for the Tribune on his death was Edwin D. Lambright, who had been associated with Stovall from his beginning days in Tampa. "From an association and friendship of 51 years the heart of the writer follows him fondly to his grave," Lambright wrote. "On the roll of honor of Tampa, the city, Florida, the state, the name of Wallace Fisher Stovall will long survive.53 Home A Showplace It should be noted that the home at 4621 Bayshore Boulevard where the Stovall family lived for nearly 30 years is still a showplace in Tampa. In 1977, the Junior League of Tampa selected it as its Decorators' Show House. It rates a spot on the distinctive National Register of Historic Places and when it was built in 1909 contemporary news reports raved that it was "the finest home in the area" and "one of the handsomest homes in Florida." Stovall moved into it in 1915 and lived there until 1943.54 A man who was to become a key figure in Tampa journalism joined Stovall in June, 1899.55 He was Edwin D. (for Dart) Lambright, a native of Brunswick, Ga. Born in that South Georgia town in 1874, Lambright grew up in Brunswick, attended its public schools, subsequently took a course at Emory College, then located in Oxford, but now located at Atlanta. In 1893, he entered the newspaper business at Brunswick as a reporter on a local paper, and displayed such ability that when only 22 years of age he was made editor of the Brunswick Times, and remained with that journal until he came to Tampa.56 Years later, Lambright recalled how Tampa looked in 1899: "It was far from an attractive town. Most of the streets were sand, most of its sidewalks wooden, and there were no street lights because the dam-source of power-had just been blown up. The Tribune was published in a small store-room on North Franklin Street ... There I was greeted by Wallace Stovall, who was the young owner, publisher, editor and entire staff of the paper. He told me if I wanted a job to get inside and get to work.57 Lambright fitted in nicely in his new community and new opportunity. He stepped up rapidly to city editor, managing editor and editor. He held the post of editor for almost 60 years, the only break being six years when he was Postmaster of Tampa, under appointment by President Wilson, starting in 1917. He died in 1959 at the age of 85 Lambright was active in many community affairs, including being a charter member of Tampa Lodge No. 708, B.P.O.E. and serving as president of the Tampa Rotary Club. In 1945, he was given the Civitan Award for Outstanding Citizenship. Real Estate Advertising In that period immediately following the sale of the Tribune by Stovall to a syndicate of Tampans, another newspaper blossomed here

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in addition to The Tampa Morning Telegraph which Stovall's son, Wallace 0. put out. It was a tabloid called Tampa Globe. Born December, 1925; died May, 1926. It, like the Telegraph, which had 232 pages in its inaugural issue in October, 1925, flourished from the real estate advertising that accompanied the Florida "boom." But was Tampa big enough for four daily newspapers? Obviously not. Tampa went through a series of calamities in the second half of the 1920s. Hurricanes in 1926 and 1928, the scourge of the Mediterranean fruit fly hit citrus crops, Wall Street crashed, and Tampa's long sturdy Citizens Bank & Trust Co. closed its doors. Other bank closings followed. A national depression set in. McKay In Trouble In the early 1930s, ownership of The Tampa Daily Times changed hands. In 1933, Publisher McKay apparently was in financial trouble. He also was heavily involved in politics, having served many years as Mayor of the city which left him little time to watch over his newspaper and radio interests. He thus entered into a lease-option arrangement with two newspaper men from the north-David E. Smiley and Ralph Nicholson, who had been successful newsmen in Philadelphia and New York.58 Smiley, who had been editor of the Ledger newspapers in Philadelphia and the Post in New York and had served as general manager of the North American Newspaper Alliance features service, became president of The Tampa Times Company in partnership with Nicholson. The latter, who had been a reporter and foreign correspondent in Japan for Smiley, became general manager and treasurer of the firm. I interviewed Mr. Nicholson in 1970 about his career and he told me how he and Smiley came to acquire the Tampa properties without putting up any cash, which they didn't seem to have, in those tough depression days. 'Everybody Was Broke' This is what he said: "Well, Hamp, it was a long time ago when we moved from New York to Tampa and acquired Radio Station WDAE and The Times. We had a barrel of fun. Everybody was broke, or nearly so. The people were friendly, goodnatured. Politics, thick and thin. But no money of any consequence passed hands. And that was the same with the alleged owners of The Tampa Times. We really were the owners. We, Dave Smiley and I, acquired those two properties. And, as I believe I explained after a fashion in my autobiography,59 how the two of us, without any money, could acquire those two properties. "When we went to tell Mr. R. J. Binnicker of the First National Bank about some of the queer quirks in the method used to come into possession of those two properties, the paper was more nearly broke than I believe the owners knew. D. B. McKay (was) a delightful and honorable gentleman if I ever knew one. "To start, Dave Smiley and I didn't take any pay. He had his life insurance mortgaged. I sold $3,000 worth of stock in newspapers which kept my partnership afloat for some considerable time." 'Doing It Differently' In his conversation with me, Mr. Nicholson related what he had said to the banker when Mr. Binnicker was trying to find out how the newcomers were getting the paper and station without any money down.

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"We are doing it differently from the way you did," Nicholson told Binnicker. "Because, Mr. Binnicker, you nearly ruined this newspaper. Every time it needed money to stay afloat, it came here and you gave it the money, and we're going to cure that newspaper of such bad habits." Nicholson also said Binnicker wasn't quite sure that "we hadn't hornswoggled Kenneth McKay, D.B. McKay's brother and lawyer." The partners pulled it out of the doldrums and in 1938 took up the option to buy. I went to work for The Tampa Daily Times on May 4, 1936, the greenest cub reporter they ever had down there. Mr. McKay was still sitting in his office in the building and occasionally writing editorials. I was pleased that I got to know him quite well in those days. He was that type, a veteran journalist who had time for a greenhorn like me. I admired him very much. I also admired Mr. Smiley, a great newspaperman if there ever was one. And the most ethical editor I have ever known. He came to Tampa from Philadelphia, where he had been used to tough fights. Immediately, he saw the sordid mess that Tampa was in, struggling under a vicious gambling and political machine in which Charlie Wall was Mr. Big. My old boss, Mr. Smiley, turned his guns on this crowd and began a cleanup that eventually wiped it out. Mr. Smiley had a staff of youngsters who helped to do the job. One reporter was Joe Grotegut and Joe got into a hot story early in his career. He dug out the story on the Tampa floggings where some policemen joined some Ku Klux Klansmen in flogging a trio of men with whose political views they did not agree. Joe covered the trials and kept the heat on until the conspirators were convicted. Joe later became assistant managing editor, then went to the Associated Press, The Miami Herald and the Daytona Beach newspapers. Finally, he decided that many newspapermen complain about politics and don't do anything about it. So he got into politics, handling the successful campaign of Gov. LeRoy Collins, and holding high positions in his administration. Some Great Guys We had some other great guys on the staff in those early days-Al Chiaramonte, Bill Moody, Charles Fernandez, and others. Ed Ray was the managing editor. I succeeded him in 1949 when Ed moved on. We didn't make much money (nobody did anywhere) but, as Mr. Nicholson said, we "had a barrel of fun" competing with the then powerful Tampa Tribune and slugging it out with the ruthless politicians and gangsters. Smiley and Nicholson had a falling out in 1941 when Nicholson purchased the New Orleans Item without his partner. Nicholson resigned from active management of The Times and Smiley took full charge. In 1951, the Smiley family bought out Nicholson's interest in The Tampa Times Company. Talented Writers Of course, The Tribune had some talented and hard-hitting writers and editors all along. Standouts in my mind are Bill Abbott and Jock Murray. Not only persevering reporters, they were colorful writers. Jock is still living and recently celebrated his 90th birthday anniversary. Along the way there had been Joe Mickler, who advanced to the New York

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newspaper scene in the hey-day of that community's journalism giants. Many of The Times reporters and editors were lured to The Tribune. V. M. (Red) Newton Jr., the hell-raising managing editor of The Tribune for many years, started his career on The Times, first as a correspondent at the University of Florida and later as a sports editor. He was a gifted sports writer and his daily column just sang, it was so entertaining. I don't believe he was any better in reporting or writing, however, than the present sports editor, Tom McEwen, who also was an alumnus of The Times. A whole army of Timesmen graduated to The Tribune in modern years: Yes, Bob Turner, Holmes Alexander, Leo Stalnaker, Tom O'Connor, Leland Hawes, Ed Johnson, Sam Mase, Vernon Bradford, Panky Snow, Paul MacAlester, John Golson, Steve Raymond, Ann McDuffie, Frank Klein, Sam Stickney and a host of others. Pulitzer Prize The Tribune didn't get all of its talent from The Times, it discovered and developed many staffers of its own. One was John Frasca who won the Pulitzer Prize for his articles which helped free a man framed by several Polk County lawmen. Paul Wilder was one of the best feature writers I have known. Most Scholarly Probably the most scholarly journalist to be developed in town in modern times was James A. Clendinen, currently the editor of The Tribune. He came to Tampa in 1935 from the Clearwater Sun, covered all the important beats, finally wound up writing editorials. He has written thousands of them, all soundly researched, well written and delivering a powerful punch. He is credited with being one of the most influential men in Florida today. The man really knows how to write, he turns a beautiful phrase, and he is entertaining and educational. He simply must rank at the top of Tampa's journalism. Again, I repeat that through the years Tampa's newspapers have been at the forefront in all movements for the good of the city. They have fought the racketeers, the crooked politicians, and they cleaned up the election machinery to assure honest voting. They have fought for good schools, good roads, hospitals and health facilities, for recreation, for sports, for airports and aviation expansion, for churches and a healthy moral climate. They had not dodged controversy, they had been gutsy in their presentations and they have consistently tried to keep the public informed. In short, they have, indeed been "Tampa's Hell-Raisin' Newspapers."

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FOOTNOTES 1Karl H. Grismer, Tampa (St. Petersburg, Florida, 1950), 122. 21bid. 31bid; also, James Scott Hanna, The Brandon Family of Southwest Florida (Leander, Texas, 1968) 98. 4D. B. McKay, Pioneer Florida, Vol. II (Tampa, 1959), 458. 5Hampton Dunn, Yesterday's Clearwater (Miami, 1973), 17. 6McKay, Pioneer Florida, Vol. 11, 296; Evanell Klintworth Powell, Tampa That Was. . (Boynton Beach, Florida 1973), 137. 7Grismer, Tampa, 122 8 James W. Covington, The Story of Southwestern Florida, Vol. I (New York, 1957), 124; Florida Peninsular, Dec. 23, 1855. 9Florida Peninsular, Aug. 6, 1856. 10Ibid, Nov. 4, 1856. 11McKay, Pioneer Florida, Vol. 11, 90. 12Grismer, Tampa, 127 131bid, 137 14Florida Peninsular, Nov. 17, 1860. 15Grismer, Tampa, 137. 161bid, 138. 17 Ibid, 157 18Ibid. 191bid. 201b id. 21Ibid, 156. 22Ibid. 23McKay, Pioneer Florida, Vol. 11, 379. 24Grismer, Tampa, 157 25James M. Ingram, M.D., "John Perry Wall-A Man For All Seasons," The Sunland Tribune, Vol. II (October, 1975), 9.

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26The Sunland Tribune, Vol. I, No. 1, July, 1974, 15. 27Grismer, Tampa, 182. 281Ibid, 185-186. 29McKay, Pioneer Florida, Vol. 1, 92. 301bid, 93. 31South Florida, Its Builders and Its Industries, (Tampa, 1924) 61. 32The Tampa Times, March 16, 1965. 33South Florida, 62. 34McKay, Pioneer Florida, Vol. 1, 93. 35Hampton Dunn, "Soldiers in Tampa Today Revive Memories of City as 'Army Town' in Gay Nineties," The Tampa Daily Times, June 21, 1940. 36Covington, The Story of Southwestern Florida, Vol. 1, 199. 37The Tampa Daily Times, 1931. 38Ibid. 39Tampa Morning Tribune, 1931. 40The Tampa Daily Times, 1931. 41Dudley Haddock, Wallace F Stovall, A Publisher's Publisher, (Sarasota, 1949) 42The Tampa Tribune, July 31, 1960. 431bid 44The Tampa Daily Times, Nov. 22, 1909, June 7, 1924. 45Hampton Dunn, WDAE Florida's Pioneer Radio Station, (Tampa, 1972). 46Leland Hawes, The Tampa Tribune-The Tampa Times, October, 1975. 47McKay, Pioneer Florida, Vol. 1, 93. 48Henry S. Marks, Who Was Who In Florida, (Huntsville, Ala. 1973). 49Hampton Dunn, "Ode to a Publisher's Publisher", Tampa Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 7, September 1969, 11. 50Tampa Tribune, June 18, 1925. 51Haddock, Wallace F. Stovall, A Publisher's Publisher, 13-14. 521bid.

