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The sunland tribune

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Title:
The sunland tribune
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Serial
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English
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Tampa Historical Society
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Tampa Historical Society.
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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History -- Periodicals -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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usfldc doi - S57-v14n1_88-000
usfldc handle - s57.v14n1_88-
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SFS0024297:00014


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THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE Volume XIV November, 1988 Journal of the TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Tampa, Florida HAMPTON DUNN Editor Officers 1987-88 SAM LATIMER President TERRY GREENHALGH Vice President FLORENCE G. MURPHY Recording Secretary ANNIE-KATE CARPENTER Corresponding Secretary SUSANNE DORTCH Treasurer Board of Directors Mary Brown James Judy James King Lois Latimer Dr. Chas. Martin, Jr. Raymond Miller Barbara Reeves Arsenio M. Sanchez Robert Sims Nancy Skemp Margaret V. Smith Headquarters 245 S. Hyde Park Avenue Tampa, FL 33606 Phone (813) 2 59-1111 Table of Contents TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY LOSES ITS PRESIDENT SAMUEL I. LATIMER INSIDE FRONT COVER TAMPA'S WOMEN'S CLUBS, 1900-1930 By Maryclaire Crake 2 MRS. JULIA NORRIS WAS A DEVOTED TAMPA CLUBWOMAN By Hampton Dunn 7 OUR'COVER LADY': GAYLE SIERENS 7 FORT BROOKE: THE FIRST TEN YEARS By Tony Pizzo 8 REMEMBERING A FALLEN SPARROW By Paul Wilborn 15 FROM TROLLEYS TO BUSES AND IN BETWEEN By Robert E. Sims 16 HISTORICAL SOCIETY BENEFACTOR, PETER 0. KNIGHT, JR., DIES AT 85 21 CORNERSTONE FOR TAMPA BAY HOTEL LAID 100 YEARS AGO BUT WHERE IS IT? By Hampton Dunn 22 TAMPA PASTIMES: SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR 25 MIAMI WAS CROSSROADS CITY OF THE AIR DURING WORLD WAR II By Wayne Bevis 26 IT'S TIME HILLSBOROUGH ESTABLISHED A HISTORY MUSEUM Editorial from The Tampa Tribune 30 TAMPANS VISIT MIAMI FOR IDEAS 30 COFFEE TABLE SIZE, THIS VOLUME IS A'LAP BOOK' OF ENJOYMENT By Joe Hipp 32 LEGEND OF GASPAR REMAINS WITH US By Hampton Dunn 33 THOMAS P. KENNEDY: INDIAN TRADER By Dr. James W. Covington 34 MEET THE AUTHORS 37 CENTRO ESPANOL DE YBOR CITY BECOMES NATIONAL LANDMARK 38 STATE OF FLORIDA SHOULD BUY YBOR CITY'S CENTRO ESPANOL Editorial from The Tampa Tribune 39 SMOKING GUNS OF TAMPA By Lula Joughin Dovi 40 SILHOUETTES: LELAND HAWES By Vicki DeSormier 42 THONOTOSASSA LAD, 12, IS WHOLE NEWSPAPER, BUT HE COVERS THE FIELD 43

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TAMPA PASTIME: KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS 45 GEORGE HORATIO PACKWOOD, SR.-TAMPA'S FORGOTTEN PIONEER By Ernest Packwood MacBryde 46 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MY COMMUNITY By Mamie Jackson Hall 48 THE FOUNDING OF JACKSON HEIGHTS By Virginia I. Hall 50 WAS SUCCESS A SUCCESS? By Edward A. Mueller 54 1988 SUNLAND TRIBUNE PATRONS 56 D.B. McKAY AWARD RECIPIENTS 56

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AMONG PIONEER TAMPA WOMEN CIVIC LEADERS TAMPA'S WOMENS CLUBS, 1900-1930 By MARYCLAIRE CRAKE The women's clubs movement in Tampa flourished during the early years of the twentieth century. From 1900 to 1930, the activities of local women's organizations broadened, membership rolls increased, and members became extremely influential not only in their communities, but throughout the state and country. In addition, through the establishment of city, county and state federations, women's associations combined individual clubs into cohesive organizations that battled for common interests, creating a powerful lobby for the passage of laws important to women. In the early 1900s, women's organizations were devoted mostly to the arts. One of the oldest Tampa clubs was the Friday Morning Musicale. Founded in 1902, the Musicale's organizational meeting was held at the Twiggs Street home of Mrs. W. H. Ferris, an outstanding music teacher and organist for St. Andrew's Episcopal Church. The first officers selected by the sixteen charter members included: Mrs. Ferris, president; Mrs. Charles Marshall, vice-president; Miss Frances Louise Dodge, secretary; and Mrs. Douglas Conoley, treasurer.1 MRS. WILLIE LOWRY MISS KATE V. JACKSON -Photo courtesy o f LU DOVI MRS. AMOS H. NORRIS -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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At each Musicale meeting, a specific composer received the attention of clubwomen. The program consisted of a roll call to which members responded with bits of musical news, a paper about the chosen composer's life, followed by four musical numbers selected from the composer's works. The early Musicale also categorized members into musical departments piano, soprano, contralto and chorus. As the club expanded, additional departments were added including violin, orchestra and organ.2 'GREAT MUSICAL TREAT' Only five years after the club's founding, members of the Musicale secured a contract with Madame Marc Ella Sembrich guaranteeing her $2,250 to perform a concert at the Tampa Bay Casino. Since the total contract amount would be derived from ticket receipts, the Musicale assumed no financial obligation. In announcing that Madame Sembrich would sing in Tampa, the Tampa Morning Tribune captioned her front-page picture with the words, "World's Greatest Singer Coming Here." By securing an opportunity for Tampans to hear Madame Sembrich sing, the Musicale clubwomen achieved an artistic coup. Sembrich had performed in Paris, London and New York, and there was a worldwide demand for her appearance. The Tribune noted that few great singers would have responded so graciously as Madame Sembrich since in Tampa there was "no stepping stone to higher fame, nor any original jury to write a world verdict of approval." The Tribune also paid tribute to the women of the Musicale by thanking them for a "great musical treat.3 WOMEN SOUGHT USE OF OLD HOSPITAL BUILDING Florida Fair Snakes Gordon Keller Away -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Although numerous clubwomen devoted their time and talents to artistic endeavors, others promoted philanthropic goals. The Tampa Civic Association, for example, worked to cultivate high ideals of civic pride and promote the improvement of home and community surroundings along with better living conditions. Organized by Kate V. Jackson in the spring of 1911, the first officers of Tampa Civic included Miss Jackson, president; Mrs. W. S. Oppenheimer, vice-president; Mrs. Willis B. Powell, community vice-president; Mrs. Sydney B. Gibbons, correspondence secretary; Miss Elizabeth Askew, executive secretary; and Miss Maggie Belle Varty, treasurer.4 PLAYGROUNDS FOR KIDS One of Tampa Civic's most important projects was securing public playgrounds for the children of Tampa. Soon after the organization of the club, the members adopted a playground resolution requesting that the city council purchase selected playground sites. To attract attention to their project, the clubwomen regularly attended city council meetings for several weeks and presented the councilmen with their club's playground resolution. The clubwomen insisted that they would continue to attend (even if it meant delaying their summer vacation) until the city council took definite Musicale and Federation to Meet Here CLIPPING from The Tampa Daily Times, June 27, 1927, shows architect Frank Dunham's plans for club house for Friday Morning Musicale and Federation of Women's Clubs on Horatio St. The structure was expected to cost $50,000.

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action. In 1913, the council did so, approving the purchase of three playground sites. The following year, with equipment provided by Tampa Civic, the first playground opened.5 Clubwomen were also staunch supporters of public libraries. Most clubs had a book collection pertaining to their own interests and activities. Although many of the club libraries were open to the public, members of Tampa's women's clubs saw the need for a larger and more diversified institution. As a result, local women's organizations worked to secure a Carnegie library for the city. In 1912, Andrew Carnegie agreed to furnish $50,000 to the city of Tampa to build a free public library. Carnegie's only requirements were that city officials pledge to support the institution with no less than $5,000 a year and provide a suitable site for the building.6 Tampa's clubwomen, organized into a library association, worked diligently to gain city council's acceptance of Carnegie's gift. Public disagreements erupted over the issue, however. A local insurance agent went so far as to file suit to prevent the city of Tampa from accepting the Carnegie library. The petition for injunction requested that the library question be thoroughly tested by a public referendum.7 LOOKING GIFT HORSE IN MOUTH In October 1912, a special election was scheduled to decide the fate of Tampa's library. Voter approval, however, remained in doubt. The very name Carnegie antagonized many of the city's working class residents who were angered by the philanthropist's anti-labor activities. In addition, many citizens of Tampa still questioned whether signing a contract with Carnegie would truly benefit the city. They questioned his integrity and feared he might attempt to seize control of not only the library but also the city. Members of Tampa's women's clubs assured voters that Tampa, not Carnegie, would own the property and that the library did not even have to recognize Carnegie in its name but could be called the Tampa Public Library. The Tampa Morning Tribune concurred with local clubwomen stating that "there is MRS. LYLE GRIFFIN MRS. ALBERT ADAMS MRS. S.W. JACKSON

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nothing in the contract that should be objectionable to any one and there are no strings to the gift of $50,000.8 18 The voters of Tampa narrowly approved the library referendum and agreed to accept Carnegie's gift, albeit not with open arms.9 By helping to acquire a library for their city, Tampa's clubwomen had taken bold steps into the arena of community activism. As their efforts expanded, so did the need for a women's club meeting hall. In 1915, Tampa's Woman's Club took the initiative in securing a clubhouse. It submitted a recommendation to its sister organizations suggesting that all clubs cooperate in leasing and remodeling the city park clubhouse in Tampa Bay Park.10 THE FIGHT GOES ON The women of the Friday Morning Musicale demurred, however, and decided that a remodeled building would not be adequate for their club's needs. Although opposing the Tampa Bay Park site, the Musicale clubwomen suggested another means of securing a clubhouse. All clubwomen could work toward obtaining sufficient names on a petition requesting a special election at which the voters would be asked to deed by gift a portion of Tampa Bay Park for the building of a suitable women's clubhouse. This suggestion aroused intense interest among those seeking a new women's club building.11 In March 1915, officers representing seven women's clubs appeared before the Board of Public Works requesting the land in Tampa Bay Park. Miss Mamie Dawson, president of the Musicale, explained the proposal. Members of the Board questioned whether the women should receive a lease and indicated that legally they could only lease property for ten years. The board at first appeared willing to accommodate the women but requested a definite proposition in writing before taking action.12 When, however, the clubwomen presented the board with the necessary written document for purchasing the land, board members notified them that the property could not be sold at that time. As a result, the clubwomen abandoned plans to secure a new clubhouse and returned to the initial plan of remodeling the Plant Park facility.13 Still without the convenience of a clubhouse some years later, Tampa's women's organizations met to discuss the possibility of forming the first league of women's clubs. In February 1921, representatives from several women's clubs including the Friday Morning Musicale, the Tampa Civic Association, the Students' Art Club, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Tampa Woman's Club approved a motion creating the Tampa League of Women's Clubs. Officers for the first year were Mrs. W. F. Miller, president; Mrs. S. L. Lowry, Sr., first vice-president; Miss Elsie Hoyt, second vice-president; Mrs. C. J. Woodruff, third vice-president; Mrs. S. W. Jackson, recording secretary; Mrs. L. H. Lothridge, correspondence secretary; Miss Kate Jackson, treasurer; and Mrs. Albert Adams, auditor.14 KEYNOTES OF LEAGUE Community welfare and cooperation became the keynotes of the new League which sought to impart, encourage and promote the projects of all affiliated organizations without infringing on the work of individual clubs. The League worked to coordinate efforts of member clubs on questions vital to the home and the community, especially those affecting women and children. The

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members of the League agreed that unity through federation would not only benefit the clubs but also offer opportunities for promoting civic and social progress.15 The first project of the local League embodied these ideals of social improvement. Due to the prevalence of tuberculosis in Tampa during the 1920s, the League began a crusade to fight the disease. The League's social welfare department researched the problem with the assistance of Dr. J. R. Harris, city health officer, and found a high percentage of tuberculosis among children, especially in poorer families. In 1922, two hundred and ninety-seven children attended the city tuberculosis clinic. Dr. Harris informed the clubwomen that in order for the children to improve their strength, they needed nourishment provided by the intake of at least two quarts of milk per day for each child. The members of the League's social welfare department calculated that providing one child with two quarts of milk daily would cost approximately $7.50 each month per child an expense few poor families could afford. League members responded by starting a milk fund campaign.16 100 CENTS TO THE DOLLAR The League's chairperson for the milk fund, Mrs. C.A. Miles, assured the public that one hundred cents of every dollar contributed would go toward milk purchases. Members then distributed milk bottles as collection devices to local stores for voluntary contributions. The League also sponsored several plays and musical performances which raised over $2,000 for the milk fund.17 In addition to the milk fund, the clubwomen continued to pursue the task of building a clubhouse. In October of 1922, members of the Friday Morning Musicale voted to purchase a lot on the corner of Brevard and Horatio Streets for $4,000. In order to borrow money to erect the club's building, the Musicale had to be free from debt and functioning on a sound financial basis. For this purpose, the Musicale's newly formed finance committee recommended raising regular dues from $5 to $10 and adding a new clubhouse fee of $15 per year. Members also solicited donations from Tampa's business community and set up a citizen's patron list for those who contributed $50 per year toward the clubhouse fund.18 MORE MOVERS AND SHAKERS By October 1925, the building fund showed a balance of over $14,000. Several months later, the finance committee attempted to secure a $48,000 loan to meet construction costs. A reasonable interest rate, however, could not be secured which delayed construction once again.19 TAMPA BAY CASINO While working for their own clubhouse, the Musicale clubwomen subleased space at the Tampa Bay Casino from the League, now known as the Hillsborough County Federation of Women's Clubs. In the summer of 1927, the federation received notice that the entire building had been leased to the American Legion as a clubhouse, forcing both organizations to locate a new meeting place. Federation members then received an offer from the city commissioners to lease the old Gordon Keller Hospital located at the fairgrounds. They discussed with the Musicale the possibility of remodeling that

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building for use as a clubhouse. A few weeks later, however, the Fair Association objected to the lease being offered, stating that the fair needed the building for expansion. The women stood firm claiming the commissioners' offer took priority over the Fair Association's protest.20 To resolve the issue, the Fair Association offered the federation $10,000 in cash if they would surrender all claims to the lease. Federation members accepted the offer and met with members of the Musicale to discuss a possible partnership in constructing a jointly-owned clubhouse. After several meetings of both boards, the members decided to form a corporation to build a clubhouse on the lot owned by the Musicale. The clubhouse opened in October 1927 at 809 Horatio Street and is presently used by the Friday Morning Musicale, the Hillsborough County Federation of Women's Clubs, a local radio station and various other organizations.21 With the completion of the clubhouse building, Tampa's women's organizations focused additional attention on local problems. An issue brought before the Woman's Club in 1928 was dancing in public schools. The president of the Hillsborough High Parent-Teacher Association, Mrs. John T. Adams, requested that the school board permit the use of the school for a student dance with PTA members as chaperones. The board, however, upheld a long-standing 12 rule against dancing in school buildings.22 'EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY' Following this initial rejection, the PTA solicited assistance from the Tampa Woman's Club. Members of the Woman's Club adopted a resolution supporting the request of the PTA, which was presented to the board by Mrs. J.J. Saxton. She argued that students needed wholesome outlets for their youthful energies but also recognized that parents needed to know their children's whereabouts at all times. According to Mrs. Saxton, the Woman's Club viewed the dance as an educational opportunity through which the PTA would be "elevating the moral and social standards of the community's future citizens" by providing the proper surroundings under the right conditions and with the 11 supervision of parents and teachers at a social gathering of students." She urged the members of the school board to grant the request of the PTA and permit the use of the high school for student dances.23 Mrs. Saxton's resolution was opposed by Dr. Claude W. Duke of the Tampa Ministers Association. This organization supported the school authorities and urged the board of education to stand firm against efforts to divert "our tax supporting buildings from the purposes for which they were erected." Mrs. Amos Norris, another member of the Woman's Club, responded to Dr. Duke by stating that the school buildings belonged to the taxpayers and not to the school board and, therefore, the trustees were presumptuous in denying the use of the building to the PTA which was composed of property owners as well as parents. After reviewing both arguments, the school board still refused to permit student dancing in school buildings during the school term.24 Although unsuccessful in opening school buildings for student dances, the first thirty years of the twentieth century presented Tampa's clubwomen with opportunities and demands seldom envisioned by their founders. Women's clubs progressed from organizations dedicated to the arts to

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associations contributing to their local community's civic and social progress. Through individual organizations and particularly through the Hillsborough County Federation of Women's Clubs, members succeeded in numerous endeavors which gave practical meaning to the federation's motto, "In Unity There Is Strength." NOTES 1 Friday Morning Musicale History, 1902-43, Hillsborough County Federation of Women's Clubs Papers, Special Collections Department, University of South Florida Library, Tampa, Florida (Hereafter cited as HCFWCP). 2 Ibid. 3 Tampa Morning Tribune, March 23, 1907. 4 Tampa Civic 1911 Yearbook, HCFWCP. 5 Lula Joughin Dovi, "I Remember Aunt Kate," The Sunland Tribune, 4 (November 1978), p. 15. 6 Tampa Morning Tribune, October 20, 1912. 7 Tampa Morning Tribune, February 2, 1911. 8 Tampa Morning Tribune, October 25, 1912. 9 Tampa Morning Tribune, October 30, 1912. 10 Friday Morning Musicale History, 1902-1943, HCFWCP. 11 Ibid. 12 Tampa Morning Tribune, March 17, 1915. 13 Students' Art Club Minute Book, 1912-1923, HCFWCP. 14 Hillsborough County Federation of Women's Clubs Scrapbook, 1920-1935, HCFWCP. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 18 Friday Morning Musicale History, 1902-1943, HCFWCP. 19 Ibid. 20 Ibid. 21 The Friday Morning Musicale is presently pursuing a historic preservation grant-in-aid for the clubhouse. The Musicale requested over $188,000 for repairs. The structure is listed in the Hyde Park National Register District. Through the efforts of Mrs. John W. Rodgers, president of the Musicale and Federated Clubs, Inc. and Mrs. Irene Bradley, Musicale treasurer, numerous fund raising activities have been inaugurated. (Friday Morning Musicale Miscellaneous Papers, HCFWCP). 22 Tampa Morning Tribune, December 7, 1928. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. LIST OF REFERENCES Hillsborough County Federation of Women's Clubs Papers, Special Collections Department, University of South Florida Library, Tampa, Florida. Tampa Morning Tribune. Dovi, Lula Joughin. "I Remember Aunt Kate." The Sunland Tribune 4 (November 1978): 12-15.

