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The sunland tribune

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The sunland tribune
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Tampa Historical Society
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Tampa Historical Society.
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Tampa, Fla
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History -- Periodicals -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
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usfldc doi - S57-v16n1_90-000
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THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE Volume XVI November, 1990 Journal of the TAMPA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Tampa, Florida HAMPTON DUNN Editor Officers 1990 JAMES JUDY President CHARLES JORDAN Vice President MARY BROWN Recording Secretary LOIS LATIMER Corresponding Secretary A. FRANK SMITH Treasurer Board of Directors Ralph Beaver Jean Ann Cone George Howell Raymond Miller Florence Murphy Anthony Pizzo Barbara Reeves Arsenio Sanchez Becky Savitz Margaret V. Smith Lee Touchton Kyle Van Landingham Ex-officio Terry Greenhalgh Executive Director Patricia C. Davies Headquarters 245 S. Hyde Park Avenue Tampa, FL 33606 Phone (813) 259-1111 Table of Contents OUTFITTING A WAR LADY, Sketch by Kent Hagerman INSIDE FRONT COVER STRENGTHENING T. H. S. FOR THE FUTURE By James S. Judy, President, Tampa Historical Society 2 TAMPA THEATRE By Camille Cathy Symons 6 THE BLOSSOMING OF BLOOMINGDALE By Norma Goolsby Frazier 7 ILLEGAL BOLITA PAVED WAY FOR NEW LOTTERY 12 THE DAMNEDEST TOWN THIS SIDE OF HELL: TAMPA, 1920-29, (Part I) By Dr. Frank Alduino 13 LIMONA FOUNDING MARKER UNVEILED 18 THE BURGERT BROTHERS OF TAMPA, FLORIDA By Dr. Jack B. Moore and Dr. Robert E. Snyder 19 DR. JIM INGRAM, TAMPA HISTORIAN, DIES AT 68 By Leland Hawes 27 REMEMBERING SCOTTISH CHIEF 28 THE SAGA OF THE SISTERS NINE: ST. JOSEPHS HOSPITAL By Dr. James M. Ingram 29 SISTER MARIE CELESTE SULLIVAN AT ST. JOSEPHS 25 YEARS 34 SHIPBUILDING IN TAMPA DURING WORLD WAR II By Dr. Lewis N. Wynne 35 ACCOUNTING FOR THE HOMELESS IN THE 1990 CENSUS By Catherine E. Dixon 43 1990 D. B. McKAY AWARD WINNER: JOAN W. JENNEWEIN By Hampton Dunn 46 LIST OF D. B. McKAY AWARD RECIPIENTS 47 BAR GIVES TONY PIZZO LIBERTY BELL AWARD 47 CONGRESSMAN BENNETT ACCEPTS D. B. McKAY AWARD 48 MAN ON OUR COVER: AL LOPEZ OF TAMPA 50 TV COMMENTATOR WIND ANGEL AWARD 50 TAMPA COLLEGE 100 YEARS OLD 50 A HEART AT HALLOWEEN By Hampton Dunn 51 KEEP THOSE CARDS AND LETTERS COMING 52 TAMPA CHARTERED FIRST BLOOD BANK By Dr. Paul J. Schmidt 54 KEN MULDER DIGS BAY HISTORY 60 MEET THE AUTHORS 62 TAMPA PASTIMES: THE DAY PRESIDENT KENNEDY VISITED TAMPA 64

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PIONEER COMMERCIAL PHOTOGRAPHER JEAN BURGERT INSIDE BACK COVER CONGRESSMAN BENNETT SHOWS OFF D. B. McKAY MEDAL BACK COVER The Sunland Tribune is the official annual publication of Tampa Historical Society, distributed to members each year. Non-members may receive limited edition issues by contacting the Society at 259-1111. Individuals interested in contributing manuscripts for consideration should send them to the headquarters no later than August 1 of each calender year. The Sunland Tribune Committee will review, accept or reject articles and will return all photographs and materials not selected for publication. All manuscripts should be no more than twelve double-spaced typed pages in length and should include footnotes, lists of sources as well as captions for all photographs submitted. LESTER AND YETIVE OLSEN . Longtime Sweethearts -Photo by HAMPTON DUNN LES AND YETIVES LOVE STORY, Page 51

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The President's Report STRENGTHENING T.H.S. FOR THE FUTURE By JAMES S. JUDY As we move into the 1990s, we find ourselves having to modernize and change in order to preserve the past. Two-plus years without a director has taken its toll, and I am enormously pleased to announce that THS now has a director. She is Patricia Davies, and she has become a very busy person by catching up with our past and planning for the future. Our activities are increasing manyfold. We are now enjoying a monthly lecture series in conjunction with The Henry B. Plant Museum. Also newly introduced are monthly "bring a friend" socials at the Knight House, to not only socialize, but bring in new members. On tap, too, is an overnight "field trip to St. Augustine. Historical markers honoring West Tampa and the Scottish Chief have been unveiled and our quarterly newsletter has been reintroduced. Continued cooperation with the History Museum of Tampa/Hillsborough County board brings us ever closer to the reality of a history museum in which to exhibit our rich heritage. T.H.S. hosted a reception for this year's Florida Historical Society's annual convention which took place in Tampa and was a big success. So, as we face the challenge presented to us in the '90s, I would like to ask each of you to help us with your program ideas, volunteerism, your membership (and that of a friend), and professional and financial assistance. I would like to thank my predecessor, Terry Greenhalgh for paving the way for me, our board of directors who work so hard to make it happen, our volunteers, Patricia Davies, and especially Lois Latimer for her countless hours of dedication.

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TAMPA THEATRE By CAMILLE CATHY SYMONS First Serial Rights #1990 A faint 20s overture emits from red brick around the ticket booth under the old marquee, up to the highest seat in the balcony where a star-lit ceiling blinks and a cloud machine filters a blue view. From a lion's mouth, in this pirate's dream, coral-castle, sea remnant palace, performers' eyes gleam deep into footlights. Deco lamps cast emerald light on carved fruit growing into men, and a stone priest stares at sideshow banter, maligning possible falls. Gryphon storms hover over French doors leading nowhere. Lobster crowns circle the proscenium and seahorse ribbons roll from saintly knees. By the stage, a chipped scholar studies a naked youth's flute. Shells enclose orators at stone windows as the velvet curtain slowly hushes. Operatic voices died here where athletes fall from the frieze. Eagles fly by cupid's eyes. Fellini phones. Garbo sinks. Gato salves. Orson, in a film noir (Rita blonde as an angel) makes sharks poetic, in silhouette. In the lobby cherubim assuage thirst in child-sized shells. Wide twin stairs invite grand strides amid marbled shuffling. Tulip and heart-lit art transpires. Clouds in the ceiling, angels in flight, Mighty Wurlitzer rolling on stage, built for the evening when movies were new, a projection of city's pride SOUTH'S MOST BEAUTIFUL THEATRE -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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THE BLOSSOMING OF BLOOMINGDALE By NORMA GOOLSBY FRAZIER It was to little more than a wilderness they came, in the spring of 1872, after one of the coldest Alabama winters any of the Hendrix family could remember ever having experienced. The hills and fields were bathed in blossoms of wild flowers such as purple violets, wild irises, and beautiful tiger lilies growing in the wet marshlands around the Alafia River. The aroma of flowering trees filled the fresh spring air with dogwoods, magnolias, and sweet bay trees adorning the riverbanks. Stands of thick yellow pines were found in abundance nearby. The beautiful Alafia River, its banks blanketed in crimson and white by the dogwood blossoms, was clear and full of fish "for the catchin'," and the favored delicacy, "swamp cabbage," the heart of the sabal palm, was readily LANDMARK STILL IN EXISTENCE The 1884 Bloomingdale School Building located on Pearson Road in Bloomingdale. It was later converted to a residence with a room added on the west side and a porch added on the east side o f the small wooden structure. -Photo by HAMPTON DUNN

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available and found in the swamplands near the river. It was James, the family patriarch, who proclaimed in a voice so loud that even the wildlife took notice, that the Hendrix family had arrived. "This is it!" he shouted, his voice echoing over the tree tops. This beautiful valley, ablaze with all the glorious colors in nature, would be their home. And so, this land, found near the center of the beautiful state of Florida, was quite appropriately named Bloomingdale Valley. Father James, his three sons, Reuben, Pete, and Noah, their wives, together with his daughters, their husbands, and children, were the ancestral pioneers of the many present-day Hendrix, Parrish, and Garner family members still residing in the community today. "Uncle Dan" Kelly, the much-loved uncle and husband of Lucy Hendrix Kelly, was among the adventurous group. The couple had no children of their own but children were always made welcome in their home. "Uncle Dan," who had served as an officer in the Civil War, and as an engineer, was not only married to Lucy Hendrix, but was a first cousin of Lucy's mother, Drucilla Corley Hendrix. "Uncle Dan" told many tales to youngsters who visited the Kelly home which is still standing near the intersection of LithiaPine crest Road and Bloomingdale Avenue, being located near the northeast corner. The children also loved to play on the old cannonball which rested in "Uncle Dan's" yard near the Kelly barn, which also held another early treasure, an old black buggy on which the children took many "pretend" trips while seated at its helm. Another relic of earlier times, remembered by older family members who spent many Sunday afternoons in homestyle church gatherings or just socializing in the Kelly couple's spacious yard, was Aunt Lucy's spinning wheel. The Kelly homesite then extended eastward from Miller Road to Pearson Road and fronted on Bloomingdale Avenue. The journey, which lasted some two and one-half months, had gotten underway on February 21, 1872, with most of the family residing in Monroe and Clark counties in SLAIN BY INDIANS The headstone of John Carney who was killed and scalped by Indians (who thought he was stealing their hogs) on April 17, 1856. The grave is located on the old ~ Carney plantation site Just east of Lithia/Pinecrest Road on Stearns Road.

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Alabama, making the journey to their new home in Bloomingdale Valley. One of James' brothers had come to Manatee County in 1870, with a brother also having moved to Polk County earlier. It would be an adventure filled with many sights along the scenic trail, as the caravan of oxen-drawn covered wagons made its way towards their Florida destination and experiences such as fording the many waters including the Conuco River, the Naricon Creek, and the Chattahoochee, Aucilla, Suwannee, Santa Fe, Hillsborough, and, finally, the Alafia River. Many sightings of bears, panthers, 'GRANDMA' HENDRIX'S 95th PARTY Photograph taken at "Grandma Hendrix's 95th birthday celebration held in Alafia, Florida, in 1947. Seated in the front row are "Grandma (Drucilla Corley Hendrix) (left) and her sister Angie Corley Eubanks of Bay Minette, Ala. (right) surrounded by family members living in Bloomingdale and the southeastern Hillsborough County area. The sisters were members of the large Corley family of Bay Minette, Alabama which consisted o f 17 children, three of whom died in a tragic barn acci dent shortly before the 1872 journey.

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and even tigers were seen as the family made its way through the many swamps and heavily wooded areas of the state. MEET THE SEMINOLES The hardy clan found they often had to unload their wagons and swim their teams of oxen and mules across the deep waters, also experiencing many breakdowns of their wagons, overtaxed on the long journey from Bay Minette, Alabama. A number of Indian camps were passed along the way as the party began their southward trek into the state, with Seminole Indians found at a site near a beautiful stream and waterfall east of the "old fields" known as Tallahassee. Tales of camping on old church grounds, the many small villages passed along the way, as well as friendly folks who assisted the strangers, have been carried down through the years, and are still being related to interested modern-day family members. When the long trek was undertaken in that spring of 1872, older children of the family were understandably too excited to ride in the ox-drawn wagons, choosing instead to run alongside the wagons which were already filled to capacity anyway. Finding Tampa too thickly settled to suit their taste, the large group travelled on to Peru, Florida, then located just south of Riverview and on the south side of the Alafia. Upon arriving in Peru, which today is known as Riverview, they stopped off not only to view this beautiful area, but also for the birth of Sally Garner Parrish. At that time, Riverview had been established only 16 years before. Several of the party ventured into Manatee County, still preferring the beauty and serenity of the Alafia and the availability of fresh game such as deer, wild hogs, turkeys, and cat squirrels. At that time, alligators were commonplace in the Alafia and upon its riverbanks and adjacent wetlands. From Peru, they had made their way by wagon trail, never straying far from the winding Alafia River, continuing eastward, until they came upon the flowering valley they would call Bloomingdale. A CHRISTIAN MAN Upon reaching their destination, they were satisfied that all they had heard about this beautiful valley was true, even to the friendliness of the Indians who soon became quite neighborly, advising them on many hunting and fishing techniques which the Indians had practiced for centuries before. Each family head soon selected a homestead of 160 acres with some of their deeds being signed by President Chester A. Arthur. Ulysses S. Grant had been favored as president in the popular vote cast by Floridians in the national election in 1872 with many at that time being sympathetic to the south's role in the Civil War. Five of the Hendrix party who made the wagon trip to Florida in the spring of 1872 were Civil War veterans, Noah being too young to enlist when the war broke out. The patriarch James, who had been widowed twice prior to coming to Florida, was a Christian man who throughout his life took in a number of orphans in addition to caring for his large family. He soon found a large farm with the spring planting already having been completed by the previous owner. The sum of $900 was paid for the parcel of land which was not only large in acreage but was located on fertile soil and abundant with giant old oaks draped with Spanish moss. This farm was not far from the present Lithia-Pinecrest Road and Bloomingdale Avenue intersection, the center of the Hendrix family land holdings.

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When they reached the beautiful Bloomingdale Valley, as the then-colony was first named by the Alabama family, they found a bountiful supply of wild game and food for the gathering. The area abounded with wild turkeys, and cabbage palmettos, which yielded succulent swamp cabbage, the principal diet. While the menfolk hunted and fished for food, the women literally "kept the homefires burning." It was necessary to maintain a fire in their crude huts to discourage the panthers that lurked outside, too close for comfort. Good fishing was afforded by the Alafia River and the early settlers thought nothing of walking three or four miles to catch a good "mess." GREAT ALLIGATOR CHASE Work on cabins was begun shortly after the family arrived and often continued late into the night. A variety of wild animals including the Florida panther lurked nearby, often eating the settlers' pigs and chickens; deer feasted on their sweet potato crop. Panthers also screamed around their cabins at night. Other staple foods in those early days included deep purple huckleberries which grew in abundance in the area at that time and were used to make the southern delicacy, huckleberry pie. The men procured their game by "fire hunting," shining lights in the animal's eyes, then shooting. Oftentimes they "shined" panthers instead of deer. "Uncle Dan" Kelly shot a tiger on an early hunt in the Bloomingdale area. Noah Hendrix's wife, Drucilla Corley Hendrix, known as "Grandma" Hendrix, this writer's great grandmother, loved to tell of early events in the lives of her hardy family. It seems a man named McLaughlin, who lived across the Alafia River from what is now known as Lithia Springs, had heard of the abundant crops produced on the Hendrix family homesteads and wanted to visit the Hendrix settlement. Being somewhat hindered by recent flooding of the Alafia, he had to swim part of the way. Hearing a thrashing noise over his shoulder, he quickly peered around only to see a large alligator trailing him. In terror, he climbed a large palmetto tree, strapped himself to the trunk, and remained there all night until the river subsided and the alligator disappeared. "Great-Grandma" died at the age of 95 and was buried in the Hendrix family cemetery which is now known as Bloomingdale Cemetery. She lies not far from John Carney who was murdered by the Indians 16 years prior to the arrival of the Hendrix founding family. Seems the Indians thought that John Carney was stealing their hogs. The early pioneer was plowing his fields when he was reportedly attacked and killed by a band of Indians who scalped him, Grandma related. 'CRUELLY MASSACRED' After hearing some unusual sounds near his home, the Carney family had spent the previous night with a neighbor, John Vickers. Carney was restless the entire night. In the morning, he returned to his plowing, with Vickers hearing the sound of guns from the direction of Carney's home. There was no sign of Carney when John Vickers arrived at the Carney homesite. Early the next morning, Captain J.T. Lesley (in whose company Carney had enlisted to fight in the Seminole Indian War of 1856), with the assistance of home guards, chased the Indians to Manatee County, killing all except one, who made his escape despite being wounded. The avenging party returned and buried the body of Carney which had been discovered some 500 yards from his plowing field. He had been shot five times.