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53Tarnpa Tribune, April 17, 1950. 54Hampton Dunn, "The Stovall-Lee House", Booklet, The Junior League of Tampa, Inc. Decorators' Show House, Feb. 26-March 20, 1977 55Booklet, "What Makes Your Newspapers?" The Tampa Tribune-The Tampa Times, 1974. 56History of Florida Past and Present, Vol. 11, (Chicago and New York, 1923), 73. 57The Tampa Tribune-The Tampa Times, October 1975. 58Hampton Dunn, WDAE-Florida's Pioneer Radio Station, (Tampa, 1972) 39. 59Ralph Nicholson, A Long Ways From Greens Fork, Autobiography of, Ralph Nicholson (Tallahassee, 1968 ).

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ELI WITT TRUCK C1907-1910 -From The HAVATAMPA-ELI WITT Collection By EARL BROWN CIGARS-THAT'S MY BUSINESS By EARL J. BROWN Havatampa Cigar Co. @ 1980 My entire business life which began in the summer of 1937 was spent with Havatampa Cigar Company. This was when the first questions relating to the Tampa Cigar Industry began to arouse my curiosity. At that time my questions were almost exclusively related to the names "Havatampa Cigar Company", "HAVATAMPA cigars", "HAV-A-TAMPA CIGARS", and "TAMPA NUGGET cigars". Questions like Who started the names? Why were the names different? Who were the various owners of the business over the years? What did the labels on the boxes look like? A picture of a man on the HAVATAMPA label rather than that of a beautiful woman? I couldn't believe the

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c1905-1907 THE HOLE-IN-THE WALL CIGAR STORE 10 FEET WIDE 30 FEET DEEP LOCATED BETWEEN THE TWO BUILDINGS ABOVE. NOTE SIGN "ELI". _From The HAVATAMPA-ELI WITT Collection By EARL BROWN answer to that question but right there before my eyes was the proof. Yes, a picture of a man on the first HAVATAMPA label! When I found the answers to these questions I was prompted to record them in printed form and have thus produced A History of the Name HAV-A-TAMPA. There are many stories, articles, pamphlets and books written about the early days of the cigar industry in Tampa, but none make note of the importance of Havatampa and Eli Witt to the industry. There are likewise many questions about the industry. Questions such as who did manufacture the first cigars in Tampa, and when were they manufactured? There is also the question of where was the first building in which cigars made? I do not profess to be able to prove the answers that

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might be given to these questions. I do know however that neither Havatampa no Eli Witt figured into the cigar picture until shortly after 1900. An interesting photograph that I have seen on display at some shows of cigar memorabilia, and in some printed matter and which was made into a mural, is thought by some observers to have been made in Ybor City's oldest cigar factory. I am fairly familiar with that building but could not picture in my mind where in that building the picture could have been made. Not long ago I found the answer when I ran across the same picture in an old sales pamphlet of another manufacturer (at least 30 years old) that I had in my collection. Things of this nature prompt me to seek the facts and at the same time secure the proof if possible. In the early part of the 1900s there were more than 150 cigar factories in Tampa. About 50 of them were classified as major businesses, the others being smaller ones. Regardless of the size of a cigar factory each one has to acquire the same permits from, in those days, the U S Internal Revenue Collector's Office whether there was only one employee or 100. The city's production in the year 1901 was 147,000,000 cigars and was the largest single years out put to that date. Within just a few years the production had doubled. Havatampa was not a prominent figure in the industry at that time as it was not registered until 1902. It was not until 1917 that the Havatampa business began to grow. HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 1907. EXTREME LEFT, ELI WITT. BEHIND EL PRINCIPE DE GALES COUNTER DISPLAY, W. L. VAN DYKE. EXTREME RIGHT, GILLIE TREZEVANT. -From The HAVATAMPA-ELI WITT Collection By EARL BROWN

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There is another story related to the name Havatampa, one that is a most integral part. That is the story of Mr. Eli Witt, but it is a volume in itself and will only be touched on lightly in A History of the Name HA V-A-TAMPA because of the fact that the "History" is written in the form of a chronology. However, it would be in order to tell you that in 1904 this super salesman bought a cigar store named "'The Hole-In-The-Wall" located at 505 Franklin Street in downtown Tampa. This was the beginning of Eli Witt's activity in the cigar business. He soon adopted the slogan, "CIGARS-THAT'S MY BUSINESS". In just a year or two he had opened a dozen or so cigar stores located at strategic points in Tampa and had also begun a wholesale cigar and tobacco business supplying other cigar stores in the city. In many old photographs of downtown Tampa a very close scrutiny will uncover signs hanging from the buildings over the sidewalks with just three letters "ELI". Eli Witt distributed all of the leading brands of cigars manufactured in Tampa as well as brands manufactured in other cities and was very successful in developing sales of these brands. One very serious problem arose out of this success. It seemed that as soon as he had worked a brand of cigars up to where it was in demand, the manufacturer began selling direct to the retailers or to other wholesale firms in the area. This is when Mr. Eli realized that he needed a cigar brand of his own that he could control. He reached this goal in 1918 when he arranged to purchase the Havatampa Cigar Company along with financial help of two of his associates, W. L. Van Dyke who was employed by him in 1907, and D. H. Woodbery whom he had employed in 1910, along with some relatives of these two. By the mid twenties Havatampa had become one of Tampa's largest cigar manufacturers and for several decades manufactured half of the cigars manufactured in the city. The company progressed to the point that it was the sixth largest cigar manufacturer in the United States. The Eli Witt wholesale organization became the largest of its type in the whole nation and sold more Tampa made cigars than any other single company. It has been said that Eli Witt put the name Tampa on the map. Practically every cigar his company produced had "Tampa" in its name, on every cigar band, on every cigar box, and on every piece of advertising. With something like nine or ten billion cigars manufactured by Havatampa over the years under the names of HAV-A-TAMPA, TAMPA NUGGET, TAMPA STRAIGHTS, TAMPA CUSTOM HOUSE, TAMPA SEAL, TAMPA TIMES, TAMPA SUN CURED, MISS TAMPA, GREATER TAMPA, TAMPA CLUB SMOKER and possibly others, it is understandable why the statement was made. Eli Witt was the originator of the slogan, "THE FINEST CIGARS IN THE WORLD ARE MADE IN TAMPA" which slogan he had typed on the bottom of his letters. Most of the questions that I have asked about Havatampa have been answered. Through my association with many of the old timers of Havatampa Cigar Company and through research I have uncovered the actual facts about the various forms of the name HAVATAMPA and TAMPA NUGGET.

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c1930 From The HAVATAMPA ELI WITT Collection by EARL BROWN CENTRAL CIGAR AND TOBACCO CO., ORLANDO EARLY 1920s -From The HAVATAMPA ELI WITT Collection By EARL BROWN

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As previously mentioned these facts are published in a 34-page chronology of A History of the Name HA V-A-TAMPA along with pictures of documents to prove the facts. Many of these pages are in color and inside the front cover of the booklet, in limited number of copies, are two real antique HAV-A-TAMPA cigar box labels. One is an "end label" which was placed on the outside ends of boxes of 50 cigars and the other is an "inside label" designed for upright boxes of 25 cigars. Copies of this chronology may soon be found in some of Tampa's leading book stores and at several shops in Ybor Square. When you visit the State Cigar Museum at 1818 Ninth Ave. in Ybor City you may also obtain a copy there. They may also be ordered direct by writing to A History of the Name HA V-A-TAMPA, P. 0. Box 2886, Tampa, FL 33601. (None of the photographs accompanying this article appear in the chronology but other photographs and some of the facts mentioned do appear therein.)

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DR. EDWARD DINUS NEVE . Tampa's first dentist. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTIONTHE STORY OF TAMPA'S FIRST DENTISTDR. EDWARD DINUS NEVE By RUBEN MORENO, D.D.S. Had it not been for the sake of Wild Lemons that did not exist, the dental ailments of the inhabitants of Tampa and vicinity, including the Key West Conch of the early days, would have had to wait a little longer for immediate relief or else take a long trip for dental service. There was none available until 1876-yes, the year of the Philadelphia Exposition, and 100 years after the Declaration of Independence, or, to bring it closer, only 73 years ago. Tampa's first dentist, Dr. Edward Dinus Neve, was born in Saeby, Province of Jylland, Denmark. As a young man, while living in Copenhagen he became interested in watch-making and watch-rep airing; and following the required apprenticeship, he was duly certified in his endeavor. However, he did not remain in this field very long because of the eyestrain caused by the minuteness and precision of this type of work; and so it was that in 1868 he decided to come to America. With a goal in view, he arrived in Chicago, Illinois, where he immediately started as an apprentice in his uncle's dental office. Following the customary procedure of early days, three years later he became qualified to do dental work. LIMITED ENGLISH LANGUAGE Still seeking adventure and full of ambition or, should we say, pushed on by the hand of destiny to further his course, he left Chicago and arrived in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1871. Here, as a pleasant surprise, he found a Danish Colony and since his command of the English language was somewhat limited, he found it easier to settle among the Danes. His immediate means of a livelihood again reverted to watchmaking, this time on a house to house call. Because his funds were dwindling and his income somewhat meager, he shared a bedroom with a Danish chimney sweeper. This was one of his life's comical anecdotes, which he often related with a chuckle-"I used the bed at night while the chimney sweeper was at work and he slept DR. MORENO Reprinted from The Florida Dental Journal, July 1950.

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PALMETTO HOTEL Romance Blossomed Here. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTIONduring the day while I silently worked on watches." WHEELS OF FATE Industrious and a hustler as Dr. Neve was, it did not take long before he was financially able to hang up a shingle in the heart of the Danish Colony of Omaha to start on his own as a dentist. But, he did not give up watch-making altogether, for he had established a reputation in repairing watches; and to satisfy the many demands, he decided to combine dentistry with watch-making in which capacity he dealt until 1876. This year, the whirling wheels of fate rolled on once again for Dr. Neve. Governed by his venturous impulses, still full of ambition and optimism after having read with two of his close friends of the citrus opportunities offered in Florid and the wild lemon which was said to grow so abundantly in the Tampa area, Dr. Neve, Dr. Jensen, a physician from Omaha and Mr. Schwartz, a pharmacist, decided to come to Tampa to study the possibilities of the wild lemon exploitation for the manufacture of citric acid. Enroute to Tampa, aboard the Atlantic Coast Line, Dr. Neve and his friends set foot on Florida soil for the first time at Cedar Keys, this being the

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end of the line in those days. Here, they boarded the schooner Matchless, which was the only means of transportation between Cedar Keys, Tampa and Key West. They finally arrived in Tampa on Christmas Eve, 1876, only to be astonished and perplexed at finding only one lemon tree in the entire area; and this one and only lemon tree added insult to injury, for it was found in someone else's back yard-that of Dr. Branch, whose home was on Washington Street, in the heart of the commercial district of those days. OPPORTUNITIES ARE HERE Despite the disappointment and dismay at seeing their dream frustrated, these three gentlemen of vision and ambition had sufficient foresight and courage to remain in Tampa rather than return to Omaha. They knew that in a not too far distant future Tampa and Florida's West Coast would grow; because of its soil, because of its climate and port facilities. They knew that the opportunities were here. Old timers will perhaps learn with surprise that it was in this pioneer drug store that Sidney B. Leonardi, employed by Dr. Neve as an errand boy, became a pharmacist, and later opened the Leonardi Pharmacy which for many years stood on the northwest corner of Franklin and Twiggs. In time, Dr. Neve's growing practice called for more space and he moved to a one-story building on the southwest corner of Franklin and Polk Streets, where O'Falk's Department Store is today. Here he combined, with adequate partitioning of walls-jewelry store, dental office, and dwelling. NO STAR-GAZING As dentists, we can readily appreciate the tremendous energy and indefatigable determination to work, that the father of Tampa dentistry displayed, when we stop to realize that he worked under a handicap with little or no facilities without our present-day advancements, doing all his lab work, not to say the least of his enterprise as a jeweler and yet, finding time to board the schooner Matchless twice a year to take care of the dental ailments of the people of Key West. This kind of life, needless to say, did not give Dr. Neve much time to gaze at the stars and perhaps look at the moon in a romantic hope of a visit from Cupid. But fate plays its cards in such a way that the King is dealt with a Queen, and just as he was dealt all the way from Denmark, she too was dealt from another distant shore to meet the same hand. Perhaps not from equally distant, for it was from the neighboring island of Cuba that Miss Alicia M. Gonzalez arrived in Tampa on November 5, 1891, in the company of her parents. They took lodging at the Palmetto Hotel, situated on the northeast corner of Florida Avenue and Polk Street, later site of Sears and Roebuck. Bright and early the next morning Mr. Gonzalez had his breakfast and started off for a sight-seeing stroll of the small town. Miss Gonzalez arose later only to be dismayed for she, too, had planned the morning stroll and would have wanted to join her father. However, spurred on by the early morning breeze and her interest in the new locale-Tampa of 60 years ago-she left the hotel in hopes of finding him. She soon realized that her potentials as a marathon were none too great and that she might well start on her return to the hotel before walking endurance gave out; so, exhausted and still minus "Daddy" at a block's distance from the hotel and as a last attempt, she stopped at the jeweler's in hopes of finding him there. Once more disappointed, Miss Gonzalez asked Dr. Neve if a man answering her father's