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MRS. JULIA NORRIS WAS A DEVOTED TAMPA CLUB WOMAN By HAMPTON DUNN Julia Harrison Norris was a super-clubwoman. Her "charge" to serve her community, state and nation came from her parents, who held: "What talents my Heavenly Father has given to me were not for my benefit alone, but for those with whom I associated and lived, so it has been my desire in life always to be encouraging, forgiving, helpful, kind and understanding." She followed that pattern through the 89 years of her lifetime. Mrs. Norris was a native of Tampa, born in 187 5 to Judge Charles E. and Arianna Eliza (Givens) Harrison, truly pioneer citizens. She was the sixth generation of her family born in Florida! She was graduated from Hillsborough High School. ACTIVE IN POLITICS She was active in politics from the time women first obtained the ballot. She was instrumental in helping to change the City government of Tampa to the Commission form (since discarded) and eventually headed a Civil Service Board for 18 years. When the American Red Cross chapter was organized in Tampa during World War 1, Mrs. Norris became secretary and held the post until it became necessary to employ a fulltime person. She was a member of many Tampa organizations, heading the Hillsborough County Federation of Women's Clubs when the Federated Clubs Building was built at a cost of $50,000. A CONFEDERATE 'DAUGHTER' Mrs. Norris was especially devoted to the United Daughters of the Confederacy and in 1942 she rose to become an Honorary President of the U.D.C. nationally, and a Tampa chapter of the group is named in her honor. Her husband, Amos Hendry Norris, whom she married in 1893, once remarked, "She is a member of and works in many organizations but I am satisfied if she were cut into, after she passes away, they would find 'U.D.C.' engraved over her heart." Mrs. Norris also was active in the Daughters of the American Revolution, the American Legion Auxiliary, the Tampa Women's Club and an endless number of other clubs. She was a member of the First Methodist Church where she was a teacher in Sunday School for many years and was organist for that department. The energetic lady died in 1964. Her brother, Samuel G. Harrison, was Postmaster of Tampa for a number of years.

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'A Good Duty Post' FORT BROOKE: THE FIRST TEN YEARS By TONY PIZZO When the United States acquired Florida in 1821, the Tampa Bay region was intermittently infested with pirates, fugitive slaves, slave-smugglers, Indians, contrabandists and adventurers. Pirates and slave-raiders used the coves and inlets along the Gulf Coast for rendezvous and hideouts. The presence of these ruffians and the increasing resentment of the Seminole Indians towards the encroachment of white settlers posed a thorny problem for the United States. SPANISHTOWN CREEK FLOWED THROUGH HYDE PARK When American soldiers arrived in Tampa in 1824 to establish Fort Brooke, they found Spanish 'fish ranchos along Spanishtown Creek, which flowed through Hyde Park. This photograph was taken June 6, 1935, and shows the bridge at South Boulevard. A boy, Guy Jacobs, had drowned at this spot. A WPA project was created to cover the creek to prevent future drownings. -Photograph from the HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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During this period officials in Washington began giving serious consideration to the establishment of a military outpost on the wild and remote shores of Tampa Bay "as an aid to defense from possible foreign invasion" and to prevent the Indians from acquiring arms and rum from unlicensed Cuban traders, who were inciting them to rebellion. The Niles Weekly Register in its March 24, 1821, issue suggested that Tampa Bay would be an ideal location for a state capitol. "Its shores are not inhabited, and would be a good place for seat of government, and as the southern Naval depot of the United States." This suggestion must have attracted the attention of Federal officials to the geographical importance of Tampa Bay. Three years later the Americans appeared on the bay. On January 10, 1824, Colonel George Mercer Brooke received orders to proceed with four full companies of the Fourth Infantry Regiment to Tampa Bay. Within two weeks the expedition cruised into the beautiful dark green waters of Tampa Bay and landed at Gadsden Point, now the site of MacDill Air Force Base. The troops promptly trudged through the palmetto scrub up the eastern shoreline of the Interbay peninsula to the mouth of the Hillsborough River. As they skirted the shoreline they PIRATES AND PRETTIES ON TAMPA BEACHES The remote jungle port of Tampa Bay was a favorite rendezvous for pirates and contrabandists prior to the arrival of the Americans in 1824. This mural on canvas was an ornament in the dining room of the Thomas Jefferson Hotel. Photographed by Tony Pizzo in 1955. -Photo from TONY PIZZO COLLECTION

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came upon a brilliant spectacle of "beautiful flamingos which appeared in long files drawn upon the beach like bands of soldiers in red uniforms." Arriving at the river they found its waters infested with alligators. The precarious crossing was made without incident. Colonel Brooke situated the military post on the east bank, at the mouth of the river, the site of an ancient Timuquan Indian village. The embryo station became known as Fort Brooke. The date was January 22, 1824. This date commemorates the birth of the community that would become Tampa. The fort is the keystone in its founding, even though at that time the city that would become Tampa wasn't even a prologue to a dream. Within the grounds of the military post dominating the open bay stood a Timuquan ceremonial mound, the relic of a vanished race. A large gumbo-limbo tree, atop it, was used by soldiers as a lookout for incoming boats. As soon as vessels came in sight the sentinel called out, "Sail Ho!" When the Americans arrived they found "fish ranchos" along the shores of the bay. These fish camps were inhabited by Spaniards who were assisted by Indians. One of these "fish ranchos" known as Spanishtown Creek was located near the fort at the mouth of a creek on the bay shore just east of what is today known as Magnolia Avenue. In 1843, Hariet Axtell, the 13-year-old daughter of Reverend Henry Axtell, the Army chaplain at Fort Brooke, described Spanishtown Creek in a letter to SCENE IN THE FORT BROOKE RESERVATION GROUNDS -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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her sister. "At about a quarter of a mile from the fort, lies a small collection of huts formed of palmettos. These are inhabitated by Spaniards, who subsist by making palm leaf hats and baskets for the settlers. A few rods further, stands a dilapidated cottage in a grove of fig and orange trees. A long wharf extends out into the water, in front, to which the fishermen have tied their boats." Soon after the American arrived, the fishermen from Spanishtown Creek came to the fort to ask Colonel Brooke to make them American citizens. It is believed that Spanishtown Creek had come into existence sometime after 1783, during the Second Spanish Period. These fishermen were the first white people to live within the present boundaries of Tampa. MULTILINGUAL SPANIARD When the Americans arrived the Spanish fishermen told them the rumor that "a ship's crew had been murdered by pirates off the mouth of the bay not very long before." In a report to Washington Colonel Brooke reported, "the coast is inhabited entirely by persons speaking the Spanish language only, and are frequently robbed by pirates they look to Fort Brooke for protection." In 1830, an interesting Spaniard from Spanishtown Creek appeared upon the scene. He was Juan Montes De Oca, a man versed in the Seminole, Spanish and English languages. Colonel Brooke employed him as an army guide and interpreter. On his frequent visits to various Indian villages, Juan traveled on horseback through the pine woods that is the Ybor City area today. On one of his official visits to the Lake Thonotosassa Indian Village, he met a pretty Seminole girl, "lovely of soul, as well as of person." It was love at first sight, and soon thereafter they were married. From this union, a girl was born, and she was named Victoria. A few years later, the young bride died. The motherless little girl was not forsaken. The pioneers of the area raised her, thereby preventing Tampa's first romance from becoming a total tragedy. Victoria grew into a beautiful young lady and married Alfonso de Launay, Tampa's second mayor. Jose M. Casanas was another colorful figure of Spanishtown Creek. In 1911, Mayor D.B. FIRST CIVILIAN Levi Collar was the first civilian to settle in the environs of Tampa. His descendants continue to be a most creditable segment of the Tampa community. This rare daguerreotype photograph is the courtesy of Mrs. Jo Ann Cimino, a descendant of Levi Collar. -Photo from TONY PIZZO COLLECTION

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McKay wrote that Casanas memory of Tampa went back to the days when the leading citizens gathered on the porch of the local general store, whittled sticks, chewed tobacco, and enjoyed life along rural lines generally." THE CAT MAN In the old days, Casanas had several fishing and hunting camps at Spanishtown Creek. An eight story building will soon be built on that site. Casanas was known as "Catahana," a sobriquet given him on account of the tribe of more than one hundred cats which swarmed the fishing village feasting on discarded fish heads. Casanas fished in the waters of Hillsborough Bay, and peddled his FIRST BREWERY Government Spring served as an Indian encampment, and a source of water for Fort Brooke. With the passing of time the spring was utilized for an ice plant, swimming pools, and finally the site of Florida's first brewery. Today a historical marker on 5th Avenue and 13th Street commemorates the site of the historic spring. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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catch in the village of Tampa in a small wagon drawn by an immense Saint Bernard dog. His fish sold for two cents each. After the Civil War Casanas left Spanishtown Creek and settled on Anna Maria Island. There he continued fishing, making charcoal, which he sold on the Manatee market. He homesteaded a sizeable section of land on the key, and when he died his estate included a large area of valuable beach-front property. The pine wilderness which later became Ybor City was about two miles from Fort Brooke and was located within the confines of the military reservation which had been set aside by President Andrew Jackson. The first reference to the land of Ybor City was made by Colonel Brooke in a report dated February 5, 1824, to Major General Jacob Brown, from "Camp on the Hillsborough." His report unveiled the mystery of the Ybor City region and stated that "immediately in the rear of this place (Fort Brooke), say two miles, there is a ridge of pinelands with very fine springs, and should the slightest disease manifest itself we will retire on it with our tents." This ridge is noticable when driving on Interstate Four through Ybor City and Tampa Heights. IN DRESS UNIFORM General George Mercer Brooke, U.S.A. (1785-1851), founder and commanding officer of Fort Brooke from 1824 to 1829. This portrait was presented to the Tampa Historical Society by Colonel George M. Brooke, Jr., professor of history, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, at the Sesquicentennial celebration of Fort Brooke in 1974. LIVED OVER SPRING Don Jose Acosta, the famous restauranteur, who was featured in Ripley's "Believe It or Not!", erected his home over "The No Name Springs" at 10th Avenue and 16th Street. He had to reinforce the foundations with annoying frequency. Acosta is the father of Mrs. Tony Pizzo. -Photo from thNe TONY PIZZO COLLECTIO

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ENTER: V. MARTINEZ-YBOR This high rise of land was densely covered with pines until the early 1890s, and was destined to attract the fancy of Don Vicente Martinez-Ybor, one of the great pioneers and founders of Tampa's cigar industry. Ybor was so impressed by the magnificant view of this high land, that it prompted him to build his palatial residence on its crest. When the streets and sidewalks were paved, the children of Ybor City utilized the hill on Seventeenth and Eighteenth Streets to coast down on their bicycles and roller skates. EARLY SETTLER Juan Monts De Oca, a settler of Spanishtown Creek, became the first scout for the U.S. Army after Fort Brooke was established. His knowledge of the Seminole language and the trackless wilderness made him indispensable. -Old Print from TONY PIZZO/USF COLLECTION TAMPA WILDERNESS During the formative Years of Fort Brooke, the pine barrens in the vicinity were a veritable paradise. Soldiers had ample time for hunting and exploring the backwoods. On occasions, rescue parties were sent out to find the lost hunters. -Photo from the TONY PIZZO COLLECTION INDIAN VISITORS Seminoles from nearby Indian villages were a common sight at Fort Brooke. Shown is Billy Bowlegs (5th from left) and his suite of chiefs. Sitting third from left is John jumper, son o f Chief Jumper who attended the first 4th o f July celebration and toasted the President o f the U.S. Photo from a daguerreotype by Meade Brothers, New York, 1855. -Photo from TONY PIZZO COLLECTION

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Skinned knees received on the "hill of thrills" were regarded as badges of youthful fun. A corduroy road was built from the fort through the salt marshes of what is now the Ybor Estuary to a large spring at the present site of Fifth Avenue and Thirteenth Street. Since the spring was located on government land, the spring was named Government Spring. This two-mile strip of road was the first to be built in South Florida, and provided a shortcut from the fort to the spring. The water was transported in barrels on mule-drawn wagons. Many notable military men and scouting parties stopped at this historic spring to fill their canteens and water their horses before leaving on expeditions into the forest. On July 12, 1884, Cyrus Snodgrass built the first ice plant on the west coast of Florida at the spring site. The plant supplied ice for the several fish companies which had moved to Tampa with the coming of the railroad. WATER 'PURE, HEALTHY' In 1885, when the population of Tampa numbered 2,376, City officials considered a system of waterworks for the community. They planned to use the water supply from Government Spring, since the army for many years used the water from this spring in preference to rain water. Laboratory tests showed the spring water to be the purest and healthiest in South Florida. The Holly Manufacturing Co. of Lockport, N.Y. had been contracted to set up the system of waterworks, but after further consideration the company withdrew from the project claiming the investment would not render adequate returns. In 1894, the Ybor City Ice Works built two natatoriums" (swimming pools) at the spring one for whites and one for blacks. The pools were supplied with 10,000 gallons of spring water per hour. The admission fee was twenty-five cents. The pools were open to gentlemen from 7 A.M. to I P.M., ladies from I P.M. to 6 P.M. Sundays were for gentlemen only from 7 A.M. to 5 P.M. Captain L. Penotiere was the lifeguard and gave swimming lessons. In 1895, the natatorium for blacks proved to be a financial failure, and the site was converted into a "modern steam laundry." The first brewery in Florida was built at the Government Spring site in 1897. For many years the Ybor family supplied Florida, Georgia and Cuba with La Tropical beer. This refreshing beverage complimented the pleasure of El Principe De Gales Cigars, the pride of the Ybor Company. ANOTHER SPRING Colonel Brooke referred to another spring a short distance from the Government Spring, but the name of this one is unknown. This small spring was located at Tenth Avenue and Sixteenth Street. Its waters were visible until several years ago at Fourth and Fifth Avenues as it trickled toward the Ybor Estuary. Two magnificient buildings, El Centro Espanol and La Logia del Aguila de Oro, now the Labor Temple, were erected over the creek fed by this spring. Don Jose Acosta, a former owner of the famous Gran Oriente restaurant, and later the celebrated executive chef of Las Novedades restaurant, built his home over the spring's source. Through the ensuing years the sidewalk and the street in front of the house continued to sink, a condition which forced Acosta to reinforce the foundations to his home with annoying frequency.

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The Spaniards, Seminoles and fugitive-blacks living on the fringe of Fort Brooke were soon joined by the traditional camp followers, gamblers, traders, and mercenaries. This polyglot group of characters in time were augmented by God-fearing settlers who gave the emerging village of Tampa the strength to develop into a viable community. The first civilian to arrive in the environs of Fort Brooke was Levi Collar. The Collars with their five children settled at Craft's Spring near the mouth of Six Mile Creek. They built a log cabin and lived on the site until the outbreak of the Second Seminole War in 1835. Collar became a successful farmer. He sold his produce to Fort Brooke and to government vessels which frequently came into the bay. He also raised a large number of hogs and cattle. Collar also shipped his products by fishing schooners to Key West. HOMESTEAD BURNED In 1835, when the Seminoles were preparing to go on the warpath because of unfair treatment by Americans, a friendly Indian came to the Collar home to give warning. He left three sticks on the doorstep, a signal that the Indians would attack in three days. The terror-stricken family was rescued by two soldiers who came by boat to take them across the McKay Bay to the safety of the fort, a distance of six miles. As they neared Fort Brooke, the reddened sky in the east gave testimony of the destruction of their homestead. Collar's oldest daughter, Nancy, married Robert Jackson. This was the first recorded marriage on Florida's West Coast. The Jacksons had eight children. A large number of descendants are residents of the Tampa community today. Through the years they have been prominent in the social, civic and cultural life of the city. In 1963, H. Grady Lester, Jr., a lineal descendant of Levi Collar, attained the highest social distinction in the community when he was elected King of Gasparilla. He also received the greatest civic award as Tampa's Outstanding Citizen (the Civitan Man of the Year Award). During its first ten years, Fort Brooke was a "good-duty post," with a garrison of some two hundred and fifty permanent men. Life at the outpost was peaceful, leisurely and pleasant. VIVA ANDREW JACKSON The first Fourth of July celebration at the fort in 1824 was indeed a bang-up affair that reverberated throughout the wilderness. The forty-eighth anniversary of American Independence was celebrated in high fashion. Officers, Indian chiefs and civilians attended a sumptuous dinner. After eating heartily of wild game and exotic seafood, emulating the Roman emperors, they feasted on delicate flamingo tongues. The feast was followed by twenty-one toasts. Each toast, presumably with Cuban rum, was greeted with music, cheers and artillery fire. The honors of the day included toasts to the heroes of the Revolution, the War of 1812, Andrew Jackson, Lafayette, James Monroe; to the newly-freed South American states, and to "the fair (ladies), their absence ever makes the steam of life flow dull and cheerless." Jumper, a Seminole Indian chief, toasted the President of the United States, while Colonel George Mercer Brooke held his glass high and toasted, "The first American flag that ever waved o'er the wilds

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of Hillsborough. Long may it float o'er them who are ever ready to defend it. On this day, for the first time, the guns of freedom echoed through the lonely forest and glittering waters of the bay, heralding the baptism of this new land as a territory of the United States of America. Life at the Garrison was very pleasant with ample time for diversion. An officer referred to the pristine area as "a paradise for those who love to live in the open air." On March 15, 1826, the soldiers organized a three-day horse race meeting. This is probably the first horse race held in Tampa. The Pensacola Gazette of April 15, 1826, gave the following account of the event: "First day Mr. Page's horse Baccus, Mr. McCall's horse Packingham and Captain Dade's horse Richard The Third were entered for the three-mile heats-won by Baccus in two heats, which were well contested. "Second day-Captain Yancey's horse, Uncle Sam, Mr. Collins' horse Beppo, and Mr. Morris' horse Bob Logic were entered for the two-mile heats. First heat won by Beppo. The superior bottom of Uncle Sam won him the second and third. "Third day Mr. Page's colt Keep Coming, and Mr. Collins' colt Go It were entered for a single mile. The race was handsomely run by both sides and was beaten by Go It a half neck only." INDIAN VILLAGES During this peaceful time there were several Seminole Indian villages in the vicinity of Fort Brooke. In addition to the village at Lake Thonotosassa, with two hundred Indians under the rule of Stout King, there was the village of Hickapusassa in the vicinity of Plant City. The Indians traveled the old trails which they had carved out of the wilderness leading to Fort Brooke, where they obtained their rations as provided by the Moultrie Creek Treaty. The small village on the fringe of the fort prospered, and in 1831, took the name of Tampa Bay. The frontier village in the Florida wilderness soon became widely known as an Indian trading post, as Seminoles started coming in from miles away to barter alligator hides, bird plumes, deer skins and furs for bolts of gaily colored calico, arms and ammunition, cooking utensils, tobacco and countless other things. Fort King, the Indian agency located near present Ocala, was about one hundred miles from Fort Brooke. Soldiers marching to Fort King from Fort Brooke had to struggle along a narrow, primitive Indian trail. This overland journey took five days. A'MULE EXPRESS' The first road connecting the two forts was constructed by the army in 1825, and ran through the heart of the Ybor City wilds, with two offshoots leading to the Government Spring. The Army borrowed one ox team and "hired a party of discharged soldiers and one or two Indian Negroes" to help construct the road. The new military artery followed the course of the old Indian route. This was a crude, sandy trail winding through the forest. During heavy rains it was reported that "teams have great difficulty in getting the fuel to the Garrison", and "when the earth is charged with water, out of the beaten path a horse mires directly". In 1826, the Quartermaster General authorized a "mule express" between Fort Brooke and St.