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John Carney's wife Susan reportedly followed him in death within a year, leaving eight orphaned children. Carney's simple headstone reads: "Sacred to the memory of John Carney who was born August 23, 1804, and was cruelly massacred by the Indians April 17, 1856. Here in the silent grave lies one whom no man had aught against. This writer's grandfather, Will Hendrix, grandson of patriarch James, often talked of obstacles the family faced in the early settling days of the Bloomingdale community. Many of these tales centered around experiences with the Indians who were plentiful in the area at that time but, for the most part, friendly and desiring to coexist with the newly arrived "white man." He also spoke of the monumental task each individual family faced in undertaking the clearing of land parcels in 160-acre plots they had selected. They not only cleared the land of virgin timber, stands of yellow pines, and huge oaks, but stubborn scrub palmettos whose long roots anchored them deeply in place in the sandy soil. Those roots had to be "grubbed" by hand, with the younger family members piling the large thorny bushes for burning. Some of the cleared acreage was planted in orange groves. YBOR CITY LAND $1 AN ACRE Will recalled driving down Ybor City's sand roads in a horsedrawn wagon with the palmettos crushing under the wagon wheels. At that time, Ybor City land could be purchased for $1 per acre. In 1899, when Will was 14 years of age, he sold sweet potatoes, cassavas, eggs, and syrup on Franklin Street in downtown Tampa. The street was a sand bed at that time. The family took the trip to Tampa by horse and buggy once a month for staple food items, raising all other food the family required except coffee and flour. A 96-pound barrel of flour sold for $5 and a side of bacon for $2. There were only three general stores in the city of Tampa. Soon after their arrival in Bloomingdale, the family discovered that they must adapt new methods of propagation and cultivation in order to produce a crop in the sandy Florida soil. Virtually every family member was involved in the raising of food. Cattle and chickens were also raised, and wild hogs were easily found in the woods near their homes. Cane syrup was made from stalks grown on the family farm, with the juice being extracted from the pulp in an old fashioned mill which was propelled by a mule or horse. Cutting the tall, thick, yellow pines as a source of income also occupied much of the families' time. The timbers were hauled by oxcart to the Alafia River and floated to the Bay for sale. Some of this timber was used to build fine homes for the Hendrix clan. Noah, who at first had settled at a location near Riverview on the shores of beautiful Hutto Lake (then referred to as Noah's Pond), constructed a handsome two-story residence on the site of the present old Asa Hendrix home. COMMUNITY DOCTOR Mail brought by boat to the Alafia Post Office was distributed once every two weeks. Service at that post office had been reinstated in 1868. Because there were no bridges at that time, whether transporting mail, supplies, or families across area lakes and rivers, the waters had to be ferried or waded.

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A post office was established at Bloomingdale on August 25, 1879, continuing there until August 31, 1910. C. E. Worth was its postmaster and it was established on a site on Little Road, which today is the location of some of the finest homes in the area. Little Road was named for John Little, husband of Mary Hendrix Little. Some time after the turn of the century, the post office was moved to a site on the south side of Bloomingdale Avenue not far east of the Dan Kelly homeplace. In charge of the old Bloomingdale post office was Mrs. Cassie Garner, who is still remembered by many older residents. "Granpa" Garner who had learned many medical techniques while serving as a medic in the Civil War, served as a community doctor. In those days, if a family member became ill and required the services of a doctor, it was necessary for someone to make the trip to Tampa, either on horseback or by horse and buggy, in order to bring the doctor to the patient. Doctors during that period were often paid with food items such as a supply of vegetables or half of a slaughtered pig or cow. Hendrix Chapel is believed to have been located northwest of Bloomingdale and southeast of Brandon, and was probably established September 27, 1883, as early School Board minutes of Hillsborough County show John Carlton and G. W. Smith having been appointed as trustees. Reportedly, an old teacher and minister "Uncle Messa" taught school on weekdays, delivering the message from the "Good Book" on Sunday. 'STATE NORMAL SCHOOL' The first Bloomingdale School was established September 23, 1884. "Board established it, with C. E. Worth (the town postmaster), L. W. Buchholz and Joe Bell as trustees, and was located about one mile northeast of the present Bloomingdale crossroads," on Pearson Road. This would later become the site of the county's first "state normal school," where teachers came from many Florida towns to earn their teaching credentials. Several of the Hendrix family children would number among the students preparing themselves to serve as teachers of Hillsborough County children. On that first school site, early students planted young trees which now shield the old building from the hot Florida sun. The one-room structure in recent years had been converted into a private residence and at one time housed the early Charlie Garner family. Some of the Hendrix family children also attended Hendrix Chapel as well as receiving part of their elementary education at the first Bloomingdale School. At least one of its early schoolmasters boarded at the home of "Uncle Dan" Kelly. An early school was also located near Providence and is believed to have been called Oakridge. It and the Bloomingdale School were incorporated into the Brandon district school later. The building housed 12 grades with as many as three grades in one room. School No. 38 is believed to have been located near the old Providence Church, one of the oldest churches in the area, having been organized by Rev. Tom Jaudon in 1877. Providence School is mentioned in School Board minutes of December 8, 1888: "Petition of Providence No. 38 to use one month appropriation on building was granted." School No. 38 had a teacher as per minutes of June 1, 1881. Minutes of August 4, 1893: "Petition from Providence Settlement to establish a school was granted. School building to be erected near Providence Church." No number was listed for this school which was located between Brandon

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and Riverview, and whether this is the same "Providence" area of School No. 38 earlier, is unknown. GREAT EDUCATOR ARRIVES Ludwig Wilhelm Buchholz, a German-born educator who immigrated to Tampa in 1880, figures prominently not only in Bloomingdale history but is also remembered for his contributions benefitting Hillsborough County and the state of Florida as well. Professor Buchholz became County Superintendent of Schools, and conducted a normal school each summer at Bloomingdale, holding sessions in the Presbyterian Church There, he taught teenage boys and girls, including at least three members of the community's founding family, drilling his students in the "Three R's," Psychology, and instructing them in methods of teaching. Buchholz was born in Christfelde, West Prussia, Germany, on March 25, 1855, of "poor but honest" parents, he professed, and much of his early training included studies of the Holy Scriptures. In this way, he prepared himself for entrance into the Teachers College at Prussian Friedland. At the age of 16, he passed the exam before the County Superintendent. He became a teacher in Germany, an accomplished musician, and while serving as an educator, became his town's tax collector. He worked so hard that his health suffered and he was diagnosed as having tuberculosis, with a recommendation that he take a sabbatical in southern Italy. With little money, and following much deliberation, he decided to go to Florida to engage in the business of orange culture, being advised by an eminent physician on the Florida climate. February 1, 1880, he left Berlin for Florida, his ticket reading: "Bremen, Germany to Tampa, Florida." TAMPA IN 1880 Being somewhat surprised that there were no sidewalks, no paved streets, no brick buildings, no fine residences, only simple frame houses, he was, however, impressed by the friendliness shown to him, although not understanding a word that was said. After deciding that Tampa was not the place for orange trees, he travelled to Bloomingdale, where he soon purchased the 80-acre plantation belonging to the Carney family, John Carney having been ambushed, killed, and scalped by the Indians 24 years before. Carney was buried there on the Carney Plantation. In the winter of 1883, Buchholz began soliciting the assistance of neighbors, and by the summer of 1884, the first public school in Bloomingdale was established, reportedly being the first frame school house to be erected in the county. The greatest honor ever bestowed upon him was that of being elected trustee of the school. Charles E. Worth of Bloomingdale had circulated a petition asking that the professor teach there and the petition was signed by every patron of the school. In 1887, he received his commission as County Superintendent from Governor Perry. Soon thereafter, the teachers training school was opened in Bloomingdale; and following several years of operation, the normal school training for teachers was moved to Plant City, then to St. Petersburg, due to easier travel accessibility. From 1901 to 1905, he was a professor at the Florida State College at Tallahassee, and from 1905 to 1909, he served as dean of that college. After leaving Tampa in 1913, he became professor of education and of the Bible, at the University of Florida. Professor

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Buchholz was widely recognized as one of the foremost educators of the state. He was honored by being named as an official of many teachers and educational associations in the state and the nation. The first church in the area was a Catholic church established about 1886, not far from the Mulrennan home near Mulrennan Road and Durant Road. About 1900, the area's first Methodist church was open and was situated on a site on the west side of the present Pearson Road and Bloomingdale Avenue intersection. Early minister Rev. Meadows from Riverview served as one of the church's first pastors, reportedly often seen walking from his Riverview home to the Bloomingdale church. Noah Hendrix's son Sam was also an early Methodist minister. Soon joining the Methodist sanctuary were the Baptist and Presbyterian churches.+ COOL LITHIA SPRINGS Pete Hendrix donated the first five acres for the Bloomingdale Cemetery which up until that time had been the burying place for only Hendrix family members. The first person buried in that cemetery was Artemesia Hendrix, who died in 1901 of typhoid fever, with the burial of a Hendrix infant soon thereafter. Great-grandchildren of James Hendrix still residing in Bloomingdale today say their childhood differed little from that of their parents with the exception of the modern-day convenience, the automobile. Cooling off" in Lithia Springs, which was first known as McLaughlin Springs, often followed long, hot summer days spent working in the fields. The springs -found only a couple of miles "as the crow flies," through thick brush and down a winding wagon trail across the Alafia River-continue to be a favorite recreation spot for folks living in southeastern Hillsborough County. Mining operations which are believed to have been discontinued shortly after the turn of the century, were conducted for a time at a location about a mile upstream from Lithia Springs. During these mining operations, large bones believed to be that of early prehistoric animals were uncovered. ABE MAAS'GENERAL STORE Frances Hendrix Bridges, daughter of Will Hendrix, remembers the early Thompson store which was located at a site on the northwest corner of Lithia-Pinecrest Road and Bloomingdale Avenue. This store was operated by Mrs. Lilla Buzbee Thompson, sister of Mrs. Joe Garner. Mrs. Bridges also recalls occasional trips to Tampa where the family shopped at Abe Maas' general store on Franklin Street. At that time, a variety of food and household items could also be purchased at the early store. In addition to the Hendrix, Garner, and Parrish families, other families residing in Bloomingdale after the turn of the century included McLeans, Stearns, Buzbees, Quicks, and Mulrennans. When "Grandma" Hendrix, wife of Noah, died in the nearby community of Alafia in 1947, she was 95 years of age. Her death left only one surviving member of the original colony, a nephew, A.S. Hendrix. In 1872, Drucilla Corley Hendrix ("Grandma") was 19 years of age and was a bride of only three months, having married Noah, her third cousin, in November prior to

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the family embarking on their journey to Florida, and having left behind all of the family she had known. 'PIONEER SPIRIT' This hardy woman, who truly possessed the "pioneer spirit," would bear 10 children, all without the aid of a doctor or midwife, losing five of her offspring to death. Her family fondly recalls that earlier 95th birthday celebration at her small, unpainted "cracker home" which drew relatives from her childhood home in Alabama as well as from many central Florida towns. Alabamans attending included "Grandma's" sister, Angie Corley Eubanks of Bay Minette. Those attending remember the old home, with its wooden shutters, as dark but homey and warm with its large, high front porch surrounded by a freshly "raked" white sand yard. Her tiny bedroom held stacks of patchwork quilts which she had "pieced" from the leftover scraps of material she had sewn for her family years before. The old iron cooking pots used on her "outdoor stove" in early Bloomingdale now held colorful geraniums on the old front porch. All are reminders of a lifestyle slowly yielding to history. Today, the Hendrix family cemetery holds the earthly remains of the pioneering family who arrived in Bloomingdale over a century ago. This family cleared the land of its virgin timber, built homes, planted crops and orange groves in a land where only Indians had lived before. Many members of the Hendrix family still reside in Bloomingdale and the southeastern Hillsborough County area. Some still live on the property homesteaded by their pioneer forefathers who in 1872, saw Bloomingdale as an "unspoiled valley." NOTES Sources of reference are notes I have gathered for many years-tales told to me by my parents, grandparents and accounts of other family members, Hillsborough County School Board and Postal records; also the Florida Handbook

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ILLEGAL BOLITA PAVED THE WAY FOR NEW LOTTERY Editorial from ST. PETERSBURG TIMES July 2, 1990 A historical reason why Florida's state-run lottery is so popular: "Bolita, introduced to Tampa by the Cubans in the 1880s, means 'little ball.' A hundred balls, consecutively numbered, are tied in a bag and tossed from one person to another. One ball is clutched through the cloth and this bears the winning number. "Played by Negroes and whites alike in Jacksonville, Key West, Miami, Tampa and surrounding towns, bolita has sponsored a great variety of superstitions. Some of these, traceable to the Chinese who brought the game to Cuba, include Oriental interpretations of dreams. As a result the sale of all dream books as well as publications on astrology and numerology has boomed. "For thousands of Tampa folk, bolita has invested nearly all of the commonplace occurrences of life with the symbolism of figures. House addresses, auto licenses, theater stubs, steps, telephone poles, or anything that can be counted, added, subtracted or divided are grist for bolita. Equipped with the additional resources of voodooism, the Cuban Negro can begin with virtually any incident and arrive at a bolita number. He is equally adroit at explaining his miscalculations." -From The WPA Guide to Florida, 1939

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THE DAMNEDEST TOWN THIS SIDE OF HELL: TAMPA 1920-29 (Part 1) By DR. FRANK ALDUINO On New Year's Day, 1919, Tampans awoke on a cold and blustery morning to discover that their city had become officially "dry." The day before, crowds of people, expecting a temporary "dry spell," roamed the Treasure City searching for a package store that still stocked bottles of liquor. In a carnival-like atmosphere dozens of revelers, many of whom quickly consumed their coveted purchases, mockingly celebrated the death of John Barleycorn. Well aware of their customers' insatiable thirst and desperate condition, Tampa liquor dealers reaped incredible profits by inflating the BACKWOODS ENTREPRENEURS During the Prohibition days, many Floridians earned a good living making moonshine. Revenue officers were kept busy breaking up stills in obscure Woods, such as this one near Riverview in 1920. -BURGERT BROS. photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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prices of their highly-sought-after "wet" goods. The buying frenzy did not diminish until every bottle of alcohol was sold; not even sour bitters remained on the shelves. As nightfall approached, a sense of depression descended upon Tampa as liquor stores hung signs reading "sold out." The Tampa Tribune captured this depressing mood when it wrote, "All over town it was the same, those [liquor] establishments looked much like a doomed person who was trying to do all he could to make the best of his last day.1 The "Noble Experiment" had begun in Tampa. Excerpts from a paper by Dr. Frank Alduino, Anne Arundel Community College, Arnold, Md., read before the annual meeting of the Florida Historical Society, Tampa, May 11, 1990. For the next 16 years widespread non-compliance of federal and state prohibitionary laws made Tampa one of the "wettest" spots in the United States. In fact, in 1930 there was reportedly 130 different retailers surreptitiously selling a wide variety of intoxicating beverages. While it is true that the Volstead Act curtailed liquor consumption, "the law fell considerably short of expectations. It neither eliminated drinking nor produced a sense that such a goal was within reach.2 In Tampa Prohibition was a miserable failure. Besides raising the price of liquor and lowering its quality, the "Noble Experiment" exacerbated Tampa's wide-open moral conditions, corrupted law enforcement and other public officials, and fostered the growth of an emerging criminal element. BOOTLEGGER ITALIANS During the 1920s and early 1930s, Tampa received most of its illicit liquor from three sources: local bootleggers, rural moonshiners, and international smugglers. The first group, the local bootleggers, were predominantly Italian immigrants who engaged in the trade to supplement their meager salaries. Repulsed by nativistic attempts to regulate their drinking habits, many Italians overtly violated the Eighteenth Amendment and gravitated toward the bootleg trade. According to Gary Mormino and George Pozzetta in their book, The Immigrant World of Ybor City The potentially large profits to be made, the nearly unlimited demand for and the acceptance of the illegal sale of alcohol by the public, and the Italian talent at manufacturing, supplying, and marketing... brought together economic opportunity and immigrant resolution.3 Throughout the Treasure City enterprising Italians built crude but efficient stills that produced a variety of potent potables. This cottage industry that employed perhaps as many as 50 percent of Ybor City's families, supplied an eager and appreciative market. In fact, scores of restaurants, coffee houses, and speakeasies served as outlets for this local "alky cooked" liquor.4 Prohibition brought tremendous sums of money into Tampa's Italian community, raising the socio-economic status of those engaged in the illegal trade. The "Noble Experiment" was also important because it brought Italo-Americans into Tampa's criminal underworld. Prior to the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, organized crime was the near-exclusive domain of the city's Cubans and Spaniards. They controlled all major forms of vice, including the lucrative bolita industry-the Cuban numbers. Brought to Ybor City in the 1880s, this popular form of gambling began as a small sideline