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description had been in, but apparently the jewelry had not enticed him. Again disappointed at not finding her father, she returned to the hotel completely unaware of the fact that she had, however, found her future husband. ROMANCE BLOSSOMS Because Dr. Neve was also a boarder of the Palmetto Hotel it is clear how a friendship gradually grew from a mere acquaintance. The set up in the hotel dining room was such that two tables were reserved for the boarders and three for the transients. This immediately placed a distance and a barrier for admiration; but it was not long before the young dentist made it a point, disregarding the rules of the place, to select the table at which the Gonzalezes partook of meals. And so it was that interest grew and Dr. Neve soon became an ardent admirer of the young girl from Havana. Approximately a year after their arrival in Tampa, Mr. and Mrs. Gonzalez returned to Cuba, leaving Miss Gonzalez in Tampa as she had now acquired a position as bookkeeper for the E. A. Clarke Company, gent's furnishing business, then located at the southeast corner of Franklin and Lafayette. After business hours Miss Gonzalez was engaged in teaching Spanish, English and French classes which she held in a small parlor on the second floor of the hotel. This space was kindly offered Miss Gonzalez for this work by the proprietor of the Palmetto Hotel, Mr. R. F. Webb, a civic leader of the pioneer days. Home For Bride In the month of April in the year 1894, Dr. Neve and Miss Gonzalez became officially engaged and were later married at the home of Mrs. Flora Mahoney on October 1, 1894. They made their home in Tampa at 1103 Tampa Street, the northeast corner of Harrison and Tampa Streets-the home that Dr. Neve prepared for his bride. This remained their home for the duration of Dr. Neve's life. In July of 1920, Dr. and Mrs. Neve left for New York for a visit to his native Denmark. The couple arrived in New York on the 14th of July, made the necessary arrangements and paid their passage on the steamer to Copenhagen, Denmark, scheduled to leave the next day. But Dr. Neve became seriously ill the following morning. The physician's diagnosis was a possible rupture d appendix. He was asked the hospital of his choice for immediate surgery and he replied that he had no preference, but since Mrs. Neve was a Catholic, he would choose the St. Vincent's Hospital. The Last Rites The following day, July 16, 1920, his condition was grave; peritonitis had set in and not much hope was given by the attending physicians. He asked his wife how long the doctor expected him to live and she answered, three or four hours-did he wish to see a Lutheran minister; to which he replied, "'No, I always intended to die a Catholic." And so it was that Dr. Edward Dinus Neve, Tampa's first Dentist and Jeweler, of Saeby Province of Jylland, Denmark, born a Lutheran, was baptized and received the last rites of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. He died one hour later, a Catholic. Mrs. Neve returned to Tampa, bringing the body for interment at the St. Louis Cemetery. Dr. Neve's body was later removed to the Cemetery of Mary, Help of Christians School for Orphan Boys. Mrs. Neve had donated this orphanage to the Salesian Fathers, as well as the Villa Madonna della Neve to the Salesian

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Sisters, an orphanage for girls. These two institutions stand today as a monument to the memory of the man who came from far distant shores to help make the way for many-Tampa's first Dentist, Dr. Edward Dinus Neve. As it was, Dr. Neve, Dr. Jensen and Mr. Schwartz opened in partnership Tampa's first drug store on the corner of Washington and Franklin Streets, the site later occupied by the Tampa Daily Times. Until then, the practicing physicians in this area provided themselves with patent medicines to prescribe to their patients. In some cases, they would do their own compounding. The drug store was one very much needed facility. It was in this same drug store that two counters were set up for the jewelry to be sold by Dr. Neve and a space also provided for his dental office. This picture gives us three "firsts" in Tampa: 1. The first Drug store 2. The first jewelry store and jeweler, and 3. The first dental office and dentist.

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TAMPA'S LITTLE MOTHER The heroic story of a woman who gave up all her wealth in order to assure homes for the homeless children of Tampa, Florida. By RUTH VINCENT NOWACK Although Mrs. Alicia Neve of Tampa, Florida, has never had a child of her own, she is the "mother" of hundreds of orphan boys and girls. At the cost of her own personal and financial comfort, Mrs. Neve provided the funds necessary to erect the Mary, Help of Christians School for homeless boys in Tampa, and moved out of her own home so that the Salesian Sisters in that city would have more room to conduct their day nursery for poor children. In an attractive blue covered pamphlet entitled, Don Bosco in Florida, compiled on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the founding of Mary, Help of Christians School, the following words are written: "First on our Gratitude Roll we place a modest but splendid woman whose name the Sons of Don Bosco in America have already put side by side with the names of great cooperators in the history of their society: Mrs. Alicia Neve. To her the Salesians and their boys owe their beautiful home in Tampa. She gave them of her holdings even to the extent of becoming poor for their sake. She now gives them of her time, of her motherly assistance, of her very self. She is their mother." "She gave them of her holdings even to the extent of becoming poor for their sake" literally applies to Alicia Neve, who has chosen to provide herself only with life's urgent necessities so that hundreds of homeless boys and girls may be properly DR. RUBEN MORENO DIES AT AGE 70 Dr. Ruben Moreno, 70, 589 Luzon Ave., died in a Tampa hospital on Oct. 18, 1979. He was born in Cuba on Sept. 24, 1909 and bro ught to Tampa at the age of nine months. (Tampa Historian Tony Pizzo recalls playing marbles with Moreno next to his father's store on 7th Avenue and 7th Street.) Moreno attended St. Joseph Convent and Jesuit High School, then called Sacred Heart College. He was graduated from Loyola University of New Orleans in 1933. He practiced dentistry in Tampa thereafter until taken ill in 1975. Dr. Moreno was organizational president of the Ybor City Optimist Club and elected its official first President after charter on Feb. 10, 1936. He was elected Lt. Governor of the 4th District of Optimist International in 1939. That same year, 1939, Dr. Moreno was drafted by the Presidents Round Table of Civic Clubs as a nominee in a slate proposed for the first City Election Board and was duly elected. He was a past member of the Board o f Directors of the Tampa Boy's Club. He volunteered his service to the Army Dental Corps o f World War II in 1942 till 1946. On his return from the service in 1946 he was elected President of the Hillsboro ugh County Dental Society. During his tenure of office he organized and served as first President of the Tampa Dental Study Club, what is today known as the Hillsborough County Dental Research Clinic with facilities at Brewster Vocational School. Dr. Moreno gathered data and wrote the story of Dr. Edward Dinus Neve, who was Tampa's first dentist and j eweler. This article is included in the Haines and Thoburn Book titled 75 Years of Dentistry in Florida and is reprinted in this issue of the Sunland Tribune. Dr. Moreno was a charter member of the Tampa Historical Society. He was a life member of The West Coast District Dental Society, life member of The Florida Dental Association, and a life member of the American-Dental Association. He was listed in the Marquis Who's Who in the South and Southwest. He was survived by his widow, Mrs. Mirtha G. Moreno; two daughters, Mrs. Sebastian B. Agliano (Mirtha), and Mrs. Frank J. Costa (Sonia); a son, Ruben J.; nine grandchildren, and a great-grandchild. (REPRINTED FROM ST. ANTHONY'S MESSENGER, SEPTEMBER, 1944)

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and lovingly housed, clothed and educated. Outstanding Citizen Too many are charitable because it is the "thing to do"; only a few are charitable to the extent of depriving themselves of physical comforts, of draining their financial resources to the point where there is no need for a bank account because there is nothing to put in one. One of those few is Alicia Neve, a small, frail, unprepossessing woman who was designated as Tampa's outstanding citizen in 1942 because of her multitudinous benefactions. When Mrs. Neve's mother, Susan Thorpe Gonzalez, died shortly before the death of Mrs. Neve's husband, she left her entire estate to her daughter, with the provision that upon the latter's death the residue would be used to erect an orphanage and trade school for boys. After Dr. Neve passed away on July 16, 1920, his widow gave considerable thought to her mother's request. "Why," she asked herself, "should the poor boys of Tampa have to wait until I die? I might live to be 100." Whereupon she made preparations to dispose of the estate, in its entirety, while she was alive and able to see that her mother's wishes were properly fulfilled. A Helpless Hand "I had read the story of the life of Don Bosco," she reveals, "and decided that the Salesian Order, which he founded, was the most suitable because the priests and brothers devote themselves solely to the welfare of homeless boys." Mrs. Neve went to New York and eagerly unfolded her plan to the Salesians there. They were naturally enthusiastic and must certainly have been impressed with the charity of this woman who preferred to give away almost all of her worldly possessions so that boys on the threshold of life might be extended a badly needed helping hand. The poor boys' benefactress paid the expenses of members of the Salesian Order who were sent to Tampa to look around. Before his marriage, Dr. Neve had homesteaded an orange grove picturesquely located outside of Tampa. It was in this grove that his widow intended to erect the orphanage. Orange Grove Setting The Salesians were delighted with the spot and could easily visualize an imposing school rising up in the beautiful setting of orange groves and palm trees. They recommended acceptance of Mrs. Neve's offer to their superiors in New York, and she immediately set about to convert her estate into cash immediately so that the building could be started without delay. Before her mother had died, Mrs. Neve's maternal uncle, Charles A. Thorpe, had made a substantial bequest to his sister, Mrs. Gonzalez, who had requested her son-in-law, Dr. Neve, to invest it for her. With that money, Dr. Neve erected what is now the Rex Theater in Tampa. Most of the building space was rented out for stores and flats, and Mrs. Gonzalez lived comfortably on the income therefrom. Mrs. Neve sold this property for $50,000, several thousand of which had to be deducted for various expenses. The remaining amount was presented in toto to the Salesians, together with the tract of land.

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MARY HELP OF CHRISTIAN SCHOOL, 1937 ... for homeless boys. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION While the work of construction was in progress, Mrs. Neve was as excited as a child building his first house of blocks. She wanted the boys to live in a home, not an edifice with four walls, a roof, and an adequate number of rooms, and she saw that they had it. Dedicated in 1928 Mary, Help of Christians School was dedicated on the Feast of Christ the King in October, 1928. Pope Pius XI cabled his Apostolic Benediction, and the Successor of St. John Bosco sent an affectionate message. Then came the first boys-shy and frightened little fellows, to whom the solitary wilderness of the school's environs with its high white walls must have been rather a cheerless sight. But they had come to their "home"-and they soon realized it in the kindness of their instructor, the Salesians, and the superior, Father Bergamo, who may well be called the founder of the Salesian work in Florida. Father Alvin succeeded Father Bergamo at the helm in the fall of 1929. With the help of a handful of young but spirited Salesians, Father Alvin, himself but recently ordained, accomplished great things. The course of studies was placed on

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a sound basis, the sodalities were organized, the band was started. "Golden Age" When Father Rinaldi was called to succeed Father Alvin in the fall of 1932, the school embarked on what it fondly terms its "golden age." The number of boys admitted reached an incredible maximum-the library, the infirmary, even the staff's private quarters were confiscated for the boys' use. It was in Father Rinaldi's term that an artistic monument to St. John Bosco was erected on the school grounds in 1935, an event that had statewide repercussions. Quasiminiature trade shops made their appearance, and the boys began to learn trades as carpenters and printers. The farmhouse and annexes were improved so that the boys now have a model farm composed of low, gleaming white buildings, around which flocks of chickens travel in their busy, pecking way Joe and Jim When Joe and Jim came to the Salesians from the streets of Tampa, they hardly expected to find themselves rowing on their own private lake, surrounded by palm trees and orange groves. They didn't dream of spending happy, carefree, healthful hours each day outdoors beneath sunny Florida skies playing ball under the expert eyes of Salesians who can bat as mean a ball as any man despite their cumbersome, long and heavy habits. Joe and Jim hadn't taken much time for prayer as they aimlessly roamed the streets of Tampa, but somehow or other they found themselves regularly stopping to kneel in front of the simple, impressive Shrine of Our Lord, appropriately erected on the lakeside, or attending Mass in the small chapel of the school. When the tenth anniversary of Mary, Help of Christians School rolled around, a beautiful new structure, the Ann Pitsch Memorial building, was inaugurated as a fitting companion to the original school erected by Mrs. Neve. Mrs. Neve had set a stirring example for others who came to the aid of the school, which depends solely upon charity for the $15,000 or $16,000 required annually to operate it and properly to care for the approximately 120 boys who live there until they are able to go out and earn their living in occupations to their liking and for which they have been thoroughly trained. The story behind the Anna Pitsch Memorial building was so dramatic that it appeared in leading newspapers all over the country and was dramatized by two radio stations. One day in the early spring of 1932, at the request of a friend, some of the boys had knelt and prayed at the graveside of Mrs. Gustav Pitsch, a non-Catholic, in nearby Myrtle Hill cemetery. The husband was so moved by this touching tribute that, at the end of the simple burial service, he said, "I'll come to see you." The kindly faced old gentleman from Grantwood, N. J., became a familiar figure at the school. During his sojourns in Tampa, his weekly drive to Myrtle Hill cemetery VILLA MADONNA SCHOOL . made possible by Mrs. Neve. -Photo by HAMPTON DUNN