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Augustine. The road became known as the Military Road and later as the Fort King Trail. For the first ten years Fort Brooke remained secluded from the world. Nothing could disturb its peaceful state except an occasional cannon salute echoing through the forest, sinking to silence in the distant waves. The period of tranquillity was coming to an end. The good-duty post" had been one of routine army service, with ample leisure time for exploring, hunting, fishing, sailing and horseback riding. During the bitterly cold month of December, 1835, the ominous clouds of war began to gather. Tragedy was in the wind years of bloodshed, fire and sword lay ahead.

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REMEMBERING A FALLEN SPARROW BY PAUL WILBORN Tampa Tribune Columnist (Editor's Note: Tampa Historical Society lost a beloved member and friend, Betty Phipps, who died in January, 1988. An appropriate tribute was paid to her by fellow Tampa Tribune columnist Paul Wilborn, and is reprinted by permission). "Paul!" The voice was friendly, slightly Southern, and carried a humorous urgency that stopped me in my tracks. "Hold still." I did, and she worked quickly. A tie, too hastily knotted, was protruding from a crimped, wrinkled collar basic bachelor syndrome. But Betty Phipps and I were on our way to a luncheon, and the longtime social columnist for The Tampa Tribune wasn't about to arrive with the young reporter from Dogpatch. She brushed a few wrinkles from my jacket. "That's better," she said. "Now, how do I look?" She looked like a tiny, delicate bird; like a favorite aunt in a coffee-table photograph; like a fine-boned, Southern lady from a gracious era that my generation had all too quickly cast aside. BETTY PHIPPS PAUL WILBORN

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'WITH PLUCK AND HUMOR' "Betty," I said, "you look fine." Betty had been diagnosed that year cancer, the doctors said, but operable. "They say," said Betty, "once you're diagnosed you probably have five years. Five years is a long time." Betty got her five years and then some. But her illness returned, and Monday (January 26) we went to her funeral. Betty faced death with the same pluck and humor she used to mollify and satisfy 12 years of garden club members, charity ball volunteers, proud and persistent mothers and countless social butterflies who kept her desk buried in pink "While You Were Out" message slips. She thrived on those telephone calls and the parties and luncheons and debutante balls that were as much a part of her life as her job. GIVE ME THE GOSSIP! When friend and former boss Leland Hawes visited her recently, Betty was bent and thin. Another friend said she looked like a fallen sparrow. But Betty didn't mention her illness. "Tell me all the gossip," she playfully demanded, and Hawes did his best to fill her in. As he rose to leave, she mentioned the only thing that was troubling her: "I would love," she said, "to have a Cuban sandwich." Cuban sandwiches were just one of the things Betty loved about Tampa. Along with her social columns, she wrote numerous personal, and often nostalgic, columns about life in the city. My favorite was one she wrote in September 1985, a few months before her retirement. She had gone to Tampa Theatre to see the return of the "Mighty Wurlitzer" organ that she had loved during her childhood. "I glanced at myself in the huge lobby mirrors and was shocked," she wrote. "Those mirrors said I was now a little old lady. As a child I used to stop there just to look at myself. "Inside, all was as it should be. Stars were twinkling, the statues looked down, the peacock was there. Only I had aged." HER FINAL COLUMN She wrote her final "Personal View" column December 24, 1985. The topic, of course, was Christmas. But, looking back at it now, it says even more about a woman who faced countless tragedies and disappointments in her 67 years, but never lost her faith or her optimism. "Births, deaths, marriages and divorces add and subtract family members," she wrote. "Events make for travel to distant places where cultures and traditions are varied, but inside the individual, Christmas itself does not change. "My childhood Christmases may seem Spartan by today's standards of gift-getting, but if they were, I didn't know it. It was a family time, a neighborhood visiting time, a religious time.

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"What I received most was love, and that tradition has never varied." That was Betty a white-gloved lady in a world that too often goes around with dirty hands.

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FROM TROLLEYS TO BUSES AND IN BETWEEN By ROBERT E. SIMS YOUR FRIENDLY DIME CAB DRIVER Robert E. Sims poses on the fender of his Economy Cab No. 20, a 1938 Chevrolet, on the day after his wedding.

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Six years prior to the demise of Tampa's streetcar system in 1946, transit buses were plying the streets of the city and its suburbs in direct competition with the trolleys. How and why this bus became to be a part of the Tampa scene, the forces behind its organization and a rather unique form of public transportation that existed just prior to the inception of the buses are the foundations for this chronicle. Tampa's initial attempt to establish a functional public transportation system came about in 1886 when Vincente Martinez Ybor and Edward Manrara built the Tampa Street Railway Company. It consisted of a single track laid from Ybor City to West Tampa and a small wood-burning locomotive pulling two open passenger cars. The line was electrified in 1893, however its trackage was not extended. The utility was used mainly by cigar factory workers traveling to and from their homes and work places.1 Between 1892 and 1911 several traction companies served Tampa and outlying areas such as Ballast Point, Sulphur Springs and Palmetto Beach. But by 1911 all had been either bought out or consolidated with Tampa Electric Company who became the sole provider of electrical energy and public transportation within the area.2 At the outbreak of World War I, Tampa Electric Company was operating sixty-seven trolley cars over forty-seven miles of track and charging a fare of 50. Thirty years later at the close of World War II when the company ceased its trolley operation, the fare remained 50. Over one hundred trolley cars had been added to the fleet, but the trackage had increased only six miles.1 Tampa was stretching out but its transportation was not. Picture, if you will ... It is 7:30 a.m., of a work-day and you are due at your downtown Tampa office in one half hour. Outside the day has dawned ugly and gray; a hard rain is pelting down. You step to your telephone, dial, and ECONOMY CAB AD IN 1941 CITY DIRECTORY

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presently are answered by a cheery "Economy Cab, good morning." Your order for a cab to drive you downtown is taken and within five minutes a late model Chevrolet taxi pulls into your driveway as close to your front door as possible so that you may encounter no more rain than necessary. Two passengers are in the rear seat, you take the front. The driver heads downtown and two more passengers are picked up. Fifteen minutes after leaving your home the cab stops in front of your office building. The rain has stopped; it's going to be a nice day after all. You hand the driver a DIME, and he cheerfully thanks you. A fantasy you say? Not really. Witness and consider an advertisement taken from the 1941 edition of the R. L. Polk Tampa City Directory. A.B. "Tony" Grandoff was a man with a problem that led to an inspiration. In 1933, the very midst of the nation's worst depression, he found himself unemployed with a wife and a daughter to support. At age sixteen he had been a bicycle messenger boy for the "Speed-Up Messenger Service". The company's primary source of income came from the delivery of packages for Tampa's downtown merchants. Now seven years later he was manager of the business, but because of "tight" money, the merchants had decided not to offer package delivery service to their customers. Speed-Up Messenger Service was out of business; young Grandoff was out of a job.3 SULPHUR SPRINGS DOG TRACK Popular night spot for cabbies' fares in the 30s.

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Looking back upon those lean days, Grandoff relates: "We shut down the messenger service, the idea came to me. If we could deliver packages for ten cents, why couldn't we deliver people for ten cents if we could get them in bunches of five. Five to a car is fifty cents and fifty cents in 1933 was a lot of money. So I opened this company in competition with the Dime Cab Company that had opened about three months before I did. An attorney from Plant City named Martin owned the outfit and Ralph Manning managed it for him. They changed the name to Economy a little later on.4 Starting with a used 1933 Chevrolet sedan, Grandoff named his outfit "Speed-Up Cab". At first he was the only driver while his wife managed the clerical work and answered the telephone. Inasmuch as his City license placed no limits on the number of cabs he could place in service, he allowed other owner-drivers to operate under his name and use his telephone service. They paid a daily fee of $3.00 for the privilege. At the end of the first year the fleet had grown to fifty-five cars and Tony Grandoff no longer drove.4 In the beginning, Speed-Up and Economy cabs hauled people to Beach Park, the Interbay area, Seminole Heights, Sulphur Springs, Davis Islands and Ybor City for ten cents. The cars would cruise Franklin Street with a sign in the windshield announcing their destinations. They would be hailed down and patrons would be delivered to their doors for only a dime. Grandoff recognized the need to expand and later to specialize. First he bought out Economy Cab Company and discontinued the name "Speed-Up". During the next few years other "dime" cab companies operating in the same manner as Economy sprung up on Tampa's streets (in 1934 there were thirteen cab companies operating) and one by one Grandoff bought them out all except one Diamond Cab Company owned and operated by Ralph T. and Zetta Powery. At first, Diamond's base was on south Howard Avenue and later on, Grand Central Avenue (Kennedy Blvd.), near Albany Avenue. This company, s fleet A. B. (TONY) GRANDOFF, SR. Tampa's Dime Cab King

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served primarily the south and west sides of the city (Hyde Park, Palma Ceia, Davis Islands, West Tampa). Their paint job was distinctive: cream upper body parts and black below. All "dime" cabs were equipped with two small forward-facing lights mounted on the center of the cowl ahead of the windshield. Diamond's lights were white and white, while Economy's were green and white. Lights were turned on when the cab had room to load passengers and were turned off when the cab was loaded. They also enabled prospective passengers standing at the curb after dark to distinguish cabs from other cars on the street. Grandoff and the Powerys came to a mutual agreement that Economy would operate in the north and east sections of the city, while Diamond would serve the west and south. The City of Tampa would reserve two loading zones in the downtown area for each company. If a northside based cab (Economy) should load a passenger in its territory who wished to travel to the south or west part of the city, the passenger would be transferred to a southside cab (Diamond) at one of its downtown loading zones. Telephone call boxes were established for each company along Florida Avenue, Nebraska Avenue, Howard Avenue and Grand Central. The top of the boxes were equipped with a bright signal light. A driver whose cab had space for more passengers could either call the dispatcher from these boxes or upon noticing the signal light had been turned on, could stop and receive orders for passenger pickup in the area. We must remember this was at a time when there were no outlying shopping malls, no industrial parks or branch banks. Ninety percent of all doctors', lawyers' and accountants' offices were in the downtown area. Sears Roebuck, J.C. Penney, 0. Falk's and Maas Brothers were the city's department stores and they were all located within a four-block area in the heart of the city. Sharing this same area were the Kress, Woolworth and Grant stores and the city's only large drug store, Walgreen's. DRIVERS WERE FLORIDIANS Ten cents bought a lot more then than it does today and the "dime" cabs provided a rather large and desirable service for a reasonable return. Consider walking several blocks in the rain to wait for and to board a street car as compared to a cab called to your home and delivering you to the door of your destination. Drivers even specialized within their respective areas or zones. Some Economy Cabs operated solely within Ybor City or between downtown Tampa and Ybor City. Diamond bad its Davis Islands cab. Islands homes, hotels and Tampa Municipal Hospital were served by no public transportation other than private metered taxicabs or "dime cabs". "Dime cab" drivers were for the most part native Floridians who, had times been prosperous, would have been members of the blue collar work force. At a time when working wives were the exception rather than the rule, some drivers were the sole supporters of rather large families. The men who owned their own cabs were in reality small-business men with capital investment. Some owned several vehicles and rented them out to other drivers.

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"FEES" AND "GAS" The amount of money required of a driver to rent a cab for a twelve-hour shift was commonly called "fees". All gasoline and oil was purchased at the cab company's pumps and this sum was known as "gas". A driver could fairly well ascertain how much take-home pay he would realize by how early in his shift he took in "fees" and "gas". The standard rate for all cab companies' "fees" was $3 or $3.10 if the cab was equipped with a radio (not to be confused with the two way radio-telephone used by the 1980s' taxis). Gasoline and oil were sold for the same price as charged by area filling stations. Driver-owners were charged $3 per day to use the company's name and telephone service and were required to buy their fuel and oil at company pumps. They could "single shift" their cars or split the twenty-four-hour shift with another driver and could rent the unit to other driver or drivers for the entire shift. The amount of "fees" charged was up to the owner. Even though times were hard and money was tight during the depression years of the '30s, Tampa's night life flourished. Legalized betting was offered at the Sulphur Springs Dog Track during the winter and early spring. But before there was television, performing arts centers and central air-conditioning, there were wide open gambling and prostitution houses in Ybor City and on north Franklin Street. There were bawdy bars adjacent to the city's downtown waterfront catering to visiting seamen, and then there were the jook joints. Most of these establishments were located outside the northern city limits of Tampa. The two largest and best known were "Ma Williams" and "The Happy Hollow". Both were on north Florida Avenue between Waters Avenue and what is now Busch Boulevard (I remember the railroad tracks ran beside Happy Hollow). These pleasure palaces operated twenty-four hours, seven days each week, but they hit their true stride between 10 p.m. and 4 a.m. They were single-story frame buildings approximately sixty-five to seventy feet square, unfinished inside except for built-in rough wooden table and bench booths around the perimeter of the room. Against one wall stood a sturdy wooden bar it had to be sturdy to stand up under the wear and tear inflicted upon it by countless fun seekers. The center of the room boasted of a well-waxed dance floor that caused many an inebriated patron to fall flat and to be hauled away by the ever-present bouncers. Dance (?) music was furnished by a coin-operated "jook box", or record player whose volume made casual conversation in the room impossible. All this plus ten cent bottled beer and pretty dance hall hostesses were offered by the management to its clientele, many of whom were delivered to their doors by "dime cabs". 'ON THE TOWN'FARES Drivers who either owned or rented their cabs could cruise at will or park for hire at any place of their choice. Metered cab drivers were not allowed this practice. Many "dime cab" drivers worked only after the evening supper hour until the sun rose the next morning. Some would work the dog track; that is, wait in the

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cab loading zone of the Sulphur Springs Dog Track in hopes of being hired by an individual or party of winners who wished the rest of the night "on the town". The cab could be chartered on an hourly basis for $1.50 per hour. Some drivers worked the "jook joints" while others cruised or parked near the waterfront bars or north Franklin Street or Ybor City night spots. These night drivers were a breed all their own who knew, liked and understood "night people". They were different from the average daytime driver who was a family man with children to feed and clothe. They were almost without exception unmarried with no responsibilities other than their own livelihood. They were a clannish group who associated with day drivers only when absolutely necessary. At a time when a cup of coffee cost .05 and a hamburger, all the way, cost.10, the night drivers considered themselves extremely fortunate if their nightly earnings amounted to $5 after expenses. Day drivers very rarely fell heir to the windfall profits as enjoyed by their after-dark counterparts. Their income was more of steady flow. Many had "regulars"; passengers who were picked up at their doors at the same time each day. These insured fares generated the funds to pay "fees and gas". Additional fares during the day were profits allowing the driver to take home two to four dollars each day. A work week was seven days, allowing a driver who was a steady worker to earn between eighteen and twenty-five dollars per week. This, at a time when the national unemployment rate was at 25%, was not at all a bad job. A DRIVER RECALLS Carl Cunningham, a longtime resident of Tampa, owned and operated an Economy Cab and reflects back upon the times: "I bought a used cab from Tony (Grandoff) and put it into service. I don't remember how much it cost me, but they took it out of each day's earnings. "If we made enough to eat we figured we were doing pretty good. A full meal at that time, meat, vegetable, bread and drink, was 25c. "When we had a bad day when we couldn't make fees and gas before the shift was half over, we would run down Central Avenue or Nebraska Avenue ahead of the street car and carry people downtown for 5c. "I remember W. E. Hamner. He used to sit down there at the Sulphur Springs loop (Economy's call box stand at Van Dyke Place and Nebraska Avenue) on a box and talk to the boys. He owned all the property where University Square Mall is now. He would tell us he was having a hard time paying the taxes and he would try to sell us some of the property. He would say, 'Just give me $10 down and $5 per month.' But we didn't have the money. We couldn't buy it he couldn't pay the taxes he was struggling.5 TEN CENT CABS OUTLAWED Dime cabs were operating upon Tampa's streets at the outbreak of World War II. However wartime tire and gasoline rationing severely hampered their

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operations. By 1944 all but a few had passed from the scene. The final act came September 27, 1946 when City of Tampa Ordinance 1019-A was passed. This was the "taxicab ordinance" that set strict guidelines for the operation of Tampa's taxicabs, outlawed dime cabs and instituted a Cab Commission to oversee the industry. Economy, Diamond and other dime cab companies had provided a necessary service to the people of the Tampa area. The city was growing. A modern public transportation system was a must. Clanking, unreliable streetcars were not the answer. Fleets of five-passenger sedans adding to traffic congestion upon the streets could not be tolerated. Most progressive American cities used transit buses to solve their transportation problems why not Tampa? The answer come from A. B. "Tony" Grandoff: "I'll tell you what made me enter the bus business. The cab business was doing all right, but it dawned on me that Tampa was growing out into the suburbs; but Tampa Electric had not laid one foot of new track so that their cars could go on out and serve the expanding suburban area. I just decided it was high time. Jacksonville had buses; they had gotten rid of their streetcars. It was the trend it was Tampa's turn.4 ENTER TRANSIT BUSES In January 1940, Grandoff entered into an agreement with the owners of the Jacksonville Transit Company to lease four small buses on a mileage basis. His newly organized company was to be known as Tampa Transit Lines, Inc. At first all four buses operated on a route stretching through downtown Tampa from north Jackson Heights to south Palma Ceia. Grandoff chose his bus drivers from the ranks of his Economy Cab drivers. Carl Cunningham was one of the first, and he tells us how it was in the beginning: "Tony started Tampa Transit with four little buses. He put me and Johnny Segalis and J.C. Brown driving from Palma Ceia to Jackson Heights. All the maids would go from Jackson Heights to Palma Ceia and back. There were no streetcars running that way. We were working sixteen to eighteen hours each day and we were making .18 per hour. After a while we got a raise to .20. The people who were driving I was doing pretty good at the time. I was driving a pretty good car." A one-route bus line was not Grandoff's idea of a modern transit system. He wanted to branch out, to operate his buses on Florida Avenue between Waters Avenue and downtown. A city permit to operate the original route between Jackson Heights and Palma Ceia was secured with little or no opposition. But now Tampa Electric Company began to "see the handwriting on the wall' and, as Grandoff puts it, began to exercise their "City Hall clout". STAMPEDING CITY HALL In his autobography titled Tony, Grandoff tells of his problems surrounding the expansion of his bus system: "My first application was for a permit to operate a 50 bus system on Florida Avenue from downtown to Waters

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Avenue, a distance of about five miles. There were no trolleys on Florida Avenue as they ran up Tampa Street to Buffalo and across Buffalo to Central Avenue and then north on Central Avenue to Broad Street and east to Nebraska Avenue, then north to Sulphur Springs pool. "With Tampa Electric's clout, I was turned down when I applied for the Florida Avenue permit. We already had the buses for the run in Tampa, so I ran an ad in the Tribune about the turndown of the application and asked the citizens of Florida Avenue and three to five blocks east and west of Florida Avenue to accept a free bus ride to City Hall the next time the City Council met. They flooded the Council Chambers, but to no avail; we were turned down again. At the following Council meeting we packed the Council Chamber with the same result of another turndown. The Council figured we would give up, but by that time the daily papers had picked up this interesting controversy. The following Council meeting the number of people attending was larger than the prior two meetings and their anger began to show in their statements to the City Council. This preserverance paid off as they granted our first permit. We secured permits to operate on different streets and routes without any more need to pack the City Council Chambers with clamoring citizens.3 HERE COMES HARTLINE And so this was the beginning of what is now known as "HARTLINE"; Hillsborough Area Rapid Transit. Grandoff owned and operated Tampa Transit Lines from January 1940 until September 1941 when he was bought out by National City Lines. This Chicago-based organization ran the system for the next thirty years. But toward the end they had permitted the quality of the service to the public and the condition of the equipment to deteriorate to the point that revenue was not supporting the operating costs. Finally in February 1971 the Company failed to sign an agreement with the union representing the drivers and a general strike was called February 28. On April 12, 1971, one and one-half months laer, the City of Tampa took over the operation and again buses rolled on the streets of Tampa. As Hillsborough County grew, the need for public transportation serving the outlying areas became apparent. The logical solution to the problem was for the County to take over the operation of the City's bus system and expand its service into the County. So during the early '80s the transition as made and today all of Hillsborough County has a modern transportation system that its citizens may be proud of. But let us not forget it all started through the imagination and foresight of a former bicycle messenger boy. NOTES 1 Grismer, Karl H., "Tampa". St. Petersburg, FL; The St. Petersburg Printing Co., 1950. 2 Mormino, Gary and Pizzo, Anthony; Tampa, the Treasure City. Tulsa, Oklahoma; Heritage Press Inc., 1983. 3 Grandoff, A.B., Tony-A.B. Grandoff, Sr. Autobiography 1911-1986; personal publication

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for family and friends; copy presented to author 1987. 4 Taped interview with A.B. Grandoff, October 23, 1987. 5 Taped interview with Carl Cunningham, October 19, 1987.

