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THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE Volume XIII November, 1987 Journal of the TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Tampa, Florida HAMPTON DUNN Editor Officers 1986-87 NANCY SKEMP President SAM LATIMER Vice President FLORENCE G. MURPHY Recording Secretary ANNIE-KATE CARPENTER Corresponding Secretary SUSANNE DORTCH Treasurer Board of Directors Wayne Bevis R. F. Chambliss Molly Corum Terry Greenhalgh Joe Hipp Donna C. Hole James S. Judy James King Raymond Miller Tony Pizzo Headquarters 245 S. Hyde Park Avenue Tampa, FL 33606 Table of Contents HISTORICAL SOCIETY RALLIES SUPPORT TO PRESERVE TAMPA'S UNION STATION By Nancy N. Skemp, President, Tampa Historical Society................................2 THE 'WHITECAPPING OF W.C. CRUM By Leland M. Hawes, Jr.....................................................................................3 A SCHOOL HOUSE THAT LIVES ON; THE ROBLES CHRONICLE CONTINUES By Robert E. Sims..............................................................................................9 FINDER OF THE FORGOTTEN AND THE UNFINDABLE By Kenneth W. Mulder.....................................................................................13 PANEL OF HISTORIANS COULDN'T PICK JUST 10 MOST SIGNIFICANT TAMPANS By Leland M. Hawes, Jr....................................................................................18 THE PLANT LEGACY LIVES ON By Hilary Jameson............................................................................................20 NICK GERACI: TAMPA'S FIRST ITALIAN PRODUCE KING By Tony Pizzo...................................................................................................22 OUR 'COVER LADY': BETTY CASTOR ..................................................23 DOYLE E. CARLTON, JR., IS 1987 WINNER OF THS' D.B. McKAY AWARD By Hampton Dunn...........................................................................................24 TAMPA SKYLINE 1938-An Artist's Sketch By Augustus T. Gallup................................................................................26,27 A STREET CAR RIDE IN 1908 THROUGH WEST TAMPA By Arsenio M. Sanchez.....................................................................................28 GIRL SCOUTING IN TAMPA IS 74 YEARS OLD By Patti Dervaes................................................................................................32 FORTY YEARS OF THE TAMPA PORT AUTHORITY By Thomas J. O'Connor....................................................................................38 SAMUEL SPENCER: THE INDIAN AGENT VMO DID NOT WANT TO COME TO TAMPA By Dr. James W. Covington..............................................................................45 THE DAY THE GAMBLERS TRIED TO BRIBE THE GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA By Hampton Dunn.............................................................................................46 THIS IS THE WAY IT WAS IN TAMPA ONE HUNDRED AND TEN YEARS AGO By George W. Wells.........................................................................................49 MEET THE AUTHORS ................................................................................51 1987 SUNLAND TRIBUNE PATRONS ....................INSIDE BACK COVER OUR CENTERFOLD: Our thanks to Augustus T. Gallup of Denver, CO, a former Tampan, for permitting us to reprint his excellent drawing of the Tampa Skyline as it was in 1938 and seen from the west side of Hillsborough River between Platt and Lafayette Street Bridges.
THE PRESIDENTS REPORT HISTORICAL SOCIETY RALLIES SUPPORT TO PRESERVE TAMPA'S UNION STATION By NANCY N. SKEMP Sixteen years ago, several concerned citizens gathered in Tony Pizzo's living room and the Tampa Historical Society was born. The Society has had many challenges and accomplishments since that evening in 1971. We have grown to a membership of over 750, purchased a lovely house for headquarters, developed a small museum, and provided interesting programs and activities for our members as well as our community. In the last 16 years we have also seen an increased awareness of history and preservation in Tampa. Fortunately organizations such as Tampa Preservation, Inc. and Historic Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board were formed as well as T.H.S. This year we had the opportunity to show our strength to City Council when we rallied together in behalf of the Union Station. The council was greatly impressed with this strong faction and it is pursuing different avenues to preserve and restore the Union Station. BUSY SCENE AT TAMPA'S UNION RAILROAD STATION -Photo from the HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION NANCY N. SKEMP President Tampa Historical Society
Our goal in 1986 to develop the Knight House into a museum is nearly complete. The Open House in May was a preview of the museum. All in attendance were delighted with what they saw. With the direction of new board member, Donna Hole, a docent program should be complete by year's end, and Tampa Historical Society's museum should be open for public view by early 1988. Public awareness is very crucial to an organization such as Tampa Historical Society. During the Christmas holidays we were invited to be a part of the new Festival of Trees Parade. Thousands of people in attendance saw our banner in the parade. Also, thanks to the expertise of board member, Terry Greenhalgh, a public service announcement was created and TV time was donated by WTSP Channel 10. The airing of this PSA during the summer months brought in scores of telephone calls from citizens interested in joining Tampa Historical Society. Volunteers are a most important part of any non-profit organization. I want to thank all of the people who have helped Tampa Historical Society to function this year. Without your time and caring we would not be able to keep our doors open. I also want to thank the board of directors which has stood behind me and helped me through another year as your president. The experience of the last two years has been challenging and rewarding for me.
The 'WHITE CAPPING' OF W. C. Crum By LELAND M. HAWES, JR Today, the name William C. Crum means little in the lore of Tampa history, and the name of the nearby community of Peck has drifted into obscurity. But in August and September of 1899, both Crum and Peck dominated the news. For Crum was the victim of a "whitecapping" incident that injured him seriously, and 12 rural residents were charged in Federal Court in the aftermath. Even the term "whitecapping" has lost its currency. At first, I thought it might relate to the white feathers in a tar and-feathering, but I've learned it was more likely tied in with the white hoods of the Ku Klux Klan. If the Klan was involved in the incident at Peck, no mention was made in press accounts of that period. The accused perpetrators were masked, but one man purportedly showed up in blackface. So it appears "whitecapping" had become a general description for extra-legal activities, probably involving various degrees of violence, by Klan-like groups following the Civil War. SETTLES IN IDLEWILD Who was W.C. Crum, and what did he do to arouse the ire of some northeast Hillsborough County citizens? Well, few facts are known about Crum, the central figure in the furor. A native of New York, he evidently moved to the Tampa area in the late 1880s or early 1890s and acquired a grove and a house in a region northeast of Tampa then known as Idlewild, several miles southeast of today's Temple Terrace. His correspondence on area activities appeared in a weekly newspaper during the 1890s, the Tampa Journal, formerly the Tampa Guardian. He wrote in a rather flamboyant style of the comings PRESIDENT McKINLEY He appointed Crum
and goings of people, the weather and the state of the crops. Although "bylines" seldom appeared in newspapers then, the initials -W.C.C." provide the clue, as did the location Idlewild. His political affiliation also was pertinent. For W.C. Crum was publisher of the Florida State Republican in 1899, a period when Florida was overwhelmingly Democratic and still associated Republicans with Reconstruction and the North. Crum was postmaster for a community known as Peck, in the Idlewild area, at a time when such positions were political plums. The Republican administration of William McKinley undoubtedly had rewarded him. Microfilmed editions of the daily and weekly Tribune are the only surviving sources of what happened to W.C. Crum in August 1899. Its coverage and editorial comments swung from sympathetic outrage to downright derision. The Tribune reflected the solidly Southern, ardently segregationist, keep-the-black-in-his-place sentiments of most of its readers in that period. The first story, dated August 7, tells of the start of the trouble. PEOPLE OF PECK RUN POSTMASTER was the main headline, followed by "Negro Official Given Notice To Depart/Straightway He Skipped/He Was a Deputy, Appointed by Crum, and Became Very Obnoxious." The article proceeded: "Peck has been thrown in a frenzy of terror for several days on account of the appointment of a
Negro deputy postmaster at this place. Since the absconding deputy has made his escape, it has been difficult to find a man suitable for the position ...... The writer referred to the naming of a black assistant by W.C. Crum to "handle the mail and attend to the duties of the office." He continued: "The white population became very indignant over this fact, and a posse waited on the I ginger bread' servant of Uncle Sam and gave him warning to either vacate the office or they would get his hide." 15 CENTS A DAY SALARY The item concluded with a reference to the black man's departure and Crum's reported decision to have the post office closed. A follow up paragraph appeared Aug. 20, 1899. The Tribune quoted the black deputy postmaster, Daniel H. Morrison, as saying: "There was no honor in the office, and the salary amounted to about 15 cents a day. I did not take the position
through any desire of my own, but merely to oblige Mr. Crum. When the delegation informed me that if I remained in office my hide wouldn't hold shucks, I went to Mr. Crum and tendered my resignation. That's all there was to it. But that wasn't all there was to it. Although Morrison had been threatened, Crum was attacked the night of Aug. 21. In its Aug. 24 edition, the Tribune reported it with this headline: PUNISH CRUM OUTRAGE /Government Informed of the Work. of White caps/Victim Is Still Suffering/The Mob Treated Him Severely and Its Actions Will Be Investigated. CARBOLIC ACID POURED ON CRUM Readers were told that a "masked mob" had pulled Crum from his horse, whipped him and poured carbolic acid on his lacerated flesh. In addition, "one side of his flowing side whiskers was amputated." The Tribune said the victim was slightly improved, but still suffering, from his injuries. It added that much talk had passed in the community, "most of its unfavorable to the whitecappers." And because of the nature of Crum's duties as postmaster, the U.S. government was said to be looking into the matter. An editorial in the same issue, entitled "INEXCUSABLE," spoke in Crum's behalf and declared, "Such exhibitions of savagery are not to be tolerated in an intelligent and civilized community .... The mere fact that a man differs from the majority of his fellow citizens in his political faith does not warrant the use of forcible, and in this case inhuman, treatment." The editorial urged prompt prosecution of the perpetrators. Federal District Attorney Stripling arrived in Tampa to pursue the matter, and deputies soon began serving warrants and arresting suspects. By Tuesday, Aug. 29, seven men were in custody, and eight additional warrants remained to be served. Some of those sought by deputies were said to be "concealing themselves in the swamps of the neighborhood." And buggies conveying suspects to the county jail encountered "hold-ups" or delays, the Tribune noted. PROMINENT MERCHANTS Community sentiment appeared to rally behind the defendants about the time a posse of 15 regular and special marshals made a midnight ride to Peck in an effort to round up the remaining suspects. Three prominent merchants ST Drawdy, W.T. Lesley and Gordon Keller helped raise bonds for the already incarcerated defendants. And the top legal firm of Macfarlane and Shackleford was retained to represent those jailed. Meanwhile, Crum gave his own account of the incident in the Florida State
Republican, which the Tribune reprinted: "Monday night of Aug. 21, when the editor of this paper, a postmaster at Peck, was going to his farm cottage about 80 rods from the post office, he was held up and assaulted by about a dozen masked men one being in the guise of a Negro. "These immediately covered him with their shotguns and revolvers, two man catching the horse by the bits, cutting off the reins of the bridle; four men seizing his hands and legs dragged him from his horse to the ground. "Others tied his hands behind his back, threatening to kill him if he opened his mouth, while still others pulled a sack over his head and then violently threw him to the ground with his face downward. "They then tore open his shirt and pants behind, stripped his back naked and, after beating him almost to a jelly, poured carbolic acid on the lacerated wounds. MORE BRUTALITY "As if not satisfied with his brutality, one of the party stood off just far enough for a heavy cowboy's whip, with a loaded lash, to reach the wounded back, and proceeded to add lash after lash until he was tired. "In the meantime, another man cut off with a pair of shears one side of his Burnside whiskers, making a the same time an unsuccessful attempt to put carbolic acid in his eyes." The Tribune printed an accompanying editorial deriding Crum for other material in his Republican journal (which it did not reprint). It noted Crum had singled out the daily for 11 a little distempered fling" despite its earlier expressions of sympathy. Then the morning newspaper editor took Crum to task for a reviving North-South sectionalism and suggested he haul in the "bloody shirt" figuratively waved in post-Civil War campaigns by Republican politicians. Evidently, the Tribune felt Crum's comments "reflected upon the people of the South as a whole," and suggested such statements would cost him sympathy and "incur opprobrium. From then on, the Tribune's tone towards Crum could only be characterized as one of ridicule and hostility. OTHER DEFENDANTS Preliminary hearings to determine whether the defendants should be bound over for trial began Monday, Sept. 4, 1899, and the newspaper published extensive details. By then, eight defendants stood to face charges of intimidating Morrison. They were listed as George Durham, Henry Grantham, Matt Grantham, Lee Strickland, Steve Strickland, John Thomas and George Heath. Almost the entire population of Peck crowded into Tampa's Courthouse Square for the hearing. Shortly after the hearing started, defense attorney Hugh Macfarlane announced that five other Peck residents sought by federal marshals were present in the
courtroom, ready "to deliver themselves into the custody of the court." They were then placed under "verbal bonds" of $1,000 each. The Tribune writer described Crum as wearing a "coat of thin, dark material, black trousers and a light limp." He added: "He had trimmed down the off-side of his flowing whiskers to the length of the bristles on a hairbrush, so as to match the other side, which had been rudely clipped by the mob . The description continued: "He had a tired expression on his features, and he sat down with great care and discretion, as though he feared upturned tacks in the chair." AIDE NOT PROTECTED The district attorney led off with his basis for the case: That if the black assistant "was in possession" of the Peck post office with Crum's consent, "he was a defacto officer of the United States." Therefore, a conspiracy against him would be a federal crime. Early on, Macfarlane demanded to see Crum's commission, to show "highest evidence of Mr. Crum's right to the office of postmaster." (Crum did not have it with him at first.) He maintained that, if Crum were postmaster, Morrison, the assistant, was not the postmaster therefore, not a federal official when he was intimidated. And he contended that only postmasters were protected by the law. Macfarlane also elicited from Crum the fact that business at the post office "wouldn't break a bank" it was less than $5 a month. District Attorney Stripling countered that the statute was not limited to full-fledged officers of the United States but applied as well to persons holding "places of trust or confidence." Macfarlane asked Crum who authorized Morrison to take charge of the office, and the witness said, "I did." Asked what compensation Morrison received, Crum replied, "The cancellation of the stamps and the free use of the building, which belonged to me." Asked if Morrison were bonded, Crum said he did not require one. Crum also conceded that Morrison took no formal oath of office. When Macfarlane asked Crum how old he was, he said, "I'm pretty old." (He was probably in his 70s.) WITNESS RECANTS TESTIMONY Another question brought out Crum's experience as a newspaper editor for 20 or 25 years. Thus ended the first day's hearing. On the second day, Daniel Morrison took the stand and said a crowd gathered and told him "not to allow himself to be caught in the post office again." A man named Lee Lofton, originally arrested in the conspiracy, had told a story implicating other defendants
originally. However, when he took the stand, "Lofton persisted in differing from his previous statements," the Tribune asserted. Lofton eventually testified he has been part of a group near the post office on the evening of Aug. 3 and that he saw some of the other defendants there. He said they "talked about the Negro in the post office." Lofton said he didn't know who did the talking, but "somebody" asked Morrison if he held a bond to act as postmaster. When Morrison said no, "somebody" warned him not be caught there again. He blamed an "unknown man" for the remarks, saying none of the defendants made them. NOT "ROLLING DRUNK" Macfarlane then sought to show Lofton was under the influence of alcohol when he signed his statement for the district attorney. Lofton testified he'd had a drink of gin but wasn't "rolling drunk." When the district attorney tried to pin him down to earlier, explicit statements which he had signed, Lofton said, "If I did, they were false." Stripling announced he would bring perjury charges against Lofton. Macfarlane objected, saying no witness should be required to make statements incriminating himself. He accused Stripling of seeking to scare other witnesses. When the audience applauded loudly, the district attorney expressed amazement that such a demonstration was allowed to occur. "Here we have assembled a crowd of friends and backers of the man on trial, but none for the old man who was the victim of this heinous crime. I am shocked, your honor ...... Applause to a lesser degree followed Stripling's statement. "The temperature was now getting close to the boiling point," the Tribune reported. Another government witness, Bart Smith, who had been in the Peck crowd, gave further testimony. SHOOTING THREATENED Smith said the man picked to talk to Morrison was "a stranger, selected for the job because he was unknown." "He told Morrison not to be caught in the office again, or his hide wouldn't hold shucks," Smith asserted. He quoted some of the defendants as saying they refused to receive their mail from a black man. There was talk, too, of shooting into Morrison's house as a further warning. Smith testified to references to a "talk to old man Crum" after dark at a later time. A blistering dispute then broke out between prosecuting and defense attorneys as to which man was telling
the truth on how Smith had gotten bond money for his release. Stripling said "It isn't so," and Macfarlane said, "It is true." And the two men exchanged quick blows in the courtroom. Sheriff Spencer had to separate the pair. After apologies to the court, the lawyers simmered down. And the second day's hearing concluded. On the third day, one of the defendants, John Webb, was declared innocent by Judge Crane, the U.S. Commissioner, and released from the charge of threatening and intimidating Morrison. But the other seven were ordered held for trial in U.S. Federal District Court. In final arguments, District Attorney Stripling said he felt "probable cause" had been established to warrant trying the defendants. Defense attorney Macfarlane maintained that the men who assembled at the Peck post office were "simply exercising the sacred rights of American citizens" when they objected to receiving their mail from a black man. "THESE POOR MEN" He also insisted the defendants should not be blamed for statements made by a stranger to Morrison. And he again attacked the validity of Morrison's role as a government representative when he acted as an unbonded assistant in the post office. Macfarlane urged the court to consider the hardship and cost a trial would require of "these poor men." (They had been identified earlier as farmers and woodmen.) Judge Crane "cleared his throat with a premonitory accent," the Tribune reporter wrote. "There was a hush in the courtroom." Judge Crane said, "the duty of the court is plain in the premises." He then held the seven defendants for trial in the Morrison intimidation case. Still remaining was the hearing on whether 12 defendants several of them charged in both cases should be held for trial in the assault on Crum. That took place the next day. Those accused of the Crum attack were George Durham, George Heath, Lee Strickland, John Strickland, Stephen Strickland, Matt Grantham, Henry Grantham, John Thomas, John Webb, Mark Ogden, Gary Smith and Horace Tucker. Crum's story dominated the proceeding. His demeanor was described as follows by the Tribune: "Mr. Crum was a most peculiar witness. He answered some questions with a torrent of words; to others he gave but monosyllabic notice. At times, he wriggled in his chair, half rose from it, waving his arms like the windmill with which Don Quixote did valiant battle. Again, he subsided into it, or rather collapsed, and seemed to lose all interest in the proceedings." THREATS OF DEATH His story paralleled his earlier account in print, but added a few details. He said he
recognized some of the men by voice, form or gesture. And some of the masks dropped. The blows to his back, he said, "were accompanied by threats of death, curses and epithets." Tar was poured on him along with the carbolic acid, Crum testified. "The pain was excruciating," he said. Under cross-examination from Macfarlane, he sought to describe exactly what each of the defendants did individually. In the case of two of the Strickland brothers, Macfarlane tricked the witness by having the pair exchange shirts during noon recess. Thus, Crum's identification of them was flawed. The defense attorney then proceeded to parade a group of witnesses who testified they would not believe Crum "on oath." Among them were Tampa's Police Chief and the Clerk of Criminal Court. In his closing remarks, Macfarlane declared that Crum must have brought on the beating he received because he "was a bad citizen and unworthy of respect." DEFENDANTS BOUND OVER He also accused Crum of having an inconsistent political record saying he had been a Democrat, Populist and Republican. Despite the oratory, Commissioner Crane bound over all of the defendants for trial. Everything seemed anticlimactic after that. The next term of Federal Court wasn't scheduled until the winter of 1900. And there were rumblings late in 1899 that the trial might be moved to Jacksonville because of local prejudice. But Federal Judge Locke (not otherwise identified in Tribune accounts) abruptly turned down the district attorney's plea for a change of venue. He called for the trial to start Wednesday, Feb. 14. The first of the two cases the intimidation of Morrison, the black assistant found the key witness, the victim, missing from the scene. The Tribune's headline said, "Fickle Morrison flees." In a similar vein, the newspaper identified the defendants as "Peck's Bad Boys." The trial outcome must have been a foregone conclusion. Testimony focused on the "mysterious stranger" who supposedly acted as spokesman for the group that objected to a black man serving at the post office. The defense sought to show that whatever the stranger said, he was unauthorized to speak for the others and was drunk, anyway. The case went to the jury quickly, and the panel came back with a verdict almost instantly not guilty. CRUM DIES THE NEXT YEAR
At that point, District Attorney Stripling must have realized it was useless to pursue the charges relating to the Crum beating case. He announced, "I am firmly of the opinion, as the representative of the United States government, that there is not sufficient evidence here to convict these defendants of any of the acts with which they stand charged." Stripling asked the court to nol prosse the charges, and Judge Locke granted the motion. "The defendants are discharged," he said. "The Peckites filed out of the courtroom with expressions of great relief and satisfaction .... Colonel Crum pulled his returning whiskers reflectively," the Tribune said. William C. Crum died the next year in Tampa, his flurry of fame in the local spotlight already half-forgotten.