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almost invariably included a visit to the boys. He liked to sit and talk to them, and sometimes he would tell them of the days when he came to this country as a penniless immigrant boy from Germany. Anniversary Prayers On May 2, 1935, he paid the school what was to be his last visit. "I am returning to Grantwood," he said. "It's getting too warm for me." Hardly two months had passed when news reached the home that Mr. Pitsch had died. He asked that his body be sent to Tampa for burial beside his wife and that the boys sing and pray at his grave. It was a group of sorrowing lads who gathered around that grave and prayed and sang for eternal rest to the soul of a beloved friend. Some weeks later, the father director received a letter informing him that the late Gustav Pitsch had bequeathed to the orphanage half of his American estate, specifying that the fund should be used "to provide for an annex capable of housing and sheltering in comfort additional boys." No one knew Mr. Pitsch possessed wealth. Neither he nor his wife were Catholics, and no one had ever thought that he might leave anything to the school. His one request in the will was that the new structure should be considered a memorial to his wife, Anna, and that every year on the anniversary of her death the boys would pray at her grave and his in Myrtle Hill cemetery. New Building Rises Slowly the new building rose from the sand, its size and the mellow color of its buff tapestry brick providing a rather pleasing contrast to the slightly smaller, profusely stuccoed older structure erected by Mrs. Neve. The interior is designed to provide for the utmost of roominess, light and ventilation. The ground floor is occupied by two large-study halls, the boys' library, three dining rooms serviced by a centrally located kitchen, a wide stairway, situated between the two buildings, leads to the second floor, which is entirely occupied by a large dormitory with adjourning shower, baths and other toilet facilities. Colorful terrazo floors add dignity and a sense of comfortable cleanliness to the whole structure. Certainly the boys and their guardians, now under the direction of Father Dominic, are appreciative of the extreme generosity of Mr. Pitsch and of their other benefactors. But Mrs. Neve is still their "mother," and the 10th anniversary pamphlet published by the "Salesian Press"-the boys themselves, if you please-is dedicated to "Mrs. Alicia Neve, Beloved Friend and Generous Benefactor, that she may glean from these pages our joys of the present, our hopes for the future and the boundless gratitude which for her is in the heart of every member of Don Bosco's family." The tract of land which had been her husband's pride and joy was not all she disposed of. All of her married life, Mrs. Neve had lived in comparatively small quarters. As with all of us, she had her dream of a big home, with spacious front porch, topped by a balcony supported by impressive pillars, like those she had seen in Cuba, where she had lived in her youth. So Alicia Neve built her big home, pillars and all. But after she was settled in it, she felt guilty. She looked up the street one morning at the day nursery conducted by the Salesian Sisters and thought of the good use to which they could put her lovely home and the six acres upon which it rested. What did she do? She moved out, of course, and the Sisters and their charges moved in. Mrs. Neve's "dream house" now bears the name of Villa Madonna de la Neve (House

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of the Lady of the Snow), which many people believe was named after her. The Salesian Sisters conduct a day school up to the eighth grade for poor children who are complete orphans or children of working women. Between 50 and 60 are regular boarders. They also care for small boys, those who are able to take care of themselves. The children have separate dormitories. Father From Cuba In the future, the sisters propose to erect another building and teach the girls to be cooks, typists, etc., using the same plan as the Salesian Brothers follow at Mary, Help of Christians School. Mrs. Neve won't have a house to give this time or money to build one, but you can be sure she'll be among the most active campaigners despite her poor health and her almost 75 years. Mrs. Neve's mother, of English descent, was born in Bridgeport, Conn. Reared a Protestant, she became a Catholic after attending a mission in St. Louis, where she was visiting Catholic relatives. Her father, Gullermo Gonzalez, was born in Cuba, where his father owned a sugar plantation. He attended school in Havana until he was 16 and assisted his father in the sugar warehouse business. Then young Gullermo decided to be a doctor, so he went to New York. Their first child, Alicia, was born in Philadelphia Oct. 9, 1869. After she reached the age of one year, Alicia's life story can best be narrated through her birthdays. She became two, then three, in Jamaica, where her father managed a sugar plantation. It was there her brother, now dead, was born. The death of the sugar plantation owner sent the Gonzalez family to Cuba, where Alicia's fourth and fifth birthday parties were held across the bay from Havana. Alicia was seven and eight in Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, and had nine candles on her birthday cake in Santiago, Cuba, where she lived until she was 14. When she was 14, Alicia was sent to Sacred Heart Academy at Elmhurst, Providence, Rhode Island-and it marked the first time she had ever attended a formal school. Her father had been such an excellent instructor-she speaks Spanish as well as English, with French a close third-and she was such a quick pupil that she progressed rapidly in her studies. That Bad Tooth After four years at Elmhurst, Alicia returned to Cuba and stayed at home for three years. The Gonzalez family suffered severe political and financial reverses, and Nov. 4, 1891, they left Havana for Tampa. Alicia taught French, English and Spanish and became bookkeeper for a men's furnishing company. Romance isn't normally associated with a bad tooth, but if it hadn't been for that tooth Alicia might never have met and married Edward Neve. Edward was a dentist, and evidently took such good care of Alicia's tooth that when he asked to look after her for life she accepted. They were married in 1894. Her husband died in 1920.

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Implosion Blasts Bay View Hotel To Smithereens Photo by HAMPTON DUNN

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HAPPY BELLHOPS Even though World War II was just getting underway in February, 1942, when this photograph was taken, this squad of bellhops at the old Bay View Hotel gave a smiling welcome to military and civilian guests arriving at the Jackson Street hostelry. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION EARLY SKYSCRAPER The Bay View Hotel, shown in this 1921 photo, was one of Tampa's first 10-story skyscrapers. The structure was built by Robert Mugge as a warehouse for his beer and liquor business. But he opened it in 1919 as a hotel. It stayed in business until just before it was razed in the twinkling of an eye on Sunday, Feb. 24, 1980, by dynamite. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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DAVIS CAUSEWAY REVISITED By GEORGE T. DAVIS I hope with this article to leave the future historian a vital personal record of my late grandfather, Capt. Ben T. Davis. He is famous in Florida history for building Davis Causeway between Tampa and Clearwater and this brought about the opening of the West Coast of Florida for further development. Capt. Ben T. Davis was born on Aug. 28, 1869, at Round Rock, Texas. His grandfather grafted the famous Ben Davis apple in Kentucky. He was a direct blood descendant of President Jefferson Davis and Attorney General George T. Davis of the Confederate States from 1864-1865. The Davis Causeway was started in 1927 when Kenneth 1. McKay, Howell T. Lykes, and D. B. McKay, Mayor of Tampa 1928-1931, helped Captain Davis raise the money he needed to start the causeway. But, work on it had been halted by the Florida real TAMPA-CLEARWATER CAUSEWAY -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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estate crash and later by the national depression. Finally, in 1933, Captain Davis obtained a Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) loan and completed its construction. GATE OF FLOWERS It was opened Thursday, June 28, 1934, with ceremonies sponsored by Corita Davis, daughter of the builder. A gate of flowers was cut by a group of Tampa girls including Mary Fernandez, who later married Ben Davis, the son of Captain Davis. Speeches were made by old family friends, Gov. Doyle E. Carlton and Mayor R.E.L. Chancey, Mayor of Tampa 1931-1943. I received a personal letter from Fred J. Howard, of the Hendry Corporation, the firm which did the dredging work on the causeway. The dredging company was founded by Capt. F. M. Hendry, a close friend of Captain Davis. In the letter, Mr. Howard said, "On Labor Day 1935, a severe hurricane struck this area and the Davis Causeway was badly eroded from wave action and high water which actually covered the causeway by many inches to a foot or so. About half of the roadway was eroded in many locations on the south side closing the causeway to traffic. As I recall, the causeway was later opened to one way traffic as safety would permit. CAPTAIN DAVIS AND FRIENDS Captain Ben T. Davis, builder of Davis Causeway, is shown second from left with friends and relatives who helped on the project. His son, George W. Davis is at extreme left and Hugh Davis is fourth from left. The other two in photo are unidentified. The picture was taken on "the long bridge and the draw bridge house is in the background.

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'STOP PAY TOLL' "Later in the year, in November or December, 1935, Hendry Corporation commenced work restoring the causeway by hydraulic dredging and filling of the eroded areas at many locations. This work took five or six months and was completed about May or early June, 1936. Searching my memory, I do recall a large wood cutout of a policeman with his right palm extended on the right hand side of the roadway approaching Davis Causeway East toll gate which was Columbus Drive and the sign on his body read 'Stop Pay Toll.' The causeway toll was 250 each way. "Your grandfather, Capt. Ben T. Davis, I remember quite well. Captain Davis drove up and down the causeway during the time of our work and seemed to be right on top of things at all times. As I recall, he headquartered himself in the toll gate on the east end south side of the causeway, where the Davises had an office which I presume was headquarters for the entire causeway operation. "At one time during the course of the work, our Dredge No. I was working quite close up to the toll gate borrowing material from one of the bayous in that area and Captain Davis was on an off the work site many times during the day. I was quite aware of the presence of Captain Davis, with him observing and consulting with our dredge captain and the people on the fill who were doing the work under this contract. "Also, your father, George W. Davis, and I were students at Plant High School back in the late 1920s. In fact, we opened up the school in September, 1927. Your father, George, played on the first football team at Plant High School, along with his old friend, Sam Davis, who later worked on the causeway. Your father was a very likeable fellow. WHAT OTHERS SAY The following persons I talked with and received letters from had this to say about the causeway: Clarence Holtsinger -"My brother, George, and I did business with Captain Davis when we had the Ford Agency." Chester Ferguson -"I represented Captain Ben T. Davis in his legal fight to save the causeway from the Federal Government. Also, I helped Captain Davis obtain money for the causeway from the Federal Government." Ellsworth Simmons -"The Davis Causeway brought families of both counties much closer together for the first time." FOR 'DAVIS CAUSEWAY' ... Former Senator Julian Lane -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Albert D'Arpa -"I recall that everybody was waiting for the causeway to be completed. Also, during the many years I was on Tampa City Council, I had many visits with Ben Davis, on matters affecting the causeway." Frank D'Arpa -"I recall people walking to the causeway because they did not have money to buy gas for their car during the bad depression years, so they could ask Captain Davis for a job in order to be able to feed their families. I recall Captain Davis giving employment to high school students. Many people were very upset when the causeway was no longer called Davis Causeway." Joe Mitchell -"I recall taking long walks with George W. Davis in the very early days of the causeway and we were able to walk down the middle of the highway because the traffic at that time was very light. I was able later to walk a mile in 12 minutes." Nick B. Albano -"I recall George W. Davis as always being neatly dressed. I recall seeing him many times dressed up in his Davis Causeway uniform, which was worn by the people who worked on the causeway. I recall a red and white patch which said Davis Causeway on the front of his shirt. Also, I had many visits with him over the years at my Tropical Meat Market Store before he died in November, 1973." Rudy Rodriguez -"I personally can recall in the middle 1930s the unlimited amount of sport fishing that the causeway provided." Allen C. McKay -"Captain Davis went to see my father, James C. McKay, about the bonds DAVIS CAUSEWAY CAR The famous Davis Causeway car with the, Florida flag on its door is featured in this photo. The man on the left is wearing a Causeway uniform. The young lad with him is George T. Davis, grandson of Capt. Ben T. Davis, author of accompanying story. ANOTHER DAVIS GRANDSON This picture shows the rear end of the Davis Causeway car, which is sporting an AAA emblem above the car tag. Ben C. Davis, grandson o f Captain Davis is shown in the picture.