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HISTORICAL SOCIETY BENEFACTOR, PETER 0. KNIGHT, JR., DIES AT 85 Peter Oliphant Knight, Jr., a generous supporter of local charities and a partner in the law firm of Holland and Knight, founded by his father, died June 30, 1988, at his home on Davis Islands. He was 85. A supporter of The Tampa Historical Society, Mr. Knight and his family gave the society the "honeymoon cottage" of his parents, Colonel and Mrs. Peter 0. Knight at 245 Hyde Park Avenue for a headquarters in 1977. Mr. Knight practiced business law until his retirement five years ago. He was on the board of the Exchange National Bank, which later became NCNB, between 1927 and 1969, and on the board of Tampa Electric Company from 1947 to 1974. JOINED FATHER'S FIRM A graduate of Princeton University, Mr. Knight received his law degree from the University of Florida. He began practicing law in 1925, when he joined Knight, Thompson and Turner, founded by his father in 1915. The firm merged with Holland, Bevis, Smith, Kibler and Hall in 1968, becoming Holland and Knight. One of the largest law firms in the Southeast, Holland and Knight has more than 200 lawyers in several Florida locations and in a Washington, D.C., office. "He was a very generous and personal person with a great deal of interest in civic and charitable affairs," said John Arthur Jones, a senior member of Holland and Knight. In 1982, he made a substantial donation to the University of Tampa's Peter 0. and Girlie Knight Florida Scholars Program. He contributed to the Humane Society of Tampa Bay and the Seaman's Church Institute. He was a major early donor to the Tampa Bay Performing Arts Center. PETER 0. KNIGHT, JR. A Pillar of Tampa

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In 1984, the Association for Retarded Citizens of Hillsborough County named its new boys' home in his honor. ON MANY BOARDS Mr. Knight was the son of Colonel Peter 0. Knight, who came here from Indiana before the turn of the century. Colonel Knight established himself as one of Tampa's most influential lawyers and businessmen, organizing the city's old Exchange Bank. Davis Islands' Peter 0. Knight Airport, built in 1935, was named after Colonel Knight, who died in 1946. A former director of the Florida State Chamber of Commerce, Mr. Knight belonged to the Greater Tampa Chamber of Commerce and the Committee of 100 of the Tampa Chamber. He was a director emeritus of the Florida State Fair and Gasparilla Association, and member emeritus of the board of trustees of St. Joseph's Hospital of Tampa Foundation. He served on the boards of the Home Association, a retirement home, the Florida Gulf Coast Symphony and the MacDonald Training Center. He was a member of the Tampa Yacht and Country Club, Palma Ceia Golf and Country Club, University Club, Tampa Club and Ye Mystic Krewe of Gasparilla. He was senior warden emeritus of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church. Mr. Knight's wife, "Girlie," died in 1983. They were married in 1925. He is survived by a daughter, Rhoda K. Martorell; a son, Dr. Peter 0. Knight, IV, a professor at the University of South Florida; nine grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. While very much a community figure, making large donations to charity and serving on Ye Mystic Krewe of Gasparilla, Mr. Knight kept a low profile. He never granted newspaper interviews. "He had a great sense of humor, but he was very private," said Mr. Jones, Mr. Knight's law partner since 1949. "He shunned publicity. He worked behind the scenes." A PILLAR OF TAMPA With his death comes the loss of one of the pillars of Tampa, Mr. Jones said. "He was one of those who gave the character and texture to the community in the '20s and '30s," he said. Mr. Knight continued to be active in the Holland & Knight law firm until 1984, Mr. Jones said. He died in the home he bought in 1962. The funeral was held at St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in Tampa, followed by a private entombment in Myrtle Hill Memorial Park.

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CORNERSTONE FOR THE TAMPA BAY HOTEL LAID 100 YEARS AGO BUT WHERE IS IT? By HAMPTON DUNN History Mystery: What Happened To the Marker? It's time to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the laying of the cornerstone for the fabulous Tampa Bay Hotel, but how can we? A mystery in history was discovered when we newsmen and historians started looking for the stone. What we found was there is no stone and, as far as that goes, since the building is curved all over, there's no corner either! It's a matter of record that the cornerstone was placed amid much whoopla on July 26, 1888. Stories in contemporary newspapers made a big deal of the event. (See news story accompanying this article.) I learned of the baffling mystery when preparing a story for my history series on WTVT-TV, Channel 13. Interviewing Dr. James W. Covington, professor of history at the University of Tampa, which now occupies the old hotel structure, in the "Reading and Writing Room" of the hotel, my ears perked up when Covington blurted out: "We believe (the cornerstone was laid) roughly 100 years ago ... but we have some problems with that! .... Where is the cornerstone? We can't find it. Dr. Delo (Dr. David M. Delo, president of the University of Tampa a number of years ago) offered a reward of $100 to anyone who could find it. Many of our students hunted for it ... and I tried just a little bit." Dr. Covington, who came to the faculty of the University in 1951 and has since researched the history of Henry B. Plant, the builder, and of the structure itself, does have a theory about the missing cornerstone: "You notice part of the hotel was built and then they tore it down. I think our architect didn't like it, so it was torn down. Maybe that's part of the problem." DR. DAVID M. DELO -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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The historian reported: "Now the proof that there is a cornerstone ... the Mayor laid it ... the Masons always take part in something like that . and the newspaper noted that the cornerstone was laid ... sometime in July 1888." In the book, Tampa: The Treasure City published by the Tampa Historical Society in 1983, co-authors Dr. Gary A. Mormino and Tony Pizzo, had this to say about the laying of the cornerstone: "On July 26, 1888, the cornerstone for the Tampa Bay Hotel was laid. Mayor Herman Glogowski declared a holiday and hundreds of citizens celebrated the moment . ." Wonder if Dr. Delo's $100 reward offer is still good? TAMPA BAY HOTEL WAS 'SECOND TO NONE' ... And 'Tampa No Longer a Small Potato' -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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THE PLUSH TAMPA BAY HOTEL 'PARLOR' ... Henry Plant Spared No Expense -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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TAMPA PASTIMES SHIPPING OUT A dog ammo, blanket rolls, corned beef rations – and anxious soldiers – pile up on docks at Port Tampa ready to board transport boats for Santiago in 1898. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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They Also Serve MIAMI WAS CROSSROADS CITY OF THE AIR DURING WORLD WAR II By WAYNE BEVIS It's a long way from Ascension Island to Asuncion, Paraguay, but Caracas and Curacao are next-door neighbors, by air. Just don't confuse Pernambuco and Paramaribo! They funneled through war-time Miami from these and a thousand other exotic places, touching down at Dinner Key seaplane base or 36th Street Airport and taking off again for Washington, Detroit, or Hometown, U.S.A. Men, women and children; governors, generals and G.I.s; monarchs and missionaries; war-weary flyers and world-weary floozies. Some intent on great or tragic missions, others 'OFF TO STUDY' OFFICER CANDIDATES AT MIAMI BEACH The Army Air Force trained thousands of officers and airmen at Miami Beach during World War II. The candidates, wearing pith helmets and lugging notebooks, sang as they marched smartly to classes. Hampton Dunn, editor of The Sunland Tribune, earned his commission here during early 1942. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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trying to bribe or browbeat their way on sordid errands. As an airline employee handling international transfers, I was in the fascinating, exasperating thick of it all. Half of Captain Eddie's "Great Silver Fleet" and much of Eastern's manpower was serving Uncle Sam, but a little plus in age and a slight "minus" in physical rating put me among those who kept the wheels and props turning at home. Add some business experience and a knowledge of languages, top it off with a concentrated course in airlines procedures, and you have a passable passenger service representative. Miami, now an established crossroads city of the air age, was feeling the first full impact of it in 1943. The plush hotels and golf courses of Miami Beach had been taken over by officer candidates' schools, and a detachment from the Russian Navy busily familiarized themselves with lend-lease vessels, among other things. (They were our allies then, remember?) Military Air Transport pilots pushed their burdened planes to the limit, ferrying precious supplies or key personnel to remote bases and returning from each trip a little grayer and more haggard. The fat twin-engined "Commandos" clawed the soft Miami air night after night, struggling for altitude as we groundlings held our breath and "pushed". Aviation dominated our lives, and an omnipotent priority system ruled aviation. Carefully administered, too, in spite of all the stories you heard. When orders came through to clear so many seats perhaps all 21 on a DC-3 for priority passengers, we had little time or tendency to quibble about it. Off came the non-priority bookings, the newest ones first. Notifying these unfortunates was one of the least-sought-after of airlines chores. BEVIS VS. DEMPSEY? When he was program chairman for the Lions Club about 1940, Wayne Bevis promised to "get in the ring" with World's Heavyweight Champion Jack Dempsey. Sure enough, this photograph documents that historic action.

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'PRIORITY' MEANT JUST THAT Diplomats or officials traveling on priorities, accompanied by wives and sundry relatives without those precious priorities, created some highly explosive situations. The threat of international incidents arose many a time when Senora this or Madame that could not proceed with her distinguished consort. Some families were too genuinely devoted to take separate planes; others seemed to be united only in the unholy bonds of acrimony. It was permissible to have no more seats on the airplane, or no more train reservations to offer, but patience and resourcefulness must be inexhaustible. We knew every bus and train schedule, every hotel and rooming house, every trick of the trade by the time that winter ended. It wasn't all grim, though. The definitions of priorities, for example, showed the wonderful American talent for the lighter touch. The lowest or "DD" class were inevitably "dirty dogs", and you worked through certain less printable categories of "CC" and "BB" priorities to the "AAs" or "awful awfuls". These were the diplomatic couriers and top officials who could "bump" anyone and frequently did. POOR ORDINARY CIVILIANS It worked this way. Ordinary civilian passengers might lose their reservations to suppliers traveling "DD") on government SIKORSKY AMPHIBIANS BASED AT MIAMI'S DINNER KEY This postcard was mailed from Miami in 1941 and boasted the great "Clipper Ships" brought Miami within a few days' travel of 32 countries of South and Central America and the West Indies. At the time it was the world's largest International Airport -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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business, who in turn had to yield to pilots returning to base by commercial air ("BB"). Even these lordly indispensables had to wait sometimes when the awful awfuls" were on the wing. The night shift had its gayer moments, too. When the milling crowds had finally been dispatched, by plane or train or back to their hotels to await another try, the lobby was sure to echo with some sly whimsy on the PA system. One of our counter agents a good-looking, good-natured girl called "Breezy", was a favorite target for waggish airmen who wanted her to page "Pilot Roger Wilco", or to inquire if there was a Sperry Gyro Pilot in the terminal. The passing parade through the airports brought us into contact with every imaginable type and temperament. Notables like H. V. Kaltenborn, who has a warm spot in my heart as the most courteous and considerate passenger I ever handled; and a certain opera singer who objected violently to telling her personal poundage. Explanations that the weights of all passengers and baggage were essential to safe loading of the airplane availed nothing. She finally simmered down enough to permit us to weigh lady and luggage together, and enter a total. Of course, she was hardly out of sight before the baggage had been weighed separately and the amount subtracted from that imposing total. DAILY HUGE CROWDS VISITED PAN AM MIAMI AIRPORT This postcard was sent from Miami on February 15, 1944, at the height of World War II when Pan Am terminal was Jammed with worldwide travelers. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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HERE COMES BOB HOPE We carefully guarded the identity of Queen (then Princess) Juliana, enroute to Canada to live in wartime exile from her beloved Netherlands. At the other end of the scale were refugees from Hitler's hell on earth, travel-stained and with the marks of tragedy upon them, but hopeful and relieved to tread free soil. And for another contrasting facet, we watched Bob Hope and his troupe bounce through, returning home from a swing around our distant bases. Land-based planes were beginning to supplant the majestic old flying boats on international runs in those days, but the old Sikorsky amphibians still swooped in to Dinner Key regularly. I well remember a certain airlines representative who met their debarking passengers with the stock phrase "Yo arreglo todo" (I'll straighten out everything). He used it all too often, and sometimes got hauled over the coals in assorted languages when Dinner Key passengers found that he couldn't produce seats on the plane or a suite at a hotel. One of my most pleasant memories is that of a sirloin steak at midnight with Barclay Acheson, director of the foreign-language editions of Readers Digest. I wished for his cosmopolitan savoir-faire the night I helped a Jewish refugee from Poland through customs, using what German we could muster after giving up the effort in English, Spanish and French. The customs inspectors were more than a little skeptical about the BOB HOPE IN NORTH AFRICA Bob Hope is seen performing in an old opera house somewhere in North Africa, entertaining Allied troops. Wayne Bevis helped him in the Miami airport, Hampton Dunn saw him in North Africa. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION H.V.KALTENBORN Bevis' "Most Considerate" Passenger -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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assortment of llama rugs and Peruvian silver, picked up in South America enroute from Europe, but finally waved the old fellow through amidst an aromatic splutter of Yiddish explanations and thanks. THE PASSING PARADE On one memorable day, I was assigned to escort a dashing French mama and her two daughters around Miami while awaiting the departure of their flight. (Monsieur le Papa had gone through on his "AA" priority.) My nearly-forgotten French was tough going, but their attempts at English were worse. Have you ever tried to explain an American trailer park to three vivacious Frenchwomen? Or a hot-dog stand? Then, too, there was that Dutch nurse ruddy and solid as an Edam cheese, and just about as receptive to the idea that she must give up her plane seat because someone else had a priority. A virile Scotsman in authentic kilts spent a while in the lobby one day, cannily oblivious to the attention he was getting from a pair of girdled and gurgling dowagers. Most picturesque of all were two officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Towering six feet three or four, broad of scarlet shoulder and impressively mustachioed, they were truly spectacular in their gaudy uniforms and decorations. As a final touch, each of them carried a sort of riding crop or baton, which surely concealed some lethal weapon. Sometimes, even in this type of assignment, you took your work home with you; and my family soon learned to expect the unexpected. There was the stranded Chinese student -a pleasant young man who was held over in Miami enroute to Washington. He spoke English and Spanish in addition to his native tongue, but a dozen languages couldn't have gotten him a room that crowded February night. Even the davenport was occupied in our little apartment, so I took a pillow and a blanket and made him as comfortable as possible in the backseat of my indispensable car. Next morning we found our guest had departed as unobtrusively as he came into our lives, leaving the blanket neatly folded and topped with a note of thanks in flawless English. Perhaps my most embarrassing moment came in helping a coffee-colored 'teen-age girl, enroute from Puerto Rico to New York to join relatives after the death of her only remaining parent. Utterly untaught in our language and color distinctions, racked with grief and fear in her separation from all things familiar, she had worn out our star expediter in two hectic days. A seat on the early New York plane had finally been "pulled out of the hat", and I was to see that she got aboard. By the dawn's first light I rose, got out that essential car, and called at one of Miami's hotels (more cosmopolitan than exclusive) where we had found a room for her. As we emerged, complete with bell-hop and baggage, the inevitable happened. An old family friend a Navy officer drove by, gave me a feeble wave and a long, searching look. In retrospect, that winter season was a memorable experience. Time has dulled the image of the swaggering, self-centered ones in that hodgepodge of humanity; the sound of their clamor and boasting. But I shall not forget the tranquil little woman with stars in her eyes, back home between four-year terms at a mission school in equatorial Africa. Better than all the striding generals and scurrying diplomats, she knew whom she served and where her duty lay.

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The Tampa Tribune Editorializes ITS TIME HILLSBOROUGH ESTABLISED A HISTORY MUSEUM (REPRINTED FROM THE TAMPA TRIBUNE) Spanish explorers called Tampa Bay "La Gran Entrada" The Great Entrance because they considered it the gateway to North America. Hillsborough County historian Tony Pizzo uses the fact to illustrate the richness of the area's past. Since treasure-seeking conquistadors strode ashore in the early 1500s nearly a century before the Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth Rock Hillsborough County has experienced a remarkable history, one that includes martyrs, Indian battles, Civil War blockade-runners, cowboys, monster hurricanes, Rough Riders, railroad tycoons, vigilantes, and Cuban revoluntionaries. Yet despite its grand past, Hillsborough County has no history museum. To be sure, there are some wonderful displays to be found at the Plant Museum, the Ybor City State Museum, and the Hillsborough River State Park, which features a replica of a fort from the Seminole War era. The Hillsborough County Courthouse has a small history exhibit. But there is no museum devoted to the region's entire history. Recently a group of Tampa residents interested in a local history museum visited Miami's Historical Museum of Southern Florida, which demonstrates that history, when it is well presented, can be as entertaining as it is important. A visitor can handle Indian tools, sit at the helm of a salvager's boat, view explorers' swords or step abroad an old streetcar. Hillsborough County's history merits such a facility. So do its residents, many of whom are newcomers eager to know more about their adopted home. Beyond offering stimulating displays, an historical museum is needed to house archives and to promote activities that help citizens understand that the story of Hillsborough predates air conditioning and 1-75. The efforts of a group of area residents to establish a local history museum rate widespread support. Ideally, the museum would be located near downtown, perhaps in a building of historical consequence, though a new facility can have advantages. The Historical Museum of South Florida is in a Spanish-style courtyard with an art museum and a public library. The complex is a great asset to downtown Miami.

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MUSEUM-MINDED TAMPANS SEE MIAMI SHOWPLACE But specifics can be debated later. First, Hillsborough County commissioners must pursue the project in earnest. The county's five-year capital outlay budget does include $6 million for a history museum, which is roughly the price of the Miami building. But the figure is for planning purposes only and does not mean any money will be spent. The county should begin the research necessary to see that the museum is established. How big a facility is needed, where it should be built and how money for the project can be raised all must be investigated. One idea: Although some leading Tampans pooh-pooh the idea of preserving the old railroad station on Nebraska Avenue, a good argument can be made for refurbishing it. Jacksonville did a brilliant job of bringing its handsome station back to Cyndi Wilcox, left, and Jim Apthorp, both of the coalition group seeking a historical museum for Tampa, looking through artifacts at the Historical Museum of South Florida in Miami.