A SCHOOL HOUSE THAT LIVES ON; THE ROBLES CRONICLE CONTINUES By ROBERT E. SIMS Four years before Don Vicente Martinez Ybor's factory produced its first cigar and seven years before Henry B. Plant's Tampa Bay Hotel held its grand opening ball, Joseph P. "Uncle Dick" Robles and some of his neighbors built a little wooden school house a few miles north of Tampa. It stands today, but not as Uncle Dick and his friends built it. On Feb. 11, 1870, the day following their wedding, Joseph Paul and Martha Ann Robles homesteaded a 160 acre tract five miles north of what is now downtown Tampa. It is bounded on the north by Sligh Ave.; on the south by Robles Ave. (now Hanna Ave.); on the west by Livingston THE HORACE ROBLES HOME circa 1916 -Photo by Mary Louse Robles Smith
Ave. (now 22nd St.) and on the east by 30th St. When they moved to their new farm, the Robles were the only white people in a square mile. Indians lived in the woods and went on a rampage when settlers traded them "fire water" for hogs. But soon other pioneer families began to settle around the Robles place. The Henry Murphy, the James Morris and the Tom Bourquardez families became neighbors and close friends. PARENTS OF 12 CHILDREN Between 1871 and 1897, Joseph and Martha Ann Robles parented twelve children, all born on the homestead north of Tampa. Joseph, or Uncle Dick, as most people called him, had received very little schooling but he realized conditions were changing and that some degree of formal education would be necessary if a person expected to cope with the everyday problems created by a developing Florida frontier. Robles deemed it his responsibility as a father to provide his children the education he had not been able to acquire. Prior to the passage of the 1868 Constitution, Florida had no established THE ROBLES HOME STILL STANDS TODAY on the shore of Lake Platt. --Photograph from Robert E. Sims Collection
public schools. While the Constitution provided for a public school system and the 1869 school law called for a uniform education system, neither had much effect on southwestern Florida. In the Tampa Bay area education remained the responsibility of individuals or communities. One of Tampa's early schools was located in the county courthouse, its teacher paid from fees collected from students' parents. In the 1880's and 1890's, schools were rough in appearance with few amenities. On occasion, if funds were low and supplies were limited, students and teachers might find themselves forced to attend classes in a natural setting, hopefully in the shade of a large oak tree.1 These were the prevailing conditions in 1882 when three of the Robles children began attending classes two days each week. FIVE MILE WALK TO SCHOOL Traveling to and from school in Tampa meant a trek of five miles each way through rough woods and sand trails. The children either walked or rode horseback under a blistering summer sun, or through drenching tropical rainstorms, or shivered through bone chilling foggy winter mornings. Uncle Dick Robles realized that even though his children had been born and were being raised on the frontier and that they were used to hardships, these conditions were a little more severe than they should be expected to endure. In addition, the community was expanding and soon, counting his own growing family and those of his neighbors, there would soon be ten, maybe fifteen children of school age. A school close to the settlement must be provided, but how was this to be accomplished? Joseph P. Robles was a man of action a doer. He knew the county school system would not build a school house and provide a teacher for a community as small as his. So, with the help of his neighbors, he would build the school.2 The intersection of Livingston and Robles Aves. (now 22nd St. and Hanna Ave.) was the approximate center of the area known as the Robles/Murphy Settlement. Henry Murphy, a friend and neighbor, owned property at the southeast corner of the intersection. In 1882, Robles bought one half acre of this corner and with the help of his brother, Seabron, neighbors, Tom Bourquardez, James Morris and Henry Murphy, purchased the hard pine and cypress lumber needed to build a one room school house. 'MISS GIRTY' WAS TEACHER Marion Waldo Robles, one of Uncle Dick's sons who had attended classes in the old school, wrote in later years: "The lumber was purchased from Mr. Herbert Bartlett's mill on the Hillsborough River. Mr. Bartlett had built a wooden dam across the river to provide water to turn the wheel that powered his mill. The dam was known as "Old Dam West of 56th Street Bridge". Later it was sold to the Tampa Suburban and Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company." A later entry in Waldo Robles' journal noted that "a Miss Girty Crilly" was employed as a teacher, her salary paid by the parents of the pupils. The school's attendance fluctuated according to the number of school age children residing in the settlement. By 1886 it must have exceeded ten, because it was taken into the Hillsborough County School System and was designated as the Robles-Murphy
Settlement School Number 75 (later changed to Livingston Ave. School).3 The policy of the school board at the time was to close down a school if its enrollment was less then ten students. However, at a later date if the need to reopen the school became apparent, The Board could be petitioned to reestablish the facility.4 This must have been the case of the Robles School, because the minutes of the August 14, 1889 meeting of the School Board showed it had been petitioned and that the "Robles School House Number 75" was reestablished. SETTLEMENT GROWS As the settlement grew, so did the school's enrollment, and by 1895 the one room school house was too small to accommodate its students. A church had been built on the property by the same group of neighbors that had built the first structure. The School Board entered into an agreement with the congregation whereby the church building could be used as a school Monday through Friday and as a church on Sunday. Waldo Robles relates: "In September 1895 the school was moved into the new church building. They moved out the long church benches and installed some new desks and seats. They also used some of the old "one people" desks out of the old school. In later years all the old one piece desks and seats were taken out and new ones of the same type used in other schools were installed by the County School Board." As in the past the enrollment at Livingston Ave. School No. 75 fluctuated according to the number of school age children residing in the settlement. But by late 1907 the enrollment had reached an all time low less than ten. The minutes of the Feb. 4, 1908 meeting of the Board of Public Instruction, Hillsborough County, Florida, state: "In pursuance of a resolution of the Board of Trustees of College Hill Special School Tax School District, this Board ordered that the College Hill and the Livingston Ave. Schools be consolidated at the new Gilchrist Institute on or after February 17, 1908. So it was, 26 years after the first class was called to order that silence finally settled over the school grounds of the Livingston Ave. School. Soon the church congregation moved to new quarters and the abandonment was complete. The weeds grew about the old buildings as if to engulf them in a green and brown cocoon and the summer rain seeped in around weathered windows and doors. Tropical storms blew away cedar shakes and more water found a way to soil and sear floors and walls within. By 1914 in spite of the ravages of nature and although in a state of disrepair, the two old structures were still standing proud; a monument to the quality of the materials used by their skillful builders. MADE GRAVE MARKERS John Horace Robles (he was called Horace by his family and friends) was the seventh child born to Joseph Paul and Martha Ann Robles. His birthday was in December 1882, the year his father and neighbors built the old school house. Like all his brothers and sisters he received most of his formal education at the hands of the teachers at the Livingston Ave. School.
During the early 1800's, Horace and his brother Jeramiah were in business together as stone cutters. They made many of the old grave markers that are still standing today in Tampa's Woodlawn Cemetery. In April 1912, Horace Robles and Mattie Hastings Platt were married and moved into a small house in north Tampa. Shortly thereafter, Mattie's mother died and her father, John Wesley Platt moved in with the couple. In the summer of 1913, Mattie was pregnant with her first child. Horace realized his house was growing smaller each minute and he must do something to improve the situation if he and his wife were to raise a family as they had planned. The final blow came when he and his brother were forced to declare bankruptcy. They were the victims of uncollectable debts. CATTLE DRIVE TO TAMPA As a young man, John W. Platt raised cattle in the Dade City area. Twice a year he would drive his cattle to the market in Tampa. The drive took several days and one of his regular overnight resting places was in a little abandoned cabin on the bank of a beautiful little lake about 13 miles north of Tampa. He grew to love the beauty, peace and serenity of the place and brought his wife to see it. She too fell in love with the spot and encouraged her husband to buy the property. In the beginning the couple did not establish a home at the lake, but they would come when they could on weekends, stay in the cabin and tend the citrus trees growing on the place. John Platt and his wife moved from Dade City to St. Petersburg to Tampa where Mrs. Platt died and John moved in with Horace and Mattie Robles. Horace and his wife had visited the lakeside acreage many times and had agreed it would be a splendid place to establish a home and to raise their family. So they entered into an agreement with John Platt; Horace would build a home on John's land and John would continue to live with the family. CHRISTMAS DAY 1914 Horace remembered the old school house his father and neighbors had built; the school he had attended many years ago. He was aware of the excellent grade of materials that had gone into the structure. In the spring of 1914 he took what little money he had and bought the old school and church buildings. With help from his brothers and friends, the two buildings were dismantled, loaded on wagons and delivered to the site on the shore of what is now known as Lake Platt. The material from the two buildings was consolidated and from it grew the Horace Robles home that stands today. Mary Louise Robles Smith, Horace and Mattie's first born, tells of the family's first day at their new home: "My mother told me that on Christmas Day, 1914, Daddy bundled Mother, Grandpa and me, I was only nine months old, and all our belongings into a wagon and set out for our new home. We arrived late in the afternoon, cold, tired and hungry. Daddy had brought several hens cooped up in a gunny sack with their heads
sticking through holes cut in the side of the sack. When he threw them down from the wagon, an old wild boar, hiding in the nearby palmettos, smelled the chickens and made a swipe at the sack. His-tusks took off the head of one of the chickens. Well, Daddy wasn't going to let that go to waste. He lit the fire in the stove, heated a pail of water and dressed that chicken. Our first Christmas dinner at our new home was that chicken." Horace and Mattie Robles' home by the lake, constructed of material from the old Livingston Ave. school house and church buildings was originally built with four rooms, two bed rooms, a living room and a large kitchen that also served as a dining room. Screen porches shaded the north and south sides of the building. Two more daughters were born so, by necessity, the house grew as did the family. In later years a second story was added and the lower floor enlarged. The porches have been glassed in and now almost the entire structure is covered with aluminum siding. REFUSED TO LET HER DIE Although its face has been altered, the Livingston Avenue School lives on and continues to be a place of children. Down through the years the old walls have been witness to the birth of one daughter and one grandchild and have vibrated to the child-sounds of three daughters and seven grandchildren. John Horace Robles passed away in 1970 and his wife, Mattie Platt Robles, in 1982. And so today the old school house, her cypress and hard pine a little more dried and weathered, continues to serve those of the Robles clan. Now owned and occupied by Horace and Mattie's third daughter, Maurine Robles McTyre, and her husband, John, the house stands tall on the banks of Lake Platt; a monument to Uncle Dick Robles who had the foresight to create her and his son, Horace, who refused to let her die. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Milly St. Julien, "Public Schools in Southwest Florida" Tampa Bay History; U.S.F. History Dept., Fall and Winter 1986. 2 Minutes of Meetings, 1882-1908; Hillsboro ugh County Board of Public Instruction. 3 Handwritten journal of Marion Waldo Robles. 4 Taped interview; Mary Louise Robles Smith.