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business found in Latin saloons. It soon became the single largest illegal money-making enterprise in Tampa's history.5 BOLITA 'THROWING' By 1900 bolita had become a ritual in Tampa. Every night crowds of gamblers and curious onlookers gathered at one of the lavishly decorated sporting parlors to watch the daily "throwing." The lottery commenced when 100 ivory balls with bold black numbers were exhibited on a large table. This was done to ensure that none of the balls was missing, thus increasing the odds for the operators. After a brief inspection, all 100 balls were placed in a velvet sack, which was tightly tied. At this point the "throwing" began as the sack went from person to person. Finally the bag was grabbed by a "catcher," who held one ball securely in his closed fist. Once this was accomplished the operator tied a string around the imprisoned ball. He then cut the bag above the string and allowed the winning number to drop in his hand.6 As the Cuban numbers became increasingly profitable, many gambling brokers expanded their operations. In fact, there were few places in Tampa where one could not purchase a bolita ticket. Along with this expansion also came consolidation. By the 1920s, the bolita trade was virtually monopolized by an Anglo named Charles Wall. This gambling czar, with his brilliant organizational skills and powerful political connections, became the undisputed master of Tampa's bolita empire and controlled it for nearly three decades.7 With one of the keenest minds capable of the most intense concentration, Charles Wall had the background, the lineage [he was related to the powerful Lykes and McKay families], every advantage to become one of Florida's greatest public figures had he so chosen.8 Instead he turned to a life of crime. Wall was born into a prominent Tampa family. His father, Dr. John Wall, was an ex-Confederate Army surgeon who directed the Richmond hospitals during the Civil War. He was also internationally recognized for his pioneering Yellow Fever studies. Although Charles' early life was spent in comfortable surroundings, his teenage years were marred by tragedy. At the age of thirteen his mother died. Two years later, his father, while attending a medical conference in Gainesville, was suddenly overcome by illness and also died. Young Wall was subsequently raised by his stepmother, a woman whom he despised and would CHARLIE WALL brilliant gambling czar'

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eventually shoot and wound with a .22 caliber gun.9 EXPELITIED FROM ACADEMY Following a brief stay in a juvenile detention center, Wall was sent to the Bingham Military School in North Carolina. His scholarly career, however, was short-lived; he was caught in a local bawdy house and promptly expelled from the academy. Returning to Tampa, the restless misanthrope gravitated toward the city's budding gambling industry. Beginning as a courier, he soon became a bookie and planned to expand his power further. Wall's preeminence in the city's gambling fraternity was firmly established in the 1890s when he seized control of the bolita rackets, which had previously been run from the island of Cuba. It is highly probable that Wall was encouraged and even financed in his takeover attempt by Tampa's elite business community, which did not like the idea that gambling revenues were leaving the city. Many wanted the money to remain in the Treasure City where it could be used to encourage new industries and other commercial ventures.10 Despite a morphine addiction, which he overcame, Wall rose to become Tampa's gambling czar. He maintained this position for over three decades by controlling the city's "hot" voting precincts. When Wall could not purchase the necessary votes to win an election, he simply stuffed the ballot boxes. At the height of his power, few Tampa politicians won their elections without first securing Wall's blessing. In fact, "Many observers staunchly believed that during these decades [when Wall ruled the city's political structure] there was not one single honest election in Tampa/Hillsborough County."11 Wall also retained his title as Bolita King by eliminating his potential opponents. At least six rivals met violent deaths attempting to dislodge the city's powerful vice lord.12 PHILANTHROPIC ACT Charlie Wall was a fascinating anomaly. A cold-blooded killer who did not hesitate to order the execution of anyone encroaching on his territory, Wall was also described as a "polite and soft-spoken"13 individual who frequently donated large sums of money to churches and assisted a number of working-class families facing economic hard-times. His most legendary philanthropic act occurred in 1910. In the midst of a brutal strike, Tampa's Bolita King provided food for 900 cigarworkers and their families. Few Latins forgot Wall's generosity.14 Regardless of Wall's lofty status in Tampa's Latin community, by the early 1930s his undisputed reign over the bolita trade was increasingly challenged by Italian gangsters. During the Prohibition era, Italians engaged in the illicit liquor business earned a considerable amount of money and wielded growing power in the city. They were restless and no longer content with their bootlegging profits. Some hungered to crack the Wall-Cuban bolita monopoly, and were willing to utilize violence to achieve their goals. The first sign of destabilization in Tampa's gambling community occurred on June 9, 1930. While standing in front of his garage door, Wall was ambushed by assailants in a speeding automobile. The Bolita King was not seriously injured (he received a minor shoulder wound), but the incident signalled the beginning of a bloody gang war between the Old Guard mobsters and upstart Italian gangsters.15

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Not all Italian bootleggers wanted access to Tampa's bolita rackets; many were content to operate their small cottage industries. The insatiable demand for liquor insured little rivalry and a high profit yield. The only competition the city's bootleggers encountered was found in the countryside. Moonshine was not only sold in rural communities, but also found in Tampa's poor sections. MOONSHINE TRADE The art of moonshining was practiced long before the advent of Prohibition. For generations federal tax collectors scoured the outskirts of Tampa looking for tax-evading moonshiners. Until 1920 the illegal production of alcohol was a small and relatively insignificant business. It was primarily produced for home consumption or sold to neighbors. With the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, however, the production of moonshine grew into a large, commercial enterprise in the rural districts of Hillsborough and other surrounding counties. In Hernando County, located about thirty miles north of Tampa, the Volstead Act generated desperately needed money. Since its commercial forests were largely depleted and few tourists visited the area, the county neared total economic collapse during the Great Depression. In fact, many unemployed residents resorted to the barter system in order to obtain essential goods. Yet, this soon changed. According to one resident, whiskey was distilled in nearly every other home. "Everyone, damn near everyone in Hernando County, had a hand in it."16 Hillsborough County also had its share of moonshiners. Any farm or abandoned field was a potential distilling plant. Although the rural areas surrounding Tampa contained an untold number of stills, the "Daddy" of the early moonshiners was a colorful character named William Flynn. A cooper prior to the Eighteenth Amendment, by 1920 he had an impressive three-still operation that supplied much of West Tampa. Unfortunately for local retailers, this moonshining entrepreneur soon experienced some bad luck. On October 14, 1920, federal agents raided his business and destroyed the stills. Within days, however, other opportunistic "shiners" filled the void created by Flynn's arrest.17 The alcohol supplied by rural moonshiners was a cheap alternative to homemade wine or expensive liquor. Yet there was a potential risk for individuals who consumed this backwoods "shine." Every year during Prohibition poorly prepared moonshine killed or made seriously ill hundreds of customers. All too often small operators, with little knowledge of the distilling process, allowed poisonous leads and salts to seep into the mixture. Some moonshiners even used dead rats and rotted meat to give their liquor a unique taste. "The more juicy the garbage, the better the mash and the better the shine,"18 intoned a Prohibition director. Moonshine found a receptive market in Tampa's more notorious speakeasies, but most people preferred high quality imported liquor. For those unwilling to experiment with poor quality and often dangerous moonshine, alcohol illegally smuggled into the United States from outside countries provided a popular alternative. Because of its geographical location and numerous inlets and coves, Tampa became a haven for smugglers during the Prohibition era. For 16 years scores of "black ships" operated off the coast of Tampa Bay bringing in unlawful liquor. Skillful sea captains, financed by both legitimate business concerns and

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criminal organizations, risked possible arrest and the impounding of their vessels for high profit yields. The main source of Tampa's liquor supply came from Cuba and especially the Bahamas. Prior to Prohibition, Nassau was an impoverished island. Yet during the 1920s, it experienced an economic boom. Wealthy businessmen benefitted from the American "Noble Experiment" by financing smuggling operations. The Bahamian working-class also participated in the economic bonanza created by the Volstead Act. Many gained employment as stevedores in the bustling ports, while others worked in the various liquor-related service jobs. Some even signed on as crewmen on rum-running schooners. The massive influx of American money brought the Bahamas into the twentieth century. The government which placed an import tax on every case of alcohol arriving at its port was able to build electrical plants, hospitals, roads, and other improvements on the island.19 OUTWITTING THE 'FEDS' Once sea captains had secured their "wet" cargo and paid the necessary Bahamian tax, they headed for the waters off the American coast. Although the chances of being intercepted by federal authorities were slim, smugglers nonetheless took a number of precautions. For example, some captains simply concealed their clandestine goods in their legitimate cargo. They were well aware of the fact that custom agents lacked the resources to inspect more than a fraction of those vessels entering American ports. Other smugglers were more clever. "A popular innovation used by rumrunners was the submersion tank, a long cigar-shaped metal tank filled with liquor and keel-hauled and chained underneath a vessel. Enough air was left in one of those to cause it to rise to a level just below the surface when needed. One or more of these ingenious devices, carried by a rum ship, would be cut loose and towed ashore by small boats at low speed. In case of detection, they were easy to cast off and sink.20 Usually liquor-ladened vessels anchored in international waters, twelve miles off the coast of Florida. There they were met by a fleet of motorboats that carried cases of scotch, wine, and other imported alcohol to a spot off the coast of Tampa. Waiting in the cover of darkness was the "Key Man" 'and his workers. A representative of a local gangster or perhaps a legitimate businessman, the "Key Man" was a vital link in the smuggling trade. This middleman not only supervised the exchange of liquor from schooners to shore, but he also transported the "wet" cargo to a central location in Tampa. Assisting the "Key Man" were friends, relatives, neighbors, and any other individual whose loyalty was beyond reproach. For those participating in the rum-running process, the job was quick and easy. If a small amount of liquor arrived, it was loaded in modified automobiles, equipped with high-powered engines to elude unfriendly police or hijackers. If a large shipment needed to be hauled, the "Key Man" utilized covered trucks. One former Tampa bootlegger recalled that in order to avoid suspicion, he and his cohorts borrowed trucks belonging to a local merchant. Bootleggers were well-paid. The "Key Man" usually received a dollar a case for his services, while his associates were given about $25 a night.21

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OPERATES WITH IMPUNITY Few of these rumrunners and their bootlegging allies ever spent time in prison for violating federal and state prohibitionary statutes. Although the Tampa Daily Times and Tampa Tribune were filled with stories about spectacular liquor raids and well-publicized trials, the lucrative rum trade operated with impunity in Tampa. Public hostility to the Volstead Act, widespread community involvement in the smuggling business, and most importantly, blatantly corrupt city and county officials, made Tampa one of the "leakiest" cities in the United States. With the advent of statewide prohibition in Florida in 1919, local and county officials were given the responsibility of enforcing this unpopular law, a job they were ill-prepared to assume. Following World War I, Tampa's Police Department numbered only 27 patrolmen-one for every 6,166 people in the city. Complete areas were left without police protection. The Department's low pay scale was primarily responsible for the small size of the force. Tampa policemen made approximately $75 a month. Few capable young men were willing to accept these meager wages, especially since other city employees were paid as much as $50 a week.22 For these patrolmen willing to remain on the job, conditions did nothing but worsen. Beginning in early 1919, a terrible wave of post-War inflation descended upon Tampa and the rest of the nation. Underpaid patrolmen were forced to live in the midst of this inflationary economy with little hope of securing a desperately needed pay raise. Reacting to this situation, the policemen, supported by the city's leading businessmen, circulated a petition demanding an increase in salary. No doubt mindful of the Boston Police strike, the City Council abandoned its promise to maintain the current budget and transferred $3,610.20 from the general fund to the Tampa Police Department. Each patrolman was given an additional $5 per month.23 FLAMBOYANT POLICE CHIEF Despite the slight salary increase, morale remained low within the ranks of the city's finest. This condition changed in February 1922 when the City Council named Major Frank Williams as Tampa's new police chief. Flamboyant and at times reckless, Williams appeared to be the perfect person to reorganize the department and instill pride in the force. Tampa's new Chief of Police achieved a brilliant record while serving in World War 1, earning the Distinguished Service Cross, the French Croix de Guerre, and the Italian War Cross of Merit for leading his men "over the top" seven different times. Following his military service, he travelled with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show and later became a federal Prohibition agent.24 Upon assuming his position as Tampa's top law enforcement official, Chief Williams hired 20 additional police officers. He also restructured the entire force and initiated a sense of military-like discipline in the department. Williams' approach seemed to be paying dividends. Within a few months Tampa's finest conducted scores of well-publicized raids on liquor dispensaries and bolita operators. In fact, in the first half of 1921 the department arrested 2,202 people, compared to 3,566 for all of 1920. Among those caught in Williams' dragnet were 104 alcohol violators. A year later, in 1922,

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Chief Williams was again commended by the community for his efficient and diligent crusade against the city's underworld. The chief sent 121 liquor cases to the municipal court for trial, resulting in $4,410 in fines.25 THE HOCUS-POCUS On the surface it appeared that Williams had made a remarkable effort to eradicate the rampant vice found in Tampa. Yet the official police records are very deceptive. First, many of those arrested were habitual offenders. The prospect of arrest did not intimidate the city's liquor violators because municipal judges rarely imposed more than token fines. Liquor dealers were fined on a regular basis and many were arrested twice or more within a week's time. According to one policeman, "bootleggers made no bones of their business, smiled when arrested, paid up immediately, and continued to defy authorities.26 To many bootleggers getting arrested was merely a slight inconvenience and a minor occupational hazard. Secondly, many of those arrested selling alcohol gave false identities or distorted their names beyond recognition. Finally, the corrupt elements in the department often warned the city's underworld of impending raids. In order to appease the community's prohibitionists police periodically swept through Ybor City and Tampa proper and temporarily closed several speakeasies and coffee houses. Forewarned, the establishments scheduled to be raided secreted their high quality liquor and left only a case or two of cheap moonshine in plain view for Tampa's vice squad detectives to confiscate. Following a perfunctionary hearing before a sympathetic municipal magistrate, victims of these rehearsed raids usually resumed their illicit businesses within hours. NOTES 1 Tampa Tribune 1 January 1919. 2 David Kyvig, Repealing National Prohibition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), p. 35. 3 Gary Mormino and George Pozzeta, The Immigrant World of Ybor City: Italians and Their Latin Neighbor, in Tampa, 1885-1985 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), p. 284; Mark Haller, "Organized Crime in Urban Society: Chicago in the Twentieth Century," Journal of Social History 4 (Winter 1971), p. 224. 4 Gary Mormino and George Pozzetta, The Immigrant World of Ybor City p. 285. 5 Gary Mormino and George Pozzetta, The Immigrant World of Ybor City pp. 280-284; Gary Mormino and Anthony Pizzo, Tampa: The Treasure City (Tulsa: Continental Heritage Press, Inc.), p. 176. 6 Tampa Tribune 11 June 1927; Oral Interview, Anthony Pizzo, Tampa, March 9, 1989. 7 Harris Mullens, "Florida Close-ups: Charlie Wall," Florida Trend 8 (March 1966), pp. 20-22. 8 Tampa Tribune 21 April 1955. 9 Ibid 10 Ibid 11 Gary Mormino and George Pozzetta, The Immigrant World of Ybor City p. 54. 12 Tampa Times 21 April 1955. 13 Oral Interview, Vernon Bradford, November 11, 1987. 14 Tampa Tribune 21 April 1955. 15 Gary Mormino and George Pozzetta, The Immigrant World of Ybor City p. 286; Tampa Times 10 June 1930. 16 Richard Cofer, "Bootleggers in the Backwoods: Prohibition and the Depression in Hernando County," Tampa Bay History 1 (Spring 1979), p. 18.

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17 Frank Alduino, "Prohibition in Tampa," Tampa Bay History 9 (Spring 1986); Richard Cofer, "Bootleggers in the Backwoods," pp. 17-24 and 23. 18 Andrew Sinclair, Prohibition: The Age of Excess (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1962), p. 203. 19 James Carter, "Florida and Rum-running During National Prohibition," Masters Thesis, Florida State University, 1965, pp. 28-29. 20 Ibid 21 0ral Interview, Nick Longo, Tampa, November 12, 1987. "Longo" is a pseudonym. 22 Tampa Tribune 10 May 1918. 23 Tampa Tribune 6 November 1919. 24 Tampa Tribune 10 February 1921. 25 Tampa Tribune 25 June 1924; Tampa Tribune 3 July 1921; Tampa Tribune 18 October 1923. 26 Oral Interview, Paul Turner, May 4, 1987. Turner is a pseudonym.