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life and incorporating it in a new convention center. Too, Tampa's old terminal symbolizes what was probably the most important single event in the city's history the coming of the railroad. Whatever site is chosen, private sector donations will be needed, and the city of Tampa would have to participate. And while it is important to be financially sensible about the facility, there should be no scrimping on necessities. The Miami museum, for instance, is seriously handicapped by its lack of space for temporary exhibits, which can draw big crowds. Thoughtful planning can avoid such pitfalls. But it is time that planning begins. Hillsborough County needs a history museum to serve as The Great Entrance to its past. Joe Hipp, left, and Tony Pizzo, look at a map of the United States as it appeared to early Spanish sailors, in the Historical Museum of South Florida.

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BOOK REVIEW COFFEE TABLE SIZE THIS VOLUME IS A 'LAP BOOK 'OF ENJOYMENT By JOE HIPP Special Collections Dept., Tampa Public Library FLORIDA: A PICTORIAL HISTORY, by Hampton Dunn. The Donning Co., Publishers, Norfolk: 1988. $35.00 FLORIDA: A PICTORIAL HISTORY, by Hampton Dunn, is a stunning Dunning (forgive me, Hamp) production. Coffee table All through the night, workers at Tampa Shipbuilding Company yards carried on diligently to build ships for the war effort during World War H. This photograph was taken the night o f December 6, 1942. U.S. Navy photograph from the HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION. 'THIS PICTURE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS' -Photograph from FLORIDA: A PICTORIAL HISTORY by HAMPTON DUNN

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size, the book is filled with hundreds of wonderful photographs (over 550) covering events in Florida's long history from 1513 to 1987. Two Indian artifacts pictured here predate the era of discovery by several hundred and several thousand years. Hamp, as the author likes to be called, is well known throughout Florida for his slide presentations, television spots (WTVT-TV) on little-known historical facts and his books and lectures on Florida and local history. He has spent more than fifty years in the field of mass communications first in newspapers, then in radio, television and public relations. Hamp has won many awards for his efforts and now that he has "retired," he is the president-elect of the prestigious Florida Historical Society. Hamp's new book is arranged chronologically the chapters covering such time frames as: "Chapter 1, Before 1900," and ending with "Chapter VII, 1970 to Today." The last chapter is naturally filled with many color photographs, which you usually do not see in a pictorial history. Hampton does not limit the subjects of the photographs except by time. This diversity really enhances the book. For example in the first chapter we find photographs of 16th century maps, Spanish forts, the oldest surviving plantation house, the picture of a plaque on how to wash clothes, a picture of a Seminole chief "Alligator", the old wooden schoolhouse in Rochelle, Alachua County, and a picture of the first Fort Myers Brass Band posed in front of the bandstand in 1887. This list just whets your visual appetite. There are many more photographs in the first chapter besides these mentioned. If you are interested in early transportation in Florida, there are many examples noted besides walking and by horse or mule. Hamp has photographs of: a steamboat on the Suwanee River; a team of horses pulling an infernal machine (automobile) out of the mire at Fort Ogden; a jitney bus ready to start its trip from Tampa to Clearwater; Tampa's first air meet, held Feb. 21, 1911, at the old racetrack near the McMullen Aviation Field; and finally, Engine No. 2 of the "Celestial Express", which ran from Jupiter to Juno, with stops at Venus and Mars and length of the line was only 71/2 miles! An old Chinese saying says that a picture is worth a thousand words and if that is the going rate for a photograph, Hamp has put a million words into 264 pages. The book reminds me of the old-fashioned children's toy the kaleidoscope. With each turn of the tube you saw a new image and with each turn of the page you view a new image of Florida's past. I think that you will find that Hamp's book will be a lap book rather than a coffee table book because it will be the center of attraction for many long evenings.

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BOOK REVIEW LEGEND OF GASPAR REMAINS WITH US By HAMPTON DUNN The Pirate Gasparilla: His Life and Times. Dana M. Groff, Jr., Palmetto Publications, 3202 Santiago St., Tampa: 1988, $9.95, 74 pages. Dana M. Groff, Jr., native Tampan and a member of Ye Mystic Krewe of Gasparilla, has published a neat little book telling all about the legendary pirate Jose Gaspar. If you expect the author to legitimatize Gaspar as a real historical figure, you'll be disappointed. But Dana has a lot of fun giving his impressions of the pirate days along Florida's Gulf coast, and you'll enjoy his yarns. At the very outset of the book, Groff spells out his conclusions: "This is a story of fiction. Except for Juan Gomez, George W. Hardee and other obvious individuals of history, the characters of this story are fictitious, and any resemblance to those living or deceased is purely coincidental. Also, some historical events, dates and locations are based on factual information. "Though this is a fictitious tale, the author does not deny the possibility of a real Spanish pirate named Jose Gaspar, or, Gasparilla, who plundered Florida's west coast into the early 19th century. However, the author believes that documented evidence (as has been suggested by others) to substantiate such a character, either has yet to be discovered, or does not exist." Having said that, Dana then goes on to spin a colorful story about pirates, the Spanish Main and other interesting bits of fact or fiction. A history of Ye Mystic Krewe is included and was written by Regar Mickler. He traces the beginning to May 4, 1904. The appendix includes "Ye Royal Line of Gasparilla" listing Kings and Queens of the social group. "SPIRIT OF OLD JOSE GASPAR" ... Etching by Kent Hagerman -From The Pirate Gasparilla by DANA M. GROFF, JR.

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This charming account complements other books on Gaspar written by the late Ed Lambright and, more recently, by Nancy Turner. Add it to your library.

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THOMAS P. KENNEDY: INDIAN TRADER By DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON Probably the most important Indian trader along the western coast of Florida during the period 1842-1860 was Thomas P. Kennedy. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1812, Kennedy came to Fort Brooke in 1840 where he established a sutler's store which was a source of military supplies for the army.1 At the conclusion of the war, Kennedy continued to maintain the sutler's store but began to trade with the Seminole Indians who visited Tampa from their temporary reserve located some hundred miles to the south. During these visits to Fort Brooke, the only place where trading with the Indians was legal, a house in the village of Tampa was reserved for them and they held nightly dances in the yard behind PROMISSORY NOTE TO KENNEDY & DARLING At the outbreak of the Civil War, Tampa's Acting Mayor John Jackson issued a promissory note to the pioneer firm of Kennedy & Darling "being for repairs of cannon carriages and implements, ammunition and for defense of the city. The amount of the note was for $299.58, and was authorized by the City Council on June 28, 1861. The deputy city clerk who attested the Council's action was V. Darling. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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the house.2 Use of this house allowed the Indians a place in which they could sleep and "sober up" to make the trip back home. Usually one Indian refrained from drinking so that he could guide the other males back to the barracks. Within a short time Kennedy decided to expand his operations by opening a fishing establishment on probably what was Pine Island in Charlotte Harbor. Although Charlotte Harbor was well known for its bountiful supply of fish there were few fishermen at the harbor for the troops had removed them during the Second Seminole War (1835-1842) suspecting that they supplied the Indians with arms and ammunition. Even some Cuban fishermen, suspected of being Seminoles, had been taken as far west as New Orleans before they proved their heritage.3 When General William Worth gave his approval to the establishment of the fishery in July, 1844, he specified that there should be no trade permitted with the Indians and the enterprise could be terminated whenever the commander of the military forces in Florida so desired.4 PINE ISLAND MOVE When some problems developed at the trading post in Fort Brooke, military authorities permitted Kennedy in October, 1845, to expand operations from his base store at Tampa and Whiting Streets to the former Caldez fishing rancho at Pine Island and, as a result, few Indians made the trip to GENERAL WILLIAM J. WORTH 'No Fishery' -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION BILLY BOWLEGS ...His Medals To Kennedy -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Tampa. Articles needed for the port were carried in Kennedy's twelve-ton sloop Julia Ann which left Tampa on September 20, 1845.5 Joah Griffin was engaged by Kennedy to serve as storekeeper and sent to assist him was Chai, a Creek Indian who had served the whites during the 1835-42 war, and his wife. Kennedy was afraid that due to restrictions imposed on the visits of the Indians to Fort Brooke and activities of illegal traders the Indians would not visit his newly established trading post. The whites at "McRaes" sold whiskey to the Indians and warned them if they went to the Pine Island store they would be captured and sent to Indian Territory.6 In subsequent years Kennedy served as a blockade runner during the Mexican War, acquired a partner John Darling, married Adelaide Christy, niece of former commander at Fort Brooke and due to a fire lost his trading store. The Mexican War helped Kennedy make much money, for he purchased larger ships and ran them through the weakly manned blockade to the American Army at Vera Cruz; but on one trip while carrying supplies he was captured and held in custody for several months.7 Upon his return to Tampa in 1848, Kennedy joining forces with John P. Darling founded Kennedy & Darling, a firm that became one of the area's leading mercantile establishments. Located next to the Palmer House on Whiting Street, the firm of Kennedy & Darling boasted that if it obtained ample supplies by steamer from New Orleans it would purchase cotton, hides and deerskins. Darling's thirty-two-ton schooner Rosella had been added to the small fleet of vessels serving the firm. When the store at Pine Island was destroyed by fire, Kennedy & Darling looked about for another location in which to profit from the Indian trade. ARTICLES FOR TRADE Major William Morris, who was in charge of Indian affairs at Fort Brooke, gave Kennedy & Darling permission in March, 1849 to open another store on present-day Payne's Creek, a tributary of the Peace River.8 After the firm had erected a combination store and dwelling, crude huts, wharf and a bridge, the Seminoles traded at the store in greater numbers than had come to the earlier store. Articles kept at the store for trade with the Indians included rifles, brass kettles, beads, blankets, tin cups and pans, calicos and cotton goods, powder, lead, flints, tobacco, broadcloth, spurs, bridles, saddles, mirrors, tools, shawls, hoes, hatchets, combs, salt and whiskey.9 Disturbing however was the fact that within a period of eight months the Indians had purchased one hundred pounds of rifle powder and a sizeable amount of lead, showing an interest in powder and lead far beyond their normal hunting requirements. One such transaction took place when Chipco, accompanied by three women, came to the store on July 17, 1849, carrying with him watermelons, deer meat, sweet potatoes, deer and other skins and beeswax which was purchased by Captain George S. Payne proprietor of the store. Only nine or more of the available watermelons were acquired, for Payne believed that they would not sell well in New York. Chipco remarked that he was going to return a pony recently purchased at the post for it was not what he had ordered.10 BURNT STORE, HOUSE In the Summer of 1849 a few Seminoles aroused by restrictions placed upon their movements by the legislature killed one man

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and wounded another near Fort Pierce and killed two more at the Payne's Creek store. After killing William Barker and vandalizing a small village on the Indian River north of Fort Pierce, the Indians moved toward the west coast where another target had been selected. On July 17, near nightfall, four Indians appeared at the store carrying rifles and requesting the use of a boat to carry a pack of deerskins from the other side of Payne's Creek. Payne promised use of the boat but refused their request to sleep in the store. While the whites began eating the evening meal the Indians sat on the porch near the door smoking their pipes but suddenly opened fire from the door killing Whidden and Payne and wounding McCullough. When the Indians paused to reload, McCullough grabbed a rifle from the wall and followed his wife and child who were running to the bridge. Both McCullough and his wife were wounded again by the Indians but were able to escape by hiding in the underbrush. When they could not find the McCulloughs, the Indians took what they wanted from the store and set fire to the building and huts. The McCulloughs made their way some twenty miles to the nearest white settlements which were on the Alafia River. Some time later, Nancy McCullough identified one of the attacking party as Yoholochee, a Mikasuki whom she had seen frequently at her father's house on the Alafia River.11 The destruction of the well-equipped Payne's Creek store was a complete loss to the Kennedy & Darling firm for there was no restitution either by the Indians or Federal Government. The Army built a military post, Fort Chokkunikla (burnt house), on the site but it lasted only a few months. The Burnt Store and Burnt House episodes ended Kennedy's Indian trade activities. When Billy Bowlegs left Florida he gave his medals bestowed by the Federal Government to Kennedy whose family still retains them. Chipco was one of the leaders of the attack and Billy had little control over the Chipco band. Although three of the ones involved in the killings were surrendered to the whites, they were not punished but given $600 and sent to the West. NOTES 1 Karl H. Grismer, Tampa: A History of the City of Tampa and the Tampa Bay Region ofFlorida (St. Petersburg, 1956), 313 2 George Ballentine, Autobiography ofAn English Soldier in the United States Army (New York, 1953), 105. 3 Grant Foreman, Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians (Norman, 1953), 364-365. 4 Captain John T. Sprague to Thomas P. Kennedy, July 3, 1844, Files of Captain John Casey Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 5 Kennedy to Sprague, October 2, 1845, Casey Files. 6 Ibid. 7 Grismer, Tampa, 313. 8 Michael G. Schene, "Not a Shot Fired: Fort Chokonikla and 'the Indian War' of 1849-1850," Tequesta 37 (1977), 21. 9 Disposition of William and Nancy McCullough, August 11, 1849, Senate Executive Document 39, Thirtieth Congress, 1 sess., 161-163. 10 Ibid., 161. 11 Ibid.

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Meet The Authors H. WAYNE BEVIS a fourth generation native of Florida, was born in Blountstown but moved to Lakeland in 1911 and considers it hometown. He attended Emory University and the University of Florida. Bevis came to Tampa in 1932 with the Hillsborough County Budget Commission, later worked for Peninsular Telephone Company, then joined Eastern Air Lines in 1943. In 1946 he became district sales manager, and in 1971 he concluded 28 years with the airline as Disney Project Coordinator. Over the years he was president of the downtown Lions Club, the Presidents' Round Table, USO Chapter and Florida West Coast SKAL Club. DR. JAMES W. COVINGTON is Dana Professor of History at the University of Tampa and a past president of Tampa Historical Society. He received the D.B. McKay Award for his contributions to Florida history. Dr. Covington has written five books the most recent The Billy Bowlegs War and many scholarly articles. MARYCLAIRE (M.C.) CRAKE received her M.A. in history from the University of South Florida this year. Her thesis traced the history of Tampa's women's clubs from 1900-1940., "M.C." has been a resident of Tampa for the last eight years and, prior to joining the Peace Corps, she was employed by the Peninsula Motor Club (AAA) as an auditor. LULA JOUGHIN DOVI native of Tampa, is daughter of former Hillsborough County Sheriff R.T. "Bob" Joughin who died in 1961. She also is granddaughter of John Jackson, surveyor of downtown Tampa and many areas of Florida. A 1940 graduate of Plant High School, she received her A.B. degree from Florida State University and her BEVIS COVINGTON CRAKE

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M.A. degree from University of South Florida. She recently retired as a countywide coordinator of social studies and art for Adult and Community Education, Hillsborough County Public School System. Presently she serves as vice chairperson of Hillsborough County Democratic Executive Committee and as a member of the board of Carrollwood Civic Association, and recently attended the Democratic National Convention as an alternate delegate. She is a member of Phi Delta Kappa, educational honorary. HAMPTON DUNN for more than 50 years has been prominent in the communications fields of journalism, radio and television broadcasting and public relations in Florida. For years he was managing editor of The Tampa Daily Times, has been a commentator for WCKT-TV in Miami, was for nearly three decades an executive of the Peninsula Motor Club (AAA) and continues as a AAA consultant. Currently, he also is a prize-winning regular Florida historical reporter on WTVT-TV, Channel 13, Tampa. He is author of 15 books on Florida history, his newest being Florida-A Pictorial History. Active in many historical and preservation groups, Dunn is President-Elect of the Florida Historical Society. He also serves as editor of The Sunland Tribune. Tampa College conferred on Dunn an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters when he was commencement speaker in 1987. His alma mater, the University of Tampa, gave him its Distinguished Public Service Award when he was commencement speaker in 1975. He was a Major in the Air Force in the Mediterranean Theater during World War II. LELAND HAWES, JR is a native Tampan who grew up in Thonotosassa, where he published a weekly newspaper at age 11. A graduate of the University of Florida in 1950, he worked as a reporter for The Tampa Daily Times for two years, then for The Tampa Tribune in various capacities since then. For the last several years he has been writing a history/nostalgia page, and is active in many historical groups. DOVI DUNN HAWES

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JOSEPH HIPP a native Floridian, is head of the Special Collections Department of the Tampa/Hillsborough County Public Library system. He is a book reviewer for The Tampa Tribune and has contributed a chapter to the book, Special Collections in Libraries of the Southeast, which was sponsored by the Southeastern Library Association. ERNEST PACKWOOD MacBRYDE is the grandson of George Horatio Packwood and Azeele Carruthers Packwood. He grew up in Tampa and graduated from Plant High School and LaSalle University. He is married to the former Janie Allen. ARNOLD MARTINEZ is a noted Tampa artist whose painting of Centrol Espanol's "El Casino" dresses up the back cover of this issue. Whether working with acrylics which he blends into lavish vivid colors and soft textures, or the unique distinguished tones of coffee and tea pigments (a technique he developed), Martinez creates universal appeal for his nostalgic paintings of his native Ybor City and the Tampa Bay area. EDWARD A. MUELLER was educated at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Notre Dame University, Catholic University of America, Yale University and Florida State University. Some 30 years ago upon his arrival in Florida, he developed an interest in steamboats that once plied Florida's inland waters, and has published books on the subject. At one time he was Florida's Secretary of Transportation. Mueller is Vice President at Morales and Shumer Engineers in Jacksonville. TONY PIZZO first president of Tampa Historical Society and a recipient of the D.B. McKay Award, is a native of Ybor City and author of Tampa Town 1824-1886 and co-author of Tampa, The Treasure City. He is a retired executive of Fruit Wines of Florida. Pizzo was named Tampa's outstanding citizen by the Civitan Club in 1956 and Ybor City's "Man of the Year" in HIPP MacBRYDE MARTINEZ

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1954, 1976 and 1985. He holds the official designation County Historian. ROBERT E. SIMS is a member of the Tampa and the Florida Historical Societies. He has lived most of his life in Hillsborough County and now calls Brandon his home. A retired member of the Tampa Police Department, he now finds time to devote to his study of local history and to the writing of articles pertaining to his research. MUELLER PIZZO SIMS

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CENTRO ESPANOL DE YBOR CITY BECOMES NATIONAL LANDMARK The historic Centro Espanol de Ybor City clubhouse has earned one of the nation's first emergency historic landmark designations from the National Parks Service. "I'm just absolutely elated about it," said Joan Jennewein, a member of the Historic Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board, which pushed for the designation. "I think this is going to be a big help in our efforts to save the building." Preservationists are trying to secure state funds to purchase the decaying two-story, red brick building built in 1912 at 1536 E. Seventh Avenue. It is the oldest of the five ethnic clubhouses in the 102-year-old cigar-making district. The emergency national landmark designation marks the first time in at least 10 years any project has bypassed an advisory board decision process that usually takes months, federal officials said. Donald P. Hodel, the U.S. Secretary of the Interior, approved the designation in June to help efforts to save it. The entire process took about three weeks, a testimony to the CENTRO ESPANOL DURING THE 1920s . 'The Midnight Sun' Playing At Theatre -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Spanish-styled building's significance, officials said. "It's certainly the most significant structure of its type in the Gulf Coast region," said Jim Charleton, a National Parks Service historian in Washington, D.C. The Centro joins Plant Hall at the University of Tampa as the city's only national historic landmarks. The Centro's owners are eligible to apply for a plaque in honor of the designation but receive no money with the federal recognition. But being a landmark can help a building qualify for available federal funds and assistance from foundations, officials said. The building is part of a proposed Ybor City national landmark district. But preservationists stressed the building couldn't wait until an advisory board decided on the district in October of next year. Once a hot spot where Centro Espanol Club members played cards, dominoes and danced, the structure has been empty since 1983 when the club sold it. SHOWCASE BUILDING Its 700-seat theater is collapsing, its boarded windows attract vandals and its private owners have struck out trying to turn it into a modern-day club and restaurant. "I think this is fabulous," said Carol Vigderman of Tampa, co-owner of the building. The building dates to the days when Spanish, Cuban and Italian immigrants built and worked the cigar factories that helped put Tampa on the map. The showcase building along Ybor City's Seventh Avenue was valued at $448,450 last year. NO MONEY AVAILABLE "We were convinced that the building, given its current state, deserved emergency consideration," said Jim Charleton, a National Parks Service historian. Charleton said declaring a building a national landmark normally takes months. Centro Espanol completed the process in a few weeks. There is no money for restoration attached to the landmark status, however. The 76-year-old building, at the corner of Seventh Avenue and 16th Street in the heart of the former cigar district, was one of the first to be designated under a new effort to recognize ethnic history, said Charleton. He said the federal government is particularly interested in recognizing buildings that reflect more recent immigrant history. He said other landmarks that honor the Spanish presence in this country date to colonial times. "It basically tells us, the citizens of Tampa and Hillsborough County, how important to our history this building is," said Stephanie Farrell, director of the Historic Tampa/Hillsborough Preservation Board.