FINDER OF THE FORGOTTEN AND THE UNFINDABLE By KENNETH W. MULDER Born in Oklahoma of Apache Indian lineage, Don "Curley" Gray looks like an Indian, acts like an Indian, and if needed, could live like an Indian. He could survive anywhere in Florida with his uncanny ability to understand and commune with nature. He has a thorough knowledge and love of Florida's plant and animal life, birds and fish species. He applies his "logical reasoning" approach in INDIAN TOOLS AND WEAPONS UNCOVERED (1) Paleo stone spear; (2) Paleo flint axe head; (3) Bone tools; (4) Shell pendent; (5) Bone Whistle; (6) Decorative pendant; (7) Duck head pendant; (8) Spider web pendant; (9) Sharks tooth; (10) Shell hammer; (11) Flint scraper; (12) Flint axe; (13) Flint knife; (14) Spear point; (15) Stone hammer; (16) Stone hammer; and (17) Stone flesher. All recovered from Tampa Bay near Terra Ceia, 1980-81. --GRAY COLLECTION
his fervent search for Indian artifacts. His interest in finding and collecting artifacts spans over forty years and his current collection contains unique and museum-quality pieces, many of which have never been shared or photographed. He can survey the terrain, notice the slightest rise and tell you exactly where an ancient village site is located. Put him out on the bank of any river, stream, spring, lake, pond or swamp and he will search for hours. He will scratch around in the dirt, shell or riverbank with his ever-present broom stick (which has a hook on one end and a fork at the other to catch rattlesnakes). He usually comes up with a projectile point or trinket made by an aboriginal, or a carved amulet, pendant, bead or tool. He remembers where every item was found and is in the process of cataloging his collection which he keeps at his home on the Hillsborough River, shared with his wife, Ethel, and three faithful watch dogs. TREE OF LIFE AMULETS Badges of high authority-very rare: (1) Stone; (2) Copper; (3) Human bone; (4) Silver, (5) Silver; (6) Wood, (7) Stone; (8) Stone; (9) Stone; and (10) Stone. -Gray Collection
NO FORMAL SCIENCE TRAINING Mr. Gray has no formal training in the sciences of archaeology, ethnology or anthropology; however, many scholars and professors have come to view and admire his collection and discuss artifacts. He continually studies Florida history books and articles on the subjects of Indian cultures and artifacts. Recently he purchased a video camera and has taped many of his excursions in his quest for village sites in and around Tampa Bay. Tampans Fred Wolf, Tony Pizzo, artist-photographer Gene Packwood and myself can attest to this man's unique approach and his ability to find treasures of antiquity. Historian-writer Hampton Dunn has included pictures of several of Mr. Gray's artifacts in his books on Florida history. Sixteenth century Spanish documents, maps and historical writings of "La Florida" referred to the central gulf coast as the "Costa de Caracoles",1 the Coast of the Shells. The Costa de Caracoles were the villages of the Caloosa and Timucuan Indians, tribes who were similar in looks and customs, but were frequently at war and spoke different dialects according to Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda2 who was shipwrecked off the gulf coast in 1545 and spent seventeen years with the aboriginals. His Memoirs written in 1562-63 gives us the first reference to these early Florida people. At that time, hundreds of shell mound3 lined the gulf coast from the Turner River (Chokoloskee) to Cedar Key. Historians of early Florida 4believe that contact with Spanish explorers Juan Ponce de Leon in 1513, Panfilo, de Narvaez and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca in 1528, Hernando de Soto in 1539, and Pedro Menendez de Aviles in 1565 spread disease and epidemics of chicken pox, diphtheria and measles, together with rape, murder and slavery, reduced the aboriginal population by an estimated 40% in the first 20 years of contact. The last of the Timucuans and Caloosas were captured in raids by the English from Georgia and the Carolinas and transported north as slaves. The Spanish took many of them to the Caribbean when they ceded Florida to the English in 1763. Some remaining blended in with the tribes moving south and the run-away African slaves that moved into Florida in the late 1770s and became the Seminoles. No Timucuan or Caloosa culture existed after 1800.5 WOULDN'T DESTROY SITES Gone are the aboriginal songs, chants and the rhythm of dancing feet; leather and wood face masks; games, rituals and the medicine cures of the shamans. What is left of their history can be found in museums, in private collections such as Curley Gray's, and along the gulf coast and rivers where these people lived for many centuries. Curley Gray, orie of Florida's foremost avocational archaeologists and collectors of aboriginal relics and artifacts, has been exploring the shell mounds and adjoining village sites of the Florida Indians for the past 40 years. One of his methods of searching is to walk the shoreline at low tide after extreme high tides or storms have occurred which change the character of the beach. He carefully walks the tide line and usually finds shell, stone or bone artifacts. He refers to these items as "shore finds". He has found many items of flint in and around the groves in the Lake Thonotosassa area (where he has open permission from property owners to walk the areas after heavy rains and grove disking). Mr. Gray
has also dived and explored many of central Florida's rivers and springs, finding shell and stone artifacts under water. Hurricanes, high tides and boat traffic continually dislodge or uncover many items and his collection includes many under water" artifacts. I have never known Mr. Gray to "pot hole" or destroy any site, although he has visited many sites where this had previously occurred. Mounds have been desecrated and tons of shell have been hauled away to be used for fill and road beds. The entire mound, formerly located at Shaw's Point6 on the south side of the mouth of the Manatee River, lies in the road beds in downtown Bradenton. The foundation of the University of Tampa is from the shell mound which was at the mouth of the Alafia and Bull Frog Creek, destroyed in the late 1890s. WEEDON'S ISLAND MOUNDs Many sites are inaccessible to both avocational and professional archaeologists. INDIAN JEWELRY AND SHAMAN TOOLS (1) Pestle and Bowl; (2) Pottery Bowl; (3) Bead; (4) Medicine Probe (Shaman's tool); (5) Bone Pin; (6) Brass Bells; (7) Typical Pendants; (8) Shell Gorget; (9) Conch Dagger; (10) Gold and Mica Spanish Beads; and (11) Spanish Silver Coin. -GRAY COLLECTION
The Florida Light and Power plant on the west end of the Gandy Bridge is built on top of one of the largest mounds in Florida known as Weedon's Island mound. The very large mound at Phillippi Point is part of the 18 acre Phillippi Park owned by Pinellas County. The Terra Ceia mound was owned by Mr. and Mrs. Karl Bickel; in 1949 they deeded it to the state of Florida for preservation. Mr. Gray's collection consists of thousands of projectile points, amulets, ear spools, art objects, beads, pottery, scrapers, knives, fish hooks, hammers and other tools gathered from around Florida. Shell tools and objects made from conch, clam and scallop shells are his most treasured pieces. His collection also includes four carved stone heads, three tobacco pipes (shaped as a frog, duck and fish), and two tube pipes, all ingeniously carved with intricate design and found around Tampa Bay. These artifacts afford us a journey into the past of Tampa Bay's early history and tell silent stories of what the aboriginal made with his hands out of the only materials available to him. Mr. Gray's collection also includes ten "Tree of Life" amulets pictured; five stone, one copper, one human bone, two silver, one wood. Since this photograph was made, he has found two more one of shell and one of clay. The Florida Anthropology Society uses the Tree of Life as their emblem and their entire Spring 1984 edition of "The Florida Anthropologist"7 featured the Tree of Life (referred to as tablets) from public and private collections from around Florida. They included 50 known to them and only three from Zone 2 (the Tampa Bay region), two of silver and one of copper. Mr. Gray's collection of Tree of Life amulets was not included since this is the first time they have been shared with the public. INDIANS LIKED TAMPA BAY Spanish artifacts are very rare8, but he has several coins, pottery (glazed inside and out), gold and mica beads, colored glass trade beads, and one small cannon found while diving in the Alafia River in 1950. Curley Gray has shared his interest in Indian artifacts throughout his life. When the Nature's Classroom museum was active in Sulphur Springs, he frequently accompanied students on field trips to ancient Indian village sites and talked with them about the probable life styles of the aboriginal tribes. He shared many of his artifacts with the members of the Tampa Historical Society at a general meeting in 1980. A portion of his collection was shown in a portable display trailer on the Downtown Tampa Mall when it opened in 1982, a very popular attraction. Presently, he is building several portable display cabinets to be placed in bank and hotel lobbies so many more people will be able to see and appreciate the priceless history of this area. Recent finds in Titusville9 and the Perrine10 area south of Miami have been carbon dated as over 10,000 years old. It's hard to say how old the items in Mr. Gray's collection are, but they are part of our heritage and he is proud to be a trustee of these ancient finds. "Why did the Indians settle around Tampa Bay?", I asked him. His answer, based on his "logical reasoning", was the mild climate and the food supply. The original Paleo came to Florida in advance of the Ice Age; very little artifacts are left from their years here. But from these people came others who found a food supply in the shell fish of the area that didn't run away when they tried to catch it; clams, oysters, conchs, scallops, blue and stone crabs. This meant that a
village being near the coast or bay, allowed small children and older people to walk out into the water and get something to eat anytime they wanted it. Fish were abundant and easy to catch or trap; ducks and other water fowl were plentiful. There was also a bountiful supply of fresh game (turkey, squirrels and deer), alligators, eel, turtle and snake, as well as wild plants (cabbage palm and the koontie palm from which they made flour for breads). With little disease and ample food supply, the people of the 28 villages11 around Tampa Bay had found nature's paradise. There are no known ancestors of these historic people, but in collections such as Curley Gray's, we find evidence of their lives which give us information concerning where and how they lived. If you are ever invited to join Mr. Gray on one of his searches, grab your boots, sunglasses and go along. It is a thrill just to be there when he discovers an item and his uncanny ability to find these treasures makes him an unforgettable artifact hunter. NOTES 1 Florence Fritz, Unknown Florida, 1948 2 Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, Memoirs 1562. 3 Charlton W. Tebeau, Man in the Everglades, 2000 Years, 1968. 4 Karl Bickel, The Mangrove Coast, 1942. 5 Karl H. Grismer, Tampa, 1950. 6 Karl Bickel, The Mangrove Coast, 1942. 7 The Florida Anthropologist-, Volume 37 Number 1, Spring 1984. 8 Emma Lila Fundaburk and Mary Douglass Foreman, Sun Circles and Human Hands, 1957. 9 The Tampa Tribune, February 21, 1987. 10 WTVT, Channel 13, Tampa, February 8, 1987. 11 Karl H. Grismer, Tampa, 1950.
PANEL OF HISTORIANS COULDNT PICK JUST 10 MOST SIGNIFICANT TAMPANS By LELAND HAWES Historical Editor The Tampa Tribune (Reprinted by permission from Tampa Centennial special section of The Tampa Tribune) We asked four historians to choose 10 persons who contributed most significantly to Tampa historically. The historians: Dr. James W. Covington writer of numerous articles on the city's past and Dana professor of history at the University of Tampa. Hampton Dunn author of "Yesterday's Tampa" and numerous other volumes; president-elect of the Florida Historical Society. Dr. Gary Mormino co-author of "Tampa, Treasure City," associate professor of history at University of South Florida and executive director of the Florida Historical Society. HENRY B. PLANT VICENTE MARTINEZ YBOR COL. PETER O. KNIGHT
Tony Pizzo official county historian, author of "Tampa Town," co-author of "Tampa, Treasure City" and founder of the Tampa Historical Society. Some of their picks are predictable, but some are names you've probably never heard. And because they didn't choose the same people, the list is much longer than 10. First, the unanimouschoices: Henry Bradley Plant the Connecticut railroad magnate who put Tampa on the map by bringing his Plant System railroad here in 1884 and by building the city's unique structure, the Tampa Bay Hotel, today's University of Tampa Plant Hall. Vicente Martinez Ybor the Spaniard who made the key decision to open a cigar factory and a land company which pawned the distinctive cigar-making Ybor City in 1885. Peter 0. Knight the Pennsylvanian who came to Tampa in the 1890s, practiced law, became a corporate power broker with statewide clout, a spokesman for utilities, railroads and phosphate companies. Next, the nearly unanimous choices (three out of four): Capt. James McKay the Scotsman who built the first courthouse, started the cattle shipping trade out of Tampa, served as mayor, and became a blockade runner and Cattle Cavalry leader for the Confederacy. Congressman Stephen M. Sparkman native Floridian who as chairman of the Rivers and Harbors Committee engineered appropriations for the deeper channels that assured Tampa's port of trade outlets to the world. D.B. (Donald Brenham) McKay four-term mayor of Tampa (1910-20, 1928-31); builder of City Hall and instigator of numerous municipal DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON HAMPTON DUNN TONY PIZZO
improvements; long-time editor-publisher of the Tampa Daily Times. Incidentally, he was a grandson of Capt. James McKay. A figure who rated nods from two historians was Dr. John P. Wall mayor, first editor of the Sunland Tribune, first president of the Tampa Board of Trade, physician and one of the first to advance the theory that mosquitoes spread yellow fever. Dr. Wall fathered Charlie Wall Tampa's dominant gambling boss for several decades, who gained a vote in the top 10 from Dr. Gary Mormino. The historian described Charlie Wall as embodying "raw power and impeccable family credentials, which translated into root and core corruption from the 1920s into the 1940s." Here are some of the other single-vote choices. Mormino singled out Estevanico de Dorantes a Moorish slave who "made history by wading ashore in 1528, with the Narvaez expedition, becoming the first black man to explore the U.S. mainland." Estevanico, one of three survivors of that expedition, "symbolizes the enduring black presence in Tampa," Mormino said. Mormino also chose Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda the man credited with giving Tampa its name. Fontaneda had lived among the Indians of Southwest Florida for 21 years after his ship wrecked. He gained freedom when Pedro Menendez de Aviles explored Florida. Fontaneda later wrote an account of his experiences. Among the Indian villages Fontaneda mentioned prominently was "a place called Tampa." Mormino noted that a later author Hispanicized the word to "Tampa." Covington named Richard Hackley who built the house on the strategic site near the mouth of the Hillsborough River, which attracted the attention and the occupation of the U.S. Army when it established Fort Brooke in 1824. Had not Hackley cleared the land, another site might have been the initial American settlement here. Another Covington choice was Nancy Collier Jackson a member of the first Anglo-American family to settle in the area, a "typical frontier woman." She saw Maj. Francis Dade's troops depart from Fort Brooke on their ill-fated expedition to Fort King in December 1835, when almost all of them died in an ambush near today's Bushnell. Tony Pizzo picked Augustus Steele the lawyer who spearheaded the creation of DR. GARY MORMINO
Hillsborough County in 1834 and sponsored one of the first Tampa subdivisions alongside Fort Brooke. Pizzo also chose three figures prominent in the beginning of Ybor City: John T. Lesley seller of the land that became the original settlement; fighter in the Seminole and Civil wars; sheriff; cattle raiser; member of the state constitutional convention of 1885. Ignacio Haya Spanish cigar manufacturer whose factory actually went into production sooner than Ybor's in 1886; first president of Centro Espanol. Eduardo, Manrara Ybor's associate who became an organizer of the Tampa Street Railway Company, Exchange National Bank, Florida Brewing Co., and Tampa Gas Co. Additionally, Pizzo spotlighted Scotsman Hugh C. Macfarlane founder of West Tampa, city attorney of Tampa and Hillsborough state attorney; and Silas A. Jones, early Tampa promoter who played a key role in bringing Plant to Tampa and in starting the Tampa Board of Trade. (Jones was the grandfather of U.S. Sen. George Smathers.) Pizzo pointed to Elizabeth Barnard postmaster 1923-33, as the first Tampa woman holding a position of such magnitude. Mrs. Barnard took part in ceremonies when the first airmail flights came to Tampa. He also named Clara Frye the Tampa nurse who single-handedly started a hospital for blacks when medical care was virtually non-existent for minority races here. Hampton Dunn cited Betty Castor for "significant political breakthroughs for women" as Hillsborough's first elected woman county commissioner, state senator, president pro tem of the State Senate and more recently as the Wallace F. Stovall who established The Tampa Tribune and "provided city leadership for more than 30 years and created Tampa's first real skyline" with buildings in the 1920s. Doyle E. Carlton Sr ., Tampa resident who became governor of Florida during the Depression and provided civic leadership in later years. Evangelist Billy Graham who received his theological training in Tampa and began his Christian crusades as a student at Florida Bible Institute here. James A. Clendinen editor of The Tampa Tribune in the post-World War II years "whose incisive editorials pointed the way to progress." Dr. John S. Allen founding president of the University of South Florida, who "built the institution on a solid foundation. Covington named U.S. Rep. Sam Gibbons for his roles when he was in the State Legislature in gaining the University of South Florida for Tampa and in expanding Tampa's city limits through legislative annexation in 1953. He also remembers as significant several sets of developers in Tampa's past:
Alfred R. Swann and Eugene Holtsinger for their Suburb Beautiful which is known as today's Hyde Park; D.P. Davis, of Davis Islands; and James Taylor of Palma Ceia. Mormino mentioned Dr. John Gorrie inventor of the ice machine which led to air conditioning. His infernal invention allowed perfidious developers to maul (mall?) our beautiful city," Mormino wrote. "Tampa changed from a front-porch society to families centered around television, entertainment parlors and backdoor patios."