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LIMONA FOUNDING MARKER UNVEILED The community of Limona in rural Hillsborough County joined in the commemorative marking of historical sites and events on Dec. 28, 1989, dedicating a marker on Lakewood Drive to the founding of the settlement on January 12, 1876. Dick Stowers was master of ceremonies for the ceremony. Tony Pizzo, founding president of the Tampa Historical Society, and Hampton Dunn, president of the Florida Historical Society, spoke briefly. The marker reads: Lakewood Drive, part of old Seminole Indian trails, led to Fort Brooke and "Pease Creek." In 1878 Judge Joseph Gillette Knapp of Wis. settled and named Limona after citrus trees left by the Spanish. In 1877 the Elgin Watch Co. formed Limona Park Ass'n. for a winter retreat. Surveyor E. E. Pratt wrote the land was 'best in Florida...high, dry ... beautiful lakes ... clear, soft water.' Knapp established this cemetery, a church, school and in 1878 a post office. In 1881 he proposed Tampa Historical Society." AFTER DEDICATION Dorothy Coe Townsend, left, and Hilda Hampton. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Pioneer Commercial Photographers THE BURGERT BROTHERS OF TAMPA FLORIDA By DR. JACK B. MOORE & DR. ROBERT E. SNYDER Department of American Studies University of South Florida The Burgerts were a family of photographers who came to Florida late in the nineteenth century and established a quite remarkable record in various phases of the photography business, primarily in the state. Three generations of Burgert photographers worked productively from around the 1870s until the 1960s. The Burgert brothers were six sons and one daughter-in-law of the original photographic progenitor of the family, Samuel Burgert. The brothers at various times took, sold or marketed supplies for hundreds of thousands of photographic images usually requested by THE BURGERTS 'LOOK AT THE BIRDIE' The Burgert brothers gathered on the veranda of the stylish Tampa Bay Hotel, a grand resort hotel built by railroad magnate Henry B. Plant, on July 17, 1911. Left to right are Willard, Walter, Alfred, Jean, Albert and Harry. Rose Burgert Baker Family Album

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commercial clients, and in the process coincidentally documented the Tampa Bay region's development from the little more than a scrubby port village to a major urban center of international importance.1 This article appeared in the Journal of American Culture V111 (Fall, 1985, 11-26, and is reprinted by permission of its editor, Dr. Ray Brown, Department of American Studies, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio). The first Burgerts came to the United States in the second quarter of the nineteenth century from Alsace-Lorraine. Samuel Burgert was born in 1849 in Cincinnati, Ohio. He married Adelina Jane Barlow, a native of Shreveport, Louisiana, and they had four sons born to them while living in Ohio: Willard (b. 1875), Harold (b. 1876), Walter (n.d.) and Jean (b. 1882). The family initially engaged in farming in the vicinity of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Somewhere along the line Samuel somehow learned to make tintypes and whatever processes were then available in that relatively sparsely settled area to take, develop, market and print pictures. He became a pioneer, itinerant photographer, traveling around the countryside with a horse, wagon and folding tent, sometimes for two or three weeks at a time. He would take a picture, develop it and print it on the spot, and attempt to sell it before moving on. Because photo supplies were hard to come by, Samuel even learned to make his own glass plate negatives.2 FLORIDA'S GOOD FORTUNE During the 1880s, Samuel moved his family to Florida. Samuel worked in Jacksonville as a photographer, and he and Adelina became parents of twin boys, Alfred and Albert (b. 1887). The Burgerts subsequently moved to Tampa, where by 1898 the City Directory listed three Burgerts engaged in the photography business. Samuel and Willard C. Burgert constituted the firm of S.P. Burgert and Son, Photographers, and Jean Burgert also worked for his father and older brother. Samuel introduced the various children to his craft, and always retained a close relationship with them. He expanded his work in photography in Tampa and became a respected citizen of the growing community, being elected Master of the John Darling Lodge of the Masons in 1911. Samuel never retired and worked until his death on September 29, 1918. Adelina apparently did not work directly in the business, but ran the Burgert household effectively and with love until her death on October 10, 1925.3 While Al and Jean were the two principal sons of Samuel and Adelina whose photographic work has endured, all the brothers had some contributions to make the history of photography in the Tampa area, and all were involved in various ways with the community. Willard Chesney Burgert, fondly known as "Will," was probably the most flamboyant brother. He operated a studio in the late 1890s with his father, the Tampa Photo and Art Supply Company, which he founded in 1902 or 1903, and this was his most enduring and financially rewarding job, one that provided work for all the family at one time or another. Will also booked vaudeville acts, and for a time ran his own theatre, the revealingly-named San Souci. In 1913, he was involved in a motion picture company that starred the apparently incomparable Captain Jack Bonavita in such tropical extravaganzas as Voodoo and The Lure of the Jungle Will was known as a bon vivant, romancer of women, free spender and snappy dresser.

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HAIL HIS MAJESTY, KING GASPARILLA XV This regal picture features D. Collins Gillett, president of Temple Terrace, Inc., the largest citrus grove in the world, and the real estate developer behind Temple Terrace, shown in his royal robes when he was King in 1923. He married into the wealthy and influential Lykes family, to Matilda Lykes Turman Gillett. He died nearly penniless in the 1930s. -BURGERT BROS. Photo from the Tampa/Hillsborough County Public Library

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THE BURGERTS RECORDED HISTORY IN THE MAKING Spanish American War soldiers photographed at Ybor City studio in 1898 Photo from the HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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His grandson claimed that Will would have owned half of Tampa if he had known how to manage his money, but instead he spent it on pretty things such as an aluminum bodied Marmon automobile.4 James Harold "Harry" Burgert was one of the most promising of the Burgerts, but his early death deprived the family of one of its most respected members. Harry, like Will, owned a vaudeville house and theatre in Key West, but from early in the century alternated between Tampa and Key West, working as a commercial photographer. In 1912 he settled with his wife Nettie in a house and studio in Ybor City, the Latin neighborhood of Tampa, and his business there was so profitable that the family moved to a second home in 1914. But just a month after the move, Harry contracted pneumonia and died. His wife took over the business at that time, aided by her brother-in-law Jean Burgert. Nettie and Harold's son, Thel (b. 1904), would eventually become well-known photographers.5 Information on Walter is sketchy. He once operated a portrait studio in Ybor City, but he also had many other longings. He dreamed of being a doctor, for example, and he dabbled in chemistry and the making of home remedies. He tried truck farming but went bankrupt and returned to photography. Along with Jean, he was part of the first Burgert Brothers firm. Albert "Bert" Burgert had the misfortune as a youngster of having a nursemaid drop him on his head. He never developed full intelligence and, though well physically, mentally was always somewhat childish. Bert never owned his own business, but he worked at various jobs as a valued assistant in the photographic concerns of his brothers. Good-natured and funloving, Bert was also a magnificent piano player who performed on pleasure cruises. Late in life he became disoriented and had to be placed in a home.6 BURGERT BROS. BEGINS Alfred "Al" Burgert and Jean Burgert started the firm of Burgert Brothers probably in 1917, when they bought out the business of William A. Fishbaugh, a Tampa photographer who moved down the Florida peninsula to what he assumed were greener photographic pastures in Miami. From the start the Burgerts were commercial photographers and, from the start, successful. Not long after their opening, they began hiring some of the best photographers in the area. Roscoe Frey started working for the brothers in 1919 as a photographer and darkroom technician at $15.00 a week. Al Severson joined the firm as a photographer in 1924. Frey and Severson described a typical day at work as picking up a handful of photo orders in the morning, and shooting pictures all day for real estate agents, contractors, department stores and other businesses.7 The Burgerts also took excellent news photographs. Frey remembered braving hard winds with Jean Burgert to photograph the wreckage around Tampa Bay following the hurricane of October 25, 1921. "As Frey anchored and steadied the wooden tripod, Jean hurriedly snapped pictures of Bayshore's caved-in seawall, splintered railroad tracks and roofless homes." The two men worked all night by candle and gaslight to develop the pictures. Then, just as the exclusive photographs were about to be mailed to World Wide Photo, Al Burgert decided that the sensationalized publicity would be bad for Tampa, and so only a few of the photographs were released in the local newspaper for publication.8

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All negatives, whether produced by one of the brothers or an employee, were inscribed in a corner with the words "Burgert Brothers," a name written so proudly and openly that it seemed more a decorative logo than identifying signature. The negatives were also stamped with numbers which were then recorded in a ledger usually with a precise but sometimes frustrating general descriptive phrase or word indicating subject or locale. Typically, each ledger listing also contained the date the picture was taken. PHOTOGRAPHING 'GARGANTUA' The excellence of their earliest photographs was probably due more to Jean's skill than Al's. Thel Burgert said that Jean at first had to teach Al (who had been working as a bookkeeper and office manager for his brother Willard) a lot about photography, but fortunately Al was a quick learner and it did not take him long to learn the technical details. Almost from the beginning their business was extensive. They developed HEADQUARTERS OF BURGERT BROS. OPERATION This was the Burgert Bros. Studio at 407 E. Lafayette St. (now Kennedy Blvd.) where the photographers turned out their perfect images. A sign advertising the practice of commercial photography prominently hung over the doorway. Display cases along the storefront featured a sampling of recent photography work. Photo was taken July 20, 1922. -BURGERT BROS. Photo from Tampa/Hillsborough County Public Library

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many long-standing large commercial contracts such as Stone and Webster, the forerunner of the Tampa Electric Company; the King Edward Cigar Company; Borden's Dairy; the International Truck Company; Florida Motor Lines; all sorts of building contractors; Mallory Shipbuilders; Atlantic Coast Line Railroad; and Cuesta Rey Cigarmakers, who made cigars for the King of Spain. They ranged far in their work, both in subjects and geographically, carrying out fashion ads and window displays in Tampa for Maas Brothers, 0. Falk's and Wolf Brothers; aerial photography for local land developers; and similar assignments for concerns in Tallahassee, Jacksonville, the Florida Keys and elsewhere in the South as far away as Alabama and Louisiana. They built their business through their own skill, Al's salesmanship and the referrals they received, because of their good work, from the local Chamber of Commerce and the Photographers Association of America. They were known widely as skilled, reputable photographers. Their greatest competitors were Robertson and Fresh, who were in the same type of business as the Burgerts and who also did quality work. Robert Mallory, who was also a Tampa photographer in the 1920s and ultimately owned Southern Photography and News Supply, Inc., said of the Burgert Brothers, "We were competitors, but I don't think they ever thought of me as a competitor. They always thought they were the tops."9 The skill with which they practiced the craft, or art, of commercial photography became so widely recognized in the 1930s that Life magazine asked them in 1935 to become one of the publication's Southern correspondents. The best known work Burgert Brothers did for Life was a series of photographs Al took in Sarasota, Florida, of the Ringling Brothers' recently acquired gorilla, Gargantua.10 The huge, ferocious-looking animal was very temperamental from all the attention he was receiving, and would throw whatever was at hand in his cage at bothersome reporters and photographers. He would, for example, crush his metal food plate and hurl it at aspiring picture takers. In order to get the picture he wanted, Al resourcefully equipped himself with a baseball catcher's face mask and chest protector.11 The Burgerts also took pictures for Life of the "Louisiana sugar industry" and a watermelon harvest in Adel, Georgia.12 WORK IN WARTIME While the Burgert Brothers' business did not suffer greatly during the Depression, Thel Burgert said that World War II at first kicked their commercial business in the head (perhaps because the War slowed down the usual forms of construction, the Burgerts' staple business). But the Brothers were soon able to pick up all sorts of government and war-related work. Tampa shipyards like McClosky, Daniels and Tampa Dock, were turning out ships every two to three weeks, making all kinds of vessels, even prefabricated ships made from cement. Every couple of days each ship had to have a progress photo taken, and the Burgerts took many of these. They also opened a portrait studio near Drew Field that was very lucrative because the boot camp at the field had at some times over 150,000 men, and the population of inductees who trained at the camp changed every six or seven weeks. Most of the men wanted portraits for their mothers, wives and girlfriends and Burgert Brothers took many of these, installing an operator at that studio who took the shots and sent them back to the Burgerts' Jackson Street studio for processing.13

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Al also opened a small portrait studio near the Western Union Building in downtown Tampa where pictures were taken and similarly sent back to Jackson Street for processing. The studio was in a two-story building with three developing darkrooms upstairs, a room for drying and spotting pictures, a room for washing prints and a darkroom for loading film into cameras. Downstairs were finishing rooms and a desk area for transacting business. Al's wife Ethel handled billing of accounts and delivering the pictures at the desk area. After World War II, the portrait studios were phased out. Until the time of these portrait studios, Al took most of the studio photographs himself, but the burden of the additional portrait photographs and the shipyard progress pictures necessitated additional help.14 In its heyday the studio employed about ten people: two office girls to answer the telephone and handle billing; a couple of photographers and apprentices to carry out commercial picture-taking; some darkroom people for developing and printing photographs; and a person to retouch photographs. Working conditions at the studio were very good, with Christmas, birthday and occasional surprise parties, and a bonus at Christmas for the employees.15 NO DISCRIMINATION Like many Southern cities, Tampa prided itself on having good interracial relations, but there was a definite color line throughout the area--and state--during the decades the Burgert Brothers were in existence. One Burgert employee during the 1940s said that there was racial discrimination in the photography business in the early days, an extension of the segregation that existed on streetcars, at water fountains and at other public facilities in Tampa. He stated that the Burgerts never had any black or Cuban people working for them in the photographic end of the business, though he thought there might have been black or Cuban people as cleanup workers. He said the Burgerts did, however, do a lot of work for black and Cuban customers. Another employee, Roberta Lucas, claimed in a separate interview that although the Burgerts did not have any minority employees, the studio never had a color line. The Burgerts did assignments for everyone. Thel Burgert said that the Burgerts practiced no kind of discrimination whatsoever. Willard Burgert, he said, had a Negro employee named Robert, and Al and Jean had black employees. All the Burgerts spoke Spanish fluently for business reasons and there was really no reason to hire Spanish speaking people.16 Simon Rose, a photographer at the studio, was Jewish, and though prejudice against Jews was less in Tampa than against Negroes, there was still anti-Semitic discrimination locally. That Rose was Jewish was completely unimportant at the studio.17 Only a small amount of product shooting was done in the studio--for example, pictures of bottles or cigarettes--for print advertisements. Most of the commercial work was done on location and outdoors in black and white. Al had a few favorite locations for his commercial work: The Tampa Terrace Hotel, a really beautiful place in downtown Tampa, now a parking lot; the Palma Ceia Golf and Country Club; the Tampa Yacht Club; Bayshore Boulevard, where there were large, new houses, and stately trees lining the Bay; and Tarpon Springs with its colorful spongefishing docks.18 Al developed the crisscross record-keeping system. Every photograph was recorded by the negative and by the topic. Within a matter of minutes any negative in a

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collection of thousands could be located. This system reflected Al's meticulous ways. He did not see himself as a chronicler of history, but simply needed an efficient retrieval system to keep his business straight. There was a strong demand for reprints of old photographs. The standard charge was $1.00 for a linen-backed photograph that added to the life and durability of the photograph and made it easy to bind into an album.19 FINEST EQUIPMENT Thel Burgert claimed that Burgert Brothers had what he called the first reliable charge for photography work in the area and that their rate schedule was then replicated throughout the surrounding country. On a photography assignment the first half hour of driving time was free, but after that the Burgerts charged either for the time or the mileage. The first photograph of a scene would cost a certain amount, and for every duplicate of that scene the cost would be reduced depending upon the quantity ordered. The standard fee they established early in their operation was $4.50 for an eight-by-ten. The Burgerts also charged waiting time. If the crew arrived at a location and the customer delayed the shooting, the customer was billed for the lapsed time.20 The Burgert Brothers believed that to make quality photographs the best equipment available was needed. They operated on the principle that a poor lens made a poor picture and a high quality lens made a sharp picture, and reliable equipment eliminated a lot of work and trouble. Consequently (at least early in their careers) they always tried to purchase the most up-to-date equipment available, even though selection was sometimes limited.21 They had, by the 1940s, at least three 8" x 10" box cameras, three Speed Graphic cameras and one cirkut camera.22 In addition to these they owned a variety of lenses--Wollensak, Bausch & Lomb, Zeiss, Tessaric and Unar. The Wollensak would be used, for example, for copying and for wide-angle outside views, and the other lenses for various other foci and distances.23 THE CIRKUT CAMERA They were the only commercial studio in town with the cirkut camera, which they seem to have possessed from their earliest days in the business. This instrument would take a photograph 7-10 inches high and from 2-5 feet long. It was used for group shots, banquets and panoramic views. People would line up in a semicircle so that every person was the same distance from the camera.24 As the cirkut camera gradually rotated, the photographer could take a sweeping picture of almost 360 degrees. The photographer would wind up a clock motor, and the camera would slowly swing around the semicircle exposing the film as it moved along. The cirkut camera gradually went out of use as the type of film it needed was discontinued, and the wide-angle and ultra-wide-angle camera lenses were introduced. The camera the Burgerts used might have been manufactured by Century.25 The brothers also owned a movie camera called the Devri. It was used to make commercial shorts for the movie theatres.26 They had contact printers for 8" x 10" pictures and cirkut negatives, and Kodak enlargers for the smaller 4" x 5" film. Among the other equipment were developing trays, washers and dryers.27 A lot of the equipment was Eastman Kodak.28