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Editorial from The Tampa Tribune: STATE OF FLORIDA SHOULD BUY YBOR CITY’S CENTRO ESPANOL Latin immigrants coming to work in Ybor City’s cigar factories in the late 1800s faced a strange and frightening world. Alligators and wild hogs wandered in from nearby swamps. Suspicious Anglo-Tampans were just as unfriendly. The newcomers had no source of medical aid, community support or entertainment. But they coped, indeed thrived, by creating mutual aid societies. The Latin clubs provided social centers as well as medical care and other support. Through them, cigarworkers could buy medical coverage for as little as 10 cents a week. The centers included clinics, libraries, gyms, dance halls and auditoriums. Separate hospitals were built. Clubs sponsored speeches, plays and concerts, often booking internationally known performers. As Gary Mormino and Anthony Pizzo point out in "Tampa: The Treasure City:" "These hospitals and associations offered dignity and hope to immigrants in Tampa in addition to saving taxpayers millions YBOR CITY ’ S CENTRO ESPANOL At Turn of the Century. -photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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of dollars … Without these centros and casinos, cigarmakers would have been mere factory laborers, seeking charity in time of distress. Their Latin pride swelled when treated at modern facilities by their doctors at their clinics. As the cigar industry declined, so did the Latin clubs. Only five survive, giving faint reflection of the clubs’ former glory. But all Tampans can take pride in Ybor City’s mutual aid societies’ inspiring achievements. And the clubs warrant preservation in more than memory. The grand Latin club buildings, monuments to immigrants’ pride and self-reliance, should be saved. Deserving prompt attention is Centro Espanol at 16th Street and 7th Avenue. The National Parks Service recently designated it a National Historic Landmark, citing its striking architecture and historical significance. Parks Service officials consider Centro Espanol "one of the handful of structures that could serve as essential cornerstones of an Ybor City National Historic Landmark District," a designation that would greatly bolster Ybor City’s revival efforts. Local officials are trying to persuade the state to buy Centro Espanol through its Conservation and Recreation Lands Program. We strongly support its purchase if it can be obtained at a sensible price. The building is privately owned; club members found it too costly to maintain and sold it a few years ago. It remains unoccupied and in disrepair. What makes the building distinctive a ballroom with musician gallery, theater, marble staircases and such also limits its potential commercial use. But Centro Espanol is well suited to public functions -concerts, art displays, education programs and such. The building would complement the appealing Ybor City State Museum. Communities throughout the nation are discovering the economic value of heritage tourism. Not to take advantage of Ybor City’s unique history by preserving important structures such as Centro Espanol would be foolish. Parks Service officials consider Centro Espanol "the brightest jewel among the extraordinary" ethnic clubs of Tampa. Of course, Ybor City’s success involves more than safeguarding bricks. Developments that create a broad spectrum of jobs are needed. Ybor needs more developments like Tampa Electric’s new $10 million data center and the proposed, huge furniture-sales complex, as well as tourist-oriented businesses. Property speculators also must stop viewing Ybor City as the path to quick riches. Asking exorbitant prices for buildings requiring extensive renovation discourages potential Ybor City investors. And private enterprise is the key to Ybor City's resurgence. Community leaders have puzzled for more than 40 years about ways to rekindle Ybor City’s economic flame. Experience has demonstrated government’s limited ability to act as catalyst. But the state can help immensely by buying Centro Espanol, an irreplaceable "jewel" from Ybor’s storied past.

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SMOKING GUNS OF TAMPA By LULA JOUGHIN DOVI It was a time of machine gun elections, alleged "ballot box stuffing" and winter visits to tropical Florida from Northern mobsters or gangsters. That was the underside of Tampa during the 1920s and 1930s. A time of Prohibition and bootlegging, too. And part of that brief time, from 1929 to 1932, my father, R.T. "Bob" Joughin, was Sheriff. My father was called from his plumbing and heating contracting business by then-Governor Doyle E. Carlton to begin serving the unexpired term of the Sheriff who was suspended. And as I recall that period I remember seeing a machine gun sitting in the corner of his bedroom and two pistols resting under his pillow. There was an ever present threat of ambush. Uncle Cleve (R.C. Joughin), who was living at the time at 320 West Amelia with my father, told me how he and the man across the street, Mr. Simpson, would sit in darkened rooms with guns at the ready until my father would get safely into the house. GOVERNOR'S ORDERS There were some fatal shootouts with gangsters during my father's term as Sheriff that the magazine, True Detective Mysteries, chronicled in an August 1933 issue.1 According to the article Governor Carlton's mandate was, "'Gang rule must be broken and I believe you're the man to break it.2 One of the new Sheriff's first moves was to appoint a "highly efficient force of deputies" and wait for the gangsters to make their first move. Not only did Tampa have to contend with the so-called gangster elite from other cities but also its own underworld. A secret staff of "stool pigeons" or informers took shape to flash tips to the waiting deputies. In February of 1930 a sleek roadster from Missouri was noticed in the business section of Tampa. Although SHERIFF WHO BATTLED THE GANGSTERS ... R. T. "Bob" Joughin

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W.G. Peoples appeared to be a wealthy tourist, the Sheriff's office confirmed that he was actually the "'Carnation Kid', bandit de luxe and darling of a dozen gun molls.3 'CARNATION KID' DROPS In a roadhouse party shootout with gangsters that Peoples had invited, the new Sheriff "fired only once and the 'Carnation Kid' dropped in his tracks, dying almost instantly. The bullet severed his spine."4 One of the gangsters had a room said to be filled with guns, ammunition and fountain pen tear-gas pistols. A second gun duel took place eleven months later on January 2, 1931, with a former member of the "Bugs" Moran mob of Chicago, James "Happy" Turner. Turner was serving a sentence for robbery. While he was working with a convict gang near Tampa, Turner and seven other prisoners overpowered the guards and escaped to a cornfield on the outskirts of Tampa. In answering the gunfire of the gangster's automatic the "Sheriff's pump gun roared just once. Turner collapsed ... (and) died before the police surgeon arrive."5 The new Sheriff was gaining a reputation for courage and marksmanship. A third fatal gun battle involved a local mobster and former convict, Valentino "Dutch" Gonzalez, who had been pardoned after serving time for complicity in the theft of more than a hundred automobiles. A New York gangster, Henry Menendez, joined forces with Gonzalez, and they planned a daring attack on a safe in a real estate office across from the Federal Building.6 "WE'RE TRAPPED" Police Chief A.C. Logan and the Sheriff had stationed Deputy Sheriff Keltner as a lookout to signal them when to attack the robbers. Apparently Gonzalez had forced open the office door and stood guard while Menendez worked on the safe. But Gonzalez caught sight of Keltner and screamed, "We're trapped!" Logan and the Sheriff came up the stairs and called to the men to surrender. Instead, the gangsters opened fire when the officers entered the office. The final account of the gun battle revealed this: "Firing at the flash of Menendez' pistol, the Sheriff riddled his man before Chief Logan killed Gonzalez with a bullet through the jugular vein, firing the fatal shot as the gangster rushed forward for a hand-to-hand encounter.7 BALLOT BOX STUFFING CAMPAIGN CARD FOR SHERIFF In 1932

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The last story about gun battles in the magazine article related how "novice gangster" W.E. McElvey from New Orleans was wounded in the skull after an attempted warehouse raid. According to the story, "This battle also was fought in the dark and the Sheriff fired only one shot. The bullet furrowed McElvey's scalp.8 The Sheriff ran for election but lost in 1932. There were rumors of ballot box "stuffing." Former Governor Carlton recalled to me when my father died in 1961 that he and my father were told about a polling place where there was allegedly some ballot box "stuffing." The two of them were getting ready to go check out the rumor when, as Carlton recalled, "We remembered we didn't have any guns on us." The National Guard was called out for some hotly contested elections in the 1930s. My father mentioned one time that he and his brothers and workers stayed behind some stacks of pipes while soldiers and machine guns kept guard in front of his office on North Franklin Street. Elections in Tampa are much different today. NOTES 1 Hartley, Howard W.: "Joughin-Terror of' the Underworld, TRUE DETECTIVE MYSTERIES, Volume 20, Number 5. August 1933. 2 Ibid, p. 64. 3 Ibid, p.64. 4 Ibid, p.65. 5 Ibid, p.65. 6 Ibid, p.65. 7 Ibid, p. 112. 8 Ibid, p. 112.

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SILHOUETTES By Vicki DeSormier REPRINTED BY PERMISSION FROM LA GACETA Leland Hawes sits with perfect posture in one of the cast iron chairs on the Caf Creole's sunny patio. He cuts his French fries and spicy fried shrimp with a knife and fork and pops small pieces into his mouth. "People have accused me of being married to my job," he laughs softly, "I guess you could say they're right." Pushing the wire frame glasses up on his nose, the shy bachelor recalls the years of working nights and weekends at The Tampa Daily Times and the Tampa Tribune. "I've always had writing in my blood," Hawes admits. At the age of 10 he started a weekly newspaper in his home town of Thonotosassa, which he called the Flint Lake Diver. The name "Flint Lake" is a translation of the Indian word which is the town's name. WEALTHY CITRUS GROWERS The Hawes family, which owned several small citrus groves under the name of L.M. Hawes Family Partnership, were fairly well off in a time of financial difficulty. His mother and sister still own the property and live in rural Hillsborough County, though Leland has lived in the Sunset Park area for a quarter century. The Diver was a mimeographed piece and Hawes admits that the old-fashioned stencils were not easy to work with. LELAND HAWES Writing In His Blood. -Photo from LA GACETA

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"It took me a long time to get those things right," he laughs. "I had seen political cartoons on the front page of all the dailies and I liked that idea," he continues. He depended on his father for suitable subject matter (most often it was something about Hitler or Mussolini) and he would do the artwork. GATHERED AT STORE "I always loved art," Hawes says, "but working on those stencils was a chore." The community was small in those days, with maybe 600 residents. (It was so small, in fact, that there was no school in town. His mother, like all the other parents in the area, had to drive Leland and his sister twenty miles or more to Gorrie Elementary, Wilson Junior High School and Plant High School.) In the center of town was the fourth class post office in the White Store (so named because it was painted white). This was the gathering spot for everyone in town. Hawes went there to sell watermelons and collect news on what everyone was doing. He also relied on his cousin Rubie Edwards, the postmaster, to keep her ears and eyes open for bits of news. Being wartime, there was quite a bit of news about young men going off to serve their country. Hawes also filled the pages with tidbits about the weather and even had some big advertisers. PRESSES CLOSE DOWN "My uncle in Tampa, L.W. 'Skew' Lee, would get me ads from places like the Columbia Restaurant ... full page ads from big name places. I think he may have been paying for them himself, though," Hawes confides. The paper, with 150 subscribers paying five cents a month, changed from a weekly to a biweekly after about a year of publication. Once Hawes began junior high school at Wilson, the presses closed down on the Diver. At Wilson he was involved in the production of his homeroom paper and at Plant he worked on the staff of the school's student publication. While he lived in the country, Hawes had very strong ties to the city. His mother's family lived in Tampa. The Haweses, would leave their home often to visit. His mother would spend her days in town while the children were in school. CAMPUS CORRESPONDENT As Hawes was preparing to leave for the University of Florida, Ed Ray, then managing editor of The Tampa Daily Times, who was his Sunday School teacher at First Presbyterian Church of Tampa, offered him the job of campus correspondent for the whopping salary of $30 a month. ("Actually," he admits, "it wasn't bad money for 1947.") That fall marked the first time that women were admitted to the University of Florida. (Previously, UF had been an all male institution and Florida State had been exclusively for women.) "One of my first stories," Hawes recalls, "was about the coeds hitchhiking along University Avenue." In those days, thumbing a ride was not only much safer

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than it is today, it was also the only way to get around for a poor college student who didn't want to walk. By attending summer school Hawes was able to complete his degree in three years and return to a job as a police reporter at The Times. GANGLAND MURDERS "Tampa has always been a good news town for a police beat writer," says Hawes. "In those days we had gangland murders of underworld figures and those kinds of things." Hawes, always looking for the human interest side of things, says he was helped in his investigations by detectives like Walter Heinrich and Malcolm Beard. As part of a small staff, he says he gained a lot of valuable experience and worked hard as The Tampa Daily Times was the underdog" paper in Tampa. But after a couple of years of that type of work, he moved to the Tampa Tribune to cover city hall and the courts. He went on to report on various subjects. At the time, every reporter had a chance to cover a variety of areas. In 1956, he won a newswriting award for a dramatic story he wrote about presidential candidates Estes Kefauver and Adlai Stevenson, who met in an unplanned debate under an old oak tree in Ybor City. PRIZE-WINNING REPORTER Two years later he won an award from the Associated Press for his analytical piece comparing the real estate booms of the 1920s and the 1950s. In those days, he was greatly impressed by his editor J.A. "Jock" Murray. Murray did investigative stories on statewide controversial issues that few would tackle. His stories laid the groundwork to improve the school system, which was deplorable. "We could use someone like him today," Hawes says. In 1960, Hawes added the responsibilities of editor to his repertoire of duties, as chief of the Sunday feature sections. "I like editing very much," he says. He went on to edit all the paper's feature sections and even take a stab at editorial writing from 1963 to 1967. HISTORY IS "FUN" "I wasn't ever good at that," he admits. "I just don't see things in absolutes. There is too much grey not just black and white." Hawes went on to various other editorial positions throughout the remainder of the 1960s and the 1970s. In 1981, he was made night editor, a job he says was interesting, but in November 1982, when management began to kick around the idea of a column about old Tampa, Hawes offered to take on the task. "It has been a rewarding experience," he says. He says that he has had as much fun with this project as with editing. He enjoys the hours of research at the USF Library and

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he especially loves roaming around the state doing background interviews with people who experienced the events he is recreating in his columns. While he may be "married" to his job, Hawes has made time for a rather unusual hobby. He has an old printing press in his garage, which he has had for nearly three decades. The letters must be set by hand, one at a time. He keeps a journal and prints copies of it for fellow members of a club comprised of a few hundred others across the country who share his love of old printing machines. He is active in the Tampa Historical Society and is on the board of the Hillsborough County Historical Commission. He is helping with efforts to create a historical museum in Tampa (a generic collection, rather than specialized facilities like the Ybor City State Museum and H. B. Plant Museum) and says that while it may be a long way from reality, it seems to be making some headway. Over the years, Hawes has had fun with his work and sees no reason to ever think about giving it up. "Ive enjoyed being able to find people in the area who have experienced things in the past that have been forgotten, but which are noteworthy and need to be remembered," Hawes says.

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Thonotosassa Lad, 12, Is Whole Newspaper, But He Covers Field The Flint Lake Diver, mimeographed Thonotosassa newspaper, will be issued today this week instead of Monday as usual because Leland Hawes, 12, its one man reporter, editor, cartoonist, printer, pressman and distributor, wants to tour the Peter 0. Knight airport tomorrow with The Tribune Air Cadets. The publication date doesn't make much difference, anyway. The paper lives up to its motto, "The Diver Comes Up With the News," and is always welcome to its 65 subscribers scattered from Maine to Florida. Leland, a pupil in the sixth grade at Gorrie school, son of Mr. and Mrs. L. M. Hawes, had been publishing the Diver on a mimeograph since last July when he became unable to type enough copies for his growing subscription list. He used to put out a week-end edition, but when school opened it was changed to Monday to give him a chance to work on Saturday. The Diver carries everything from news of international import to the homeliest local happenings. It also carries advertising, and the editor's proudest boast is that one of his ads sold a cow. A cartoon drawn by the editor, reporter, etc., is a weekly feature. FOR ROOSEVELT Editorially, the Diver is for Roosevelt and against Hitler, and it minces no words saying so. At the moment it is conducting an anti-bolita crusade. A while back it stood up courageously for the status quo on a question of whether to change the name of the Thonotosassa Board of Trade to chamber of commerce. The name was changed. The Diver is forthright in both its news and editorials, and the editor wastes no space in making his point. For example, a few samples of what the Diver has brought up: "A common noise that is taking the place of the duster with its hum-like noise is the hum of the irrigation systems. Another noise is the hum of the Famed Flying Fortresses. But BRINGS UP THE NEWS ... Leland Hawes -Tampa Tribune Photo

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we don't kick about those noises because they give us a feeling of secure defense." "This year the watermelons stayed in Thonotosassa an unusually long time. They went through all June and July and the 1st of August." GUARDING FORT KNOX? "It is reported that Mr. Jimmie O'Brien, who joined the army recently, has been transferred to Fort Knox, Kentucky. He is now a corporal and probably guarding the $11,000,000,000.00 that the United States has stored in the ground there." "With sorrow, four dog owners found their pet dogs dead, of poisoning. All four died on the same night. Whoever did this was the largest coward on earth." "It was reported Thursday night that Mr. __________ as he was going to bed sat down on a dozen of eggs. Enough broke to change the entire color of his pants. He was sitting down to take off his shoes to go to bed when it happened. The editor is not altogether sure on all facts of this story, as it was told to him by a certain young man." The paper religiously records births and marriages and always adds its congratulations. It is running a promotion now to increase the sale of stamps at the Thonotosassa post office.