THE PLANT LEGACY LIVES ON By HILARY JAMESON edited by Joseph Pennock of the Plant High School English Department The legacy of Henry B. Plant is known throughout the City of Tampa. Even so, few are aware of the efforts that were made to honor the man in this year of our city's centennial. Tampa, it seemed, had shuffled aside remembrances of the railway entrepreneur to whom so much of the city's growth and fortune are credited. Little did its citizens know a group of teens were embarking on a historic project to commemorate his legacy. Little did the teens know their work would remain as part of our city's heritage. Their effort, so sincere and genuine, will long be remembered, for it was they who helped create a bronze relief statue of their school's namesake: Henry B. Plant. The commemoration of H.B. Plant through the creation of a bronze relief statue began as a drive to gain community support. Through civic donations a statue trust fund was opened at the school. Its purpose was clear: to finance the cost of a bronze sculpture replicating the magnate whose handlebar moustache and furrowed brows had been seen by only a few. To summon a sculptor suited to the task was the next assignment. The school turned to the Hillsborough County School Board's Artist-in-Schools Program which ranked number one in the nation for bringing the arts into public schools. Their master sculptor for the statue of Henry Plant was a fifth generation Tampa resident, Carl H. Norton 11. The sculptor was sent to Plant High School in February, 1987, where the students anxiously awaited their historic sculpture project. INDUSTRIOUS HANDS Dozens of industrious hands modeled the form of the man for whom their school was named. "Old H.B." was coming to life and HENRY B. PLANT STATUE -Photo Courtesy of Carl H. Norton
the excitement could be seen on the students' faces. The Artist-in-Schools sculptor taught the students how to replicate the features and he showed them how to mend the cracks which appeared when the terra cotta clay was drying. From time to time the sculpture was worked on by students in small groups. The boys gently cradled the heavy statue in their arms as they lifted it into an upright position. From this position it was easier to sculpt all the details. When crack lines appeared in the clay, girls mended every reparable flaw with utmost care. By April, 1987, the statue was complete. The sculpture was sent to the Bronzart Foundry in Sarasota, Florida, where it was cast in bronze. Over their spring vacation, Plant High School students traveled to the foundry to see "Old H.B." whose handlebar moustache and furrowed brows were now made of metal instead of clay. The original terra cotta sculpture was lost in the making of the mold, but for all the loss, much more was gained. 'ONCE UPON A TIME' On the Plant High School Campus. -Photo Courtesy HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
'FATHER' OF PLANT HIGH The paternal aspect of the Plant statue project will always be with us. For the young people who worked under the Artist-in-Schools sculptor, Henry Plant will long be remembered as the "father" of their school. Likewise, he was a forefather to those who call the city of Tampa "home". The legacy of Henry Plant has taken on a new paternal emphasis with the sculpting of his replica statue. For the students, a closer bond to our heritage now exists as they realize the historic significance of their endeavor. For the young people, it was a privilege to partake in this milestone event. The statue was installed in the main corridor of Plant High School in a central location. The bronze relief statue in a custom-designed case became a lasting part of the old school which was built in 1927. A golden light spilled down over the strong, stern face of the proud mogul. With hands in the pockets of his jacket, he posed in a gesture of humility. His six-foot structure rose above the admiring crowds who clustered around him. At his feet a plaque was mounted, crediting the individuals, civic organizations and classes of the school's alumni who contributed toward the statue. Above their names was a synopsis by local historian, Hampton Dunn: "Not much happened in the pioneer fishing village of Tampa until Henry Bradley Plant brought his railroad here in 1884 and opened his luxurious Tampa Bay Hotel in 1891. Next he extended his railroads down the Gulf Coast, erecting other elegant hotels along the way. These events opened this isolated wilderness, triggered an influx of tourists, attracted commerce and industry and suddenly there was a population explosion! Growth and development have not stopped in the century since Henry Plant's arrival. Since then, Tampa has become one of the best places in the United States to start a business. Henry Plant recognized that potential a century ago." The culmination of the Plant statue project took place on Friday evening, May 15, 1987, at Plant High School one week following the installation. The Statue Dedication Celebration, which was free and open to the public, included many of the arts: dance drama, photography, music and public speaking. Two noted historian guest speakers led the presentation: Tony Pizzo and Dr. James W. Covington. Tony Pizzo lauded the enterprise and capsuled Mr. Plant's impact on Tampa's growth and development. Dr. Covington spoke on the restoration of Plant Hall, one of the city's treasured historic landmarks. The program included entertainment performed by the high school students: Barbershop Boys sang "I've Been Working on the Railroad," the Plant High Danceros performed a tap dance version of the can-can to celebrate the completion of the statue, "Minaret Promenaders" who portrayed international guests of the Tampa Bay Hotel, strolled to the authentic "Tampa Bay Hotel Galop". A dramatization of "The Plant Life Story" brought to life the authorized biography of Henry Bradley Plant by G. Hutchinson Smyth. In the enactment, personal highlights of Henry Plant's life were portrayed by the students. In one tender scene, Henry Plant's mother sang his favorite vesper hymn, "Adeste Fidelis," to him. In another emotional scene with his Grandmother Plant, young Henry expressed his romantic yearnings to voyage: "I want to go where my heart leads me," he exclaimed. Eventually his heart led him to Tampa.
DEDICATED TO COMMUNITY The Community Dedication speech delivered at the occasion paid tribute to the statue's donors: ".Henry Plant, railway entrepreneur one hundred years ago, led the development of our city of Tampa and ultimately the west coast of Florida. Let it be known from this moment forward that the statue of Henry Plant is dedicated to you, the community. The community.unique, proud and traditional it is you to whom we dedicate our statue this evening." So it was, two months prior to the day of Tampa's centennial on July 15, 1987, the Plant legacy was rekindled and a symbolic flame was lit. The torch was passed from one generation to another as it always has and always will. Citizens were united to give homage to one of Tampa's leading forefathers while tomorrow's leaders reveled in creating this historic tribute.
NICK GERACI TAMPA'S FIRST ITALIAN PRODUCE KING By TONY PIZZO In the early years of this century there were countless numbers of Italian fruit and vegetable street vendors in Tampa making rounds with their horses and wagons, from house to house, through the various neighborhoods of the city. The loud ringing of their hand bells summoned housewives to the artistically fruit decorated wagons at the curb. These street merchants gathered every morning before daybreak at Seminole Corner, 7th Avenue and 22nd Street (formerly known as Livingston Avenue) where they purchased their produce from farmers who would bring their vegetables from the farming areas east and south of Ybor City. After replenishing their wagons they started their rounds through the residential areas. This marketing tradition had its beginnings with the arrival of the Italians in the 1880's. Seminole Corner is the forerunner of today's farmers market. The site derived its name from Seminole Saloon, a notorious watering hole from the days of the Spanish-American War. The Duggan brothers were the owners. On one occasion a Rough Rider galloped into the saloon and demanded a mug of beer and a bucketful for his horse. The cavalryman, three sheets to the wind, was promptly arrested and fined $5.00. The Times reported that Seminole Saloon "served stuff that would make a rabbit spit in a bulldog's face. NICK GERACI as he appeared in 1922
WINNING PERSONALITY Nick Geraci emerged from this group of street merchants as one of Tampa's prominent fruit and produce dealers. His formidable achievements are one of the most interesting business romances in the history of Tampa. Geraci, a native of Contessa Entellina, a village in western Sicily, started as a solitary fruit vender in 1910, calling on homes in Hyde Park. For years he was remembered pleasantly by customers for his winning personality and a reputation of always having superior products to offer. The Tampa Times reported, "Nick's friends in those days knew that deep down in this smiling, never wearing, courageous man, was the ambition and ability to become a dealer in fruits in a large way." In 1912, Geraci opened a small produce store on 7th Avenue and 23rd Street, one block east of Seminole Corner, the hub of the vegetable trading center. His business prospered rapidly, and Geraci was forced to expand several times. In 1921, he took a bold step and erected the largest cold storage plant in the south. The building which is still standing, but no longer used by the company, is located on 6th Avenue on the north side of the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad tracks between 23rd and 24th streets. The building measured 340 x 105 feet and had a storage capacity of 50 carloads of fruit and produce. Ten carloads of produce could be unloaded at the same time. The building was provided with 16 cold storage rooms. The fleet of 20 delivery trucks left every morning loaded with fresh produce to the trade throughout Tampa and south Florida. Geraci also attended to the needs of Tampa's Latin population. For the Spanish and Italian communities he imported a variety of dried fruits and nuts. Adorning Ybor City grocery stores were strings of dried figs, trays of dried apricots, peaches, cherries, and plums as well as sacks and barrels chuck full of filberts, almonds, pistachios, and chestnuts. From the Caribbean Basin, Geraci brought strange and wondrous fruits. The eye-catching, tantalizing, and fragrant fruits from the tropics were the delight of the Cubans in particular, and most Tampans in general. Yborcitenos were especially fond of the tropical fruit juices whipped up in creamy and foamy milk shakes and sherbets. The joy of going to Los Helados Cafe for the exquisite sherbets of mamey, tamarindo, coconut, bananas, anon, and cherimoya lingers as a cherished memory of Ole Ybor. To complement his line of produce, Geraci also handled butter, cheese, and eggs. Geraci holds the distinction of bringing the first chicken incubator to Tampa. The company continued to prosper through the years. By 1941, the firm had reached a pinnacle beyond the founder's fondest hopes when destiny took Geraci from the scene. The man with a vision, ingenuity, honesty, and ethical principles was gone. Tampa had lost a valued citizen. Nick Geraci is an exemplary figure of Italian heritage in the history of the Tampa community. LIKE FATHER, LIKE SON Nick Geraci, Jr. succeeded his father as president of the company at the age of 27 with the assistance of Tony Valenti, vice president, and Bennie Lazzara, secretary-treasury. Young Nick also became head of the American Fruit and Steamship
Co., a subsidiary for importing tropical fruit. The trim fleet of cargo vessels consisted of the Bison, Berlanger, Curlew, and Louis Geraci. In 1954, Nick Geraci, Jr., with the foresight of his father, took a second signal step forward. Leading the fortunes of one of the leading produce firms in the south, he established an ultramodern, a million-dollar plant at Hillsborough Avenue and 26th Street. The new facility, Nick stated, was a monument to his father who laid the foundation of the business on fair dealings with customers, competitors and shippers. The new, and third building in the history of the company, is one of the most modern and functional plants in the country. The building is equipped with 125 cars of refrigeration space, loading platforms for trucks on three sides, modern conveyor systems and more than five acres of parking space. FREE ENTERPRISE The building contains 40,000 square feet and has a railroad siding that can handle 16 cars of fresh produce. Two loading docks can service 32 trucks at the same time. The executive and general offices are located on the second floor. Nick Geraci, Jr. passed away in 1972, leaving the fortunes of the company in the hands of his two sons, Nick III and Peter, with the capable assistance of Joe Mangione, the general manager, who has been with the family business for 36 years. The Nick Geraci Co. today is one of the largest produce dealers and banana processors in the state. Three generations of Geracis have led the destinies of the company for 75 years. This is a fitting testimonial to the American free enterprise system, a memorial to its founder, and a high compliment to the Geraci will to succeed. Sempre Avanti!
OUR 'COVER LADY': BETTY CASTOR Commissioner of Education Betty Castor has a record of more than 16 years of public service in Florida as a teacher, legislator and civic leader. Mrs. Castor was first elected to the Florida Senate in 1976, and again in 1982 and 1984. She served as Senate President Pro Tempore from November 1984 to November 1985. During this time she also chaired the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Education. Mrs. Castor made education a special priority during her years in the Senate, twice leading the House-Senate Conference Committee responsible for writing the budget for public schools, universities and community colleges. During the campaign for Commissioner of Education, she taught at least one class in every school district in Florida, a practice she will continue. She is the first woman ever elected to serve on the Florida Cabinet. Castor, 46, the mother of three children, Kathy, Karen and Frank, was born in Glassboro, New Jersey and came to Florida in 1966. She received her bachelor's degree in education from Glassboro State College and her master's degree in education from the University of Miami in 1968. Following graduation from college, she taught school in the British-American AID program in Uganda, Africa, as well as at Holmes Elementary School in Dade County. From 1979-82, she was Director of Governmental Relations for the University of South Florida. A member of the Hillsborough County Commission from 1972-76, she served as chairperson of the Commission in 1976. The recipient of scores of awards for her achievements, Castor has emphasized throughout her career the importance of excellence in education. She was named "Outstanding Legislator of the Year" by the Florida Education Association. The Florida Board of Regents in 1985 honored her for her role in the Legislature creating the "Path to Excellence" program for the State University System. The Florida Association of Community Colleges, the Florida Association of School Administrators and the Florida School Boards Association have all awarded her their highest honor for her contributions to improving education in Florida.
DOYLE E. CARLTON, JR., IS 1987 WINNER OF THS' D.B. McKAY AWARD By HAMPTON DUNN Doyle E. Carlton, Jr., prominent Florida businessman, rancher and citrus grower, is the 1987 recipient of Tampa Historical Society's prestigious D.B. McKay Award for his "significant contributions to the cause of Florida history." Son of a former Governor of Florida, Doyle E. Carlton (1929-33), the award winner has WELCOME TO 'CRACKER COUNTRY' "Cracker Country, located within the Florida State Fairgrounds a t Tampa, recreates turn-of-the-century rural Florida and contains two homes, the 0kahompka railroad depot, a small church and one-room schoolhouse and a postoffice, all of which have been moved to their permanent site and restored. Doyle E. Carlton, Jr., chairman of the Fair Authority, spearheaded this project which contributes so much to Florida history. -Photo from the HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
done much to preserve pioneer Florida history by his determination and efforts to put together the "Cracker Village" at the Florida State Fairgrounds in Tampa. A centerpiece for the museum is the ancestral Carlton home moved from Wauchula. He serves as Chairman of the Fair Authority. Doyle E. Carlton, Jr., was born in Tampa on the Fourth of July in 1922. He was graduated from Plant High School in 1940, and from the University of Florida, where he starred in basketball and was captain of the Gator team. He served 10 years as State Senator, and in 1960 was in the run-off for Democratic nomination for Governor. He served 30 DOYLE E. CARLTON, JR. winner of D.B. McKay Award THE NIGHT YOUNG DOYLE CARLTON BECAME KING In glittering coronation ceremonies the evening of March 28, 1940, Doyle E. Carlton, Jr., and Mildred Woodbery were crowned royalty of Plant High School's Pantherilla. Other members o f the court included: (on left side) Myron Gibbons, Helen Coggins, Bud Williams, Mary Lou Olsen, Mark Hampton, Clyde Taylor, Billy Stone, Jean Stearns, Wally Gillette, June Stratton and David Foster; (on the right side) Katheryn Nelson., Clyde Evans, Mary McCarty, Clyde Rights, Dottie Sue Caldwell, Fred Duffey., Lila Ruth Shelley, Mary Trice Howell., Billy Martin, Richard Farrior., and Pearle Taake. -Photo from the HAMPTON DUNN CGLLECTION
months in the Air Force. Many honors have come his way: Chosen as Outstanding First Term Senator in 1953 session; Received the St. Petersburg Times' Award as Outstanding Senator in 1959; Recognized by the Junior Chamber of Commerce in 1955 as one of five outstanding young men in Florida. His participation in denominational work of Southern Baptist Convention includes President, Brotherhood Commission; Member of the Foreign Mission Board and Executive Committee; Presently a deacon, and teaches a Sunday School Class, First Baptist Church, Wauchula. Carlton married his high school sweetheart, Mildred Woodbery in 1943. They established residence in Hardee County in 1946 where he is engaged in agriculture. Other present involvements include: Chairman of Havatampa Corporation; Chairman of the Fair Authority; member of the Board of Trustees, Stetson University, and member of the Board of Directors, United Telecommunications of Florida.
A STREET CAR RIDE IN 1908 THROUGH WEST TAMPA By ARSENIO M. SANCHEZ By the end of the week of August 15, 1906, the Tampa Electric street cars were running from the farthest end of West Tampa to Twenty-Second Street in Ybor City.1 West Tampa in its broadest sense was usually taken to mean not only the thriving municipality of that name on the west side of the Hillsborough River, but also a narrow strip of territory that lies within the corporate limits of the City of Tampa on the western margin of the Hillsborough River. This whole territory like the Fourth Ward (Ybor City) of the City of Tampa was devoted to the Cigar Industry.2 Taking the West Tampa-Ybor City street car, where four cars were operated and each car was run on a schedule of 12 minutes, we cross the Hillsborough River at the Fortune Street Bridge, and see to the right of the street car line the large three story brick THE WEST TAMPA-YBOR CITY STREET CAR Conductor James White, on street; Conductor Thomas M. Steuart on steps of car. -Photograph by A. Santana Studios, Main St. and Albany Ave.
factory of Julius Ellinger & Co. at the corner of Green and Garcia Avenue. It had opened on June 13, 1893,3 and was one of the cigar factories of the Havana-American Co., a producer of the choicest clear Havana cigars. This was the first brick factory in West Tampa and was later sold to the firm of J.W. Roberts in April 3, 1909. On the left was the frame cigar factory of F. Garcia & Bro. at the corner of Arch Street and Garcia Avenue. This factory was erected for Barranco, Rico & Co., of Key West, in March 25, 1895,4 but on the death of Mr. Barranco some legal complications arose, preventing them from moving in or fulfilling their contract. F. Garcia & Bro. started work April 15, 1895. Around these factories were business houses, restaurants and tenement houses. Stretching out westward could be seen rows of houses similar in structure. At the northern extremities of the street in front of the factories (Garcia Ave.), the Tampa and Sulphur Springs Traction Company were building the Ross Avenue Bridge across the Hillsborough River on which would be laid tracks for a direct street car line linking Ybor City and West Tampa. This company was using a different route and competing with Tampa Electric Co. Many cigar makers worked in West Tampa and lived in Ybor City and vice versa.5 As the car sped westward you could see on the left the O'Halloran & Co. three story frame cigar factory located at the corner of LaSalle Street and Oregon Ave. In reaching Nineteenth Ave. (Rome) we see a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line Railway Co. At the end of this line a one-story brick building stood, fronting 65 feet on Main St. and 95 feet on Rome, and owned by G.Ficarrota. He was engaged in the wholesale grocery business.6 Mr. Ficarrota a City Councilman, supplied the West Tampa Fire Department with feed for their horses. WEST TAMPA WATERWORKS Near this intersection could be seen a steel tower and tank for the water works which belonged to the City of West Tampa. The city had progressed and also built its own electric light plant in this area. On July 25, 1907 the City of West Tampa sold to the Tampa Electric Co., the City's lighting plant, including engines, dynamos, poles, wires, lamps and everything else pertaining to the lighting plant, for the sum of forty thousand dollars ($40,000), payable in cash. ACADEMY OF THE HOLY NAMES ... Opened Sept. 14, 1896.
Proceeding west we see at the southwest corner of Green Street and Fremont Ave., the El Arte frame cigar factory, which was the S. & F. Fleitas, one of the many factories to move to West Tampa in 1895. As we go along westward one could see the brick walls of the Berriman cigar factory (which later was sold to Morgan Cigar Co. in May 1910) and is located at the corner of LaSalle Street and Howard Avenue. A splendid two story brick Municipal Building was erected around 1900 at the corner of Francis Ave. (Albany) and Main St. At this time (Sept. 1908) Peregrino Rey, of Cuesta-Rey & Co., was serving the unexpired term of Mayor Francisco Milian since his tragic death.7 Rey was elected Mayor the following term. The lower floor of the Municipal Building had been converted to house the City Fire Department. By September 1908 there was excellent progress being made in the paving contracts. Main Street was paved eastward in the direction of Tampa, where it would meet the paving at Ellinger City. The completion of Main St. meant a second paved throughfare from Tampa to West Tampa, the first paving believed to be across Lafayette Street Bridge from Tampa, and then west to the center of West Tampa. The West Tampa authorities were eager to complete the paving project which would form a loop reaching the large cigar factories which had not been reached by paving at that time. This could also be of value in protection againt fire, allowing the fire wagons (or trucks) to reach the fire sooner.8 PASS THE ACADEMY CUESTA-REY & CO.'S FACTORY BUILDING Photo taken in 1897.