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that were needed for the building of the Davis Causeway." Sol Fleischman -"I went to Plant High School with George W. Davis when the school first opened. I used my Tampa Times daily newspaper column several times in coming out in favor of the name being Davis Causeway." Sam Bucklew -"' Captain Davis conceived the idea of building a causeway against terrific odds. It is my humble opinion that this tremendous feat accomplished by Captain Davis, should continue to be known as the Davis Causeway." Homer J. Rigsby -"In a big way, Safety Harbor contributed to the building of the causeway. During the building of the causeway, many of the workers would come to Safety Harbor and trade at the business places, which was a great help to them during the depression years. Two favorite business places were the D. D. Barron Drug Store and Dr. Con Barth's Health Spa." J. Arlos Ogg -"I made many trips over the Davis Causeway and I recall George W. Davis taking up the toll charge at the toll house. Also, I recall that the Davis family lived in the toll house, which was built over the causeway road." NAILING UP SIGNS Now, I can remember taking trips with my father, George W. Davis, in the famous Davis Causeway car. My father was the public relations man for the causeway. He would visit with persons in public office all over the state, representing the political interest of the causeway. I can recall my father nailing up signs on trees all over the West Coast of Florida, which read Davis Causeway. Also, I can recall my father putting Davis Causeway post cards in all the drug stores around the state of Florida. My father would drive up to Ocala many times and he would visit with C. C. Frasier, Mayor of Ocala from 1941-1945; Gordon Moorehead, Sheriff of Marion County from 1937-1945; Charles A. Savage, Florida State Senator 1935-1939, and Wallace E. Sturgis, Florida State Senator 1943-1953. Next, he would leave Ocala and drive up to Tallahassee and visit with Sam A. Wahnish, Mayor of Tallahassee from 1940Frank Stoutamier, Sheriff of Leon County from 1923-1953, William C. Hodges, Florida State Senator 1923-1939, and Leroy Collins, Florida State Senator 1941-1943 and later Governor of Florida. GATHERING PLACE During the years the Davis family owned the causeway, it was the gathering place for many friends of the Davis family. The Davis Causeway played a very large important part in the history of the state of Florida. Among those who visited the causeway during these growth years for Florida were the following: Chester B. McMullen, U.S. Congressman 1951-1953 from Clearwater; S. C. Coachman, founder of Coachman Village in Clearwater; Curtis Hixon, Mayor of Tampa 1943-1956; J. R. McLeod, Sheriff of Hillsborough County from 1935-1941; Hugh L. Culbreath, Sheriff of Hillsborough County from 1941-1951; C. J. Woodruff, Chief of Police of Tampa 1936-1943; J. L. Eddings, Chief of Police of Tampa 1944-1950; Malcolm Beasley, Chief of Police of Tampa 1950-1953; John D. Latture, Chief of Police of Tampa 1956-1958; George Patterson, Mayor of St. Petersburg 1943-1947; Raymond Noel, Chief of Police of St. Petersburg 1934-1945; E. G. Cunningham,

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Sheriff of Pinellas County 1933-1940; Todd Tucker, Sheriff of Pinellas County 1940-1952. Col. H. N. Kirkman, Chief of the Florida Highway Patrol 1945-1970; John S. Taylor, Jr., Florida State Senator from Pinellas County 1941-1943; J. Locke Kelly, Florida State Senator of Pinellas County 1937-1939; Patrick C. Whitaker, President of Florida State Senate 1933-1941; Raymond Sheldon, Florida State Senator of Hillsborough County 1943-1949; Charley E. Johns, Florida State Senator 1937-1966; Col. Homer W. Hesterly, the National Guard Armory in Tampa is named in his honor; James Hardin Peterson, U.S. Congressman 1933-1951; Herbert J. Drane, U.S. Congressman 1917-1933; Fuller Warren, Governor of Florida 1949-1953; Cary D. Landis, Attorney General of Florida 1931-1938; George C. Gibbs, Attorney General of Florida 1938-1941; J. Tom Watson, Attorney General of Florida 1941-1948; George Seavy, Mayor of Clearwater from 1941-1945; L. H. Zinsser, Mayor of Safety Harbor from 1929-1942, and Spessard Holland, Governor of Florida 1941-1945. LANE FILES BILL The campaign to restore the causeway name to Davis Causeway began with an article in The Tampa Times for December 14, 1971, and within two weeks after this article appeared, Courtney Campbell died. On March 5, 1972, the Tampa Tribune did a detailed article in the "Florida Accent" magazine, making it public for the first time that only the park on the causeway had been named for Courtney Campbell, and that the causeway had never had a name change and was at that time still Davis Causeway. Later on, Julian Lane, Mayor of Tampa from 1959-1963, who had named the City beach in honor of Capt. Ben T. Davis, was elected State Senator. He filed a bill in the Florida State Senate to name Davis Causeway, Davis Causeway. Those who worked hard for the passage of the bill to give the people of Florida their history back deserve to be remembered. They were Louis de la Parte, Jr., President Pro Tempore of the Florida Senate 1973-1974; Richard J. Deeb, Florida State Senator 1966-1975; Doyle E. Carlton Jr., Florida State Senator 1953-1965; Ed Blackburn, Jr. Florida State Rep. Hillsborough County 1968-1975, and Farris Bryant, Governor of Florida 1961-1965. A FILM MADE ON SPAN I recall driving in from the Davis Causeway one day during the war years and they were making the movie, "Air Force", with John Garfield and Arthur Kennedy, which was released in 1943. Of course at that time, Drew Field was a U.S. Army Air Force Base. I recall that the favorite eating place of the Davis family in Tampa was Valencia Garden Restaurant, owned by old family friend Manuel Beiro. In Clearwater, it was the Pelican Restaurant, owned by old family friend Henry Henriquez. I recall many times stopping at the Henry Gonzalez Plumbing Co., on Columbus Drive, to visit on the way back to Davis Causeway. Also, we would stop and visit Nick and Sons Banana Place on Columbus Drive and buy a lot of fruit on the way back to the causeway. Also, I recall that W. H. Armstrong did the road work on the causeway and Capt. Howard C. Van Hyning lived on the Clearwater side of the causeway.

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FUTURE BIG DREAMS My grandfather would often talk over future big dreams he had for Florida with his close friends Peter 0. Knight, D. P. Davis, and George S. Gandy, who built Gandy Bridge. Also, I was able to have a very interesting talk with the late Sandy Gandy, the grandson of George S. Gandy. The Davis Causeway was my grandfather's dream. He looked upon the causeway as private property and the home of the Davis family. He would have been more than happy to operate the causeway free for the public if he would have been able to pay those employed on the causeway, along with paying back his loan. It broke his heart when he was forced to sell the causeway. In addition, he did not receive a fair price based on future earnings of the causeway. After the sale of the causeway, the Davis family moved to St. Petersburg and later Captain Davis decided to buy an 8,000 acre ranch in Texas. During the years the Davis family owned the ranch, a close personal family friend was the late Col. Homes Garrison, Jr., Chief of the Texas Rangers from 1938-1968. JIM FOSTER'S IDEA In November, 1979, Hampton Dunn did an article in the Sunland Tribune on Captain Davis. Later on, Tony Pizzo did a television show in which he talked about Captain Davis. Now, State Rep. Jim Foster, from Tampa, would like to have a bill which would put two signs at both ends of the causeway. One sign would read Davis Causeway and the other would read Courtney Campbell Park. In addition, the two names Davis Causeway and Courtney Campbell Park would be placed on all official Florida road maps. Last, of the big three in Florida history, being Flagler, Plant, and Davis, I can't help but feel that those many people over the years, who have carried Captain Davis in their heart with a very deep respect, shall be heard by those in public office, to give Captain Davis justice. As I have often said, "'He belongs to the people and history of Florida." Yes, all the people of Florida can be very proud of what Captain Davis did for the state of Florida and its people.

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MEET THE AUTHORS DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON is Dana Professor of History at the University of Tampa, author of four books and more than 50 articles. He is former president of the Florida Anthropological Society and of the Tampa Historical Society, and former member of the Barrio Latino Commission and of the Hillsborough County Historical Commission. Dr. Covington was awarded the D. B. McKay Award by the Tampa Historical Society in 1977. TONY PIZZO was born and reared in Ybor City. He is author of Tampa Town: A Cracker Village With A Latin Accent. He was co-host on the I 0-part television series Tony Pizzo's Tampa presented on WUSF-TV, Channel 16. He also instructs a class, "'Tampa's Latin Roots," at the University of South Florida. Pizzo also is a founder and past president of the Tampa Historical Society and winner of the 1980 D. B. McKay Award. He is a long-time historic preservationist and has been a leader in erecting historical markers in the cit Y. HAMPTON DUNN who writes on "Those Hell-Raisin' Tampa Newspapers" in this issue, has been a leader in Florida journalism for 45 years. He was managing editor of The Tampa Daily Times, one-time commentator on Television Station WCKT-TV in Miami, and presently senior DR. J. W. COVINGTON TONY PIZZO HAMPTON DUNN DR. L. GLENN WESTFALL KEN MULDER JOSEPH HIPP EARL J. BROWN GEORGE T. DAVIS

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vice president of the Peninsula Motor Club (AAA). He is a founder and past president of the Tampa Historical Society and winner of the 1978 D. B. McKay Award. He is a chairman of the Historic Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board and has had much service in preservation. A prize-winning author of more than a dozen books on Florida history, he was one of 76 Floridians chosen as Florida Patriot during the 1976 Bicentennial. DR. L. GLENN WESTFALL is a charter faculty member of Hillsborough Community College and Past President and now Executive Director of the Tampa Historical Society. Dr. Westfall has been active in both historical research and preservation efforts throughout the state, and has prepared papers at State, National and International Conferences. He is a director of the Florida Historical Society and was program chairman in the 1980 annual meeting. KENNETH W. MULDER President of the Tampa Historical Society, is personally responsible for over 200 new members of the Society this year. A native Tampan, he is a member of the Hillsborough County Historical Society, Barrio Latino Commission, Fort Brooke Commission, Florida Historical Society and the Central Gulf Coast Archaeological Society. Ken has spent a lifetime in archaeological research along Florida's west coast, including every existing Indian mound from Cedar Key to Key West. Ken has done research in Indian, Spanish and Early Florida History in Madrid, Toledo, Avilia, Segovia, Spain; Mexico City, the Island of Roatan, Central America; St. Thomas, St. Johns, the Virgin Islands; and Bimini, Nassau, Bahamas. Ken is a freelance outdoor writer for the Tampa Tribune and other periodicals. He attended Plant High School, the University of Florida, and the University of Tampa. He taught insurance at the University of Tampa for 25 years. In spite of all his civic and community service activities, Ken is consistently among the three top commercial insurance agents at the Tampa Office of Poe & Associates, Inc. JOSEPH HIPP, a native Floridian, is head of the Special Collections Department of the Tampa-Hillsborough County Public Library System. He also is a board member and the Historian for the Tampa Historical Society. He is a book reviewer for The Tampa Tribune and has contributed a chapter to the book, Special Collections in Libraries of the Southeast, which was sponsored by the South Eastern Library Association. EARL J. BROWN spent his entire business life, which began in 1937, with Havatampa Cigar Company. He became interested in preserving the history of this famous Tampa firm and has published A History of the Name HAV-A-TAMPA. He gives us an insight into the company and its founder, Eli Witt, in a special article, "Cigars-That's My Business," in this issue. GEORGE T. DAVIS is a native Tampan and is a "crusader." His one objective is to get Davis Causeway once again firmly identified as that, rather than "Courtney Campbell Causeway." He is a grandson of the builder of the Tamp a-Clearwater span and reflects on the origin and history of the Causeway in an article in this issue. George Davis is a private detective.

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WHAT HAPPENED IN TAMPA ON JULY 15, 1887 OR THEREABOUTS By JOSEPH HIPP Council Chambers City of Tampa, Fla. July 15, 1887 The newly elected council of the city of Tampa convened this afternoon at 3 o'clock whereupon the members were duly qualified by His Honor George B. Sparkman, Mayor. The first business in order being the election of a President. Councilmen Harrison and Biglow were placed in This article was presented in a slightly different form at the First Annual Mayor's Breakfast on the City of Tampa's 93rd Birthday Anniversary, July 15, 1980.

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nomination for that position. A vote was taken, and Councilman Harrison having received a majority of votes cast was declared duly elected. The Council then adjourned until 7:30 o'clock Monday evening, July l8th.1 Approved July 18th, 1887 H. L. Knight President pro. tem2. Attest: (signed) Lamont S. Bailey City Clerk The above notice in the City Clerk's notebook for 1887 attests to the statement that appears on the City seal: "Organized, July 15, 1887. This isolated fact does little to give a picture of life as it was in 1887. What I hope to do here is to introduce you to the "old" Tampa of 1887 and show the similarities that we can see today in 1980. In order to do this I have had to rely heavily upon contemporary newspaper accounts for the flavor, and what was the concern of men and women in this bygone era. Tampa was buzzing. About this time Tampa was given a new lease on life the second charter was granted to the City of Tampa and Tampa's new age of prosperity was about to begin. To set the record straight, the bill that granted Tampa a new charter was approved by the Governor on June 2, 1887.3 Section 5 of the charter provided for a city-wide election, for the Mayor, 11 Councilmen and the other City officials, and it was to be held on the second TAMPA A SLEEPY HORSE-AND-BUGGY TOWN IN THE 1880s from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Tuesday in July (July 12, 1887). The new charter also greatly expanded the corporate limits of the city. Tampa now took in North Tampa, Ybor City and even some land on the west side of the Hillsborough River.4 Other Efforts There have been at least two other efforts made to organize the city, but they did not succeed in giving the city a continuous form of government. The town was first organized HOW TAMPA BEGAN A LOOK AT THE RECORD