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TAMPA PASTIMES READY TO START FOR CLEARWATER This photo, made May 24, 1915, shows Tampa Knights of Pythias gathered to leave fo r Clearwater meeting. Shown on steps of K. of P. "Castle Hall" at Lafayette and Morgan Streets. Only identified: Will Sparkman top step on right with cap, and Lovick Sparkman, bottom step, right, elbow on rail, white hat, behind man in uniform. -H. M. Clark Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTIO N

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GEORGE HORATIO PACKWOOD, SR.TAMPA'S FORGOTTEN PIONEER By ERNEST PACKWOOD MacBRYDE He is Tampa's forgotten pioneer-my grandfather, George Horatio Packwood, Sr. If the names Horatio and Packwood sound familiar to you, he is responsible, as the AN ELEGANT COUPLE OF EARLY TAMPA George H. Packwood, Sr. and wife Lahvasia C. Packwood August 21, 1910

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Packwood Subdivision in Hyde Park was named for him, as were those streets. Azeele, Eunice and Mary were streets named for three of his daughters-but only Azeele, of those three, remains today. It's not too surprising that he has been omitted from Tampa's history, thus far. Spanish Town Creek which flowed by his home on the way to Hillsborough Bay (near Bayshore and the Davis Islands Bridge) has long been covered, due to development of the Hyde Park area, and is doomed to forever flow to the bay in darkness. Even the old two-story home has been long demolished. Many times, as a child, I was told that he donated the land to the city for the purpose of building Gorrie School. My grandfather was thought of as a stern Scot-Episcopalian. Early in life, he showed his independent nature when after attending Heidelberg University in Germany, he was in New York City and accepted a commission in the Union Army. This was considered high rebellion, as his father owned three plantations in Louisiana. The night before he was to report for active duty, family papers reveal that he was given a dinner party at Delmonic's in New York City which lasted five hours. According to his Discharge Papers, dated August 4, 1865, in Boston, Mass., he had served in the 20th EUNICE AND GEORGE H. PACKWOOD, JR. All Dressed Up -Photo by FIELD, Tampa DAUGHTERS MARY AND LAHVESIA. ... Taken in N.Y. City, May 1901

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Regiment of the Massachusetts Infantry as a first Lieutenant. He brought his family to Tampa from Maitland following a disastrous freeze which destroyed his orange groves. He and his wife, the former Lahvesia Caruthers, had five children George, Jr., Lahvesia, Azeele, Eunice and my mother, Mary. FAMILY OF MUSICIANS Even as a small child, I was in awe of the furnishings in my grandparents' home. They were considered grand and not only from a child's viewpoint. I particularly remember his massive desk, which boasted of beautifully hand-carved decorations. All of the children had been taught to play some musical instrument and my favorite was the piano which my grandfather played for hours once during a hurricane as if he were answering the noises of the gales and the sounds of the waters of the bay nearby. My grandmother was not without musical talent. I have a copy of the sheet-music of a song she composed. At the top is written in ink, "For Mr. D.B. McKay, Editor, The Times, with compliments of the author, Mrs. Geo. H. Packwood, Sr." dated November 1905. The name of the song is "Candita". Also written on the cover is "Souvenir of the Fair, November 1905". It was published by the Crown Publishing Company, Mt. Kisco, New York. Early Tampans will remember Mr. Packwood for having the only electric car in town. I remember the fresh flowers in the cut glass vases mounted by each door in the interior. GOES TO WAR AGAIN For a time, he and George Morrison shared a partnership in a hardware store on Franklin, near Lafayette Street (now Kennedy Boulevard). An opera house occupied the second floor. Perhaps he was instrumental in that location of the opera house as he was considered a patron of the arts. His second Army career started when he enlisted as a quartermaster in 1898 at the beginning of the Spanish-American War. He was later appointed as Chief Quartermaster in the Havana Customs House in 1899, where he remained until 1902. Family correspondence reveals that he traveled between Havana and Tampa many times during those four years. GEORGE HORATIO PACKWOOD Veteran of Two Wars

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He was in his sixties when he became president of the We-Fone-U Stores, a new concept in grocery marketing of that time. His daughter Azeele (nicknamed "Babette") was murdered in New York City where she had gone to study art. All of the daughters attended finishing school in New York City. The son, George, Jr., was constantly at odds with his dictatorial father and left home, never to be heard of by the family again. Lavhesia and Mary both married and had families. Eunice never married and lived in the old family home until her death in the early 60s. George Horatio Packwood, Sr. died in 1932 at the age of 87.

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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MY COMMUNITY By MAMIE JACKSON HALL (Editor's Note: This article was written by the late Mamie Susan Jackson Hall, probably in the late 1950s or 1960s. Mrs. Hall's daughter, Virginia 1. Hall of Temple Terrace, has written the accompanying article about her mother.) As we are studying our community this year perhaps it will be interesting to go back to its early days before it was a thickly settled suburb of the City of Tampa. So come with me for a little while as we turn back the pages of the past. It is the year 1868. The little town of Tampa nestles complacently between the eastern shore of the Hillsborough River where it flows into the Bay and the Federal Garrison of Fort Brooke. Its one main thoroughfare is Washington Street which, as you know, runs east and west. Although Sidney Lanier had not yet visited Tampa and written his famous poem "Tampa Robins", in which he alludes to Tampa's desert strands, I'm sure the sand was here and very plentiful. On October 10 of this year 1868 Thomas Butler Jackson, with his wife and children moving from Hernando County, staked his claim to a homestead in a virgin forest about four miles northeast of Tampa. Mr. Jackson set about at once clearing ground preparatory to building a house. As he was felling trees he heard the sound of someone else similarly engaged not far away. On investigation he found that a Mr. Aman had taken a homestead just south of his. The street lying between these two homesteads is now called 21st Avenue. ON KING'S HIGHWAY Thomas Jackson built a one-room log house which he and his family occupied until the next year when he built a six-room house of the "double pen" type with a piazza across the front and a long walk in the rear leading MAMIE SUSAN JACKSON HALL

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to the kitchen and dining room. They chose for their homesite a beautiful live oak grove on the southeast corner of the tract. This was a slight promontory gently sloping down some hundred yards to a beautiful little pool fringed with nodding buttonwoods and the lacy white elder. Perhaps another reason for selecting this particular spot was the main road, King's Highway, which skirted the southeast corner of the homestead and travelers coming and going no doubt were visible from the Jackson home. This road had been built during the Indian war connecting Fort Brooke at Tampa with Fort King at Ocala and was probably the main artery of travel to South Florida. I have been reliably informed that this road passes over the same ground on which Benjamin Franklin School now stands (3915 21st Avenue E.). Then, following the contour of the land avoiding the low ground which is now Gary, it passed the two mile branch near its source now called Oak Park Springs, thence on to the fort. The story is handed down that troopers leaving Fort Brooke to go to Fort King often stopped at the little deep pond to empty their whiskey flasks and discard them, so to this day it is called Whiskey Pond. MADE SYRUP AND SUGAR Thomas Jackson cleared a good part of his tract of land. He planted a small orange grove but most of it he farmed, and, they tell us, he was a good farmer. In those days families were dependent for what they ate on what they grew, for the most part. I can imagine those South Florida neighbors really knew the meaning of conservation when it came to saving seed, for some of our common vegetables will not go to seed in this climate, and seeds were hard to procure. A good part of the farm was planted in sugar cane, and of course the syrup and sugar were made on the place. I wish I could describe to you as it was described to me the setup for this work. It was all located near the little pond, the mills some ways back from the bank on level ground, as was also the clay furnace with its big boiler. But the sugar house was located on the incline or slope so that the syrup could flow freely from the boiler to the sugar house. A delightful garden spot on the farm of long ago was called the Clay Pond, this being located between 23rd and 26th Avenues, just east of the Tampa Northern Railroad. As the city began to grow, Mr. Jackson was urged to sell a part of his land but he was essentially a man of the country and did not care to help in the encroachment of the city, and steadfastly refused all offers. Not long before his death he decided to sell a small part of the extreme northwest, the part farthest from his home and he did give an acre for a church edifice at the southeast corner of 34th and 21st Avenue. This was known as Woodlawn Church. Years later when the Methodist Conference decided that it would be better to move the church to Gary, it being believed to be nearer the center of population then, he obligingly paid the Conference $100.00 for the acre he had given. "OLD GRAY" GOOD ENOUGH As we have stated, he was a real farmer and up to the time of his last illness, when he was 83 years old, he was able to plow or to hoe a while each day. He did not care for ostentation and left instructions not to hire a hearse for his funeral, that the horse, old Gray, who had served him faithfully was good enough to carry him to his last resting place.

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Other neighbors, besides Mr. Aman, who took homesteads on this side of Tampa at about the same time as Thomas Jackson, were: Joseph Robles, whose homestead lay in the vicinity of what is now beautiful Robles Park; Mr. Morris on what is now Livingston Avenue, and Dr. Louis Deshong whose homestead was on the Bradenton road near the Lykes and Hendry Abattoirs. These neighbors were all staking their claims at about the same time. When the time was up in which they could obtain title, they went together up to Gainesville which was the nearest place the Federal Government had for proving land claims. They went on horseback. I do not know how long it took them to make the journey, but sometime when you are dashing up to Gainesville to see a football game perhaps, as you go speeding along over one of Florida's famous smooth-surfaced highways at the rate of 50 or 60 miles an hour, take time to remember these first home owners of our community as they rode up to Gainesville to get title to their homesteads and no doubt your road and theirs will have crossed and converged several times on the way.

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THE FOUNDING OF JACKSON HEIGHTS By VIRGINIA I. HALL Mamie Susan Jackson Hall, a second generation native Floridian, was born September 17, 1882. Her parents, William Franklin Jackson (born February 27, 1855 in Dade City, Florida) and Susan O'Berry Jackson (born November 28, 1860 in Blackshear, Georgia), were married September 15, 1881. Their first home was near the town of San Antonio, Florida, where he planted an orange grove and where their first child, Mamie Susan Jackson, was born. They later moved to Twin Lakes where he also planted a grove, had a country store, and kept the Post Office. Three sons, Thomas Butler, William Henry and Austin Solomon, were born there. Later, because of malaria, the family moved to Tampa where William Franklin Jackson went into the dairy business on a 10-acre tract located in the vicinity of what is now Lake Avenue and 34th Street in Jackson Heights. He also had a small grove and other fruit trees and he raised much of the food his family ate and millet and casava for the cows. Their home, located on the southwest HOME OF WILLIAM FRANKLIN JACKSON AND WIFE SUSAN ... With Several Family Members on Porch

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WILLIAM FRANKLIN JACKSON AND WIFE SUSAN OBERRY JACKSON

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corner of what is now 34th and Lake, was a hospitable home where friends and relatives were always welcome, sometimes to spend the day, a week or even a month. Their sons, John, Emory Walter and Joseph Glenn and daughter Katherine Jane, were born there. William Franklin Jackson's father, Thomas Butler Jackson (born December 13, 1825 in Upson County, Georgia) moved his family to Tampa from the Dade City area in 1868, and took a 160-acre homestead, which location is now known as Jackson Heights. He first built a one-room log house, and the next year built a larger home where he lived the remainder of his life, during which time he saw Tampa grow from a village of insignificant proportions to a growing city. He was a charter member of the Hillsborough Masonic Lodge and was a prominent member of the Oaklawn Methodist Church. He died February 17, 1907, having reached the advanced age of 81. He had been sick for four weeks with an attack of the prevailing epidemic of grip. His beloved wife Mary Jane died February 23, 1907, also a victim of the grip, and entirely prostrated by her husband's death. Both are buried in Jackson Cemetery, located on Lake Avenue, just west of the railroad. William Franklin Jackson did not start to school until he was 12 years old. The school term in Tampa was only three months, so his father, Thomas Butler Jackson, boarded him out at Cork Academy near Plant City where he went for an additional three months. In spite of his limited schooling, he had a liberal education for that time. He studied th6 Blue Book Speller, Philosophy and no doubt Arithmetic. He later taught school in Hernando County at the Townsend House Church. Mamie Susan Jackson attended Hillsborough High School and graduated from there on May 17, 1900. The "Class of 1900" consisted of: Kathleen Phillips, Anne High, Hattie Murphy, George M. Calhoun, Katherine E. Graham, Edna Kendrick, Agnes Everett, Annie Janes, Thomas M. Shackleford, Clara Estelle Long, Mamie S. Jackson, Sue Cumming, James Anderson, Fannie Cumming and Myron J. Miller. At the Commencement Exercise Mamie Susan's part on the program was Alexander's Mission. She later attended Stetson University in DeLand; however, because of her mother's illness, she had to return home to help with her younger brothers and sister, and was unable to return, as her mother died June 15, 1901. (Buried Jackson Cemetery, Tampa). In the meantime, Mamie Susan taught school in a small one-room school which was located in the southeast corner of Jackson Cemetery. At a Halloween Party Mamie Susan met a handsome young man by the name of Spence Hall, who had moved to Florida from Arkansas, and lived with his aunt and her husband, Mr. and Mrs. W.H.C. Carruthers, and worked with Mr. Carruthers in his produce business on Whiting Street. After her marriage to Spence Hall on March 15, 1904, they lived with her father and family until after the birth of her first child, Spence Hall, Jr., May 17, 1905. They then built a small home on what is now Lake Avenue (30th) in the vicinity of where her father's cattle business had been. Her father, William Franklin Jackson married his second wife, Miss Anna Murray, in 1905, and in 1909 he traded homes with a Mr. Blanton Salmon in Keystone Park near Odessa, where they moved with the younger members of his family. They had three children George Erwin, Mattie and James (the latter two died in infancy).

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WHOLESALE GROCERY BUSINESS After adding an additional five children to their family, which now consisted of: Spence Hall, Jr. (who was born at William Franklin Jackson's home), Malcolm Jackson (September 18, 1906), Mildred (March 21, 1908), Virginia Ivey (November 5, 1909), Mamie Susan (December 17, 1911) who died shortly before the birth of Nathan (August 10, 1913), they needed more room. They built a two-story frame home on the property east of the small home on Lake Avenue. Spence Hall and J.A. O'Berry (Mamie Susan's uncle) organized a wholesale grocery business which was located on Whiting Street, across the street from his aunt and uncle's home and business. Spence and Mamie Susan were a loving and devoted couple and provided well for their family. They often helped and cared for other relatives during illnesses and death. Their living room was often used for wakes and funeral services. During her lifetime Mamie Susan encountered many changes. When the Tin Can Tourists came during the Florida Boom, she and her husband built the necessary requirements (latrine, washhouse and store building) for a trailer court on the property located east and adjacent to their property. Many of these people stayed and later purchased their own homes and became well-established in the community. (This property was later donated to the City of Tampa for a park). TIME TO SELL Spence and Mamie Susan later built rental houses on the west and north side of their home property and small grove, which afforded additional income and time-consuming work. The houses were a source of revenue after his retirement and to her after his death January 23, 1943 (buried Myrtle Hill Memorial Cemetery), during World War II, at which time the older boys were in the service Malcolm in the Navy and Spence in the Army (Chemical Warfare in Hawaii). It took Mamie Susan a long time to recover from the sudden death of her husband, but with a lot of family encouragement she realized that she had a lot to live for with her grandchildren and also had a lot to give. She lived to the age of 86 (died December 15, 1968 and is buried next to her husband in Myrtle Hill Memorial Cemetery). The neighborhood of Jackson Heights was deteriorating. Her home and rental houses were depreciating and it was difficult to get good renters, so it was time to SPENCE HALL

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sell. A good offer was submitted, she got all her bills paid and in good order, and went to bed one night and did not wake up the next morning in this world a wonderful wife, mother, neighbor, friend and in-law. During the First World War she helped organized a group of women to make bandages and knit socks. (Two of her brothers, several relatives and friends were active in this War.) She helped organize and was a charter member of Edgewood Methodist Church, which later closed and, together with the church in Gary, combined and formed Christ Methodist Church on the northeast corner of 34th and Columbus Drive. She also helped organize the Poinsettia Garden Club in Jackson Heights, which later disbanded and started another garden club under another name, as the name "Poinsettia" was adopted by another group. She was a member of the Tampa Woman's Club and enroute to the meetings would sometimes pick up Mrs. R.A. Ellis who gave book reviews at the Woman's Club. During the Boom some of the people who came to Florida did not fare too well and in two cases Mamie Susan and Spence Hall helped financially for a return trip where they came from. RETIRED CIRCUS PEOPLE Once, Mrs. O'Brien of the Red Cross brought an elderly retired circus couple to rent one of the houses which backed up to the orange grove. They had been all over the world (except the Holy Land) and lost their trained horses in China during the Boxer Rebellion, started again, and now were no longer able to continue. They had recently sold their horses to Ringling Brothers . the beautiful white horses that would form a freeze to make them look like a statue. They brought with them a trained donkey and goat (with sliding board), and she had a blind white poodle dog that had done high diving. They spent their remaining years on the Hall property. When the donkey and goat died he got some chickens and trained them. (They also supplied them with eggs.) They were invited to our home for Christmas and Thanksgiving dinner. Again, with Mrs. O'Brien's help, when they died they were buried in Jackson Cemetery, of which Mamie Susan was the custodian at one time. (Now owned by the City of Tampa). When Nathan, the youngest child of Mamie Susan and Spence, was about four years old, he was stricken with polio. Dr. Hoke in Atlanta was famous at the time for treatment of this affliction, so Mamie Susan and sister Katherine took him to Atlanta and were gone for several weeks. This was a difficult time for Spence, but with our cook Nina and the help of Spence's mother and father (Mattie and James Malcolm Hall), they were able to manager very well. (Our Grandmother and Grandfather Hall had moved to Tampa from Arkansas and lived in the little house, which Mamie and Spence furnished them with food and clothing). Their grandchildren were glad to have them nearby and they were always treated with love and respect. "COTTAGE DELIGHT" About 1920 Mamie Susan and Spence built a house called "Cottage Delight" at what was then known as Haven Beach (north of Indian Rocks) a 2-story 7-roorn stucco house with 2-car garage and servants' quarters above. The family spent a number of summer vacations at this beach-front "cottage". At that time we traveled to the Beach via Memorial Highway through Oldsmar, skirted Clearwater and Belleaire,

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across the Indian Rocks wooden toll bridge, sometimes stopping at Brandon's Grocery or the fish house for mullet. Once a storm covered the island with a tidal wave and blew the roofs off some of the houses. There was constant replacement of screens (which at that time were not rust-proof) and we were supplied with sulphur water from a wind-mill type tank. (We also had a rain-water tank for emergency use). We loved the beach house but there were children to educate and send off to the University, so it was sold for $5,000. It is still there unoccupied. The whole island no longer has the beauty and charm of the place we once enjoyed. William Staten Jackson, born August 8, 1800, in Screven County, Georgia, pioneer father of the Jackson family, came to Florida in 1844 with his second wife Elizabeth Burnham Jackson and their two children, James M. and Mary Jane (they later had a child Florida who was born in Florida and died when a small child); also his children by Clarissa Lanier Jackson who died in 1837: Thomas Butler (about 18 years of age), John Staten, Emily, George W., and Sarah. They first lived several miles north of Dade City near Blanton and later moved to Safety Harbor, then to Tampa near Spanish Creek, and then back to the Dade City area where they lived two or three miles south of Dade City and where he spent his last years (died March 12, 1872). William Staten and his second wife, Elizabeth Burnham Jackson (Howell), are buried at Mt. Zion Cemetery about 4 miles west of Dade City. He was a large cattle owner and at his death left 100 head of cattle and two horses to each of his seven children and the remaining 300 cattle to his widow. The original gravestones are still there and the epitaphs read as follows: William S. Jackson Born Aug. 8th 1800 Died Mar. the 12th 1872 After Winter's Stormes Comes Life and Joy and Bloom So Life anew shall clothe those formes That slumber neath the tomb Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth A. Howell Born 1816 and Died Feb. 10, 1887 Blessed are the pure in Heart for they Shall See God Every Spring and Fall family descendants and members of those buried in Mt. Zion Cemetery gather to clean the cemetery and later serve a covered dish luncheon. A pavilion was built several years ago for this purpose. I feel privileged to be one of the descendants of William Staten Jackson and enjoy visiting with others who attend these meetings.