By November 1908 West Tampa boasted of having 15 miles of the finest brick paving to be found in the country.9 Heading north on Francis Ave. (Albany) we pass the Academy of the Holy Names school, built and opened Sept. 4, 1896, at the corner of Spruce and Francis,10 the St. Joseph Church built May 3, 1903 at the corner of Walnut St. and Francis Ave.11 the Bustillo Bros. & Diaz cigar factory corner Francis Ave. and Pine St. Next we reach the one-story box factory that kept busy year around, located at the corner of Francis Ave. and Ponce de Leon St. (Beech). Turning the corner the three story cigar factory of Cuesta-Rey & Co. could be seen at the corner of Howard Ave. and Ponce de Leon St. It was erected in 1895 for the Havana-Key West Cigar Co., the second brick factory to be built in West Tampa. To celebrate their annual production the Cuesta-Rey & Co. cigar factory had a banquet at the end of each year, it was referred to as "The Truly Spanish House," and was held at the Atlanta Restaurant in West Tampa.13 In November of 1908 the City Council of West Tampa changed the name Beech to CELESTINO VEGA & CO. FACTORY Built 1907, 3302 N. Armenia Ave
Ponce de Leon in honor of the discoverer of Florida.12 MORE CIGAR FACTORIES Making the loop we reach Armina Ave. (Armenia) and the Drew Subdivision in Northwest section of West Tampa. John Drew contracted the firm of Levick and Mobley to construct the factories of Andres Diaz and Calixto Lopez. The factory of Andres Diaz, a four story brick building was constructed on the corner of Havana Ave. and Alvaro St. (Kathleen) and completed May 15, 1908 and opened May 27, 1908. The Calixto Lopez took a little more negotiation and was completed on Sept. 1, 1908 at the corner of Gomez Ave. and Abdela St. The previous year (1907), the factories of Garcia & Vega costing $20,000 and Celestino Vega $24,000 were built on Armenia Ave. They were constructed of brick three stories high with a cellar. Continuing the loop south on Armenia Ave. we pass the factories of L. Sanchez & Co., J.M. Martinez, arriving at the A. Santaella & Co., corner of Chestnut St. and Armenia Ave. The cigar factory of A. Santaella & Co., like many of the factories in the Tampa area, shipped large quantities of high grade cigars to San Francisco and the West Coast. In March of 1906 a carload of Optimo cigars were shipped by A. Santaella & Co. to Seattle, Washington, and from there to Nome, Alaska to be used by the gold miners.14 QUAKE BLOW TO TAMPA The San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906 was a great blow to the cigar industry in the Tampa area. All the well-established Tampa factories had salesmen regularly employed in that city. At the western end of Chestnut street, were it meets Roosevelt Ave. (MacDill) we find the West Tampa Municipal Park (Macfarlane Park) in the process of being developed. The Park is located five to ten minutes walk from the center of West Tampa, and easily reached by street car line, either Tampa Electric Co. or the Tampa and Sulphur Springs Traction Company. The new park covered about 40 acres, and is in an ideal location. It is planted in handsome trees and decorative shrubs and flowers. In the Park plans were made in December 1, 1908 for the construction of a pavilion. When completed would accommodate a large number of people, and would be octagonal in shape.15 A baseball diamond, bandstand, tennis court and other attractions would be added to the Park. In July 1908 bonds were sold in West Tampa amounting to $190,000. It was expected that $20,000 would be spent in making improvements to the Park. A large force of men worked for months grading, leveling, removing trees, planting others, and trying to finish the Park before it was opened to the Public.16 The plans of the City Park were prepared by the City Engineer. By unanimous vote of the City Council in July 9, 1908, the Park was named, "Macfarlane Park." MAIN BUSINESS SECTION Continuing the loop that takes us to the main intersection of the city, Howard Ave. and Main St., we find a row of business
establishments, some branch houses of local firms from Tampa and Ybor City. The rapid growth and increasing business interests of West Tampa had indicated for some time that a bank was needed to meet the financial interests of this prosperous city. The production of the city had increased yearly, from the year of its incorporation in 1895 to 1905, in which time 1,205,165,000 cigars were made in West Tampa and Ybor City. This would be nearly one and a quarter billion. At 5 cents each, this vast number of cigars would amount to $60,258,250.00. But the average price of the Tampa cigar was more than 5 cents. In January 1905 there were 19 large cigar factories, several blocks of business buildings and hundreds of homes built in West Tampa.17 The Bank of West Tampa had been organized in December 28, 1905, with a paid up capital of $25,000. The bank was an outgrowth of the Drew-Henderson-Harris private banking institution, which only in part supplied the demand. This new bank made it the sixth establishment to be opened in the Tampa, Ybor City and West Tampa area. J.W. Drew commissioned architect Fred James to draw the plans for the new West Tampa building. This was erected on the southeast corner of Main street and Howard avenue, where it stands today. The Bank of West Tampa opened for business Monday, February 19, 1906. The blooming city of West Tampa by 1908, was considered the most properous in the state. "West Tampa is one of the most peaceful and law abiding cities of its size to be found anywhere," said Justice J.J. Boyett, "especially when you take into consideration that so many nationalities are represented here," During the seven years that he was City Clerk, Boyett watched West Tampa grow to a population of eight thousand by December 1908. This ends our street car ride tour through a city that has achieved a phenomenal growth and prosperity. FOOTNOTES 1 Tampa Morning Tribune, August 15, 1906. 2 Tampa Morning Tribune, March 8, 1904. 3 The Tobacco Leaf, June 21, 1893. 4 The Tobacco Leaf, April 3, 1895. 5 Tampa Morning Tribune, October 8, 1908. 6 Tampa Morning Tribune, February 14, 1904. 7 Tampa Morning Tribune, October 9, 1908. 8 Tampa Morning Tribune, September 4, 1908. 9 Tampa Morning Tribune, November 1, 1908. 10 Holy Names Academy School files, Bayshore Blvd. 11 Jesuit High School files, Himes St. 13 Tampa Morning Tribune, January 7, 1913. 12 Tampa Morning Tribune, November 20, 1908. 14 Tampa Morning Tribune, March 15, 1906. 15 Tampa Morning Tribune, January 5, 1909. 16 Tampa Morning Tribune, July 4, 1908. 17 Tampa Morning Tribune, January 26, 1905.
GIRL SCOUTING IN TAMPA IS 75 YEARS OLD By PATTI DERVAES Girl Scouting began in Tampa in 1913, one year after Juliette Low organized her Girl Guides, March 12, 1912, in Savannah. The next year brought a name change to Girl Scouts. The founding of the second Girl Scout Troop in the United States in Tampa was a great event for many girls and their mothers for 75 years. Through the vision of Mrs. Sumter L. Lowry, who was a friend of Mrs. Low's, and Mrs. W.P. (Jessamine) Link, Tampa's Magnolia Troop #1 came into being. Mrs. Link was the first leader, with meetings held in her home at 107 Hyde Park Place.1 Mrs. Link's original nine girls worked on proficiency badges, went camping and TAMPA GIRL SCOUTS ON PARADE Troop 103 Shines in Gasparilla in 1950s.
helped others, just as they do today. Her heart, her home and her pocketbook were always open to her girls. Her field trips were a joy to everyone, for she knew every flower, tree, bird and butterfly.2 The young women who wore the old fashioned khaki outfits and large flat sailor hats of yesteryear are the mothers and grandmothers of today's Girl Scouts, Marine Scouts and Curved Bar Scouts. Even though styles have changed, Girl Scouting has remained pretty much the same down through the years. Tampa's Troop #2 was formed at the Rosa Valdez Settlement in West Tampa.3 WHATEVER IT IS, IT'S ALIVE, GIRLS! Scouts Louise Renberg, Pamela Perry and Judy Clark examine strange creature at camp in May, 1949.
Mrs. Nannie Griffin Christian attended the first Girl Scout troop meetings, although she was too young to join. She was nine at the time. Today she would have been a Junior Girl Scout.4 Tampa's Girl Scouts were busy during World War 1. During the influenza epidemic, they donned trousers to help Western Union deliver messages on Tampa's streets. One irate Tampan phoned Mrs. Link to report, "Your girls are all over town, and they are wearing PANTS!" There were citations from Woodrow Wilson, each with the names of the Girl Scouts who sold Liberty Bonds.5 In 1919, Troop #1 journeyed to Eustis, Florida, where a Girl Scout camp had been opened. "Those girls had a rugged experience," said Mrs. Marcus Alexander, "for the camp was very primitive and rough."6 The Tampa Rotary Club had a chance to see first hand the work of Girl Scouts in February 1922. The club's paper, "The Wheel Wright" announced that members of Magnolia Troop were introduced, as well as those in charge: Mrs. W.P. Link, Mrs. A.G. Turner and Miss Mary Wright. The paper further stated, "It was here that the committee in charge demonstrated what ladies of today are doing for women of tomorrow.7 RACHELLE DERVAES ... Like Mother, Like Daughter DOROTHY TALBOT GLOVER 'a real mermaid'
Seeing a need for a nucleus group, Mrs. Marcus Alexander, Mrs. Link and several club women organized the first Girl Scout Council in May 1924. After receiving its charter, the Council took up headquarters in the old Tampa Bay Casino. The Girl Scout office later moved to the upstairs at the Tampa Municipal Auditorium, now McKay Auditorium. Squirrels ran in and out of the open windows, from their homes in Plant Park. The Council paid the city $1 per year for use of the office. CHARTER COUNCIL MEMBERS Charter members of the council were: Mrs. Link, Mrs. Alexander, Mrs. E.J. Ritter, Mrs. J.A. Griffin, Mrs. M. Henry Cohen, Miss Kate Jackson, Mrs. A.K. Dickenson, Mrs. Alonzo Turner, Mrs. William Spencer, Mrs. John B. Sutton and Mrs. Sumter L. Lowry. After Doris Morris came to Tampa to be the Council's first director the ball really got started rolling. Mrs. Maude Fowler donated 25 acres to the Council for a Girl Scout campsite. Camp Fowler opened in 1925. It was located 16 miles north of Tampa, in Land of Lakes. The large central building was begun on the campsite, as well as six cabins, a dock and a boat was purchased.8 At this time, there were 450 girls and women in Scouting. Courses at Camp Fowler were given in swimming, life saving, first aid, nature craft, wood craft, needle work, house work and cooking. When a girl came home from camp, she knew how to plan, buy, prepare and serve a meal; care for the sick; bathe, feed and care for babies; to be active in all good works; and to be alert to the welfare of all people. The Community Chest brochure, "Our Crying Need," wrote, "our purpose is to give the girls through natural, wholesome pleasure those habits of mind and body which will make them useful, responsible women ready and willing to take a definite part in the home, civic and national affairs. 'A GOOD TURN DAILY' "Service becomes second nature to a Girl Scout. The slogan, Do a Good Turn Daily develops the willingness and ability to serve. Call our Headquarters for service a Girl Scout may render, phone 87-317. Since we have had support from the Community Chest, our number of troops has grown from two to twenty four."9 GROWING UP IN SCOUTING Brownie, Junior, Cadette, Senior
THIS IS WHAT GIRL SCOU TS CALL PRIMITIVE CAMPING!
It was in 1933 that I began my scouting in Tampa. I had previously belonged to a Girl Scout Troop in Naples, Florida, for two years. I joined the troop here that met at the with my "buddy" June Pedersen. We rode the street cars from Ballast Point to the meetings after school and back home again. The leader of this troop was Mrs. Margaret Biggar McIntosh. Her influence on my young life followed me into adult life. We had many opportunities for service to the community, such as marching in the Gasparilla Parade, wearing our uniforms; doing errands and other things at the Florida State Fair, located at North Blvd. and North "B" Street; holding the flag for civic programs; and by being good scouts in our homes, at school (Ballast Point Junior High), in our play with friends and at church. Boy Scouts were also serving at civic meetings, at times, but they didn't come near us if it could be avoided. Troop #22, from the Hyde Park Methodist Church, on Platt Street, often combined duties with our troop. This was an important part of growing up and learning social graces. SUMMER DAY CAMPS In the summers, there were Day Camps, held in Plant Park. We took bag lunches, learned new games, songs and dances, as well as many camping skills, to help us when we went to overnight camp. June Pedersen won a prize at Day Camp, for some of her activities, which was a free week at Camp Fowler. At that time, my parents could not afford to send me, but in some way that I never knew, I was awarded a scholarship, for one week, from the Sertoma Club. To this day, I am still grateful for this marvelous opportunity. June Pedersen and I attended Camp Fowler the same week, in June, 1933. She and I also attended one week in 1934. The cabins at Camp Fowler had Indian names, like Sioux, Apache, Commanche and Seminole. Each cabin had bunk beds, with fresh, straw mattresses. We took our own towels, bedding, camp clothes and bathing suits. Each cabin had turns doing KP, sweeping and general housekeeping. There were many exciting camp activities like swimming, canoeing, crafts of many kinds, campfire songs, sometimes cooking over fires outside. Making many new crafts projects, putting on plays, plus many other projects, made this an event I still enjoy thinking about. MR. AND MRS. PETER KAMINIS AND DAUGHTER JAN PLATT ... Dedicating Shelter, 1977
The outdoor toilets had wooden seats, with two holes in each shed. When it was our cabin's turn to do the johns, we scrubbed the seats with disinfectant, and swept the floor with the broom that stood in the corner. There were other camp duties that were more pleasant, like the flag ceremony. 'A REAL MERMAID' We had a waterfront director those two years whom I remember very well. Her name was Dorothy Talbot, now Mrs. Dorothy Glover. She taught us swimming and canoeing in Lake Padgett. I thought her then, and still do, the most beautiful lady I had ever seen. Tall, stately, tanned, a real mermaid. I never forgot her. I am sure that her influence on my life those two summers, carried over into my adult life and work, first with the Tampa Recreation Department, Aquatic Director at the Academy of the Holy Names and staff at National Aquatic School. Also, waterfront director at several local camps. My Scouting experience stopped after 1935, when I went to High School. But I continued, now in the position of leadership, when my daughter, Rachelle Dervaes, was old enough for Brownies. I retired from Scouting in 1966, with 15 years total activities. Rachelle continued her Scouting through leadership at University of Florida, as a leader and Day Camp Director with the Mile High Council in Denver. At present, she is registered with the Girl Scout Council in Raleigh, North Carolina, as an advisor. Her daughter, Sarah Deats, will soon be old enough to enter Scouting as a "Daisy" Scout, and perhaps will benefit as much from the Girl Scout Movement as her Mother and Grandmother did. By 1937, Girl Scouts were having their annual Cookie Sales, with a goal of 7,500 cookies to be sold. The first Girl Scout cookies were baked on a gas stove in the window of a store in Clarence, NY, near Buffalo, in 1927. There was one flavor, butterscotch. Ten years later, the cookie sales had become a national fund raiser for the Girl Scouts. The local proceeds have been used to upgrade current campsites, and to go for the purchase of other camps.10 WORLD WAR II DEFENSE WORK The first mounted Girl Scout Troop #13 was formed in 1937. Members were, Betty Barnshagen, Lula Child, Dada Andrews, Peggy Kissinger, Betty Kissinger, Marjorie Brorein, Mary Martin, Barbara Jean Thomas, Nancy Berriman and Anne Washington. World War 11 saw Girl Scouts helping In defense work. A local service bureau was formed, designed to offer such things as child care. In 1944, Tampa had 1,897 Girl Scouts and 80 registered troops. Mrs. Nannie Griffin Christian was organization chairman. Camp Dorothy Thomas, in East Hillsborough County, near Riverview, was donated by Mr. and Mrs. Wayne Thomas, in 1944. Day Camps were held there before overnight camping was offered. Operation Pine Tree was conducted at Camp Dorothy Thomas in 1952. The Florida Forestry Service organized the program to create an interest in conservation, and impress on the girls the need for keeping their campsite in its beautiful natural condition by making plans for its proper care. By the Fall, definite plans for a big, long range program
were made from which developed the name, Operation Pine Tree. PINE TREE PROJECT GROWS At about the same time, the National Girl Scout organization began to look into the idea of adapting such an operation to the national overall plan. At their suggestion, the Tampa Girl Scout organization began the necessary consideration of participating in a Lou Henry Hoover (Mrs. Herbert Hoover) Memorial Project. On Dec. 20, 1952, the first pine tree was planted at Camp Dorothy Thomas. The ceremony was attended by more than 200 Girl Scouts, all eager to plant a tree. More than 2,000 seedlings were planted under the supervision of the Florida Forestry Service. This was followed in the early months by additional slash pine seedlings. By Spring of 1953, the 83rd Congress had heard that there were 4,000 baby trees at Camp Dorothy Thomas. By Winter, another 2,000 seedlings had been planted, together with an experimental planting of 100 loblolly pines. Surveys of trees, flowers, birds, mammals, reptiles and insects were made to complete the requirements for applying for a Certified Lou Henry Hoover Memorial Sanctuary.11 Jack and Mary Schiller were the caretakers at Camp Dorothy Thomas for many years. He helped hundreds of scouts doing everything from digging leaders' cars out of the sand, to running errands and helping the girls gather wood for their campfires. Aunt Mary was famous for her collard greens and cornbread. Their warm, southern hospitality and humor made Girl Scouts and adults alike feel a close personal kinship. They retired in 1964.12 The Suncoast Girl Scout Council, a United Fund Agency (formerly The Community Chest) was formed in 1961. This new Council included Hernando, Hillsborough, Pasco and Pinellas Counties. Mrs. Stanley Milledge was its first president, and Mrs. Mildred Widgery was Executive Director. Mrs. Widgery was never a Girl Scout. She had worked previously as a clothes buyer, a legal secretary and a volunteer at an orphanage. She moved to Tampa in 1954 and became interested in Girl Scouting through a friend. She stayed with the Council for 22 years. In 1960 there were 4,171 girls registered with the Suncoast Council; 1,122 adults; and 245 troops. The Girl Scout Movement, which began in 1913, with nine girls, has continued to flourish through the interest of the girls, the dedication of the adult leaders, the support of the community, and a continuously stimulating and exciting program. THERE ARE MANY CHANGES There have been many changes, such as: (1) several new campsites have been added to the Suncoast Council-Scoutcrest, at Odessa; Indian Echo in Pasco County; Plant City Troop House; Camp Wai Lani, near Ozona; additional acreage added to Camp Dorothy Thomas. Two camps have been closed: Camp Fowler, and Camp Standing Indian, near Clayton, GA; (2) The Girl Scout uniforms have been changed several times to meet the needs of more fashionable young women in Scouting. Also, the books have been changed several times, to meet the needs of more modern young women in a changing world. Both the uniforms and books had a major change in September
1963; (3) Many proficiency badges have been dropped, as they no longer had meanings for new programs and new interests. Many new proficiency badges have been added, reflecting the changing needs in our changing world; (4) Many new programs have been added over the years National Jamboretts; International Opportunities; exchange programs between Girl Scouts in foreign countries, as well as for adults; National Camps offer a wide range of programs for advanced Girl Scouts, national and international; (5) Local programs for the needs of girls who are handicapped, underpriviledged, blind and retarded. Today, in the Suncoast Council, there are 14,967 registered Girl Scouts, and 3,979 registered adults, for a total of 18,946 membership. There are 1003 troops. There are 26 Lifetime memberships.13 There are many more facets of the Girl Scout movement than Mrs. Juliette Low and Mrs. Jessamine Link could ever have imagined. It is interesting to note that St. Petersburg Girl Scouts still care for the grave of Prof. Walter J. Hoxie, a well known naturalist, who was responsible for the first Girl Scout Handbook in the United States. He moved to St. Petersburg to join his daughter, Mary Russell "Cappy" Day, a teacher who started the Pinellas County's first troop in 1924.14 FOOTNOTES 1 Tampa Tribune, 3-6-66. 2 Tampa Tribune, 12-13-70. 3 Tampa Times, 7-6-60. 4 Interview with Mrs. Christian. 5 Tampa Tribune, 3-6-66. 6 Tampa Times, 7-6-60. 7 Tampa Tribune, 3-3-66. 8 Tampa Times, 7-6-60. 9 Community Chest brochure, 1925. 10 Tampa Tribune, 7-2-76. 11 Tampa Tribune, 3-6-66. 12 Tampa Times, 12-8-64. 13 Interview with Mrs. Doris Mitchell, Suncoast Council, Public Relations Director. 14 Tampa Tribune, 3-6-66. 15 Interviews with Mrs. Skipper Richardson, Mrs. Virginia Shurtleff and Mrs. Nannie Griffin Christian.