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in 1855, but that effort ended in bankruptcy for the city. Another effort at organization was recorded on a seal that Theodore Lesley found among his grandfather's papers.2 This was the second organization dated August 11, 1878. 1 have not been able to find any record of this attempt, so I am calling the date July 15, 1887 the second charter date for Tampa. Tampa had 895 registered voters in 1887 and the Tampa Journal reported that only 575 of these men exercised their opinion only 64%! The Journal reported on the election as follows: As a public servant, the Journal would be derelict in its duty if it passed over some of the irregularities and disgraceful occurrences of Tuesday's election without calling attention to them. It was such an election as we hope never again to see in Tampa. For two or three days before the election, whiskey was dispensed free by some of the saloons. On election day the streets were lined with drunken men; the most obscene, vulgar and profane language could be heard, not only in the streets, but in the room in which the election was held. Frequent rows and fights occurred, and during the entire day and night a drunken and riotous mob held possession of the town. Such a state of affairs are a disgrace to an intelligent and civilized community, and the Journal desires to place itself on record as being opposed to any such proceedings. We denounce the buying of votes by any man, either with money or whiskey; we do not FLORIDA AVENUE AT POLK ST., LOOKING SOUTH, 1885 -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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believe in coercion or intimidation, and we call upon the respectable, law-abiding and intelligent citizens of Tampa to see to it that the like does not happen again.5 Mr. Sparkman was elected as the new Mayor by 14 votes So much for the election. The new Mayor did not need to concern himself with a job description. The Journal did this for him and for his officers as well. July 14: Many things have been promised by the newly elected Mayor and many reforms are hoped for. There are two or three things to which the Journal desires to direct His Honor's special attention. One is the closing of the saloons of Sundays back and side doors as well as the front doors. There can be no disproving the assertation that the law has been shamefully violated in this matter. All that is necessary to close these places effectually on Sunday is for the policemen to do their duty.6 Incidentally-the Journal also had an extra part-time job for the city's 10 policemen. Since the crime rate wasn't very high the policemen could also serve as sanitary inspectors. The Litter Bug Patrol if you will. But to get back to the Mayor's job. The Journal as continued: Another important matter that demands prompt and aggressive attention to the city's officials is the houses of ill-fame and their occupants. There are several of these vile dens within the corporate limits of the city; that they are exerting a most demoralizing and pernicious influence on the community, there can be no question; young men often mere boys, are being enticed from the path of virtue and started on the downward road to shame, disgrace, disease and hell; their very life-blood is being sapped by these degraded and fallen creatures. The boldness and brazen effrontery exhibited by these women is already notorious and shameful. Almost any hour of the day or night they can be seen either walking or driving through the streets, visiting the saloons and making themselves generally conspicuous. Something must be done to check this growing evil for the sake of the boys as well as the girls.7 Mayor Sparkman had many problems to contend with. The ones mentioned above are minor to some others that are apparent in reading in-between-the-lines of the Journal editorials. Tampa had a very strong Women's Christian Temperance Union, a periodic yellow-fever watch and a crusading editor of the Journal, who thought of himself as being just a notch below the Deity in importance. Let us look at each persuasive element separately. WCTU Well Organized The WCTU was well organized in Tampa. These ladies even had a chapter in Ybor City! They did all sorts of good things for the city of Tampa like providing a lending library with a reading room for the citizens. They also sponsored theatrical programs at Branch's Opera House. On June 9th, they put on the play, TEN NIGHTS IN A BAR ROOM I am sure it had the desired effect on the audience. Their presence was also felt east of town. A new recreation area for Tampans was being built one and one-half miles east of Ybor City. To quote the Journal:

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Just now, Spanish Park, located on Gavino Gutierrez's place, on Tampa Bay is attracting the attention of pleasure lovers of both Tampa and Ybor City. It is described as the most beautiful place and promises to become a popular resort ... The park contains over 160 acres, and it is the intention of Mr. Gutierrez to establish a zoological garden; salt water baths, a carousel, swings, race tracks, and a dancing pavilion is also on the program and everything will be completed by next fall. The Spanish Park Casino has already been organized and a club house will soon be erected for the reception of visitors; also a boat house. A first-class restaurant will soon be in operation from which refreshments ice cream, fruits, temperance drinks, etc. will be sold.8 Friends we now have Hawaiian Punch at Busch Gardens. Race tracks and gambling casinos are O.K. but don't corrupt our citizens with hard liquor! Yellow Fever 'Season' Yellow fever, as I mentioned, was on everybody's mind during the "season" which lasted from March to October of each year. During the warm months any outbreak of yellow fever in Key West, Havana or Tampa's neighboring port cities was a real threat to Tampa. A notice in the June 9th Journal reads as follows: The Board of Health has established quarantine camps on Ballast Point where all passengers from Key West, Havana, or other infected ports will be held for 15 days. The Plant Investment Company furnished the tents, cots, etc., and will establish telephone connections with the station and Tampa. Should cases of fever break out a physician will go there and remain until all is well again.9 All the comforts of home cots tents mosquitos -The National Guard never had it so good but these were business people and tourists! Originally the Board of Health wanted to make Tampa off-limits to Key West and Havana for six months of the year but fortunately this unwieldy restraint of trade was not acceptable to the business community of Tampa. Fearless Editor Yellow fever was a real threat and one notice in the journal will put the panic of the people in the right perspective. June 16: Only one death in Tampa since Lord only knows when, and that occurred last Sunday. It was a mule. It should be dangerous for Jacksonville to lift their quarantine against Tampa yet awhile.10 We have seen some evidence of the last problem mentioned the editorials of the Tampa Journal under the editorship of Mr. H. J. Cooper. Mr. Cooper was a fearless advocate of law and order, the WCTU and clean streets. According to him Tampa was sinking in the muck and mire of its own garbage and it was the drunken litter bugs that were to blame. March 2nd: "Sanitary Work". We read: The town at present is not in proper condition. Many privies and backyards are disgraceful to say the least Why is it? Simply because those whose duty it is to look after this matter have neglected their work and no official has the nerve to compel the work to be

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done. The Scavenger is not diligent and is unreliable. LAZY BUZZARDS?11 He goes on: The police whose duty it is to look after violations and report the same to the proper officials simply do nothing. You can find the whole work force lounging along the saloon block at any time half asleep.12 I did not read of any murders or burglaries or holdups at that time. The people must have been too busy littering.' All the town's business was the Journal's business. Mr. Plant was getting ready to build his new hotel and we read on May 12th: Our citizens will be pleased to know that the big hotel project is making progress. However, the active work is being done by the people on the west side of the river and the present indications are that the building will be erected on the Hayden site. The main reason why the hotel cannot be built on this side of the river is because the land is too valuable to waste in such a manner. The idea of giving up two blocks and covering them with a $150,000 hotel is simply absurd to the minds of some people. It is considered better to let them stand vacant and grow luxuriant crops of dog-fennel, sweet potatoes, etc. The Journal congratulates the people of the west side on their public spirit as well as their prospects. In benefitting themselves so greatly Tampa proper cannot fail to reap largely from the enterprise, and it is our duty to assist in every possible way in securing the great tourist hotel, even across the river.13 The real estate in Tampa proper was far too valuable for any enterprise such as a grand hotel and the surrounding landscaped grounds. Nothing backward about us. Next month the mountain came to Mohammed courtesy of the State Legislature because the hotel site became part of the city! Mr. Cooper also took on small foes. July 14th: OBITUARY NOTICE-Died July 14th, 1887-Tampa Brass Band of a sudden attack of great expectations. It was consigned to oblivion amid the groans of the populace. "No need for iron or tablet here to say to us thou wert too dear.14 Obviously, Tampa was not just a parade of militant WCTU ladies, crackpot editors and policemen who lounged in front of the saloons. Incidentally there was a fire on "Rotten Row," where the saloons were, in August, and some 30 businesses and residences went up in smoke including four of the five saloons. Perhaps we had some early urban renewal by design.15 Fantastic Growth Tampa, between the years 1880 and 1890 increased in size from 720 to 5,532 souls a fantastic 668%. Tampa could boast of a philharmonic society, and orchestra, an opera house, two bands, several benevolent societies, a convent, five different white protestant churches, three black churches, a Catholic church, two (or seven) newspapers and a Board of Trade. The blacks in the community were in evidence in the paper. They had a literary society that

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met every Monday night their own skating rink and they were making plans to celebrate their own holiday Emancipation Day, May 20th, complete with bands and floats.16 The tone of the day was optimism and we can see this reflected in what we are doing today. The inflationary times are hitting many cities but Tampa has people with foresight and a new city is rising out of the construction dust of the old. And that is the lesson we have learned when Tampa received her charter 93 years ago. And that ladies and gentlemen was the way it was on July 15, 1887. HAPPY BIRTHDAY TAMPA! SOURCES Laws of Florida 1887 Chapter 3779 U. S. Census 1960 Florida Table 5. Webb's Tampa Directory 1886 The Sunland Tribune, Vol. 11, No. 1, October 1975 Tampa Weekly Journal May 25, 1887 June 9, 1887 June 16, 1887 July 14, 1887 August 4, 1887 A Railroad Brings A Golden Era," in: Tampa by Karl Grismer, 1950.

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NOTES 1Reel 5, Minutes of Council 1857-1895. 2Tampa Town Seal Found, Used In Emblem," in: The Sunland Tribune, Vol. II, No. 1, p. 41 (October, 1975). 3LAWS OF FLORIDA, 1887 ch. 3779 (no. 99). 4The 1887 annexation shading on the map will give you an idea of how Tampa had almost quadrupled in si7e from the 1853 townsite. 'The Tampa Weekly Journal, July 14, 1887, p. 1 5The Tampa Weekly Journal, July 14, 1887, p. 1. 6I bid 7Ibid 8Tampa Weekly Journal, May 12, 1887. 9Tampa Weekly Journal, June 9, 1887. 10Tampa Weekly Journal, June 16, 1887. 11I have since found out that the scavenger was a paid employee of the city, a refuse collector. 12Tampa Jeekly Journal, March 2, 1887. 13Tampa Weekly Journal, May 12, 1887. 14Tampa Weekly Journal, July 14, 1887. 15Tampa Weekly Journal, August 4, 1887. 16Tampa Weekly Journal, May 12, 1887, Our Colored Citizens, and Emancipation Day.

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TAMPA HOSPITALS REPRINTED FROM Hillsborough County Medical Association Bulletin, 1979 At one of the early 1979 H.C.M.A. meetings I gave a rambling talk on the development of hospitals in Tampa. As usual, I became so caught up in the sound of my voice that I came nowhere near finishing what I was prepared to say, even though I was given an extra time dispensation by President Joel Mattison. Some members (at least two) have suggested that my data be published in the Bulletin, so that it might be CENTRO ESPANOL SANITARIUM ON BAYSHORE BOULEVARD -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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more readily available to a speaker 50 years hence. As this saves me the agony of writing something original for my promised monthly historical column, herewith is my list of 45 Tampa hospitals from 1889 to date. Where possible I have added the names of persons who were instrumental in getting these hospitals built ... and certainly many other names could be added. I would hope that some hospitals too might be added by knowledgeable and observant readers. Half the fun of writing is finding out that someone has thought enough about it to challenge you or point out a mistake or omission. When I wrote a piece about Dr. Weedon and Osceola's head, Dr. Carlyle Hewitt immediately wrote to point out that Osceola's body, minus his head, was still in South Carolina and not back in Florida as I had written. Hospital number 46 should be added to the list, as since my talk the Town and Country Hospital sparked by Dr. Joe Mijares has been started. Number 35, Tampa Osteopathic Hospital, has recently undergone an ownership and name change, and is now Interbay Community Hospital. 1. 1889-Yellow Fever emergency hospital, Dr. Leslie Weedon, location unknown. 2. 1891-County Courthouse moved up to 806 Florida Avenue and converted to hospital, Dr. Frank H. Caldwell. 3. 1893-Emergency Hospital, 910 East Lafayette Street, Dr. Duff Post. 4. 1900-Hospital at 210 Whiting Street, Dr. Leontieff T. Weightnovel. 5. 1904-Centro Asturiano Hospital, 1302 21st Avenue. 6. 1904-El Bien Publico, 14th Street & 9th Avenue, Dr. Creci and Mr. Jose Tomas. 7. 1906-Centro Espanol Sanitorium, Bayshore Boulevard, Dr. Avellanel. 8. 1906-Tampa Heights Sanitarium, 1805 Florida Avenue, Dr. Hiram Jackson Hampton. 9. 1909-Colored Hospital, 1613 Lamar Avenue, Clara Frye. 10. 1909-Women's Home & Hospital, 105 West Ross Avenue, Elizabeth R. Davis, Matron. 11. 1909-Tampa Bay Infirmary, 306 South Boulevard. 12. 1910-Gordon Keller Memorial Hospital, 302 North Boulevard, City of Tampa. 13. 1912-Halcyon Hospital (also called Plant Park Infirmary), "north and Crescent Place", Dr. Mack R. Winton.