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Occasionally they had to construct or adapt special equipment. They owned an International van that was especially modified to meet their photographic needs. The truck had special jack levelers so that if the vehicle stopped on uneven ground the levelers would level it. On the roof was a platform that could be elevated by crank to the height necessary to shoot the scene. To protect delicate photography equipment from bouncing and shifting around over rough roads and quick stops, the inside of the van had several compartments where the equipment fit snugly and could be securely fastened down. They also made a special camera for aerial shots. They took parts from an Araflex and other cameras and reinforced the bellows so that air currents would not tear the camera apart as they shot from the open cockpit. The Burgerts would set the camera at a fixed altitude so that their coverage of highway construction, real estate and groves came out clear.29 PHOTO RETOUCHING Most photographic supplies were ordinarily not a problem, and the Burgerts were careful whenever possible to have ample stock of whatever was needed at hand. The studio purchased its supplies in bulk from Tampa Photo Supply, and there was one room in which a large inventory of supplies was always stacked up.30 They tried to keep at least one month's supply of paper and film on hand. This meant the Burgerts had at least 1,000 sheets of paper in ready supply. Even though Tampa's climate was very hot and humid, the paper and film never had to be refrigerated, only stored in a darkroom. These supplies usually had a one year expiration time. When materials were in short supply, photographers had to improvise; for example, by cutting down 8" x 10" to 4" x 5" pieces because the smaller film size was difficult to obtain,31 or cutting down 4" x 5" to 2" x 21/2." Another reason film was cut was that the silver used 32 to coat the negatives was in tight supply and expensive.32 One of the more interesting jobs at Burgert Brothers, and one in which they always seemed to have an expert, was photo retouching. From the early 1940s until the close of World War II, Roberta Lucas worked at this craft in the studio and at home. Photographic retouching involved removing from a picture whatever was not wanted and adding items the photograph needed. A street view might require the retoucher to remove adjoining buildings or pedestrians from the sidewalk, and then add such features as trees, shrubs or a paved street to highlight and accentuate the scene. These items were added by drawing them in, and this is where Roberta Lucas' skill as an artist-she studied art at Oglethorpe University-came into play. Her skills were used to outline, highlight, accentuate or modify various features in the photograph, or to add new features.33 For one series of photographs taken in the mid-1930s, Al Burgert accompanied a friend, George Brown, on a hunting trip to the Crystal River area, taking along his camera but not a gun. He snapped some seemingly random scenes and later gave these finished, unretouched pictures to Mr. Brown. But he also used one of the photographs in a sales campaign for X-Cel dog food after having his retoucher stiffen one dog's tail and shift a tree, presumably to make a more effective picture.34 REMOVING WRINKLES The tools of the retouching trade were for Roberta Lucas a lead pencil, etching knife, magnifying glass, and creamy colored

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viewing board. The retoucher would place a negative on the work board with a magnifying glass over it. As light was directed upward through the glass viewing board, the retoucher would work on the negative. Further details of the retouching procedure depended in part on the chemicals that had been used to process the negative and on the condition of the negative: the slicker the negative, the softer the lead in the pencil, for example. A good photographic retoucher was indispensable to a successful photographic business. The retoucher could remove blemishes caused by chemical spots and dust, repair crack damage caused by old age and carelessness, and remove a person's wrinkles. Customers frequently brought in old prints for repair or fixing up. A family might bring in an old Civil War photograph and want something removed, like a carriage, or they might want a person highlighted by taking others out of the scene. The retoucher commonly had to draw on parts of a photograph, and these features would be built up progressively over stages. A dress might be torn, hand missing, and these items had to be taken care of.35 The many thousands of pictures for which the firm of Burgert Brothers was responsible reveal a corporate creative entity that produced superb commercial photography with never a hint of pretentious or staged artiness. If they were artists, they were so because of the consistently high quality of the craft they practiced with care and dedication. There is no indication that they ever read art-in-photography books. They seemed never to pose people strangely in their pictures or to wait until people arranged themselves in obviously striking patterns; they did not photograph buildings from odd angles; they appeared not to seek out odd settings for their images, nor to take photographs under weird lighting conditions; or depict momentarily grotesquely juxtaposed objects. Almost invariably their pictures demonstrate straightforwardness, naturalness and clarity. NO NUDE PICTURES To attempt to catalogue the type of pictures they took would be to list a lengthy and Whitmanesque variety of photographs of nearly all aspects of the city's and region's life during roughly the first half of the twentieth century. While most of their pictures show the commonest physical elements of the city--an incredible variety of buildings and houses--out of every hundred images will emerge several of more unusual byways of everyday experience; a snake cult; a group of deputies proudly circling a mangled still; a King of the Gasparilla Festival who looks for all the world like Roscoe Fatty Arbuckle, the silent film comedian. It is difficult not to view the hero of this portrait--his plump body draped like a stuffed royal couch with soft furs, his round seamless face and plump wattle all of one smooth surface like a beach ball, tiny baby dolls standing near his round fingers, aping his costume--as an example of satiric portraiture. Yet it cannot be that the Burgert photographers were aiming at ridicule. They never did: they aimed at reality. The picture is not, however, an ordinary one for the Brothers, for most of their photographs were totally sober works, void not only of obvious artifice but of unintentional elements of the grotesque. If they showed something strange, the strangeness was in the scene and not in their capturing of it. The Burgerts never photographed nudes. Al Burgert never even mentioned the subject, Roberta Lucas said. Some of the men who worked for Al did take nude photographs, but not with Al's knowledge. They might snap nude pictures of their girlfriends, for

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example, and would sometimes play pranks with these pictures by grafting the head of one person on another's body. They would never show the pictures to the three or four female employees in the studio, but stayed hidden in the developing room giggling about their prank. The female employees were not as innocent, naive or prudish as their male co-workers might have felt. After all, Roberta had studied art, where drawing nude models was a normal part of her training.36 Still, none of the Burgerts ever engaged in nude photography. It as a taboo as far as they were concerned. The Burgerts all had the highest standards of excellence and never wanted to do anything that would subject them to ridicule or tarnish their names.37 Most of the time Burgert Brothers took pictures for clients who demanded no tricks (except for minor retouching) but insisted upon clarity and accuracy in the reproduced image. This essential client wish formed the chief boundary of their craft, and within the boundary they operated apparently happily. There usually is no point of view -social or aesthetic -apparent in their images, as there usually is in the images of the well-known art and documentary photographers of the twentieth century. Perhaps they would best be described by the term topographic photographers," exhibiting in Beaumont Newhall's often repeated words, "concern . with the literal, straightforward representation of the most characteristic aspects of things and places." They could also be considered, for the totality of their production, documentary photographers, capturing the changing rural and urban life around them yet seemingly not possessing any particular attitude toward the life they were setting down. Certainly no attitudes dominate their pictures. HISTORIC ENTERPRISE They seem never to have thought of themselves as anything other than commercial photographers, and their aim was to reproduce images that looked like the real thing, undecorated and unmodified. The corporate entity of Burgert Brothers apparently never thought of itself as engaging in either a historic or artistic enterprise, but the photographs Burgert Brothers produced, and transmitted to posterity, demonstrate historic and artistic awareness. Al Burgert died in 1956 and Jean Burgert in 1968. Some 6,500 prints made from the firm's negatives are now in the possession of the Tamp a/Hillsborough County Public Library, and perhaps 35,000 precious negatives remain unprinted in the collection, not to mention a far lesser number of negatives and prints in several smaller collections. Burgert Brothers was a commercial photography firm, and fortunately for the area a superb one. They are worthy representatives of the hundreds, possibly thousands of commercial photographers who accurately and often beautifully recorded the American scene. NOTES 1 Thel Burgret interview, 25 February 1982, Punta Gorda, Florida. We have tried where possible to keep close to the language of our informants so that we would not stray from their intended meaning. 2 Thel Burgert interview; Rose Burgert Baker interview, 9 December 1981, Tampa, Florida. 3 Thel and Rose Burgert Baker interviews. 4 Ibid .; Anne DeLotto "A Catalog of Memories: The Burgerts' Amazing Time Machine Crystallized History As It Happened," Weekender section of the Tampa Times 21 August 1981, 9-11.

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5 Thel and Rose Burgert Baker interviews. 6 Ibid 7 DeLotto article; Sharon Cohen, "Early Tampa Preserved," in Florida Accent section of the Tampa Times 21 April 1974, 4-8. 8 DeLotto article. 9 Thel Burgert interview; Roberta Lucas interview; Robert Mallory interview, January 1982, Seffner, Florida; Simon Rose interview, 17 December 1981, 21 January and I November 1982, Tampa, Florida. 10 DeLotto article. 11 Thel Burgert interview. 12 DeLotto article. 13 Thel Burgert interview. 14 Roberta Lucas interview. 15 Ibid 16 Thel Burgert interview. 17 Simon Rose interview. 18 Thel Burgert and Simon Rose interviews. 19 Thel Burgert and Roberta Lucas interviews. 20 Thel Burgert interview. 21 Thel Burgert interview. 22 Simon Rose interview. 23 Thel Burgert interview. 24 Thel Burgert interview. 25 Simon Rose interview. 26 Thel Burgert interview. 27 Simon Rose interview. 28 Roberta Lucas interview. 29 Thel Burgert interview. 30 Roberta Lucas interview. 31 Simon Rose interview. 32 Roberta Lucas interview. 33 Roberta Lucas interview. 34 George Brown interview, 24 February 1982, Oldsar, Florida. 35 Roberta Lucas interview. 36 Roberta Lucas interview. 37 Thel Burgert interview. Jack B. Moore is the Chairman, Department of American Studies, and Robert E. Snyder the Director, Graduate Program in American Studies, at the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

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Tampa Historical Society Friend DR. JIM INGRAM, USF LEADER, TAMPA HISTORIAN DIES AT 68 By LELAND HAWES Dr. James M. Ingram, chairman of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at the University of South Florida (USF) College of Medicine, died Nov. 7, 1989, at Tampa General Hospital. He was 68. Ingram was considered an influential figure in the establishment of two medical schools in Florida -the University of Florida's where he was a clinical professor, and USF's. An endowed chair was established and named in his honor in 1982 at Duke University, where he obtained his own medical degree and served his residency. A lifelong resident of the Tampa Bay area, Ingram attended Hillsborough High School and the University of Tampa before graduating from Duke. PIONEER ON USF FACULTY After 20 years in private practice, in 1971 he became the first faculty member and founding chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the USF College of Medicine. The USF department consisted of only Ingram and a secretary at the start. When he retired as chairman in 1987, there were 21 full-time faculty members, two part-time faculty and 20 residents. During his period in private practice, he served as chief of staff at St. Joseph's Hospital and chief of obstetrics and gynecology at Tampa General Hospital. NATIONALLY PROMINENT Ingram served as president not only of the Hillsborough County Medical Association but a number of national, regional and state groups -the DR. JAMES M. INGRAM Victim of Cancer

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American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society, the American Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Foundation, the South Atlantic Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Florida Obstetric and Gynecologic Society. He was a director of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, a diplomate of the National Board of Medical Examiners, a fellow of both the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American College of Surgeons. He was a member of Alpha Omega Alpha and Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternities. A prolific writer, Ingram published more than 50 articles in medical journals and numerous articles concerning Florida history. Several of his pieces appeared in the Sunland Tribune the journal of the Tampa Historical Society. His second home in Boca Grande, Florida, nominated to the National Register of Historical Places, was the subject of "Journey's End, The History of an Island Home." KING OF GASPARILLA Ingram was king of Ye Mystic Krewe of Gasparilla in 1978, also a director of the social organization. He was a member of the Tampa Yacht and Country Club and a member and lay reader of St. John's Episcopal Church. He is survived by his wife, Elizabeth Conant; two sons, R. Leighton and Michael M.; one daughter, Ann Ingram Miller, and six grandchildren. A memorial service was held Nov. 10 at St. John's Episcopal Church in Tampa. A subsequent service was conducted for the committal of ashes to the waters of Boca Grande Pass. His family suggested memorial contributions to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the USF College of Medicine or to a favorite charity. An obituary in the USF Health Sciences News Winter 1989-90, added these comments about Dr. Ingram: CAMPUS CUTUPS Hillsborough High School friends of Dr. Jim Ingram remember him as a fun-loving youngster, as evidenced by this snapshot o f Ingram, left, and classmate, Karl Brown, taken in the mid-1930s. -Photo courtesy SARAH WORTHRUTHERFORD

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A Tampa native, Dr. Ingram often spoke of his excitement in helping to build the College of Medicine. He was chairman from 1971 until 1987. Dr. Ingram said that in joining founding Dean Dr. Donn L. Smith in building the College, he had returned to a place of childhood joy. He said that as a boy he had fished in the pond on 30th Street with his father. Dr. Ingram served on the search committee that hired Dr. Smith as the first dean of the College in 1970-and then reported his surprise when Dr. Smith in turn hired him. Dr. Ingram's prowess as a teacher led this year's fourth-year medical students to dedicate their upcoming yearbook to him. Students praised his ability to integrate training in obstetrics and gynecology with medicine in general. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology intends to endow a chair in his name.

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REMEMBERING SCOTTISH CHIEF Reprinted From ST. PETERSBURG TIMES Camp Commander James Hayward stood tall in his Confederate soldier's uniform. He didn't seem to mind the gray wool clothing, even in the scorching summer heat. Maybe his mind was on his victory. Hayward, whose great-grandfather fought in the Civil War, watched proudly as the Tampa Historical Society dedicated a plaque to commemorate Tampa Bay's only Civil War battle. The bronze sign was placed near the entrance of the Lowry Park Zoo on July 28. It's important that we perpetuate our heritage," said Hayward, a member of the John T. Lesley Camp of the Sons of Confederate Veterans. The sign, 3 feet by 4 feet with gold letters, tells the story of the Scottish Chief a Confederate ship that was sunk by Union soldiers in the Hillsborough River. The Scottish Chief was a blockade runner for the Confederate Army. During the Civil War, the Union Navy blocked the entrance to Tampa Bay but the Scottish Chie f broke through six times. The ship, one of Capt. James McKay's two blockade runners, would drop supplies along the Hillsborough River. On Oct. 17, 1863, several Union soldiers slipped aboard and burned the Scottish Chief while it was docked near what is now Lowry Park. The Sons of Confederate Veterans presented the idea for a plaque four months before, said Historical Society President Jim Judy. The 15-member board of local volunteers studied the proposal before it was approved, he said. A single sign costs about $1,500, Judy said. He said he was unsure how many signs the Society had erected. About 50 descendants of Confederate soldiers turned out for the ceremony. CAPT.McKAY

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Several, like Hayward, were dressed in Confederate uniforms while others wore plaid to commemorate McKay's Scottish heritage. "As far as I'm concerned, the war is over," said James McKay's great-grandson Herbert. "But we need to remember it."

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THE SAGA OF THE 'SISTERS NINE': BIRTH OF ST. JOSEPH 'S HOSPITAL By JAMES M. INGRAM, M.D. The original St. Joseph's Hospital, on Seventh Avenue at Morgan Street, was opened October 1, 1934 by the Sisters of the Third Order Regular of St. Francis, of Allegany, New York. This year was probably the least favorable, or more accurately, the worst year in the economic history of Tampa to open a hospital. Tampa, like all of the country, was struggling in the grinding depths of the Great Depression. Men stood in lines for days to get work at a dollar a day in the WPA, CCC and other ORIGINAL ST. JOSEPH'S HOSPITAL Morgan St. and 7th Ave. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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government programs. Health insurance was virtually unknown, and even money itself was a stranger in most households. In addition, Tampa was preponderantly a non-Catholic town. The vast majority of Catholics were of Latin origin and maintained their own early HMO's in private hospitals and clinics. In his first inaugural address on March 4, 1933, President Roosevelt proclaimed, "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." Evidently the Sisters of St. Francis did not share that fear. They saw a need for another hospital in Tampa, and they set out to satisfy that need in difficult days. This article by the late Dr. James M. Ingram originally appeared in the Hillsborough County Medical Association Bulletin In 1984, on the 50th anniversary of the founding of St. Joseph's Hospital. In the Fall of 1933, the Sisters acquired the partially finished, three-story, Tampa Heights Hospital from Dr. W.H. Dyer, who for a brief period had operated a clinic on the first and second floors. Assisting them in making plans and decisions was an advisory board of Tampa physicians, Drs. John R. Boling, J. C. Dickenson, J. M. Grantham, L. B. Mitchell, Joseph W. Taylor, and J. C. Vinson. THE "SISTERS NINE" The "Sisters Nine," under the leadership of Mother Mary Alice Gallagher and then later under Mother Mary Assunta Leonard, spent a year of feverish activity completing the third story, adding a fourth story, and converting the building into a functioning hospital. The Sisters themselves participated in the actual physical work of these modifications. The lobby, reception area, and Pediatrics were on the first floor. The second and third floors held private and semi-private rooms. The fourth floor contained two large operating rooms, an obstetrical unit, laboratories, pharmacy and "the finest x-ray department in the state of Florida" at that time. There were accommodations for forty patients. The house adjacent to the hospital on the east was converted into a convent, and a small chapel was erected at the rear of the house. By the end of the year of building and preparation, there were forty employees. A reception and a tour of the hospital on opening day, October 1, 1934, was well attended by the public. Four patients were admitted during the next few hours. One of the four was Mrs. Louise E. Thomas, who was admitted in labor shortly after 2 A.M. JOSEPH F. MIYARES Tampa's Prime Host.