FORTY YEARS OF THE TAMPA PORT AUTHORITY By THOMAS J. O'CONNOR The Tampa Port Authority marked its 40th anniversary on Nov. 16, 1985. In the second part of a two-part story, veteran Tampa writer and longtime Tampa Port Authority staff member Thomas J. O'Connor recounts the Port Authority's first 40 years. The enabling act provided for the Authority to have the power to fix rates and tariffs for the port. Private terminal operators, who cherished their right to raise and lower rates as they chose in order to compete, resisted the Authority's newly-gained power. By
1962 these operators began to realize that under the prevailing economic conditions this individuality could not continue. Everyone was losing money on his operation. A group headed by Charles Loe, traffic manager for the Chamber of Commerce and former Authority employee, worked to create a tariff. By June 1963 a uniform tariff had been put in place, but not without a great deal of argument. It was filed with the Federal Maritime Commission as a portwide tariff and, with various revisions, has remained in place ever since. Establishment of the tariff brought peace to the waterfront. THE PORT OF TAMPA has been a busy one almost since the beginning of the community itself. This view of the waterfront along the Hillsborough River downtown was taken in 1909 during the steamboat era. -Photograph Courtesy of the Tampa Port Authority
Also during 1963 James Ferman's term on the Tampa Port Authority's board of commissioners expired. He had been a member since 1955 and was instrumental in setting the bulkhead lines, establishing the tariff and many other advances in the administration of the port. PORT AUTHORITY ACQUIRES CITY DOCKS In April 1964, Tampa Mayor Nick Nuccio recognized that the city no longer could administer with efficiency the so-called city docks on 13th Street. The city had run the docks since they were constructed in the early 1920s; by 1964 they were in an advanced state of disrepair. Consequently, Nuccio offered the facility to the Authority which snapped up his offer and renamed the area Metroport. This acquisition gave additional land area to the Authority, which by then also controlled two wartime shipyards. Also in 1964 came the first rumbles that the recently completed 34-foot-deep channel was inadequate. The late John Ware, a Tampa Bay pilot, told the board that the larger vessels entering the port could not BOTH DURING WORLD WAR I AND IN WORLD WAR II, shipbuilding was a major industry in Tampa. This was the scene at the Tampa Shipbuilding Company on a day in 1939 when two ships were under construction and another had just been launched. -Photograph from the HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
safely navigate the channels and warned that substantial phosphate shipments could be lost without further deepening. He suggested deepening the channel to 40 feet. With that, the board employed the firm of Reynolds, Smith & Hill to make a study of the existing channels and make recommendations as to the benefits which could be expected from increased channel depths. The report which followed recommended additional depth. The problem then was to convince Congress to direct the Corps of Engineers to study the problem. Congress so directed, again with the assistance of Senator Spessard Holland, and the final report issued in 1969 recommended 44 feet. This was later amended to 43 feet. TAMPA FIGHTS TO KEEP PHOSPHATE SHIPMENTS In the meantime, on May 10, 1965, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad announced that it intended to relocate its phosphate loading facilities to a newly-created port at Piney Point in Manatee County, Port Manatee. The announcement stated Port Manatee would issue industrial revenue bonds to finance the construction. For many years the citizens of Tampa had complained bitterly about phosphate trains moving from the mines through the downtown area, down the Interbay Peninsula to the elevator at Port Tampa. Traffic was held up. A growing city could not afford such holdups, especially since phosphate shipments were growing yearly. Tired of the complaints, the railroad made its decision. The effect of the announcement was devastating and the Authority, politicians and civic leaders deplored the arrangement. In a counter action the Authority announced THESE CAMOUFLAGED SHIPS were in port in Tampa in 1919 shortly after World War I had ended. -Photograph Courtesy of the Tampa Port Authority
it would construct a public phosphate elevator on the east shore of Hillsborough Bay. Two problems, however, remained to be solved. First, the Authority did not own the land, the railroad did; secondly, where would the Authority obtain financing to buy the land. In order to accomplish its goal, the railroad would have been forced to construct 35 miles of track from the mines to Port Manatee. It first would have had to have been granted permission by the Interstate Commerce Commission. The railroad made application. The Authority, the Chamber of Commerce and Hillsborough County government vowed to fight the application and, after two years of hearings, stopped it dead in its tracks. Having been successful, the authority then turned to the task of how to provide the railroad with facilities to load phosphate in Tampa. Some years previously, in 1957, the Authority had engaged a consultant Praeger-Kavanaugh to develop a master plan for the us*e' of Hookers Point. This report stated in part that Hillsborough Bay south of the 22nd Street Causeway should be deepened to the project depth of 34 feet and THE SHRIMP BOATS ARE A-COMING. No, they're here, in great numbers in Tampa's active port. -Photograph Courtes y of the Tampa Port Authority
a totally new port should be located on the new body of water. James S. Wood had been named Chairman in December, 1966 for the ensuing year. Wood dusted off the Praeger-Kavanaugh report and put forth the idea that the Bay could be dredged and the spoil material placed on both sides of the water. The east side would be for phosphate and the west for general port use. With that, Wood went to work and on February 2, 1967 he announced to the board that an agreement had been reached with the railroad. The line would erect a phosphate elevator on the east shore if the Port Authority would provide the approximately 450 acres required. Wood told the board steps should be taken immediately to provide finances for the dredging. It was determined that the Authority's revenues could support a bond issue of $7,070,000 over a period of 30 years at an interest rate of 3.8 percent. Lawyers, investment bankers and engineers were engaged and the project was on its way. In May 1976 the authority advertised for bids for dredging 18 million cubic yards of material. The bonds were validated in June and Great Lakes Dredge and Drydock Company of Chicago, low bidder, was awarded the contract. By 1970 two phosphate terminals were in place on what was now called East Bay. The railroad's terminal was named Rockport. The second was built and operated by Eastern Associated Terminals. Thus the Authority was victorious in the great battle over phosphate movements and where the terminals were to be located. The City of Tampa was pleased that phosphate trains no longer blocked traffic in the downtown and Interbay areas. CHANNEL DREDGED TO 43 FEET The dredging to create East Bay had left the southern end of Hookers Point a moonscape. Dikes had been constructed to hold the dredged material, but there was not enough material removed from East Bay to JAMES S. WOOD dusts off old report
completely fill behind the dikes. The newly defined east perimeter of Hooker's Point was useable, however, and the area was designated Holland Terminal in recognition of the contribution Senator Holland had made to port development. The Omnibus River and Harbor Act of 1970 contained the Congressional authorization to deepen the harbor channels to 44 feet. It seemed at this point that all that remained was to convince Congress to appropriate the funds to begin the dredging. But there were many pitfalls on the road between authorization and the start of the project. The environmental community opposed the dredging from the beginning. It saw the project as the ruination of Tampa Bay. It argued for years over the plans of the Corps of Engineers, fearing the water quality would be ruined forever. Spoil disposal was another controversial issue. From 1970 to 1976 the harbor deepening project was on hold. The problem was solved when the Authority entered into a joint contract with the U.S. Geological Survey to make a complete hydrological study of Tampa Bay with computer models to show circulation patterns and what effect the dredging might have on the Bay's regime. The Geological Survey scientists gained the respect of the environmental groups and ways and means were established so the dredging could go forward. In September 1976 the' first dredge went to work; the project was completed in October 1985. NEW FACILITIES SPRING UP In the Fall 1971 it was decided that facilities could be located on the newly-dredged TAMPA CRUISE PORT ATTRACTS BIG SHIPS Holland America's Nieuw Amsterdam
perimeter at Holland Terminal on Hookers Point. The engineering firm of Frederic R. Harris of New York was selected to design general cargo wharves. This, in effect, would create an entirely new inner harbor for the Port of Tampa. Impetus for this major step in development was provided when Jan C. Uiterwyk, a ship owner and operator, made the decision in August 1972 to construct a cold storage facility for the shipment of fresh citrus and the reception of frozen meat from Australia. The new installation was located at Holland Terminal. By March 1973 a $10-million revenue bond issue was inplace, and the order to proceed with construction was given on June 1. At the end of 1974, a modern 1800-linear-foot wharf with 100-foot aprons was complete. The following year the Authority issued a $2-million special purpose bond to construct a transit warehouse next to Uiterwyk. The Port of Tampa was well on its way to a new beginning. The Hookers Point moonscape began to change as new terminals were built. C F Industries, a large farmers' cooperative engaged in the manufacture and distribution of phosphate fertilizer, constructed a terminal. Royster Company constructed a cryogenic anhydrous ammonia terminal. A roll-on/roll-off facility was constructed on the east side of the point, and a liquid bulk berth on the west side. While all this development was taking place, American Ship Building Company announced plans to expand its shipyard by building a new graving dock yard on the west side of Hookers Point. In order to finance this improvement, the Authority issued $23 million in special purpose bonds, the debt service to be paid by the tenant. The new drydock was constructed to 900 feet in length, 150 feet in width and 26 feet in depth. This gave the dock the capability of handling 90 percent of the world's oceangoing carriers. The new facility was dedicated on July 21, 1978. Governor Reuben Askew, the principal speaker, commended Tampa, the Port Authority and the shipyard, stating, "Do not stop here. I want to challenge you to go further." Tampa Shipyards, a subsidiary of American Ship Building, and the Port Authority accepted the challenge. Plans to expand the yard with new wet slips were announced and early in the 1980s the yard was awarded a $300-million contract to construct five tankers for the Military Sealift Command. GENERAL CARGO IS PURSUED In 1980 cargo moving through the port reached a record 51 million tons. While this tonnage has not been equalled in recent years due to recessive economic conditions, cargo still remains more than 45 million tons. A study completed in 1978 by the transportation consulting division of Booz, Allan and Hamilton revealed the Port of Tampa produces in excess of $1 billion a year in economic impact. More than 36,000 jobs were found to be dependent on the port, with 6,000 directly related to cargo handling. The report advised the Authority to actively pursue general cargo as contrasted to bulk, such as phosphate and petroleum. Consequently, in 1980 the Authority moved vigorously into general cargo promotion. The task remains enormous, made so by such factors as geography, which makes Tampa a difficult choice for attracting liner services on major trade routes, the weakness
of the Latin American economy, and the continuing diversion of cargo from the Gulf to mini-bridge operations. There have been some notable achievements as well as setbacks along the route; however, Tampa is growing at a rate never dreamed of 30 years ago and this growth can be expected to influence port activity. Improvement of the business climate in Latin America, especially if the Caribbean Basin Initiative maintains momentum, will favorably influence the growth of general cargo as well. TAMPA'S CRUISE INDUSTRY IS BORN For many years Tampa's leaders were discouraged in their efforts to bring cruise ships to Tampa. The Ports of Miami and Everglades became cruise capitals, but the lines avoided Tampa, believing there were no suitable destinations for cruise passengers from Tampa. All of this began to change in 1981 when Bahama Cruise Line made the decision to make regularly-scheduled seven-day cruises to Mexico out of the port. To the gratification of all, the cruises were an enormous success. Holiday seekers were looking for a new place to go. Bahama Cruise Line was followed quickly by Holland America Line and it became incumbent upon the authority to provide suitable facilities for the arrival and departure of cruise passengers. A crash program ensued and a modern terminal was dedicated in November 1982, in time for a 26-voyage schedule by one of Holland America Line's luxury ships, the SS Veendam. Two years later the Veendam was replaced by the MS Nieuw Amsterdam, a new luxury liner capable of carrying more than 1200 passengers. With the success of the two cruise lines, the Port of Tampa began to attract the attention of other lines and the authority took one of the most significant steps in its history. In the Summer of 1983 an agreement was reached with Garrison Terminals, Inc., to purchase its property at the junction of Garrison and Ybor Channels. Simultaneously, the Sun Oil Company agreed to sell the Authority an oil terminal adjoining this property. Collectively the properties afforded over 2,000 feet of waterfront in downtown Tampa. The land is especially attractive because it is centrally located and its development could complement many other planned waterfront improvements, including Harbour Island and a planned city convention center. The authority engaged the services of Williams, Kuebelbeck & Associates of California to prepare physical and financial plans for a mixed-use development, including three cruise ship berths, passenger facilities, hotels, office buildings and other waterfront amenities. The authority's action in obtaining the Garrison Terminal land adhered to a long-established policy which called for public ownership and administration of all commercial waterfront. AUTHORITY PURCHASES PORT SUTTON In this regard the Authority in 1984 purchased Port Sutton on the east side of Hillsborough Bay. Port Sutton had been developed privately over the years and contained terminals for the handling of bulk cargo, including phosphate, petroleum, sulfur, potash and cement.