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14. 1916-Tampa Sanitarium, Central Avenue, Dr. Elise M. Gilbert. 15. 1918-Moodie's Private Hospital, 315 East Ross Avenue, Dr. B. M. Moodie. 16. 1918-Isolation Hospital, West South Main, Dr. C. W. Bartlett. 17. 1919-Bayside Hospital, Bayshore & Gandy Boulevards, Dr. John S. Helms. 18. 1927-Tampa Municipal Hospital, Davis Islands, City of Tampa, Dr. J. Brown Farrior. 19. 1930-A. A. Gonzalez Clinic & Hospital, 1915 14th Street, Dr. Gonzalez. 20. 1930-Salvation Army Home & Hospital, Lake Ellen Lane. 21. 192 -Children's Hospital, 906 South Rome Avenue, Dr. George Cook and Dr. R. Renfroe Duke. 22. 1932-Tampa Heights Hospital, Morgan & 7th Avenue, Dr. W. H. Dyer. 23. 193 -Cook's Hospital, 107 South Parker Street, Dr. H. M. Cook. 24. 1934-St. Joseph's Hospital, 7th Avenue & Morgan, Order of St. Francis (O.S.F.). 25. 1939-Clara Frye Memorial Hospital, Foot of Green Street, City of Tampa. 26. 1942-Drew Field Army Air Corps Hospital. 27. 1944-MacDill Air Force Base Hospital. 28. 19 -Dr. Trelles Clinic & Hospital, 1505 8th Avenue. 29. 1949-Lily White Hospital, 3100 29th Street Mr. Blythe Andrews. 30. 19 -Hillsborough County Hospital, 5906 North 30th Street. 31. 1952-Southwest Florida Tuberculosis Sanitorium (later W.T. Edwards Hospital), 4000 West Buffalo Avenue. 32. Bay-to-Bay Hospital, 3405 Bay-to-Bay, Dr Julian Baldor. 33. 19 -Ballast Point Manor Neurological Hospital, Ballast Point. 34. 1962-Good Samaritan Hospital, 7171 North Dale Mabry Highway, Dr. Richard B. Mayer.

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35. 1962-Tampa Osteopathic Hospital, South Manhattan Avenue. 36. 1967-St. Joseph's Hospital, 3101 Wes Buffalo Avenue, Sister Loreto Mary, O.S.F. 37. 1968-University Community Hospital, 3100 East Fletcher Avenue, Dr. Edward L. Flynn, Dr Wade C. Myers, Dr. R. W. Withers. 38. 1971-Veterans Administration Hospital 13000 North 30th Street. 39. 1971-Memorial Hospital of Tampa, 290 Swann Avenue, Dr. P. 0. Knight. 40. 1971-Centro Espanol Memorial Hospital 4801 North Howard Avenue. 41. 1974-Women's Hospital, 3030 West Buffalo Avenue, Dr. Curtis Rorebeck. 42. 1975-Tampa Heights Hospital, 4004 North Riverside Drive, Humana. 43. 1976-Florida Mental Health Institute, 13301 North 30th Street. 44. 1976-Brandon Community Hospital, 119 Oakfield Drive, Paul Funderburk. 45. 1979-Ambulatory Centre of Tampa, 13500 North 46th Street.

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Tampa Historical Society Membership Roster 1979-1980 Academy of the Holy Names Allen, M/M S. T. Allen, Mr. William K. Altman, Frederic W. Amon, M/M Richard T. Anderson, Mrs. De Lane Anderson, Fred B. Anderson, M/M Wm. P., Jr. Antinori, Mrs. Creeda & Family Antolin, Mr. Vincent Armstrong, Mrs. Colby C. Arnold, M/M James D. Austin, M/M Alfred S. Ayala, M/M R. Gabe Bailey, M/M James B. Baker, Mrs. Warren L. Barclay, Mr. Edward S. Barnes, M/M Kenneth, Jr. Barnett, M/M Leslie Barritt, M/M W. J., Jr. Barrow, Dr. Mark V. Batten, William D. Beaver, Mr. Ralph Bellows, Miss Anne D. Belcher, M/M Robert S. Berkhan, Mrs. William J. Bevis, M/M H. Wayne Billingsley, Dr. & Mrs. Baxter Black, M/M Walter R., Jr. Blain, Mr. Lester M. Blake, M/M Hawley Blanford, M/M George T. Blau, Mr. Philip Boden, M/M Walter Bolt, M/M Randy Booner, Mr. Daniel, Jr. Bowen, Mr. B. Frank Bowen, Mr. Mark Bowman, M/M Don Bozeman, Mr. Richard W. Branch, Mrs. Grace N. Brandon Junior Woman's Club Brant, Mrs. Evanell K. Brinen, M/M Philip Brooker, Dr. & Mrs. A. Raymond Brown, Audrey McN. Brown, M/M Earl J., Jr. Brown, Mrs. Nell R. Brown, J. Danforth Brown, M/M Joseph E. Bruton, Judge & Mrs. J. D., Jr. Buck, Judge & Mrs. Morrison Buesing, M/M Robert Burrows, M/M Arthur E. Byars, M/M Joe C. Byrd, M/M Harold P. Cacciatore, M/M Ronald K. Cannon, Ms. Warrene Carlton, Mrs. N. Burton Carlton, Lois Carnes, Miss Mary Carpenter, Mrs. Annie-Kate B. Carte, M/M Ballard, Jr. Carte, Mrs. Virginia Casterline, Mrs. W. B. Caton, Kathleen Cavanagh, Dr. David E. Chambliss, M/M R. Flake Chiles, Mr. F. M., Jr. Christian, M/M Mack T. Church, M/M George B. Clarke, M/M J. D. & Karen Clarke, M/M Richard S. Clarke, M/M William D. Clemons, John Clift, Mrs. Kalmar Cline, Col. & Mrs. James D. Cobb, M/M David Coe, Mrs. Ida A. Felicione Coles, Mrs. A. Dickens Cone, Mr. Mike Cooper, Mrs. Ruth Ley Copeland, M/M William H. Corcoran, M/M Stephen L. Corum, Dr. Lewis T. Corum, Ms. Molly Council, M/M B. W., Sr. Covington, Dr. & Mrs. James W. Crawford, M/M Bertram Crumpton, M/M G. Thomas Cuervo, M/M Charles Cuervo, Donald Culbreath, Mr. M. 0. Cullen, Mrs. Thomas Curren, M/M H. F. Curtis, M/M G. David, III Davis, Mr. George T. Dees, Ms. Joyce A. Degni, M/M Michael Delaney, Mrs. A. E. Delaney, Brian W. De La Parte, M/M Louis Del Re, M/M Robert Demmi, Mr. John Dervaes, Mrs. Pattie DeWald, Rev. & Mrs. Allen G. Dickerson, Mrs. Daisy S. Didier, Mr. Norbert G. Dodson, M/M Eugene B. Donley, Ms. Vicki Dovi, Mrs. Lula J. Duncan, M/M William F. Dunn, M/M Hampton Durrance, Judge & Mrs. Carl C. Earle, M/M C.P., Jr. Edenfield, Mrs. Robert G. Ekman M/M Dursie Elliott, M/M Lynwood Elliott, M/M Paul Ennis, M/M Gary Ervin, Mr. Thomas C. Eskridge, Mrs. Ida Witt Estes, Mrs. James L. Estes, M/M James L., Jr. Evans, Mrs. Waurine B. Farr, Donald Farr, M/M Joseph W. Farrior, M/M J. Rex Farrior, Richard T., M.D. Fellows, M/M Robert J. Ferwerda, M/M Raymond K. Few, M/M W. Crosby Fisher, Mr. Charles T. Flom, M/M Edward L. Floecking, M/M Ralph Fonte, M/M Morris, Sr. Foreman, M/M W. R. Ford, Jannie D.

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Foster, M/M Kenton Fowler, Mrs. Cody Frankland, M/M Perry Frazier, M/M J. Warren Freedman, M/M Michael J. Freeman, M/M Lowell T. Frey, Mr. Roscoe Frisbie, M/M Loyal Frisco, Mary Fuller, Carol Funderburk, M/M Paul Fusilier, Mr. Dennis Garcia, M/M Manuel Garcia, M/M Manuel, J. Gardner, M/M James H. Garrett, M/M Preston Garrison, M/M Ernest M. Gasthoff, M/M J. F., Jr. Gerwe, M/M M. E. Gibbons, Mr. A. William Gilhool, Mr. William J. Goldsmith, Devon Gonzalez, Anthony Gooding, Mrs. Charles T. Gordon, M/M Gerry Goring, Ms. Helen F. Grable, Mrs. Warner Grant, Mrs. Ben H. Grantham, M/M William E. Gray, Barbara A. Gray, Don "Curly" Greco, M/M Dick Green, M/M Nelson F. Greening, Mrs. J. N. Gregory, Mrs. Donn Gregory, M/M James A. Grimaldi, Mr. A. J. Groll, M/M Roger Groves, M/M Fletcher L., Jr. Guernsey, M/M Welburn Guito, M/M R. M., Jr. Gunn, Mrs. Jack A. Hackney, Frances Haines, Dr. & Mrs. Robert E. Hair, Mrs. Collette J. Hall, Mrs. D. R., Jr. Hamilton, Dolores S. Hamilton, M/M J. William W. Hammer, Mr. John M., Jr. Hampton, M/M Hiram P., III Handley, Mrs. C. V. Hanes, Mr. Claud P., Jr. Hankins, Mr. M. S. Hardee, M/M C. J., Jr. Harold, Mr. Paul L. Harrison, M/M John N., III Hart, M/M Harold E. Hartman, Mr. William D., Jr. Haskins, Sister Mary Hawes, M/M Leland M., Jr. Hawes, Mrs. L. M. Hawkins, M/M Joseph Healy, M/M Charles T. Healy, Mr. Joel W., Jr. Hearne, M/M James, Jr. Heavner, M/M J. R. Hemmingway, Ruth Henderson, Mr. Otto Lee Henderson, M/M T. N., III Hendry, Mr. A. E. Hendry, Mrs. W. Marion Henriquez, M/M W. Herndon, M/M S. D., Jr. Herron, M/M James R. Hester, Mr. John T. Hickey, Mr. John B. Hickey, Sister Maybelle Higgins, M/M Nash Himes, M/M John R. Hipp, Mr. Joseph Hobbs, Mrs. W. Frank Hobson, M/M T. Frank, Jr. Hoedt, Mrs. Mabel Hoedt, M/M William Holt, M/M Thomas K. Howze, M/M William D. Hubert, M/M Clifford Hunter, Mrs. W. Finlay Hurner, Mrs. George T. Huskey, M/M Gary L. Ingram, Dr. & Mrs. James M. Jackson, Lois K. James, Theodore S., Jr. Jeffrey, Mrs. Brooks Jessee, M/M Marshall B. Johnson, Ms. Jean Johnson, Mrs. Ora Jones, M/M John Arthur Jones, Sister Rosanne Jones, M/M Warren Juster, M/M Floyd P. Keen, Mrs. Nell Greening Kickliter, Mrs. Frank King, M/M Carl D. Kiser, Mrs. Lawson P. Klay, M/M Bruce M. Klay, M/M James B. Klay, Joe M. Klein, Mr. C. R. Rocky Klintworth, M/M C. Verne Knight, Mrs. Victor H., Jr. Koerner, Lt. Col. & Mrs. Paul C. Kutchmire, M/M J. E., III Lane, M/M Julian B. Latimer, M/M Samuel I. Lawhon, M/M James E. Lazzara, Bennie Leary, M/M Fred D. Leonard, M/M Marston C. Lesley, M/M John T. Levy, Gladys Licata, M/M Gene Lien, Mr. Paul M. Lindeman, Mr. Dennis Linebaugh, M/M C. David Linebaugh, M/M Isbon G. List, M/M Irvin, Jr. Lopez, M/M J. R. Lopez, J. R., Jr. Lowry, Mrs. W. D. Lucas, Mrs. E. B. Lucas, Emily L. Major, Mrs. Marie Winton Malerk, Carolyn S. Malzone, Dan W. Meadows, M/M J. Schuyler Menendez, Mrs. Peggy Merchant, Col. & Mrs. Brintnall H. Meyer, Mrs. Loraine Mickler, Mrs. Joseph R. Midulla, M/M Joseph D., Sr. Milam, Frank A., Jr. Miller, Lois Jean Miller, M/M Kent S. Milton, M/M Joseph 0., Jr. Mirabella, M/M Sam Mirabole, Andrew Mixson, Col. & Mrs. M. C. Monska, M/M Ken Montague, M/M Jack H. Moore, C. Aaron Moore, M/M Harry R., Jr. Mormino, Dr. & Mrs. Gary R. Morse, Mrs. C. Farley Moseley, M/M Carl H. Moseley, Miss Dorothy M. Moses, Paddy Kay Mulder, M/M Kenneth W. Mulder, Kenneth W., Jr. Mulder, L. Ed. Mulholland, Mrs. Ruth Mullen, Mrs. Earl Mullen, M/M Harris H. Murphy, M/M W. J. Pat Myers, Mr. Jim