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At 5:25 A.M. she was delivered by Dr. Grantham of a daughter, Susan, who was the fifth patient admitted to the hospital. Susan is now Mrs. Robert C. Leslie of Kennersville, North Carolina. Members of the Hillsborough County Medical Association were invited to apply for hospital privileges. Forty-four of the best qualified physicians and surgeons were accepted as members of the staff. In September 1935, the Children's Hospital on Rome Avenue closed its doors and transferred its patients to St. Joseph's. WORLD WAR II CRUSH The perceived need for the hospital proved to be quite accurate. It was soon filled to capacity. In 1938, Mother Mary Emmanuel Durkee became the first Administrator to bear that title, and she would guide the hospital for the nine years until 1947. Her chief problems were those of finding space and providing service. By 1939, it was obvious that the nation was preparing to enter World War II. MacDill and Drew Fields, other military installations, and the Tampa shipyards were being built. The population of Tampa mushroomed. With entry of the country into the war after Pearl ST. JOSEPH'S HOSPITAL

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Harbor in 1941, there was a marked shortage of hospital space and of doctors and nurses, as medical professionals entered military service. To make room for the increase in patients, St. Joseph's Hospital converted single rooms into double rooms, and made threeand four-bed wards out of semi-private rooms. Portions of the hallways were screened off to provide additional beds. Every effort was made to take care of all who needed the hospital's services. It was impossible to expand the hospital building, for materials and labor were simply not available. After the war, the Sisters began planning the much needed expansion of St. Joseph's. Mother Loretto Mary Ballou, who had served as business manager and assistant to the Administrator since 1940, became the second Administrator in 1947. She took over the task of the expansion, which had to progress piecemeal, as ways and means of obtaining the necessary funds could be devised. With modest support from the Hill-Burton Act, plus a large bond issue, a new wing of seventy-five beds was opened in 1951. The chapel was moved and the old convent was enlarged to provide more adequate quarters for the Sisters. The expansion of 1951 relieved a critical problem. Few today recall that by 1949 the hospital had become so crowded that the labor and delivery suite had to be moved across Seventh Avenue to the Henderson House, which the Sisters had acquired. In this old and stately two-story wooden home, there were two delivery rooms and an assortment of labor rooms, all in the original floor plan of the building. After delivery and observation, the mothers and newborn were carried back across the street on stretchers in all kinds of weather. Such was the interesting situation that the writer found when he returned in 1950 to make plans for opening practice. This less than ideal arrangement terminated with the return of the obstetrical unit to the fourth floor of the main building in 1951. GIFT FROM MIYARES In 1953, the East Wing with fifty beds was added, and in 1955, another fifty-bed extension was opened. The Hospital had acquired all but two small lots of the entire block on which the main building stood, as well as a large part of the block facing the hospital on Seventh Avenue, and a quarter of the block on Morgan Street to the west of the hospital. In November 1959, St. Joseph's celebrated its Silver Jubilee of twenty-five years of service to the community. One of Tampa's most beloved and most respected physicians, Dr. Robert G. Nelson, accepted the joint duties of General Chairman of the Anniversary Committee and master of ceremonies at the Anniversary Banquet at Tampa Yacht and Country Club. It was a happy evening, with Father John Flanagan, S.J., the Executive Director of the Catholic Hospital Association as the guest speaker. As Father Flanagan pointed out, St. Joseph's could look back with pride on its accomplishments and growth. But it was also a sentimental and bittersweet occasion,

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as it marked the end of the era of the original hospital site. With 225 beds, the hospital was still overcrowded. The one and one-half square block site could not accommodate the needed expansion. In addition, Tampa was growing rapidly to the north and west. The location on Seventh Avenue was getting farther away from the center of population. Sister Loretto Mary, the Sisters, and their advisors had decided to build a new St. Joseph's Hospital on a larger parcel of land father to the north and west. A most generous gift of land along the Hillsborough River north of Columbus Drive had been donated for the new hospital by Mr. Joseph F. Miyares, a devout Catholic who will be mentioned later. However, the land was not considered ideal because of its size and location. The Sisters went about their search for a new location in their usual practical manner. COW PASTURE IS 'SPOT' It has long been the personal bias of this writer that one of the greatest wastes in spending for health care has been the employment of multiple feasibility studies, endless outside consultations, and other such planning activities. Sister Loretto Mary, with her brilliant and incisive mind, did not fall into that trap. After due consideration, one day in 1959, she and Sister Ann Theresa Collins, Director of Laboratories, took one of the hospital automobiles and spent the entire day roaming in widening circles the area that was then the northwest edge of town. The Buffalo Avenue bridge did not exist, so they crossed other bridges to the area between the river and North Dale Mabry. This was an open area of cow pastures occupied sparsely by an occasional owner. They bumped along for awhile on shell-top roads until they reached the corner of Habana and what would be the completion of Buffalo Avenue. Here they parked and looked over a large 70-acre cow pasture. Sister Theresa said, "This is the spot for the new St. Joseph's Hospital." Sister Loretto Mary agreed and returned to St. Joseph's, called Dr. Joseph Cabanzo and asked him to contact the Faedo family, who were his patients and who owned the property, to arrange a purchase. Sister Loretto Mary said that "I kept waiting for Mayor Nick Nuccio to sign the contract to put the bridge over the river. I was watching the paper, and when that was accomplished, I knew that we were on the right path; for we had to know that good traffic north, south, east and west was available." The City Planning Authority announced shortly thereafter that by 1972 the corner of Buffalo Avenue and Habana would mark the center of Buffalo Avenue and Habana would mark the center of the population of Hillsborough County. This certainly must be the most effective and the least expensive feasibility study in the history of Tampa. DEVELOPER SPURNED Although the matriarch of the Faedo family was elderly and spoke virtually no English, agreement was reached readily upon the purchase of the 70 acres of pasture. Mrs. Faedo was a remarkable woman of very modest background. Shortly after verbal agreement on the purchase was reached, she received a much better offer from a development firm. She firmly declined this offer because she wanted the Sisters to own the property as the site of the hospital.

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As time was of the essence, the date of June 18, 1963 was set for the formal groundbreaking of the facility. Visiting dignitaries were invited. However, as the great day approached, the legal paper-work of the purchase was not completed. There could be no groundbreaking, as hospital attorneys advised that there could not be photographs of people digging into the ground before the hospital legally owned it. Sister Loretto Mary's brother, Walter Ballou, S.J., who came down for the ceremony, suggested a symbolic procedure that filled the bill nicely. They brought two pails of soil from the block on Seventh Avenue and scattered this dirt over the ground. This was "symbolically transferring the love and brotherhood and service that were so important in the old hospital to the new facility." The ceremony was impressive, appropriate, and legal. A few days later the papers were signed, and construction of the hospital began. Dedication of the new hospital was held on March 19, 1967. The hospital was officially opened with more than 400 beds, and patients were transferred from the old hospital on April second. Since that time, the facility on Seventh Avenue has been used for a domicile and for other purposes, and has been retained by the Sisters of St. Francis. 'PENTHOUSE' FOR KIDS The new hospital was hardly completed before expansion and addition began. Through public contribution and the generous support of Mr. Woods, the Fred J. Woods Radiation Therapy Center opened in 1969, as the most modern and complete facility of its kind on the West Coast. The demand for pediatric space was much greater than had been anticipated in the planning of the original 35-bed unit on the fourth floor. In 1970, an eighth floor "Penthouse" was added to the hospital to provide 88 beds for children of all ages. An additional 6-bed pediatric intensive care unit was established for critically ill children. The Oncology Unit moved from the seventh floor to the fourth floor area vacated by Pediatrics. In 1970, after 23 years as administrator, Sister Loretto Mary Ballou returned to the Motherhouse and used her talents in expanding the Franciscan Sister's Catskill Mountains Retirement Project. She was succeeded as administrator by Sister Marie Celeste Sullivan, who had served so admirably as Assistant Administrator since 1965. The year 1970 also marked the opening of the Community Mental Health Center in the newly constructed North Wing. This 42-bed center housed complete inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services. By the mid-1970s, it had become evident that additional space for ancillary services was needed. Supported by employees, auxiliary, medical staff, the Hospital Foundation and Development Council, a community fund drive raised $2 million for this $6 million expansion of the Radiology, Laboratory, Nuclear Medicine, Physical Therapy and Emergency departments, Administration and Outpatient Registration. MORE IMPROVEMENTS In 1977, the hospital opened a new Coronary Care Unit with 8 beds, a special procedures room and a noninvasive laboratory. Surgicare also began that year, allowing surgical procedures to be done on an outpatient basis.

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The Jack Pendola Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory opened in 1979. That same year the hospital initiated use of its hospital-wide computer information system, which provided quality and cost-effective patient care from admission to discharge. The St. Joseph's Community Cancer Center, which had been under consideration and in the planning stage for several years, opened with 60 beds in March, 1983. This facility expanded the oncology services from a 19-bed unit to much larger quarters with combined inpatient and outpatient care. More than $2 million of the building's construction cost was raised through another successful community fund drive. As always, parking had become a problem, and a tri-level parking garage was completed in 1982. The addition of the Cancer Center gave the hospital a total capacity of 649 beds. The most recent addition to the services provided by the hospital was the Cardiac Surgery Unit, which opened in October 1983. This unit provided facilities for open cardiac surgery as well as for the newly developed technique of angioplasty. The opening program for this unit included famous speakers such as Dr. Christiaan Barnard, who performed the world's first human heart transplant, and Dr. Robert Jarvik, the inventor of the mechanical heart. THE PEOPLE OF ST. JOSEPH'S While it would be both impossible and impractical to identify all of those who have contributed to the accomplishments of St. Joseph's Hospital, the recognition of a few who have provided leadership, service, and humanistic qualities of various kinds seems appropriate. Foremost of these, of course, are the Sisters of St. Francis and the three successive Administrators who have led St. Joseph's Hospital for a total of fifty-six years. Mother Mary Emmanuel Durkee (1938-1947) was the founding Administrator. Sister Loretto Mary Ballou (1947-1970) was her assistant for seven years, and held the post as Administrator for the longest period of any of the three. Sister Marie Celeste Sullivan (1970-Present) served under Sister Loretto Mary until she became the present superb Administrator. Probably the greatest factor in the success of the hospital has been the continuity of leadership of these three devoted, highly intelligent, perceptive, and compassionate Sisters. In 1971, the Third Order of St. Francis recognized the complexity of administering the multiple institutions within the Order. The decision was made to add certain laymembers to the Sisters who comprised the Board of Trustees of each hospital, and this was implemented at St. Joseph's. While the lay-trustees were intent in their work and were hopeful that they added to the decision making of the hospital, they have shared one common conclusion: they have learned much more than they have contributed by their association with the Sisters of St. Francis in their activities as Trustees. WRITER'S MEMORIES Although all of the Sisters who have served during the 33 years of professional life of the writer are remembered with deep admiration and affection, the memories of a certain few are indelible. Sister Loretto Mary Ballou was a fascinating combination of qualities. She entered the Franciscan order with the intent of serving as a teacher. For her, hospitals were

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frightening places, and she readily admitted, "I couldn't even visit anyone in a hospital." Encouraged and guided by Dr. John Boling, she observed him performing surgery, and gradually overcame her fear, changing the entire course of her life. She was an avid football fan, with an encyclopedic knowledge of teams, scores, records and players. In the hospital, few, if any, details escaped her eye. While still at Seventh Avenue, she learned that the hospital had been billed $1,000 for some lawn work that nurserymen estimated should have cost $60. She sent the lawn men a check for $100 with a note that they "could collect the rest from the Sheriff." The incident was closed. Sister Cor Immaculata Sharkey was the spirited, energetic Assistant Administrator who left St. Joseph's to become Administrator of St. Anthony's Hospital in St. Petersburg. Sister Ann Delores DiCamillo, the creative genius of the kitchen and food service for 21 years, ending in 1969, was the master raconteur with a hearty laugh, the able tennis player, and the psychotherapist to downcast doctors. Sister Rose Francis Dunn was the diminutive, bright blue-eyed supervisor of the business and admission offices, a professional "troubleshooter" of unfailing cheery disposition. 'PRESSING EMERGENCY' And finally, there was Sister Michaeleen Brady, a registered nurse who could sense an emergency three floors away. This writer will never forget an experience with her during the small hours of the morning in 1955. While resting on a couch of the doctor's room awaiting a delivery, he was summoned in haste by the late Dr. Edward Smoak to examine a patient in labor with a possible prolapsed umbilical cord. Springing off the couch, he entered the labor room, found the cord to be prolapsed but still pulsating well, and pushing the baby's head upward to protect the cord. Even at that hour, Sister Michaeleen materialized out of thin air, and was informed that preparations were underway for immediate Caesarian section. It was at that moment that the two of us glanced downward, and noticed that the writer, in his haste to get off the couch, had opened the knot of the drawstring of his scrub trousers and that this garment was lying around his ankles on the floor. It was impossible for me to move, as pressure had to be maintained on the baby's head to insure survival. Sister Michaeleen, unflappable as ever, commented, "Now that you have the first emergency organized, I shall take care of the next most pressing emergency." With total composure and perfect feminine grace she adjusted my scrub trousers to the appropriate altitude and tied the drawstring in a secure knot. Both the patient and the baby recovered much faster from this episode than did the obstetrician. Such are but a a few of the happy memories of the Sisters. No history of St. Joseph's would be complete without the inclusion of the life, times, and many gifts, both material and spiritual, of Mr. Joseph F. Miyares, who is best known for his devotion to the Catholic church and to St. Joseph's Hospital, and for his role as Tampa's prime host. A Tampa native and life-long bachelor, Joe practiced law from 1918 until his death at the age of seventy in 1968. Despite the fact that he served at various times as municipal judge, special master of chancery and as a member of numerous draft and ration boards in World War 11, the hospital was his home and the church was his life. He served as an acolyte at early morning mass as the hospital and again at noon mass at Sacred Heart Church for more than thirty years. His large

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estate on the river, Villa del Rio, was open to youth and other groups and for an entertainment center, a practice he kept up for twenty years before deeding the home to St. Joseph's Hospital. Joe took all of his meals for years at St. Joseph's. When the "Penthouse" was added as the eighth floor, he became a permanent resident there for the remainder of his life. He was a kind, gentle, and generous man. The same terms must be remembered for Mrs. Lucile T. Knauf, wife and then widow of urologist Dr. Arthur R. Knauf. She as a life-long voluntary servant and supporter of St. Joseph's. Lucile was a very perceptive and skilled writer. Among her many activities were her frequent and significant articles as the first Editor and later contributor to The Developer and other hospital periodicals. She kept an accurate historical scrapbook which she described as "not intended as a work of art, nor yet as a souvenir, but rather what is hoped will in future years prove a worthy reference." From this "worthy reference" many of the facts and figures of time, place, and person of this article were taken. The author is deeply grateful to her, and to the many others who have contributed so generously to their brief history.