Chapter 23338, Laws of Florida, 1945 was the special enabling act creating the Hillsborough County Port Authority. This act established a port district which included the City of Tampa, and the northwestern part of the county. It excluded the eastern and southern parts of the county. This arrangement was deemed practical at the time. The citizens of Plant City and Wimauma did not feel the port was of any particular benefit to them. There also was a political concern since there was doubt the 1945 referendum would pass if the entire county were included, simply because the bill provided for one-eighth mill in additional ad valorem taxation and citizens are always reluctant to tax themselves. For some years the authority attempted to amend its act so that the entire county was included. It was seen that this would broaden the tax receipt base. The moves were opposed vigorously by residents outside the district. Finally, however, in 1969, the Legislature amended the act to include all of Hillsborough County within the Port District. Over the years the act has been amended more than 30 times in order to meet certain contingencies as the port and the responsibilities of the Authority grew. The 1984 session of the Florida Legislature passed a codification of the law which embodied the original act and all amendatory acts. The authority now operates under Chapter 84-447, Laws of Florida, a streamlined version of the original act, which is responsive to the conditions of modern port administration. This brief history relates the highlights of the accomplishments of the Tampa Port Authority. Although it, reflects the accomplishments of dedicated men over a period of 40 years, it does not fully portray the anguish, heartache and hard work put forth to forge a modern port. The anguish and heartaches are far from over. There is much to be done and new generations will strive for greater heights. The writer of this history observed 40 years of Port Authority activity, both as a young newspaper reporter covering the first meetings and subsequently as an employee of the Authority for nearly 20 years. The future of the Port of Tampa and the Tampa Port Authority will continue in good hands and many can look forward to the next 40 years.
SAMUEL SPENCER: THE INDIAN AGENT WHO DID NO WANT TO COME TO TAMPA By DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON In March, 1849, supervision of Indian affairs was transferred from the War Department to the Interior Department. After the last agent to all of the Seminoles, Wiley Thompson, had been murdered by the Indians in 1835, the post of agent had usually been filled by an Army officer who was in charge of feeding the Indians during a short stay in Tampa and placing them aboard a ship bound for New Orleans thence to Indian territory. The one who had the job in 1849 was capable Captain John C. Casey who had served in that post for some time. With the transfer of authority from the War Department to the Interior Department some fresh persons were appointed to the posts of Indian agents including Samuel Spencer as sub-agent to the Seminoles. Since Spencer's salary was $750 a year, he proposed in his first letter to Secretary of the Interior Thomas Ewing that he be permitted to remain in Jacksonville and appoint from there the merchants needed to manage trading posts established for the Indians.1 In his reply dated June 7, 1849, Ewing informed Spencer that he should make the decision concerning the establishment of trading posts but he must reside near the territory of the tribe for which he was agent and could not leave the bounds of the reserve without permission.2 SPENCER DELAYS MOVING In response to Ewing, Spencer wrote the following letter: I deem it proper to inform the department that I have not yet removed to Fort Brooks for a few very good reasons. The health of my family will not permit a removal at this time. There is no residence at Tampa which I can obtain for myself and family. Major Morris has proposed building in the garrison for the accommodation of the officers located there, and offers to prepare a building for myself.3 While absent from Tampa I can have a person engaged at the trading house, who will give me every information required, or send me an express at my expense if necessary. I shall have a person at Tampa, and probably one at Enterprise for the same purpose, as persons who trade or trespass in the Indian territory enter or return in the neighborhood of these places, and it is the same in reference to the Indians. From Jacksonville the communication almost daily and very rapid to every important point in this state and four times per week to Washington; with this arrangement and visiting them regularly every three months I am certain I can discharge the duties of subagent as well or better than if located where they are. I understand the law to direct that the sub-agent shall give a bond of one thousand dollars, and shall reside in the Indian territory or at such place as the President shall direct.
In undertaking the duties of the office, I intend to perform them perfectly and promptly, and whenever I find I cannot do so I shall resign most cheerfully upon the slightest intimation from the Department to that effect. 4 Realizing that he should visit his Indian wards, Spencer left for Fort Brooke which he called by mistake "Fort Brooks" where he met a well-informed merchant Thomas P. Kennedy.5 The pioneer trader told him that the Indians were busy hunting to get deer for the annual "green corn dance" and the women busy cooking for the same event and as a result could not meet Spencer.6 Major W.W. Morris at Fort Brooke told Spencer that he had $200 for purchase of goods needed by the Indians. At this point Spencer returned to Jacksonville.7 CAN'T LIVE IN JACKSONVILLE A second blow came to Spencer when Commissioner of Indian Affairs Orlando Brown informed Spencer that he should write to Brown, the immediate supervisor, and not to the Secretary of the Interior. Brown pointed out that Spencer could not live at Jacksonville and keep his job.8 He was to keep intruders away from the "neutral ground" located to the north of the reserve and from the reserve proper.9 When Spencer claimed that intruders had settled on the neutral ground J. Butterfield, Commissioner General Land Office, replied that no such land claims could be filed and troops should remove any such intruders.10 In September Spencer reported to Brown that he had appointed Colonel Elijah Mattox to the post of Indian trader but Brown replied that the laws of Florida had been extended to the Indian reservation and the Federal government had no authority to license trade in the Indian land.11 "A HARSH WELCOME" In September 1849 Spencer made his second visit to Fort Brooke where he received a harsh welcome. Spencer informed Brown that he could get permission to trade with the Indians from the Governor of Florida and planned to open two stores, one on Peace River and the other on the Caloosahatchee. Spencer stated that he would not go into Indian territory unless protected by an armed force of fifty to sixty men but since Major General David E. Twiggs would not provide him with any regulars he would need a volunteer force. Finally Spencer boasted that he could bribe the Indians to leave Florida in six months or force them out in twelve.12 In conclusion, he promised to resign by November and suggested the names of several persons to replace him. Spencer at this time could get little help from Major William Morris or Casey who were able to understand Spencer's limitations. Spencer's days were numbered for he had committed the unforgivable sin of visiting Washington in September, 1849 without being instructed to do so from Commissioner of Indian Affairs Orlando Brown.13 After receiving such information from Brown, Thomas Ewing relieved Spencer of his duties, the sub-agency was discontinued and all duties, public funds and property of the office returned to Captain Casey.14 It was another case of a person with an indequate background being appointed to a governmental post and by several actions showing his unfitness.
FOOTNOTES 1 Samuel Spencer to Thomas Ewing, Secretary of the Interior June, 1849, Senate Executive Document 49, 31, Congress, 1st session, 107-108, hereafter cited as SED 49. 2 Ewing to Spencer, June 7, 1849, SED 49, 108. 3 The hurricane of September 25, 1848 destroyed most of Fort Brooke and it took some time to rebuild what had been swept away by the wind and water. Karl Grismer, Tampa: A History of the City of Tampa and the Tampa Bay Region of Florida (St. Petersburg, 1950), 112-115. 4 Spencer to Ewing, June 29, 1849, SED 49, 109. 5 Thomas Pugh Kennedy had maintained a sutler's store at Fort Brooke during the final years of the Second Seminole War. In 1848 he opened a general store at Tampa in cooperation with John Darling and an Indian trading store at Charlotte Harbor. Grismer, Tampa, 313. 6 Actually the Green Corn Dance held during June or July of each year would have been an excellent opportunity to meet the Indians before they entered the area restricted only to the Indians. 7 Spencer to Ewing, June 25, 1849, SED 49, 111-112. 8 Commissioner of Indian Affairs Orlando Brown to Spencer July 25, 1849, SED 49, 113-114. 9 In 1842 the Indians had been given a 4,000,000 acre temporary "hunting and planting" reserve in southwestern Florida. In 1845 to protect the reserve from white intruders President James Polk had designated a twenty mile neutral 7one of more than 3,000,000 acres which was to the north of the reserve. 10 Commissioner of General Land Office J. Butterfield to Brown August 4, 1849, SED 49, 114-115. 11 Spencer to Brown, September 15, 1849, and Brown to Spencer September 13, [sic] 1849, SED 49, 138. 12 Spencer to Brown, October 1, 1849, SED 49, 138-139. 13 Brown to Ewing, September 19, 1849, SED 49, 139. 14 Ewing to Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs A.S. Loughery, September 27, 1849, SED 49, 140.
Legalized Gambling: Where Shall We Stop? THE DAY THE GAMBLERS TRIED TO BRIBE THE GOVERNOR OF FLORIDA By HAMPTON DUNN "It is unsound and unwise from an economic, political or moral standpoint to commit the State to a partnership in legalized gambling in any form. If we start with parimutuels, where shall we stop?" GOVERNOR DOYLE E. CARLTON, SR. "interested parties were buying their way through the legislature."
That was the question Gov. Doyle E. Carlton asked in May, 1931, in a message to the Legislature vetoing a proposition that Florida get into the gambling business. The lawmakers, hard-pressed for revenue to finance government during the depth of the national depression, overrode the Governor's veto by a margin of a single switched Senate vote. In 1966, 35 years later, the Governor, an active and successful Tampa lawyer, was still asking the question, "Where shall we stop?" He was against the latest idea to extend Florida's gambling enterprises: Creation of a State lottery. The lottery proposal another in a series of efforts to get the State deeper into the gambling operations. Racing dates have been greatly expanded since the original bill was passed. (At first, it was believed Dade County would be the only place where pari-mutuel betting would be permitted; today there are 14 or more counties involved.) Movements spring up repeatedly to legalize bingo and "Guest", to authorize open casinos, and other means of making a quick buck for the State, and, not so incidentally, operators of the gambling affairs. The lottery proposal became a reality in Florida in 1987 and will kickoff in 1988. The State of New Hampshire broke the ice in the 1960s and established the country's first legal lottery since 1894. The additional gambling activity in a tourist state comes despite a long history of scandal that has rocked legislative control of the industry in Florida. And, when I interviewed Governor Carlton in 1966, he revealed for the first time publicly that an effort was made to bribe him to allow passage of the origin, al pari-mutuel bill in 1931. The brazen proposition was made by an emissary for the gambling interests who called on the Governor in his office one sweltering day that Summer. Recalling those trying times, Carlton reminisced: "I vetoed the racing bill at that time. As a matter of fact the interested parties were buying their way through the Legislature. I refused to be a part of such methods. "After the bill was passed I did not sign it although I received letters and telegrams from all over requesting that I do so. Finally, one gentleman came into my office, and asked, 'You know what your name is worth today?' "I replied, 'I don't know what you mean.' "He said, 'It is worth $100,000 on this racing bill.' "I answered, 'If it's worth that much I believe I'll keep it. It's worth more to me than anyone else.' I promptly vetoed the bill." Carlton added, "If the bill had been passed without purchase and in a straight, honorable way, I might have let it pass without my signature." The ex-Governor, his alert mind flashing back three and a half decades, recalled: "Frankly, I'm not so bitterly opposed to racing. It provides entertainment, relaxation and is a tourist attraction." He related, with a proud smile, how he won a large trophy for racing his own horse at the Florida State Fair track shortly after he'd been nominated for Governor in 1928.
In his veto message, the Governor stated: "Personally, I love sport, especially racing; have many times wished that this sport might be conducted free from the vicious and corrupting influence of commercialized gambling ." Carlton's message continued, "Certainly any business in which the profits of one are measured by the losses of another, with heavy overhead upon the two; which invites personal delinquency, arouses charges and makes for official corruption; which is known to disorganize, disrupt and destroy the fundamentals of all true progress, earns little right to a permanent place in the building plan of a great state." In his 1931 message, the Governor also noted that he had received a telegram from the Attorney General of Kentucky urging him to veto the measure. The telegram bluntly stated: "Betting pari-mutuels on race tracks in Kentucky is demoralizing. Advocates of racing active in Kentucky politics." Although the Legislature overrode him, Carlton received the plaudits from much of the public. One citizen wrote a newspaper editor, saying, "His (Carlton's) stock has skyrocketed in the estimation of multiplied thousands over our great state incident to his noble and far-reaching stand on the race track question. He is every inch a man, and if we had even a tithe of public officials of Governor Carlton's caliber, then we would the more quickly recover from the labryrinth of distrust and nameless confusion in which we find ourselves." The prospect of easy money had wide appeal during the depression period and the Governor warned the legislators, "We can ill afford to lose our bearings even in times of distress and forsake the principles which have the approval and sanction of the past." Carlton had cut his own salary, from $9,000 a year to $7,500, and furnished his own car while serving as Governor to help meet the emergency. He recalled that more than 80 per cent of the bonds issued by local governments were in default at the time. Many a greenback has slipped through the windows since race track betting was legalized. It has brought in considerable income to the counties, which split the take evenly 67 ways, and has provided many "goodies" for the small counties, especially. It is generally accepted that the rural counties "sold out" in the race track fight to insure their counties a pile of easy money each year. Florida did not stop with the legalizing of pari-mutuel wagering. In 1935 still in the throes of an economic depression the State legalized slot machines, the notorious "one-armed bandits." What happened? A legislator who led in the fight to repeal the slots in the 1937 session was LeRoy Collins, later a Governor (1955-1961). Collins described the result of legalizing the "bandits": "Gamblers and unsavory underworld characters infiltrated the state from all over the country. Crime rates jumped. Delinquency increased. Disrespect for law spread over our state in a wave. One could almost feel the moral strength of the state ebbing away." P.T.A. members appeared before legislative committees telling of small children going hungry because their nickels and dimes went into the slot machines in the corner grocery on the way to school. State Rep. Raymond Sheldon of Tampa shocked fellow House members with the revelation that a Hyde Park woman had killed herself after she
poured $600 she had borrowed to consolidate her debts into the one-armed bandits. When the 1937 Legislature rolled around, public pressure was so intense the slots were outlawed, and the then Gov. Fred P. Cone signed the bill with the pronouncement: "We don't want slot machine revenue! We don't need it!" Gambling remained prominent in the official news off and on through the years. The 1947 and 1949 sessions of the Legislature were rocked by scandals concerned with efforts to pass anti-bookie legislation. One of the most surprising, if not most jolting, developments on the gambling front came in September 1958, when the Dade County Commission passed, 3 to 2, on first reading, an ordinance authorizing legal casino gambling. One of the promoters of this effort was the popular former world's heavyweight boxing champion, Jack Dempsey. Collins was Governor then. He hit the ceiling. "What on earth have they been smoking down there?" the Governor screamed from Tallahassee. The Miamians quickly retreated and Dempsey and his pals were knocked out. Collins publicly proclaimed: "Florida, so long as I am Governor, will never permit itself to be turned into a vast gambling casino after the Las Vegas model." He also added that our mutuels are "clean" and he was not crusading to abolish them, but "I have said frankly, and I will say it here again, that Florida would be better off if it had no parimutuel betting." Collins lumped the gambling lure for tourists in the same category as "quickie" divorces. He asked the Legislature to take the State out of the quickie divorce business. Collins reported later: "What we lose in income, we shall gain in integrity." And former State School Superintendent Floyd Christian once cited history showing that a lottery was authorized around 1831 by the Territorial Assembly to establish a public school at Quincy and another school at St. Augustine. But history doesn't record any funds collected from the lottery, he said. It has been reported that a lottery financed the first court house for Duval County. Lottery advocates quote former President Truman's remark, "When the Federal government gets behind it (a national lottery) and everybody knows it is absolutely fair, it isn't gambling." Opponents have some favorite passages to quote, also. Lord Chesterfield in the 18th Century admonished: "A lottery is a tax on all the fools in creation." George Washington branded legalized gambling as "the child of avarice, the brother of iniquity, and the father of mischief." And Thomas Jefferson scolded: "Gambling corrupts our dispositions and teaches us a habit of hostility against all mankind." Legalized lottery got a bad name in this country from the experience of the notorious Louisiana Lottery. That was chartered by the State in the chaos following the Civil War and operated for 25 years, reaching a $50 million gross. The Lottery paid only $40,000 a year to a New Orleans hospital, while the profits were in the millions and the operators reportedly bribed and chiseled their way into control of the state government.
Besides the sordid story of political manipulation, the lottery presented the pathetic spectacle of two impoverished Confederate generals P.G.T. Beauregard and Jubel Early selling their services and heroic names to the lottery company for salaries of $30,000 a year each. They drew the lucky numbers. Finally, by 1892, the stench got so bad it took on nationwide proportions and the charter was revoked. The lottery company moved its operation to Honduras. But the company turned out its official tickets from a large printing plant in Port Tampa City in Florida. The company also operated a steamship, the Sweet Water, out of Port Tampa. The company's president, Paul Conrad, made his home in Tampa during the time that the lottery operated in Honduras. The State Legislature took a dim view of the operation in Florida and passed a law providing stiff penalties for "the setting up or drawing of lotteries, or aiding by writing or printing in the setting up of lotteries in this state." (The State Constitution had always prohibited lotteries.) So the plant was dismantled, the equipment shipped away, and the building passed along to the Catholic Church for a school, on the site of the present public school. And so goes the story of legalized gambling in Florida. Like the weather, the subject seems to always be with us. And many Florida citizens still echo former Governor Carlton in asking the question: "Where shall we stop?"