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WAS SUCCESS A SUCCESS? By EDWARD A. MUELLER A great "success" at exhibitions after the turn of the century was the Australian convict ship SUCCESS. She was built for the East India Company as a full-rigged ship, entirely of teak, in 1790. She voyaged to Burma and was an armed merchantman, similar to many others of that period. She had teak sides, 2'6" in thickness. Her lower masts were built up using teak strips bound with copper bands half an inch thick. SUCCESS was sold to the British government to be used as a convict ship soon after commissioning and served in that FAMED CONVICT SHIP VISITED TAMPA The SUCCESS is seen in Tampa in 1920 in drydock. There is no record of when the rig was changed from that of a fullrigged ship to a barkentine as shown here. The length is 130, beam is 29' and the tonnage varied from 589 to 1,100. The photo is by Burgert Bros. of Tampa, a leading photographic establishment of the time. It is from the collection of Al Robson of Palm Beach, Florida and the copy was made by the Florida State Photographic Archives.

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work until 1858 when she was scuttled. Five years later she was raised and served as a floating prison in Sydney, New South Wales (Australia) until the vicious penal system was abolished in 1890. The SUCCESS was then sold and sailed to England to be refitted as a museum. She was exhibited around the British Isles until April of 1912 when she sailed to New York. After a 90-day passage, she was picked up by a tug off Cape Ann and towed into Boston harbor for repairs. She was leaking badly, the crew was almost out of water and completely out of food. A "SHOW" AT NEW YORK For the first time in her history she received a coat of paint on her bare teak hull while on Green's marine railway at Chelsea, Massachusetts. Later she sailed south and was exhibited at New York, starting in the spring of 1913. In New York, she was moored at the 79th Street pier on the Hudson River and entertained visitors, all for a sum, of course. After her stay in New York she was reported as going to the Panama-Pacific exhibition in San Francisco. She also visited the Great Lakes and the Ohio and Mississippi area as well as southeast Atlantic points and Gulf ports. According to an account in a May, 1913 New York paper, we learn: "The visitor who goes up her broad gangway will see ... a ship typical of the merchantman of a century ago. On board, however, he will find relics of a barbarism that now seems almost incredible. THE 'IRON MAIDEN' "There is a lecturer to lead him over the ship. The upper deck shows the branding room where the men received the brand arrow; the leg irons and punishment balls worn by famous convicts; straightjackets, spiked collars, flogging frames, the 'Iron Maiden' and a dozen other instruments of torture that were accepted as quite the thing in the days before penal commissions and reformatories. "There is a compulsory bath, too, in which, it is said, more men were drowned than cleaned. CONVICT SHIP SUCCESS Ideals are like stars, you will not succeed in touching them with your hands but like the sea-faring man on the desert of waters, you choose them as your guides, and following them, you reach your destiny -Carl Schurz

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"Aft, on the quarter-deck, is an exhibit of old documents, mostly death warrants, with here and there an old engraving showing some famous criminal at his deeds." Several of the documents bore the signatures of King George III and Queen Victoria. "On the middle deck below begins the tiers of cells. Prisoners confined here had passed successfully through years of solitary confinement on the deck below and were permitted the fresh air that a small barred port could give them. THE PRIZE HORROR "Here is also the 'Tigers Den,' where the worst prisoners were confined in a body, in the hope . that they would fight among themselves and so kill each other off." The lecturer perhaps embellished the truth when he stated that this was a frequent occurrence. "The lower deck is the prize horror. It is dark and seemingly damp. Here are the dark cells and those of solitary confinement. The only light and air that the prisoners got filtered through tiny holes drilled over the door. Manacles of the cruelest sort, still in place, show how the denizens of the cells were forced into positions in which standing straight and lying or sitting down were alike impossibilities. "The old ship leaves a vivid impression of the inhumanities accepted as a matter of course a hundred years ago and the visitor wonders how it ever happened to be christened 'SUCCESS'."

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1988 SUNLAND TRIBUNE PATRONS Tampa Historical Society wishes to express its sincere thanks to the following individuals and organizations who have generously contributed $25.00 or more for the publication costs of this issue of the Sunland Tribune Central Bank of Tampa Cralle-Hall Mack Sales Peninsular Paper Company The Saunders Foundation Mrs. LeRoy Allen Mrs. W. J. Barritt, Jr. Bob & Jackie Blount Daniel Boone, Jr. Mrs. E. Ballard Bradley Mr. & Mrs. Guy E. Burnette, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Joe C. Byars Mrs. Helen N. Byrd Mr. & Mrs. Doyle Carlton, Jr. Annie-Kate Carpenter Dr. & Mrs. David E. Cavanagh F. M. Chiles, Jr. James A. & Barbara Clendinen Col. & Mrs. James D. Cline LeRoy Collins Mr. & Mrs. Paul W. Danahy, Jr. Winifred G. Davis Mr. & Mrs. Eugene B. Dodson Mrs. Lula J. Dovi Dennis J. Doyel Mrs. Dursie Ekman Mrs. David A. Falk Mrs. Sam M. Ferlita Mrs. E va C. Fowler Marjorie A. Gay Mr. & Mrs. Leonard H. Gilbert Mrs. Frank V. Giunta Mrs. Paul L. Gloger Paul H. & Helen E. Gonzalez Robert & Marion Gray Terry Greenhalgh Mrs. Donn Gregory Mrs. Jack A. Gunn J. A. Guyton J. A. Guyton, Jr. Virginia I. Hall Mr. & Mrs. A. R. Hamilton Frederick W. Harsen Leland M. Hawes, Jr. Mrs. L. M. Hawes Mrs. Willard T. Hicks Mr. & Mrs. John R. Hilburn W. Grant Horsey Mr. & Mrs. Frederick J. Howard Mr. & Mrs. Francis E. Hurn Mrs. George T. Hurner Dr. & Mrs. James M. Ingram George N. Johnson, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. John Arthur Jones Mr. & Mrs. James Judy Gen. & Mrs. Douglas Kendrick Mr. & Mrs. Guy King, Jr. James S. King Mrs. Lawson P. Kiser Mr. & Mrs. Julian B. Lane Mrs. Sam Latimer Dr. & Mrs. George Lehner Mr. & Mrs. Syd Lenfestey Dr. & Mrs. Louis Lubet Mr. & Mrs. Charles P. Lykes Mrs. Clifford B. Mansfield Mrs. N. L. Marcus Miss Bessie Martin Dr. Charles G. Martin Mr. & Mrs. Fred Martin Mrs. Marguerite Marunda Mr. & Mrs. David L. Matthews Dr. Robert E. McCammon Donald W. McKay Mr. & Mrs. Herbert McKay Mr. & Mrs. Howell A. McKay Mr. & Mrs. John H. McKay Judge & Mrs. Neil McMullen Mr. & Mrs. Sam Militello Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth W. Mulder Ruth B. Mulholland

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Harris H. Mullen Mr. & Mrs. T. Burt Nelson Mr. & Mrs. Lester Olson Phosphate Rock Export Assoc. Mr. & Mrs. Anthony P. Pizzo Mrs. C. M. Price, Jr. Barbara Reeves Mr. & Mrs. Fred T. Rodgers Gloria C. Runton Mr. & Mrs. Arsenio Sanchez Jeanne C. Sanders Dr. & Mrs. Paul J. Schmidt Mr. & Mrs. Donald F. Sink E. W. Sisson Mr. & Mrs. Peter S. Skemp Mrs. Benjamin T. Smith Margaret V. Smith Mr. & Mrs. E. Lamar Sparkman Mr. & Mrs. Charles Spicola, Jr. Dick & Raymetta Stowers Tampa Chamber of Commerce Mr. & Mrs. J. H. Tanner Charlotte Anne Thompson Mr. & Mrs. J. Thomas Touchton Mr. & Mrs. W. J. Turbeville, Jr. Solon B. Turman Mrs. Kathryn H.,Turner Miss Lorene Walker Martha C. Ward Harry B. White Dr. Harold & Kathy Williamson Mrs. Victor B. Yeats T. R. Young, III

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TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY LOSES ITS PRESIDENT, SAMUEL I. LATIMER Samuel I. Latimer, president of the Tampa Historical Society and former news anchor for WFLA television and radio, died May 28, 1988, at the age of 76 years. Sam took office at the last annual meeting of THS, and devoted almost full time to his duties in his last months. The Society was moving forward under his outstanding leadership. His death saddened the Tampa Bay region and especially his friends in the historical group. Both The Tampa Tribune and St. Petersburg Times carried detailed obituaries on the prominent broadcaster and historian, excerpts of which follow: Mr. Latimer was with WFLA television and radio for 25 years. He was the first news anchor for the station (now WXFL) when it went on the air in 1952. He later served as news director before retiring in 1977. He was one of the top newsmen in the area, said Mike Foerster, public information manager for Hillsborough County and a former reporter for The Tampa Times I remember seeing his broadcast on Channel 8. He had a no-nonsense type of delivery . before the pretty boy era. Born in Minneapolis, he came here 46 years ago from Bradenton. He was past president of the Jesuit High School Dads Club, St. Josephs Hospital Development Council, Elks Little League, Sigma Delta Chi (Society of Professional Journalists), and the DWI Counter Attack SAMUEL I. LATIMER

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Program, a court-administered program for drunken-driving offenders. He was also a member of the board of Tampa Catholic High School. He received the presidents award from the Greater Tampa Chamber of Commerce in 1971 for his work as a member of the Hillsborough County Industrial Development Authority. He also received the Liberty Bell Award from the Hillsborough County Bar Associations in 1973 for outstanding community service. In 1984 he was appointed by Gov. Bob Graham to the Governors Constituency on Childrens Services, which studied juvenile problems in the state. Survivors include his wife, Lois P., Tampa, who also is active in the Tampa Historica Society; two sons, Randall S. and Craig M., both of Brandon; two daughters, Rosalind Simpson, Brandon, and Rebecca Pfeiffer, Tampa; two sisters, Dorothy Latimer, Tampa, and Marguerite Marunda, Apollo Beach; and seven grandchildren. Funeral services were held at Christ the King Catholic Church. Interment was in Garden of Memories.

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FIRST PUBLICATION OF RARE MAP OF FORT BROOKE This rare map of Fort Brooke was discovered in the National Archives, Washington, D. C., and is being published here for the first time. The top of the map shows the cross-elevation with the officers and soldiers quarters. Also shown by the letter A at the bottom of the map to the left is the ancient Timuquan Indian Mound. The sketch of the mound at the top of the map is the only one known showing a gumbo-limbo tree at the top serving as an observatory. To the right appear two of the streams which originated from springs mentioned by Colonel George Brooke in the area later known as Ybor City. The original map contained splotches and stains. We are indebted to Albert de Lama, a noted artist, and president of Graphic Directions, Inc., for skillfully removing the flaws. See story, Fort Brooke: The First Ten Years by Tony Pizzo, Page 8

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TAMPA AUTHOR PICTURED IN HISTORY BOOK Author of some 15 books on Florida history, Hampton Dunn now finds himself a subject in a Florida history school text book just published. His photo, in full living color, is featured on page 281 of the text book, A Panorama of Florida II, published by Walsworth Publishing Company, Inc., Marceline, MO. The Floridian was cited under a section of Artists in the Careers division of the book. The textbook states: There are many Floridians who work in visual arts occupations. Two examples of success stories are Nixon Smiley and Hampton Dunn. They have used photography to show Floridas past in books. Dunn, President-Elect of the Florida Historical Society, and the historical reporter for Television Station WTVT-TV in Tampa, is shown on the same page with a picture of Marjory Stoneman Douglas, cited under the Writers category.

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OUR COVER: Tampa's talented Gayle Sierens, co-anchor on WXFL, Channel 8, News Watch, had made national history as 1988 arrived. On December 27, 1987, a few days before New Year's, she became the first woman to do the play-by-play of a network telecast of a professional football game. She called 'em as she saw 'em during the Kansas City game between the Seattle Seahawks and Kansas City Chiefs. Gayle won nationwide acclaim for the way she handled this challenge OUR 'COVER LADY': GAYLE SIERENS Gayle Sierens co-anchors NewsWatch 8's 6 and 11 p.m. newscasts. She made the move from sportscaster to news anchor in October in 1985. Sierens joined the NewsWatch 8 staff in 1977 as a weekend sports anchor and reporter, and became the 11 p.m. sports anchor in March of 1983. During this time she also free-lanced as a play-by-play announcer for ESPN, the cable sports network. In 1984, Sierens was honored with a Florida Emmy Award for a sports feature. She also received high acclaim for a five-part series on child abuse that aired in 1983. Prior to joining TV-8, Sierens was with WFSU-TV in Tallahassee. In her two years there, she co-anchored and co-produced a morning newscast and produced and co-hosted a half-hour daily talk show. Sierens received a B.S. in Mass Communications with a minor in Speech Communications from Florida State University. She is currently on the State advisory board for the Fellowship of Christian Athletes, the board of directors for the Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Tampa. Gayle is a member of the Mayor's Alliance for the Handicapped in Tampa, and also serves as chairperson for the Big Brothers/Big Sisters annual "Bowl for Kids Sake" fund raiser, and is an active spokesperson for Hospice. Gayle and her husband, former football player Michael Martin, reside in Tampa. Their first child, a boy, was born July 11 and is named Cameron Michael Martin. Besides her role as the first woman play-by-play announcer in NFL history, Gayle also this year co-anchored NBC's "NFL Live!" pregame show during the Seoul Olympics. The 33-year-old WFXL anchorwoman, who signed a four-year contract with Channel 8 last August, welcomed the Seoul assignment: "I've been in this business for 15 years, and it's really nice to find new challenges."

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1888 News Story Says Ceremonies Were 'Imposing' (Editor's Note: This story appeared in an 1888 newspaper, perhaps it was The Weekly Tribune of Tampa and was reprinted from "the Times-Union," presumably of Jacksonville). TAMPA, FLA., July 28-The cornerstone of the Tampa Bay Hotel has been laid, and all Tampa is proud and happy. The ceremonies incident to the occasion were imposing and fraught with unusual interest and boundless enthusiasm. Lawyer and laborer, merchant and mechanic, artist and artisan, and the ladies whose presence anywhere always lead a charme-all turned out en masse. The speakers and musicians seemed to draw inspiration from the occasion, and everybody realized that it was a day which witnessed a new era in our progress and prosperity-another mile mark on our city's march to wealth, prestige, and glory. We feel solid. We feel serene. Sweet peace seems to have flown into our souls, on a swift winged dove and filled up every cavity. And we have a right to be proud we have good reason to be happy. We have attained the summit of our fondest hopes, have climbed to the uppermost heights of the cliffs of glory. NO SMALL POTATO Tampa is no longer a small potato, but is a full-grown vegetable of the mammoth variety, and can now snap her fingers at her rivals' sneers, defy their jealousies, and deride their taunts. We are all so happy that we feel that we could even forgive the "calamity liars." The "boys" have strained their lungs shouting for Plant and the big hotel, while some of our most staid and dignified citizens became so indecorous as to roll over on the grass and kick up their heels high in the air. They came in with vociferous "tigers." Where is the heart so callous that would curb the exuberance of their joy or rob them of a modicum of bliss which beatifically bubbles up in their souls? The big hotel is now an assured fact. A million of brick and thousands of barrels of shells are already on the ground: the ring of the trowels falls on the ear in sweet and melodious cadences; and ere the opening of another season its massive walls will have towered heavenward, and gilded spires, snatching brightness and beauty from the sunbeams, will gleam like gems of unfading luster set in a crown of burnished gold. HENRY B. PLANT

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"SECOND TO NONE" The honor must be ascribed to Mr. H.B. Plant. It was his gigantic brain that conceived the project of giving Tampa a hotel second to none in the Union, and it is to his liberality and his faith in our city's future that we are indebted for this great stroke of fortune. Tampa can soon boast of one of the grandest hostelries on the continent, and she owes Mr. Plant a debt of gratitude. It was he who penetrated the wilderness and connected us with the outside world with bands of steel; it was he who waved the magic wand over the Mexic sea, when there appreared on its bosom floating palaces which united the Queen of the Gulf with the Queen of the Antilles; it was he who unlocked the gate through which the commerce of the Tropics will flow who knocked the head out of the barrel which so long held these possibilities imprisoned.

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TAMPANS VISIT MIAMI FOR IDEAS ( REPRINTED FROM THE TAMPA TRIBUNE) MIAMI A delegation of 16 Hillsborough County residents took a look at Miami's regional history museum on June 8, in hopes that a similar project might get off the ground in Tampa. An informal coalition representing a number of historical groups, the Tampa group is sounding out possibilities for a broad-ranging history museum. Randy Nimnicht, executive director of the Historical Association of Southern Florida, gave the visitors an inside look at the $6 million structure, which opened in 1984 in a Spanish plaza setting in downtown Miami. Nimnicht also has acted as consultant for the Hillsborough group in checking sentiments and feasibility for a proposed Museum of History. Ken Lewis, president of NCNB Bank, heads the informal committee looking into the idea. Wit Ostrenko, director of Hillsborough County museums, accompanied the delegation. County Historian Tony Pizzo, author Hampton Dunn, lawyer Guy Burnette, Jr., business executives James Apthorp and Cynthia Wilcox and University of South Florida Vice President Mark Lono also were among those making the trip. TAMPA'S NEED Representatives of the Hillsborough County Historical Commission, Tampa Historical Society, Tampa Preservation and Historic Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board also toured the Miami facility. Although Tampa has several specialized historical museums the Henry B. Plant Museum at the University of Tampa and the Ybor City State Museum it has nothing pulling together the general historical past of the area.

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HAWES IS WINNER OF McKAY AWARD Leland M. Hawes, Jr., distinguished historical writer for The Tampa Tribune, is winner of the coveted 1988 D.B. McKay Award of the Tampa Historical Society. This is the 17th year the honor has been bestowed to Floridians who have contributed to "the Cause of Florida History." (List of Winners on Page 56).

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STEAMBOATING IS DUNN TOPIC Hampton Dunn, President-Elect of the Florida Historical Society, has been selected as one of the speakers at the Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference at the University of South Alabama, Mobile, on March 9-11, 1989. The Floridian will present an illustrated lecture on "Steamboating in 'Gator Country." Theme of the Conference is "The Maritime History of the Gulf Coast." Member institutions of the Conference are the Pensacola Junior College, University of South Alabama and the University of West Florida.

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D.B. McKAY AWARD RECIPIENTS 1972 Frank Laumer 1973 State Senator David McClain 1974 Circuit Judge James R. Knott 1975 Gloria Jahoda 1976 Harris H. Mullen 1977 Dr. James W. Covington 1978 Hampton Dunn 1979 William M. Goza 1980 Tony Pizzo 1981 Allen and Joan Morris 1982 Mel Fisher 1983 Marjory Stoneman Douglas 1984 Frank Garcia 1985 Former Gov. LeRoy Collins 1986 Dr. Samuel Proctor 1987 Doyle E. Carlton, Jr. 1988 Leland M. Hawes, Jr.