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SISTER MARIE CELESTE SULLIVAN AT ST. JOSEPH'S 25 YEARS This year marks the silver anniversary of Sister Marie Celeste Sullivan's association with St. Joseph's Hospital. Having come to St. Joseph's in 1965 as assistant administrator to Sister Loretto Mary Ballou, she was named hospital administrator in April, 1970. Under her leadership, St. Joseph's has maintained a premiere role in community health care, developing additional services and providing conscientious and compassionate care. During her twenty-five years, the hospital has grown from a 400to 650-bed facility specializing in the areas of mental health, cancer, cardiac care and pediatrics. The Mental Health Cener, a 42-bed inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services unit opened in 1971. An eight-bed coronary care unit followed, then a non-invasive laboratory in 1977 and a cardiac catheterization laboratory two years later. A three-story, free-standing Cancer Institute was constructed in 1983, expanding oncology services from 19 to 60 beds. A cardiac surgery intensive care unit and two cardiac surgery operating rooms opened in 1985. Nineteen eighty-seven saw the formation of St. Joseph's Heart Institute, encompassing SISTER LORETTO MARY BALLOU SISTER MARIE CELESTE SULLIVAN SISTER LORETTO MARY BALLOU

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patient care, education and research. St. Joseph's Medical Arts Building was built in 1988 and houses the Same-Day Surgery Center, Diagnostic Center, a state-of-the-art auditorium, fitness center and Muscular Dystrophy Association Clinic. Sister Marie Celeste's personal commitment to children is demonstrated by the $3.7 million renovation to the pediatric unit presently nearing completion. A Boston native and second of three children, Sister joined the congregation of the Franciscan Sisters of Allegany at age 25. Her first assignment was business manager at St. Joseph's Hospital in Providence, Rhode Island. In 1962, she became a full-time student to St. Bonaventure University, in Olean, New York, graduating cum laude with a bachelor's degree in business administration. She arrived in Tampa, in July, 1965. After many years as a hands-on administrator, she devotes herself presently to future development of St. Joseph's Health Care Center and vigilance over the Franciscan mission, the guiding force behind all hospital operations. COMPASSION FOR THE ILL Today she is Chairman of the Board of St. Joseph's Hospital and Chief Executive Officer of St. Joseph's Health Care Center. Additionally, she is a director of First Florida Bank, the first woman to serve on that board, and a founding director of Tampa's Centre Club. She holds the second ranking within her congregation's General Council and serves as a consultant and advisor on matters relating to Catholic healthcare facilities for the Diocese of St. Petersburg. Through years of experience and leadership in the Tampa community, the soft-spoken Sister has earned the respect and admiration of employees, patients, business and civic leaders and a myriad of friends. Despite the hospital's constant and massive specialization and expansion, Sister Marie Celeste maintains her compassion for those who are ill. The Franciscan mission forms the basis of her personal and public life. "Our mission at St. Joseph's is to help people get well and prevent future illness. We also work to provide care in an environment that is non-threatening, where patients are treated with dignity and respect Sister Marie Celeste Sullivian, OSF

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STILL THEY SAIL SHIPBUILDING IN TAMPA DURING WORLD WAR II By LEWIS N. WYNNE, Ph.D. Executive Director The Florida Historical Society When the planes from Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo's carriers attacked the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the United States was thrust into the cauldron of world war. Subsequent declarations of war by Adolph Hitler and Benito Mussolini merely confirmed what the American public already realized--that they were in a fight for the very survival of the world as they knew it. Paper presented by Dr. Lewis N. Wynne before Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, March 10, 1989. ANOTHER SHIP SLIDES DOWN THE WAYS USS MAUNA LOA LAUNCHED APRIL 4, 1943 -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Despite the optimism of some Japanese and German militarists over the destruction of the Pacific Fleet, other, wiser leaders were less enthusiasitic. Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the strategic planner of the Pearl Harbor raid, quieted the jubilant voices on his staff, noting that only a portion of American naval strength had been wiped out and warning darker days ahead for Japan, since they had only "awakened the sleeping giant.1 Yamamoto's depiction of the United States as a sleeping giant was very apt. The collapse of the economy in 1929 and the hardships of the Depression that followed had demoralized the people of the United States and had hobbled its industry to the point that it appeared to be dead, but the reality of the situation was that American industry was merely hibernating, awaiting some stimulus to bring it to life. Pearl Harbor served that purpose. Tampa, Florida, like hundreds of other small cities, had suffered the Depression decade fitfully. The city's economy had experienced sputters and sparks of revival, but since its economy was based primarily on agricultural or service industries, Tampa found little in the way of continuous prosperity. Her port, once a bustling hive of activity, was largely stagnant and contributed little to prosperity. After the explosive development boom of the 1920s, Tampa had struggled through the '30s and experienced only minimal growth. Its population had grown slowly during the decade, with only 7,000 new persons becoming residents of the city. The 6.7% change in population growth from 1930 to 1940 could easily be accounted for by the natural increase in a city of that size. For Tampa's people, the Depression struck hard. The adjusted unemployment rate for white males was 10.8%, but that figure almost doubled when individuals involved in emergency government employment-the CCC, WPA and PWA-were counted. For nonwhites and women, the rate was even higher. With virtually no manufacturing base for heavy industry, citizens relied heavily on the annual influx of tourists to supplement the local economy.2 LIGHT AT END OF TUNNEL There were occasional bright spots in the otherwise dismal picture. Tampa Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, in ATTY. GEN. J. TOM WATSON Pushed 'Right to Work' -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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operation since February, 1917, offered some hope in 1938 when it borrowed $750,000 from the Public Works Administration to fund the construction of a 10,000-ton dry dock. The company's objective was to compete for shipbuilding contracts available through the U.S. Maritime Commission and authorized by the Merchant Marine Act of 1936.3 The Roosevelt Administration, disturbed by the inability of American shipyards to compete with foreign yards and aware that the clouds of war which had gathered in Europe and Asia might soon cover the United States, prevailed upon Congress to enact this legislation. The purpose of the act was to fund the construction of ten merchant ships a year for ten years. For American shipyards, which had constructed only two dry cargo vessels between 1922 and 1935, the Merchant Marine Act was a godsend. Not only did it provide a market for new ships, but it also featured a "no lose" cost-plus incentive for builders and operators.4 Under the leadership of Ernest Kreher, Tampa Shipbuilding secured the PWA loan, constructed the dry dock and, in 1939, was awarded an $8 million contract for the construction of four cargo ships. Approximately 2,000 new jobs were created, and for the city's 6,400 unemployed males, the company's success in securing the contracts seemed like the answer to their prayers. The excitement created by the contract award was soon dampened when the company announced that after the construction of a single ship, the Seawitch it was in serious financial difficulty and might not be able to fulfill the remaining contracts.5 The inefficient management of the company prompted the Maritime Commission and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which had assumed the PWA loan, to look around for new owners. In the words of a U.S. Accounting Office report in 1942, "Kreherand his associates were competent shipbuilders, [but] they were incapable of efficiently managing the company's finances.6 The heavy demands for ships generated by the war in Europe and the realization that the U.S. might soon be involved made it imperative to find someone new to oversee the administration of the company. Encouraged by the Maritime Commission and the RFC, a local financier, George B. CHRISTENING VESSEL Mrs. Jamie Goss, Apr. 20, 1944 -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Howell of the Exchange National Bank, purchased the company for $500 and became the sole owner. Along with the contracts for three new ships, Howell also acquired $47,000 in assets and the almost $1 million in liabilities. Under Howell's leadership, TASCO, as the new company was called, worked to fill the contracts with the Maritime Commission. When war came in 1941, the new management was in place and ready to expand to meet the needs of the nation.7 In the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, TASCO quickly converted its peacetime operations to a war footing. Within days, the company began to gear up to meet the anticipated needs of the Navy and to expand its facilities to increase the number of bottoms it could handle at once. Change, however, did not happen easily. With the shift from peacetime production to wartime construction, TASCO immediately became embroiled in two major controversies. NO MISDOING The first centered around the reorganization of the company and the purchase of all outstanding stock by George B. Howell in 1940. When Howell had assumed control, TASCO had contracts for three cargo vessels for the Maritime Commission. Immediately after the U.S.'s entry into the war, the company had sold these ships, with the concurrence of the Commission, to the Navy. The transaction, which gave TASCO a working capital in excess of $2 million, came under the scrutiny of the U.S. Accounting Office. After reviewing the evidence, the AO charged Howell and TASCO with illegally selling the ships and with overcharging the Navy to the tune of $1.2 million. The controversy dragged on, but while bureaucrats and company lawyers argued, the yard continued to build new ships. Despite the heat surrounding the transaction, both the Commission and the Navy supported Howell, and he was ultimately absolved of any misdoing.8 The second controversy which involved TASCO and other shipyards in the state stemmed from the efforts of State Attorney General J. Tom Watson to have a "closed shop" contract between the company and the American Federation of Labor declared unconstitutional. Watson, a flamboyant attorney, had attempted to persuade the State Legislature to outlaw the practice in 1941, but had been unsuccessful. In June, 1942, Watson, using the war emergency as an excuse, attacked the union in court. His pursuit of this cause also included a round of fisticuffs with M. J. Nicholason, the attorney for the National Labor Relations Board. MAYOR R. E. L. CHANCEY Tampa's Wartime Leader. -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Although the courts gave him a technical victory and declared the closed shop suspended during the duration of the emergency, the practice continued nevertheless. Watson's efforts were not supported publicly by local leaders, and TASCO remained unionized throughout the war.9 "WAR WORK" EMPLOYMENT For Tampans, as for most Americans, the war provided a welcomed relief to the economic stagnation of the Depression. For the next four years, workers of all ages and occupations were recruited to provide the manpower needed to produce the materiel the U.S. and its allies needed. "War work" and "war industries" became the single largest employers of laborers, as thousands of large and small plants sprang into existence overnight to meet this need. The 12.5 million Americans who had suffered through the Depression unemployed now found themselves being actively recruited to fill factory spaces. Older workers, forced into retirement during the previous decade, were now coaxed back to work for wages that were significantly higher than their Social Security benefits. TASCO, for example, employed a number of workers in their sixties and seventies who possessed metalworking skills that were considered essential. High school and college students were encouraged to contribute to the war effort by taking part-time jobs. Perhaps the greatest gains in the labor market were made by women, and thousands of them took on the roles of "Rosie, the Riveter" and "Wanda, the Welder." As the demand for soldiers grew, women workers became more and more essential. Thomas M. Woodward, a member of the U.S. Maritime Commission, noted the importance of women in the labor force on an inspection of the Tampa yards. Citing a need for 30,000 additional workers in yards along the Gulf of Mexico, Woodward offered the observation that "Women seem to be the answer, the only one, to the problem."10 Although TASCO remained the largest single employer in Tampa, its ability to secure the 16,000 workers it needed by 1943 was hampered by the construction of a second major shipyard in 1942. Citizens of the city were delighted with the announcement in the Tampa Tribune that a private company intended to spend $30 million to construct a shipyard in Tampa to produce 24 unique cargo vessels, financed by a U.S. Maritime Commission contract for $30 million.11 CONCRETE SHIPS This project, known as the Hooker's Point Yard, was the creation of Matthew H. McCloskey, Junior, a Philadelphia construction mogul and a powerful Democratic politician. Taking advantage of the national shortage of rolled steel, McCloskey proposed the use of concrete for ship construction. Despite the rather lackluster performance of similar ships during World War 1, materiel shortages and the success of German U-boats dictated improvisation. Within weeks of the contract award, McCloskey and his staff moved their operations to Tampa.12 Hooker's Point was little more than a sandy spit of land jutting into Tampa Bay. For McCloskey, however, the site had three major advantages. First, it was located adjacent to the ship channel in the harbor. Second, its nearest neighbor was the Florida Portland Cement Company, with a fleet of trucks to haul wet concrete. Third, as McCloskey explained to the local

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newspaper, "You've got to get away from frost to pour concrete, and wecan work the year around.13 Before work on the ships could begin, the yard had to be constructed from the ground up. Administrative buildings, lofts for creating forms and patterns, machine shops, utility services, service roads and storage sheds were necessary to get the operation going. The most essential of all, however, was the construction of basins to house the ships as they were being built. Unlike conventional shipyards which constructed ships on land and launched them into the water, the Hooker's Point Yard built three concrete-lined basins, 1,200 feet long, 27 feet deep and 82 feet wide, which were connected to the Bay by huge doors. In each basin, three of the 360-feet-long ships were built simultaneously. Launching was simply a matter of opening the doors and letting the water in.14 HOUSING SHORTAGE McCloskey's experiment with concrete ships opened 6,000 new jobs in Tampa, and the expansion of a third shipbuilding facility, Tampa Marine Company, also increased the demand for workers. Despite the high rate of unemployment in 1940, Tampa could not supply the labor needs of these facilities, and company officials instituted a statewide recruitment program. When these efforts did not produce enough workers, the campaign was expanded into a nationwide effort. The campaign to attract workers was never totally effective, and the Tampa shipyards, as well as other industries, attempted to offset the lack of workers by extending the work week from 40 to 48 hours. Wages were constantly increased, and appeals made to operators of nonessential industries to release workers for war industries. The cigar industry, Tampa's largest employer prior to World War 11, lost 2,000 skilled workers by mid-1943, and the process of attrition continued until the end of the conflict.15 No doubt this loss of laborers contributed to the decline and rapid mechanization of the cigar industry in the postwar period. Tampa's rise as a center of shipbuilding in south Florida, coupled with the development of Hillsborough County as a center for training bomber crews, presented the city leaders with a myriad of problems. As the thousands of workers arrived in the city, officials were hard-pressed to find sufficient housing. The housing shortage became even more critical as the military opened new base s to train recruits. MacDill Field, Drew Field and Henderson. Field were training centers for bomb crews of the Army Air Force. Pinellas County, across the Bay from Tampa, also attracted minor military establishments, and added to the problem. Despite the wartime restrictions on gasoline, snowbirds insisted on making their annual trek south and further complicated the situation.16 OPA MONITORS PRICES City leaders were hard-pressed to meet the needs of the sudden influx of war workers. In order to accommodate the infrastructure needs for the expansion of the TASCO facility and the new Hooker's Point Yard, they asked for and received huge loans from various government agencies. Public transportation routes were rearranged and new routes were added to ensure that workers could reach the yards from almost any point in town. Hours of operation were expanded in order to serve the late night and early morning shifts. Additional vehicles were added to transport workers forced to live as far away from the city as 50 miles.17

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Officials with the Tampa branch of the Office of Price Administration closely monitored the prices of gasoline vendors, and were equally as diligent policing the claims of workers in car pools for extra gas and tire rations. Violators were charged, prosecuted and punished. The OPA also closely monitored the practices of local merchants, and hoarders and speculators were quickly dealt with.18 Perhaps the most difficult task faced by local authorities was in satisfying the demand for afforable housing. As the yards expanded their labor forces, workers found it difficult to find housing for themselves and their families. Patriotic appeals were frequently made in the newspapers asking home owners to rent every available apartment or room to house these new arrivals. To ensure that workers were not being gouged by greedy landlords, the Office of Rent Control periodically published lists of acceptable rents established by federal regulations, and just as periodically, the ORC sent inspectors into the field to ensure that no gouging took place.19 TRAILER FACILITIES Despite the best efforts of the ORC and local officials, the demand for housing exceeded space available. A variety of plans were put forth, including one that called for the city to turn vacant factory buildings into apartments. Although the plan seemed worthwhile, it was quickly abandoned because the cost of renovations was greater than that of all new construction. Other solutions had to be found.20 The city fathers, led by Mayor Robert E. Lee Chancey, quickly took other steps to resolve the problems. On the same day the Tampa Tribune reported the decision to forego the renovation of old factories, the City Council voted to lease 12 acres of the Municipal Trailer Park to serve as a park for 400 twoand three-bedroom trailers for workers and their families. Rather primitive, the trailers had no bathrooms or laundry facilities, and occupants were forced to use a communal building for this purpose. Despite the critical shortage of housing and the relatively low rent [$28 a month for a two-bedroom unit and $32 for a three-bedroom one], the trailer park proved unpopular and never operated at full capacity.21 For workers at the new Hooker's Point facility, the Maritime Commission constructed 600 housing units adjacent to the yard. The project, known as Maritime GEORGE M. STEINBRENNER III Now Owns old TASCO Yards -Photo from HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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Homes, represented a considerable improvement over the trailers. Each unit included its own bathroom, hot water heater and refrigerator. The project also included a grocery store, beauty shop, barber shop and theater. Restricted to McCloskey workers, the rental prices were only slightly higher than those charged for municipal trailers.22 RACE RELATIONS PLACID Negroes in Tampa also benefitted from the housing shortage when the city government and the Federal Public Housing Authority decided in 1943 to spend $2.3 million to construct 500 low-cost concrete block homes. Justified as a war emergency measure to provide housing for essential shipyard workers, the project was located "in the heart of the largest Negro section in Tampa, and [was] . well served by electricity, water, transportation and Negro schools." The original plans were modified and the number of units reduced when Tampa aldermen "asked that three of the big apartment buildings that would have come within 500 feet of Ponce de Leon courts, [a] white development, be eliminated.23 Even the desperate need for emergency housing was not a sufficient cause to suspend the rituals of segregation. All in all, however, race relations in Tampa were placid during the war. Although some Negroes were hired in the shipyards, war industries, with their higher wages and strong unions, remained largely a white preserve. A survey of the Tampa Tribune for the years 1940-1946 reveals only one issue that carried any mention of black shipyard workers, and that issue pictured them sifting through a trash pile to retrieve scrap metal for reuse.24 The caption to the only picture of black workers in the extant copies of the Hooker's Point Log the McCloskey company newspaper, identified the white workers, but did not mention any of the Negroes.25 White women, on the other hand, were welcomed as workers. Women joined the work force at the shipyards within a few months of the declaration of war. Although the initial groups of women were used in office positions or in "soft" jobs like drafting or driving, this quickly changed as manpower became more scarce. Quick to admit that women aren't naturally mechanically inclined," the first female office workers nonetheless insisted that they were 11 equally as capable as men.26 As the need for additional laborers became more acute, women moved out of the offices and into the yards. FIRST FEMALE IN UNION On July 28, 1942, a month after the first Tribune article about female workers, the newspaper ran a front page story about Mrs. Alma Brown, the first female member of "the ultra-conservative local No. 432 of the Boilermakers' union, as hard-boiled an outfit as ever pushed a ship into the sea," and the first woman welder to join the TASCO assembly line. Brown, the product of a 10-week welding course at a local vocational school, entered the yard as a probationary trainee, but her immediate supervisor expected little difficulty in having a woman on the job. "Sure, she'll get along all right," he said, "She's a little bit of a curiosity now to the boys, but when we get five or six more the curiosity will wear off.27 So critical was the need for additional workers by mid-1942, local unions, caught between their desire to maintain control of skilled laborers and the government's demand for more productivity, led the way in admitting women members. Tampa Local