THIS IS THE WAY IT WAS IN TAMPA ONE HUNDRED AND TEN YEARS AGO By GEORGE W. WELLS EDITOR'S NOTE This interesting description of Tampa in 1877 comes from a publication, Facts for Immigrants, and in the words of its author "Comprising a truthful description of Hillsboro County." It was written by George W. Wells of Alafia, Hillsborough County. Note that this describes the county long before Pinellas County pulled away from us in 1912. Our thanks for this article goes to Richard D. Flemings, Tampa CPA, who made it available to us. In describing Hillsboro County, we must take it by its natural division. Tampa Bay, by extending into the land, makes a COUNTY SEAT EXHIBITS A VERY NICE COURT-HOUSE' -Stereo View by James C. Field from Florida Photographic Archives and the HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION
considerable point on the west, and is known as the Clear Water side. A harbor of that name gives name, also, to the whole coast, and in fact the whole of the western portion goes by the name of Clear Water. This division of the county in the variety and superiority of its tropical and semitropical fruits is unsurpassed. It is noted as a healthy region, and furnishes excellent water, free from lime. The waters of the Bay and Gulf abound in choice fish and oysters. The oysters in Old Tampa Bay will compare favorably with any in the world. The society is good, and there is no lack of churches and schools. There is every prospect for one railroad, at least, whose terminus will be on this coast. A survey has been made through the "neck" down to Point Pinallis [sic], where there is a good harbor and deep water. Ships of heavy tonnage many safely come within a few yards of the shore. The land in this section is well adapted to farming, producing freely fine sea island cotton and sweet potatoes, and on some soils good crops of corn are grown. As fine vegetables as ever grew in the county, were made at Clear Water Harbor. Moneyed men and capitalists, being influenced by the misrepresentations of some persons, have been deterred from visiting this section; but, notwithstanding all the impediments thrown in the way, the Old Tampa Neck is rapidly improving. Abroad, this portion is termed poor and unsuited to the wants of the farmer, but the lands are far superior to the lands on the St. Johns river and the lakes in the interior of the State, that have sold for twenty-five, and even fifty, dollars per acre. Chills and fever, and the insects incident to such a climate, seldom visit this section, and should isolated cases occur, they are regarded as sporadic and intrusive. Many families have never required a mosquito bar for protection in their slumbers. It is a remarkable fact that persons who have lived a few years at Clear Water Harbor, and then moved away to other parts, have returned and settled for life. I believe that this portion of Hillsboro county can produce as great a variety of fruits as any section in South Florida-though there may be some varieties in other parts not be found here. The Clear Water region might be termed a peninsula. It is thirty miles long, and is bounded on the east by Tampa Bay, and on the west by the Gulf, along whose coast is the famous Clear Water Harbor. It has a coast of seventy or eighty miles in extent, and is almost surrounded by salt water, which makes the situation peculiarly pleasant and favorable to fruit culture, as it is less affected by cold than places forty miles to the east, and spring is two weeks earlier. As this harbor is a convenient point for shipping, an abundance of fruits and vegetables find their way to Key West and other markets, and are sold at remunerative prices. Tampa is a small city, situated at the mouth of Hillsboro river, containing six or eight hundred inhabitants. The citizens of the place and vicinity are generous-hearted to the stranger, and the traveling public will find as ample accommodations as in any place in the State. You will find here men of capital and liberality. They favor and aid any enterprise that looks to the improvement of their town, and they are immigrants from every section of the Union. There are in Tampa ten or twelve wholesale and retail stores, two or three druggists, besides saloons and other little shops, and three hotels, where every accommodation, in any shape and form that can be desired, is found. Several good physicians reside here, although the health of the place is such that
one is seldom called; notwithstanding, their presence, in cases of accidents, is highly necessary. Tampa affords one blacksmith, and his superior cannot be found. He is skillful, attentive and prompt, and in his store you may find anything in his line, from a fish-hook to a sheet anchor. There are several other mechanics-such as carpenters, painters, masons, saddlers, cabinet makers and tinners. Tampa is the county seat of Hillsboro county, and exhibits a very nice court-house. Several societies exist here, both religious and literary, which fact speaks well for the morals of the citizens. Two newspapers, one Democratic and the other Republican, are issued weekly. The trade of this port is considerable, and commands the produce of the interior as far out as forty miles; and until Leesburg, in Sumter county, was established, people came as far as one hundred miles with their produce. The commerce of the place has not been lessened, either by Leesburg or Manatee, for as many new-comers settled within the scope of trade as drew off to the above-named new markets. The shipping tonnage I am not prepared to give in figures, but will state that three steamers and several respectable schooners touch at this place daily and weekly. Two mail routes, one by water (weekly), the other by land (tri-weekly), supply the place with the latest news, and place Tampa in connection with the outside world. Over the land route the mail is carried in a hack or stage. You may truly suppose that traveling is pretty rough over the rooty roads of the country. The item of roads, I am sorry to say, does not show as favorably as one might wish, but the country is not very hilly or rocky. A few bridges over the branches, creeks and small rivers would considerably add to the speed and comfort in traveling to and from Tampa, and through the country generally. It is evident to everybody that nothing is wanted in this country so much as a railroad. Tampa is a delightful resort for invalids, and many would come on the cars who cannot travel on water. Hillsboro river is not a large stream, yet small boats may ascend it three or four miles. At Tampa it widens into a small bay, and boats of several tons can approach the wharves. Large vessels find it inconvenient to come to the wharf, and therefore anchor off some three or four miles, and are relieved of their passengers and freight by the use of smaller ones, which are always ready for the business. Nothing of much important can be said of the Hillsboro river, only that a few lumbermen find employment by rafting lumber down the stream to the saw-mills in Tampa. The large cypress trees formerly were made valuable by the labors of the shingle-maker and the cooper, but I believe they have been drawn upon so heavily that what remains is not worthy of notice. There are some lands up and down this river suitable both for farming and fruit-raising. The range along this river was formerly very good for stock, but has failed to a considerable extent, except near the head, which is yet very good for hogs. The Alafia river and vicinity now claim our attention. This river is not very long, but is made by the confluence of several small streams, which, by their united waters in the rainy season, render it in many places impassable. A few good bridges would remove this difficulty, and traveling would never be impeded by high water. It empties into Tampa Bay about ten miles southeast of Tampa. The lands near the mouth of this river have already received the attention of several good men, who are able to appreciate the natural resources of the country. They have flocked to that point lately, and now nearly every place eligible
for location has been secured. The visitor would certainly conclude that they "mean business". The mouth of this river is coming rapidly into notice, and if capital, energy and industry are brought to act in conjunction with the natural facilities of the place, nothing is wanting but time to make this one of the great marts of the South. The fertility of the soil, the good harbor, the several good fisheries, all tend to favor the idea of its increasing importance. Two or three stores and one turpentine still are already in operation. The river and vicinity are well timbered, abounding in cypress, yellow, and pitch pine. It is navigable for small boats as faar as Bell's creek, a distance of nine miles. It can be cleaned out and made navigable forty or fifty miles; and as soon as the country is settled, this will be done, and then it will equal or surpass the St. John's, for it has a large scope of back country to maintain it, and as the country is being settled, the trade will increase; and, if our winters do not prove fatal to the orange family in the future, in a few years great quantities of fruit will be ready to ship from this point. This portion of the county is very pleasant and agreeable. It is well watered and healthy; the range is somewhat eaten out, but stock do very well yet, especially on the southeast side. There yet remains a large amount of both State and United States lands subject to either homestead or entry. Game is somewhat scarce, but fish abound chiefly the salt water varieties. Near this river, about twenty miles from its mouth, Mr. A. Wordehoff, an old and well-known citizen, has resided for more than twenty-five years, and has made an independent living; what any man may do in South Florida by using a little industry and management. His is a noted place on this river, and has been known as the Alafia Post-office. He has been for a number of years, and is yet, the Postmaster. On both sides of this (Alafia) river, from its head to its mouth, are a great many creeks and branches, which empty into it, making it a well watered country for stock. The same may be said of all rivers in this country. Hillsboro is bounded on the north by Hernando county, on the east by Polk county, and on the south and west by the Gulf of Mexico. This county in the last few years has become very thickly settled, comparatively considered; notwithstanding, there is room for many more good citizens, who are always welcomed. The number of inhabitants, mostly white, is about six thousand.
Meet The Authors DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON is Dana Professor of history at the University of Tampa and a past president of Tampa Historical Society. He received the D.B. McKay Award for his contributions to Florida history. Dr. Covington has written five books the most recent The Billy Bowlegs War and many scholarly articles. HAMPTON DUNN for more than 50 years has been prominent in the communications fields of journalism, radio and television broadcasting and public relations in Florida. For years he was managing editor of The Tampa Daily Times, has been a commentator for WCKT-TV in Miami, was for nearly three decades an executive of the Peninsula Motor Club (AAA) and continues as a AAA consultant. Currently, he also has a regular Florida history segment on WTVT-TV, Channel 13, Tampa. He is author of more than a dozen books on Florida history, his newest being Florida-A Pictorial History. Active in many historical and preservation groups, Dunn is President-Elect of the Florida Historical Society. He also serves as editor of The Sunland Tribune. Tampa College conferred on Dunn an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters when he was commencement speaker in 1987. He was a Major in the Air Force in the Mediterranean Theater during World War II. AUGUSTUS T. GALLUP was born in Bridgeport, Conn., in 1943. He moved to the Tampa Bay area in 1968, and attended St. Petersburg Junior College and the University of South Florida, majoring in fine arts. He has been represented in many Southeastern art shows and had several one man shows in St. Petersburg in the early 1970's. He has worked in the insurance industry for the past 19 years, but continues his active interest in drawing and painting. He currently resides in Denver, Colorado, with his wife, Sharon, who is also from Tampa. COVINGTON DERVAES DUNN
LELAND HAWES, JR. is a native Tampan who grew up in Thonotosassa, where he published a weekly newspaper at age 11. A graduate of the University of Florida in 1950, he worked as a reporter for The Tampa Daily Times for two years, then for The Tampa Tribune in various capacities since then. For the last several years he has been writing a history/nostalgia page. HILARY JAMESON is a member of the Classroom Teachers Association, The Florida Art Education Association, The Florida Adult Education Association, The Florida Association for Community Education, the Plant Museum, the S.chool E.cnrichment R.esource V.olunteers in E.ducation, the Smithsonian Association., the Tampa Historical Society and the Tampa Museum. She is a graduate of the University of Vermont and the University of South Florida where she earned her M.A. in 1984. She is an art instructor at Tampa's Henry B. Plant High School. KENNETH W. MULDER a native Tampan, has had a lifetime interest in the history of Tampa and the Tampa Bay area. His research has included the works of other authors on the Tampa Bay area with special emphasis on the explorations of Hernando de Soto. He has personally explored all of the remaining Caloosa and Timucuan mounds in the area and confirmed much of his study with visits to Spain, Mexico, Caribbean and Bahamas. He served as President of the Tampa Historical Society from 1979 to 1981, and served as Treasurer and a Trustee of the Henry B. Plant Museum. He is currently a member of the Hillsborough County Historical Commission. He has published several works on the Timucuan and Caloosa Indians of early Florida. His recent work was the publishing of the Tampa Historical Guide now in its 4th reprint. THOMAS J. O'CONNOR a native New Yorker, came to Tampa in 1945. He went to work as a reporter for The Tampa Tribune and joined the staff of The Tampa Daily Times, rejoined the Tribune in 1953. He joined the staff of the Tampa Port Authority in 1986 as director of administration. He is married to the former Jacqueline Holdstock of Tampa. GALLUP HAWES JAMESON
TONY PIZZO first president of Tampa Historical Society and a recipient of the D.B. McKay Award, is a native of Ybor City and author of Tampa Town 1824-1886 and co-author of Tampa, The Treasure City. He is a retired executive of Fruit Wines of Florida. Pizzo was named Tampa's outstanding citizen by the Civitan Club in 1956 and Ybor City's "Man of the Year" in 1954, 1976 and 1985. He holds the official designation County Historian. ARSENIO M. SANCHEZ a native of West Tampa, grew up in the Macfarlane Park area. Attended Jesuit High School, and was graduated from Plant High School in 1937. Served in the Navy with the Seabees in World War 11, and was graduated from the University of Florida in 1951. Employed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for 23 years and retired in 1978. His interest in history lead him to write historical articles. ROBERT E. SIMS is a member of the Tampa and the Florida Historical Societies. He has lived most of his life in Hillsborough County and now calls Brandon his home. A retired member of the Tampa Police Department, he now finds time to devote to his study of local history and to the writing of articles pertaining to his research. MULDER PIZZO SANCHEZ SIMS OCONNOR
DON CURLEY GRAY Florida s Foremost Collector of Aboriginal Artifacts A portion of Mr. Gray s Pre-Columbia and Early Spanish Collection is presently on exhibition at the 'H6RWR1DWLRQDO0HPRULDO6KDZV3RLQW 6RXWK6LGH0RXWKRIWKH0DQDWHH5LYHULQ%UDGHQWRQ Fla. (Read Finder of the Forgotten and the Unfindable by Kenneth W. Mulder, Page 13). Photo by CARL PRIMMER
1987 SUNLAND TRIBUNE PATRONS Tampa Historical Society wishes to express its sincere thanks to the following individuals and organizations who have generously contributed $25.00 or more for the publication costs of this issue of he Sunland Tribune Mrs. LeRoy Allen Dr. Mark V. Barrow Daniel Boone, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Joe C. Byars Annie-Kate Carpenter Dr. & Mrs. David E. Cavanagh JoAnn H. Cimino Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Clarke Dr. & Mrs. M. D. Clayton James A. & Barbara Clendinen Col. & Mrs. James Cline Evelyn Cole LeRoy Collins Molly C. Corum Mr. & Mrs. B. W. Council Mr. & Mrs. Francis L. Coune Dr. & Mrs. James Covington Mr. & Mrs. Paul W. Danahy, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Bobbie C. Davis Mr. & Mrs. John A. Diaz, Sr. Mr. & Mrs. Eugene B. Dodson Mr. & Mrs. Donald C. Evans Mr. & Mrs. Robert Evans Mrs. David A. Falk Mr. & Mrs. J. Rex Farrior, Sr. Mrs. Sam M. Ferlita Marjorie A. Gay Mrs. Paul L. Gloger Mr. & Mrs. Paul H. Gonzalez Mrs. Donn Gregory Frances M. Hackney Mr. & Mrs. Lon Hatton Leland M. Hawes, Jr. Mrs. L. M. Hawes Gerald R. Herms Mrs. Willard T. Hicks Mr. & Mrs. John Hilburn Mrs. George Hurner Dr. & Mrs. James M. Ingram Mr. & Mrs. John A. Jones David C.G. Kerr Mr. & Mrs. Guy King Mrs. Lawson Kiser Mr. & Mrs. C. L. Knight Mr. & Mrs. Julian B. Lane Jimmy & Idalyne Lawhon Mr. & Mrs. Syd Lenfestey Mrs. S. L. Lowry Charles P. Lykes Marie W. Major Mr. & Mrs. Ralph A. Marsicano Marguerite Marunda Donald W. McKay Mr. & Mrs. Howell A. McKay Mr. & Mrs. John H. McKay Mr. & Mrs. Armando Mendez Mr. & Mrs. Ralph P. Millsap Judge & Mrs. Neil C. McMullen Mr. & Mrs. Ashby Moody Mr. & Mrs. J. A. Mook, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth W. Mulder Harris H. Mullen Mrs. Eleanor G. Murray Mr. & Mrs. Pat Murphy Miss Elia Napoli Mr. & Mrs. T. Burt Nelson Mrs. & Mrs. C. D. Newbern Constance G. Newton Mr. & Mrs. Lester Olson Kime Lea Pinero Mr. & Mrs. Anthony Pizzo Emilio Pons Helen C. Price Stephen P. Ramey Gladys R. Randell Mr. & Mrs. W. H. Reynolds Mr. & Mrs. Carl D. Riggs Mr. & Mrs. Frank L. Rosenblatt Gloria C. Runton Mr. & Mrs. E. J. Salcines
Mr. & Mrs. Arsenio Sanchez The Saunders Foundation Dr. & Mrs. Paul J. Schmidt Mr. & Mrs. Robert Sims Mr. & Mrs. Donald F. Sink E. W. Sisson Mr. & Mrs. Peter S. Skemp Mrs. Benjamin T. Smith Mr. & Mrs. Lamar Sparkman Mr. & Mrs. C. G. Spicola, Jr. Dick & Raymetta Stowers Tampa Chamber of Commerce Mr. & Mrs. J. H. Tanner Charlotte Anne Thompson Mr. & Mrs. J. Thomas Touchton Anne D. Tuttle Martha C. Ward L. Glenn Westwall Dr. & Mrs. 0. D. Wetherell Mr. & Mrs. Paul R. Wharton Harry B. White Dr. Harold & Kathy Williamson Mr. & Mrs. G. Pierce Wood, Jr. Dr. & Mrs. H. E. Woodward Mr. & Mrs. Victor Yeats D.B. McKAY AWARD RECIPIENTS 1972 Frank Laumer 1973 State Senator David McClain 1974 Circuit Judge James R. Knott 1975 Gloria Jahoda 1976 Harris H. Mullen 1977 Dr. James W. Covington 1978 Hampton Dunn 1979 William M. Goza 1980 Tony Pizzo 1981 Allen and Joan Morris 1982 Mel Fisher 1983 Marjory Stoneman Douglas 1984 Frank Garcia 1985 Former Gov. LeRoy Collins 1986 Dr. Samuel Proctor 1987 Doyle E. Carlton, Jr.