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McAbee, Bessie Ruth McClain, Mrs. Leslie McCloskey, Dr. & Mrs. Paul McDermott, Suzanne McElmurray, M/M William C. McGill, Mrs. J. Maurice McKay, M/M David McKay, M/M Howell A. McKay, Mrs. Richard S. McKell, Dr. & Mrs. Thomas E. McKinney, Betty W. McMullen, Judge & Mrs. Neil C. McMullen, M/M Thomas K. McLeod, M/M N. E., Jr. McQugg, M/M John Neilsen, Ms. Fran Napoli, Miss Elia Newbern, M/M C. D. Newman, Mr. Millard W. Newman, M/M Standford, J. Newton, Mrs. V. M., Jr. Nicholls, M/M Charles Nolen, M/M Phillip R. North M/M Robert W. Nosti, M/M Dick O'Connor, M/M Thomas J. Ogden, Mr. Richard C., Jr. O'Mara, Mr. Raymond O'Neal, M/M Solon F., Jr. Ortiz, Ms. Mary Osterweil, M/M John William Oser, Mrs. Phillis G. Overla, M/M James C., Jr. Owen, M/M Homer Edwin Pachler, M/M F. T. Packwood, Mr. Norval E. Painter, M/M Jack Palermo, Nick & Olga Palori, Dr. & Mrs. J. P. Paramore, Peggy Parr, M/M William Parris, Mrs. John Parrish, M/M John R., Jr. Patten, Judy M. Peeler, Scott L., Jr. Pelt, M/M Donald Perdigon, Dr. & Mrs. G. L. Perez, Dr. & Mrs. Louis A., Jr. Peyton, Miss Louise Peyton Mrs. F. L. Pizzo, M/M Anthony Pizzo, Dr. Anthony J. Pizzo, M/M Paul R. Plyler, M/M D. M. Pons, Mr. Emilio Quinn, M/M C. N. Racette, Mrs. Martha R. Randazzo, M/M Santo Randell, Mrs. Gladys R. Ray, Randy W. Record, Bonnie J. Reeves, Barbara Reynolds, M/M William H. Rinaldi, Mr. Clyde L. Robb, M/M Charles C. Robinson, M/M Daniel C. Rodgers, Miss Marianne C. Rodgers, Thomas Rodriguez, M/M Sam P. Rood, Ed. B. Rosier, M/M W. Pat Ross, M/M Steve Rossiter, Harold L. Rossman, M/M Charles W. Rubio, Dr. & Mrs. Mauricio Russo, M/M R. P. Sale, Mrs. J. L. Salomonson, Miss Frieda Salzer, Mrs. W. W. Sanders, M/M B. A. Sapp, Mr. Robert Savarese, J. A., Jr. Schiestl, Ms. Marinette H. Schrager, M/M David Scruggs, M/M Charles H., III Seaburg, M/M Richard C. Shade, M/M Leslie N., Jr.&Bobbie Shirah, M/M G. H. Shea, M/M J. H. Sierra, M/M George Sierra, M/M Michael Simpson, Mr. Clyde Sinardi, M/M Joe Skemp, M/M Peter S. Sloan, Mrs. G. Dexter Smith, Mrs. B. C. Smith, M/M B. G. Smith, E. C. Smith, M/M H. Mason Smith, Ruth E. Smith, Mrs. Mason Smith, Margaret Uhl Smith, Mrs. Margaret V. Smith, M/M W. Gordon Smoak, Dr. & Mrs. Philip L. Sparkman, M/M Lamar Spicola, M/M Charles, Jr. Spoto, M/M Sam Srodes, Mrs. Louise H. Stallings, Jean K. Stephens, M/M K. R. Stephens, Mrs. Wade C. Stevens, M/M Carl L. Stevens, M/M Randolph Stuckey, M/M Arthur Sullivan, M/M Robert Sutton, Phyllis Swann, James Taffe, Mr. John Tanner, M/M J. H. Tanner, M/M Steven D. Tata, Mary Taylor, Calvin "Pop" Taylor, M/M J. G., Jr. Taylor, Dr. William G. Tefler, Dr. & Mrs. John D. Tennant, M/M David W. Thomas, M/M Charles S. Thomas, M/M Robert Thomas, M/M William L. Thompson, Charlotte Anne Toffaletti, Lt. Col. Edith (Ret) Thomas, M/M Guy Thompson, M/M G. A., Jr. Toney, Mrs. James B. Toomey, Mrs. Janet Torres, M/M S. Fernando Townsend, M/M J. C., III Towne, M/M John M. Tracey, M/M Andrew Truett, Mrs. Gibbons Turner, M/M J. Arthur, Jr. Turpin, Mrs. Walter H., Sr. Valez, M/M Llordano, Jr. Van Landingham, Mr. Kyle S. Vaerenbergh, Margaret Van Vasey, Dr. & Mrs. Frank V. Vesley, Dr. Donald R. Vildibill, Dr. & Mrs. Harry D. Villanueva, Rey Wall, M/M James E., Jr. Wall, J. Edgar, III Wallace, Mrs. Helen Holmes Walters, M/M Jack H. Ware, Mrs. John D. Warren, J. M. James W., III Warshaw, M/M Joseph Watson Mobile Homes Weaver, M/M Robert C. Weiman, Mrs. Ellen W. Wells, Ms. Sharon Wertheimer, M/M Eugene Wetherington, M/M Robert Wharton, M/M Paul R. Whidden, Dr. & Mrs. H. LeVan

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Whidden, M/M Harry L., Sr. White, M/M Morris E. White, Robert A. Ins., Inc. Whiteside, Richard D., III Williams, M/M John M. Wilson, M/M Roland A., III Wincey, Andrew Winter, Mr. Herman C., Jr. Withers, Dr. & Mrs. Robert W. Wolfe, Mrs. Elizabeth Wolfe, M/M John Womble, Dorothy B. Wood, M/M G. Pierce Woodward, Dr. & Mrs. H. Elton Worthington, Mrs. Agnes R. Wray, Mrs. Jody Ybor, Miss Mercedes Martinez Ybor, Miss Maria J. Martinez Ybor, M/M Rafael Martinez Yeats, M/M Victor B. Young, M/M Thomas R., III Zabaldo, Mrs. Marilyn P.

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KNIGHT HOUSE FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION of the TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Victorian Society Lifetime Membership The David Falk Foundation Mary Irene McKay Falk The Junior League of Tampa, Inc. Mr. & Mrs. Peter O. Knight, Jr. Lykes Bros., Inc. Herbert G. McKay Anthony P. Pizzo Saunders Foundation Stapleton Gooch, Incorporated Solon Brinton Turman Zoe King Walker L. Glenn Westfall, Ph.D. Patron Mr. and Mrs. A. M. Barrow Mr. Stephen Bowles Tampa Electric Company Contributor Mr. and Mrs. Edwin A. Dunn, Jr. Edenfield Plumbing Mr. Blaine Howell Mr. and Mrs. Howell McKay Mrs. William O. Savage Mr. Bill Smalley Mr. Arthur Spencer, Jr. Donor Mr. and Mrs. Joe Knight Mr. Fred Rodgers PATRONS Adler, M/M Haskell T. Altman, Mr. Frederic W. Anderson, M/M Davis G. Baldwin, M/M Walter A., Jr. Carlton, M/M Doyle E., Jr. Carter, M/M Calvin W. Cheshire, Dr. & Mrs. Richard D. Cimino, Dr. & Mrs. Louis E. Cimino, M/M Peter S. Cimino, Mrs. Ophelia G. Cone, M/M Douglas Poe, Jr. Davis, M/M Bobbie C. Davis, M/M Sam F. Diaz, Miguel, Tampa Crown Distributors Dykes, M/M Walter Falk, Mrs. David A. Ferman, M/M J. L., Jr. Ferman, M/M J. L., Sr. Fisher, M/M Lester P. Fitscher, M/M Thorl J. Fouts, M/M Fred Franzblau, M/M Robert Friedman, M/M Herbert J. Frisco, Mary From the Ground Up, Inc. Garcia, Manuel M. Giddens, M/M Thomas L. Gonzalez & Lazzara Guinta, M/M Frank V. Hamilton, M/M A. R. Hamner, Mrs. William E. Henson, M/M William E. & Kirk Hofmann, Lois J. (Around the Town) Holtsinger, Clarence, E. Hood, M/M Harold H. Hope, Dick Tampa Uniform Service Jordan, M/M V. C. Keen, Mrs. J. Velma King, M/M Rex A. King, Mrs. Julia L. Latimer, R. B., Jr. Linebaugh, Mrs. Leila M. Lehner, Dr. & Mrs. George LeMoine, Ms. Ann Lord Mayor of Tampa Assoc. in memory of Dick Cheney Lowry, Lt. Gen. & Mrs. Sumter L.

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Marvil, M/M Sirman McKay, M/M Herbert G. McWhirter, M/M John W. Medina, Mr. Nelson Meighen, M/M M. R. Moody, M/M Ashby M. Murphey, M/M David R., III Nat'l Society Colonial Dames of America in State of Florida, Tampa Comr4ittee Nelson, M/M T. Burt Olson, M/M Lester K. Parker, Ross, Pepsi-Cola Bottling Co. Tampa Parkhill, M/M John R. Parkhill, Priscilla Pasetti, Dr. & Mrs. Louis O. Patten, Jack, Patten Printing & Label Co. Pizzo, M/M Anthony P. Poe, M/M William F. Poe, William F., Jr. Pollard, M/M Merrill Raber, Jan Rankin, M/M Gene Savage, M/M W. O. Schoo, M/M John Martin Sherwood, George Segars, M/M William Spicola, M/M A. G. Snyder, M/M B. M. Stallings, M/M Norman, Jr. Stowers, M/M Richard Suarez, Ms. Conchita Terrell, Carolyn Jones Thomas, M/M Wayne Thompson, M/M Uldric, III Thornton, Ms. Lynne Touchton M/M J. Thomas Turner, Gilbert E., Gulf Tampa Dry Dock Turner, Kathryn Hill Vega, Mrs. C. C. Voskerichian, Joseph, Tampa Fed. Savings & Loan Ward, M/M David E. Warshaw, M/M Joseph Westfall, Dr. Glenn Whaley, Ron Whittenmore, M/M Donald L., Jr. Williams, Jimmy Young, Mrs. T. Roy, Jr. Zalupski, M/M Joseph J.

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TAMPA PASTIMES GOLFING POPULAR WITH LADIES IN TAMPA IN 1913 The Tampa Auto & Golf Club at Rocky Point was a popular spot for the younger set in 1913 when photo (top) was taken. This happy group was ready to tee off for an afternoon of pleasure. Left to right: Mrs. William Jackson, Mrs. Gertrude Wagner of Johnstown, PA, Mrs. Kathryn (Alvin) Magnon, Mrs. Dora Bonacker Helms, and the next two are unidentified. The Rocky Point Golf Club house as it looked a decade later is shown in photo at right. -Photos from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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TAMPAN HONORED FOR LOCAL HISTORY NEW ORLEANS Hampton Dunn of Tampa, Florida, was selected Sept. 6 to receive a Certificate of Commendation for his years devoted to writing and publicizing the history of Florida and the Tampa Bay area. The American Association for State and Local History, at its Annual Meeting in New Orleans, named this winner a recipient of an award in the nation's most prestigious competition for local history achievement. The winner was notified in a special letter of congratulations, in the form of a "History-Gram," sent following two days of deliberations by a national selection committee. The committee, composed of leaders in the history profession, screened more than 100 nominations in its annual deliberations. Nominations originate at the local level and are screened at the state and regional levels by a national network of judges. Only those nominees approved in these preliminary competitions are considered for national honors. The American Association for State and Local History has given awards to local historians and historical agencies since 1944. It is a nonprofit educational organization with a membership of over 7,000 individuals and institutions working to advance knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of local history in the United States and Canada.

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A LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY IS BORN IN TAMPA "Watch Us Grow!" was the slogan of the Victory National Life Insurance Company the day it opened for business on Nov. 5, 1923 in this small building on Marion Street just south of Lafayette (now Kennedy Blvd.). And grow it did. Later came the mammoth Gulf Life Insurance Company. Victory National Life was capitalized for $500,000, this being the only life insurance company organized in Florida at the time, by Florida men and with Florida capital. The entire operating staff that opening day is shown in this photo, left to right, Loper B. Lowry, sales force; Marjorie Giles Davis, Policy writer and stenographer; Sumter L. Lowry, President and General Manager, and D. S. Hull, Actuary. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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7DPSD+LVWRULFDORFLHW\ Officers 1980-81 KEN MULDER President RANDY STEVENS Vice President WARREENE CANNON Recording Secretary MRS. GUELDA GREGORY Corresponding Secretary MRS. LOIS LATIMER Treasurer MRS. FLORENCE MURPHY Membership chairman Dr. L. Glenn Westfall Executive Director Board of Directors Nonita Henson (Mrs. William) Sharon Rice (Mrs. Robert) Richard Clark, Sr. Mrs. M. L. Elliott Thompson Charlie Spicola Bob Leonard Mrs. John (Kathryn) Parrish Don Whittemore Mrs. Sheila McDevitt Mrs. Lisa (A. M.) Barrow Ms. Jan Raber Mrs. Pattie Dervaes Rafael Martinez Ybor Manuel Garcia