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432 of the International Brotherhood of Boilermakers admitted Alma Brown to membership weeks before the national leadership submitted the issue to a vote from the general membership. In this way, the 62-year-old prohibition against female members fell by the wayside, and the union leadership found itself rushing to keep pace with its locals.28 By 1943, women welders had become so commonplace in both the TASCO and Hooker's Point yards that they received little extra attention. By 1944, enough women were employed in the Hooker's Point facility that the company could hold a yardwide contest to select the best female welder and sponsor her in competition with other yards operating in the eastern United States.29 OLDER WORKERS ENLISTED Older males found work in Tampa shipyards as well. TASCO actively sought older men with metalworking skills and brought them into its yard. The oldest worker employed by TASCO was 77 years old in 1943. J.M. Hutchins had entered the blacksmithing trade in 1908, had worked in the Mobile and Pensacola shipyards during World War I and worked at full shift at TASCO. Hutchins was joined by others who were advanced in age: W. M. Lovelace, 75 years old; R. F. Roberts, 66 years old; and E. L. Broadway, 66. The special skills these men possessed were critical to the production of steel ships, and they were recruited to work. "They're men who were doing this kind of work before many of us were born," said Carl Froehiking, the shop supervisor. "That many years of experience is something that can't be replaced by any other kind of training. Besides, in times like these, we need all the men we can get to keep the iron hot."30 A temporary subculture developed around the yards, and company officials supported a variety of recreational and cultural activities for their workers. McCloskey's Hooker's Point facility printed a bi-weekly newspaper, supported various sports programs, provided after-work social programs and generally maintained a paternalistic attitude toward its workers. The construction of housing projects for war workers only tended to promote the concept of separation from the native population of Tampa. Although no copies of company newspapers from the TASCO yard have been located, references to that yard and smaller yards in the area indicate that a great deal of intercourse took place between the workers of different companies.31 "NEW SOUTH" CITY Workers were not free to move from yard to yard, however. Wartime job assignments, regulated by the federal Manpower Administration, prohibited workers from capriciously seeking new positions. Hanging over the head of all male workers was the threat of losing their critical job rating and having to enter the draft. The threat of military service did not prevent workers from voicing their dissatisfaction from time to time, and all the Tampa yards experienced work stoppages and walkouts from time to time. Absenteeism was an early problem for yard administrators, and remained so during the entire war period.32 The impact of the war industries on Tampa was revolutionary, particularly in motivating the business and civic leadership of the city. For them, the industrial development brought by the war and the economic benefits created by the construction of

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military bases demonstrated the viability of Tampa as a "New South" city. The rapid industrialization of the Tampa area also forced local leaders to modify their stance on unionization and the rights of laborers. Tampa's reputation as a center of antiunion feeling before the war had focused national attention on the city, but this sentiment was quickly suppressed when the prospect of millions of dollars in government contracts loomed before them. Of course, much of the community acceptance of unions stemmed from the nature of the shipyard work. Although TASCO was operated by a local businessman, George B. Howell, the Navy Department, adhering to the pro-labor legislation of the New Deal, mandated the use of union labor. Howell and other local leaders had no choice but to accept this mandate. Hooker's Point Yard, owned by northerner McCloskey, also depended on government contracts, and local sentiment played no part in its decision to recognize the right of unions. The conversion of prominent Floridians to the labor point of view was temporary at best, and the state adopted a "right to work" constitutional amendment in 1944.33 The influx of nearly 31,000 new workers and their families dramatically altered the economy of the city, and changed it from a sonambulent semi-rural city with a primarily agricultural and semiskilled labor base into an aggressive forward-looking city seeking to retain and expand its wartime supply of skilled labor. As early as February 1942, Tampa newspapers were speculating as to what Tampa's future would be after the war. By 1943, corporate leaders at TASCO, Hooker's Point and the smaller yards in the area were focusing a portion of their time and resources on postwar industrial pursuits. George B. Howell and the TASCO yard management team inaugurated a program to design, build and test semitrailers for use by trucking companies in the postwar period. Matt McCloskey, the owner of the Hooker's Point Yard, also invested time, money and manpower in identifying and developing postwar products. Civic leaders promoted the concept of a new industrially-based economy for the postwar years, and the diversity of these ideas indicated that most Tampans were no longer willing to return to the prewar reliance on tourism, cigars and agriculture. They wanted more.34 The productive capacity and engineering innovations of Tampa yards gave every indication that the possibility of maintaining a postwar heavy industry base was very real. Matt McCloskey's Hooker's Point Yard astonished the shipbuilding world by devising new construction techniques in its use of reinforced concrete to build cargo vessels. SECONDARY INDUSTRY Although some concrete ships had been built during World War 1, these ships had proved to be fragile and unreliable. Hooker's Point Yard, using continuous pours made possible by new vacuum pumps and mobile mixers mounted on trucks, applied many of the techniques used in constructing high-rise buildings. When engineers determined that a lighter weight concrete was needed, McCloskey employees identified "Fuller's earth" as a substitute for the heavier sand traditionally used. A secondary industry developed around the mining of this material, and the McCloskey company purchased deposits and opened their own mining operation.35 Concrete ships built by the Hooker's Point Yard provided a viable alternative to steel ships, and when the nation's steel output

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failed to keep pace with demands during the early years of the war, these ships helped meet the need for new vessels. Unlike their World War I counterparts, the McCloskey ships performed very well. Powered by 3,500 h.p. reciprocal engines, the "floating skyscrapers" weathered hurricanes, submarine attacks and hard use. Individuals who served on the concrete ships were most complimentary of their stability, durability and overall seaworthiness. McCloskey's continued development of this method of shipbuilding was brought to an end when supplies of steel improved. Although revolutionary in design and relatively inexpensive to produce, the major criticism of the concrete vessels was the length of time needed to produce them. In an era when Henry J. Kaiser was producing a 550-foot "Victory" ship every ten days, the three to six weeks needed to produce the smaller concrete ship could not be justified. Although some experiments were undertaken to speed up the "curing" time for the wet concrete, no significant reduction was ever achieved. No longer concerned about materiel shortages, the Maritime Commission ended the concrete ship experiment, and in 1944, the Hooker's Point facility joined the rest of the nation's yards and began to construct steel ships of the N-3, coastal cargo freighter variety.36 TASCO STAYS LEADER Tampa Marine Company, another yard along the Ybor Channel of Tampa Bay, also contributed to the city's war economy. Employing only 200 prewar workers, this yard expanded its capacity significantly during the war years, and between 1942 and 1945, it produced 95 oceangoing tugs. Bushnell-Lyons, another small company, produced steel barges for the Navy. Perhaps the most noteworthy accomplishments of these yards came from the diversity of ships that were produced.37 Despite the productivity of Hooker's Point, Tampa Marine Company and Bushnell-Lyons, the combination of these yards could not match the productivity of the TASCO yard. Operated under contract to the Navy, TASCO produced an amazing variety of naval vessels, ranging from the 10,000 ton destroyer tenders, Piedmont, Sierra, and Yosemite to seven ammunition carriers in the Mazama and Mauna Loa class. In addition to these large supply ships, TASCO also produced 24 coastal minesweepers in the Auk and Admirable classes, 12 destroyer escorts, as well as a number of self-contained "barracks" barges, repair vessels and cargo ships. Including repairs made to ships damaged by enemy vessels and conversions made to existing ships, TASCO processed a total of 494 vessels. Its employees received approximately $105 million in wages and salaries, most of which remained in the Tampa economy. In addition, the company either trained or paid for the training of a large number of Tampa residents in the skilled machine trades.38 The full extent of the yard's production was a closely guarded secret during the war, and Navy personnel maintained a close watch over the facility. The Tampa Tribune made note of the secrecy imposed by the Navy when it announced on July 1, 1945: "Navy Takes Lid Off Tampa Shipyards.39 END COMES SUDDENLY The economic boom created by the entry of the U.S. into World War 11 ended suddenly for Tampans. With the Allied victory in Europe in April, 1945, and the detonation of the atomic bombs over Hiroshima and

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Nagasaki on August 6 and 7, the need for more ships suddenly ceased. By August 12, despite the absence of a formal surrender by Japan, both the Navy and Maritime Commission cut back their orders for ships. Two days later, TASCO announced a reduction of its labor force by 2,000 workers. On August 17, McCloskey's Hooker's Point Yard announced the loss of its contracts. In rapid succession, the Tampa Tribune announced one layoff after another. The phaseout was not a gradual process, and layoffs were frequently for thousands of workers at a time.40 By December, 1945, the Hooker's Point Yard was closed permanently, and little war-related activity was going on at TASCO or Tampa Marine. Both companies had returned to peacetime production, and the strategic planning for the postwar period allowed them to continue operations, although at a reduced level. George B. Howell, the dominant force behind TASCO, resigned the presidency of the company and returned to the banking business. Matt McCloskey, the developer of Hooker's Point, now shifted his attention once again to traditional construction enterprises, although he did purchase an interest in a Jacksonville shipbuilding company. For the residents of Tampa, the end of the war did not mean an end to the industrial dreams spurred by the war. For the next 20 years, various attempts would be made to keep Tampa shipyards in operation. The irony is that the Japanese, whose defeat was engineered in part by Tampa workers, would now prove to be too strong as competitors for this industry.41 "RIGHT TO WORK" For Attorney General J. Tom Watson, the end of the war was a signal to renew his attacks on organized labor. Within days of the beginning of layoffs by Tampa shipyards, he announced his intention to enforce the "right to work" amendment to the state's constitution.42 There is little in Tampa today to remind residents of the great flurry of activity that was generated by the World War II shipyards. Hooker's Point is gone, replaced by other industries. Maritime Homes, the large complex erected for war workers, has been bulldozed. TASCO has passed through several hands and now is known as the American Shipbuilding Company, a property of New York Yankees owner, George Steinbrenner. It is as if some giant hand has simply wiped the slate clean, and what was isn't and never will be again.43 Despite the demise of Tampa's shipyards, there are some who remember this great adventure fondly. There are also occasional flashes from the past when ship names are mentioned. Perhaps the greatest tribute to the strength and vitality of the shipyards is found in a perusal of Jane's Fighting Ships or other ship publications. Here and there, the notations appear: "built by Tampa Shipbuilding." For most of the ships constructed between 1940 to 1946, age and modernity have consigned them to scrapheaps or reserve fleets, but some, like the Sierra and Yosemite still play an active role in today's Navy. For still others, however, postwar existence has meant being transferred to foreign countries. Today, Tampa-built ships are operated by the navies of Taiwan, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Argentina and Turkey. Orphans of the sea, but still they sail.44 NOTES 1 John Deane Potter, Yamamoto: The Man Who Menaced America (New York: The Viking Press, 1965), 96-135.

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2 Sixteenth Census of the United States: 1940, Population (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1943), Table C-41, p. 154. 3 L.A. Sawyer and W. H. Mitchell, The Liberty Ships: The History of the 'Emergency' Type Cargo Ships Constructed in the United States During World War II (Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles, Publishers, 1970), pp. 11-15. 4 Clinton H. Whitehurst, Junior, The U.S. Shipbuilding Industry: Past, Present, and Future (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1986), pp. 25-42. 5 Edwin P. Hoyt, The Lonely Ships: The Life and Death of the U.S. Asiatic Fleet (New York: David McKay Company, Incorporated, 1976), pp. 276-277. Tampa Tribune, June 17, 1942. 6 Tampa Tribune June 17, 1942. 7 Ibid 8 Ibid See also, Tampa Tribune December 11 and 12, 1942. 9 See Tampa Tribune June 23; July 25, 28; August 2, 5, 13, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26; September 12; October 10 18, 27, 30; November 1, 8, 10, 12, 13, 1942; January 17, 21, 24, 31; February 12, and 17, 1943. For a good treatment of anti-labor act v ties in Tampa, see Robert P. Ingalls, Urban Vigilantes in the New South: Tampa, 1882-1936 (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1988). 10 Tampa Tribune May 2, 1943; June 6; July 4, 18; August 22, 1943. 11 Tampa Tribune, June 11, 1943. See also, Robert J. Ehlinger, Matt: A Biography of Matthew H. McCloskey (Privately Printed, 1987). 12 Ibid ., pp. 109-113. 13 Tampa Tribune June 23, 1942. 14 Ibid ., August 26 and November 17, 1942. 15 Ibid ., May 2 and June 2, 1943. 16 Ibid ., September 22, 1942; March 18; April 2, 5, and December 31, 1943. 17 Ibid ., June 17, 1942. 18 Ibid ., June 23; July 26; August 13 and 18, 1942. 19 Ibid ., See also, December 25, 1943. 20 Ibid ., November 14, 1942. 21 Ibid ., November 6, 14, 19, 1942; January 17, 18; March 18; April 4, 5, and 11, 1943. 22 Ibid ., June 21, 1943. 23 Ibid ., October 7 and December 23, 1943. 24 Ibid ., October 16, 1942. 25 Hooker's Point Log December 30, 1944. 26 Tampa Tribune June 28, 1942; December 15, 1942. 27 Ibid ., July 28, 1942. 28 Ibid 29 Hooker's Point Log February 17, 1945 and March 31, 1945. 30 Tampa Tribune August 22, 1943. 31 See 1944-45 run of Hooker's Point Log in author's possession. 32 Ibid ., September 25 and November 30, 1944. 33 Tampa Tribune February 16, 1945. 34 Ibid ., February 4, and December 16, 1945. 35 Ibid ., January 20, 1943. 36 Ibid ., June 10, 1944. 37 Ibid ., September 12, 1943. 38 Ibid ., October 14, 1945. 39 Ibid ., July 1, 1945. 40 Ibid ., August 12, 14, 17, 18 21, 23 and September 5, 1945. 41 Ibid ., February 14 and March 21, 1946. 42 Ibid ., November 17, 1945.

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43 Leland Hawes, "Two Concrete Ships Used at Normandy," Tampa Tribune July 27, 1985. 44 Jane's Fighting Ships 1986-87 (London: Jane's Publishing Company, Limited, 1988).

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ACCOUNTING F0R THE HOMELESS IN THE 1990 CENSUS By CATHERINE E. DIXON Department of Geography University of Florida INTRODUCTION The homeless population has been studied, counted, interviewed, observed, accompanied, photographed, human-interest storied, enumerated, given projective tests, life-history interviewed, and captured on applications and eligibility forms (Bahr 1989). Yet the 1980s witnessed a heightened awareness of the existence and despair of homeless persons in the United States. To date, there has been no agreement among experts as to the actual number of individuals who are homeless. However, they do agree that the levels of homeless persons have risen in numbers unseen since the Great Depression; but how many homeless, how fast they are growing, and where that growth is concentrated are the questions over which debate rages. Estimates of the actual number of homeless persons vary widely from 350,000, the official figure of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), to a high of over 3 million, a figure much preferred by advocates for the homeless and shelter population. The first U.S. Census was taken in 1790, as provided in the Constitution (Article 1, Section 2), shortly after the nation came into being. The 1790 Census took 18 months to complete and counted 3,929,326 citizens at a total cost of $44,000. The first census enabled the federal government to fairly disburse the debt among the states for the American Revolution and determined which states would gain seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and which areas would lose them. (Morgan 1990). Excerpts from a paper presented by Catherine E. Dixon at the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers, 1990, at Toronto, Canada

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One aim of the Census Bureau was to count the homeless as part of the 1990 Census, specifically to count select components of the homeless population in two major operations: one, a special nighttime operation (S-Night) and a second that was part of the regular enumeration process, in order to provide demographic, social, and economic data (except for street population) on these select components. Politically, census counts lead to changes in the composition of the Congress. After each census, states adjust congressional and state legislative districts to keep them roughly in population. The 1990 Census will provide that information, theoretically, for every street in the nation, not just for city blocks in urban areas as in the past. After the 1992 reapportionment, each congressional district will represent about 500,000 to 750,000 people (including the homeless population). The state of Florida is expected to gain 3 congressional seats in the U.S. House of Representatives after the 1990 Census, and may earn a fourth when the final reapportionments are made. THE CENSUS OF 1990 As stated previously, the goal of the 1990 Census was to count every person in all types of places, including shelters for the homeless, those living on the street and in abandoned or boarded-up buildings. The components specific to this study are shelters and street sites. These components were identified well before S-Night with the help of local officials. In September 1989, the Census Bureau sent certified letters to the highest elected officials of some 39,000 local governments requesting that they send a list of all shelters with sleeping facilities for the homeless (such as subsidized hotels and motels rooms and any private, public, permanent and temporary locations where the homeless congregate at night) by October 16, 1989. This list along with updated information identified the sites where "Shelter and Street Night Enumeration" (S-Night) was to occur. The response from the City of Tampa was minimal. They only identified three (3) broad general areas, i.e. along Interstate 275, an area along the Hillsborough River, and the Curtis Hixon Convention Center. See Figure 1 This despite the fact that there are many well-known areas where homeless people congregate in the downtown areas. In addition, the Hillsborough County Complete Count Committee was instrumental in helping to identify S-Night sites in Tampa.

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One of their most ambitious tactics was to send out fliers with the local police. Their justification in using police officers was that since the police roam the county, they would have knowledge of sites where the homeless congregate. In fact, the City of Tampa Police Department sits right in the heart of one of the busiest homeless areas in the city. Practically all the major shelters/residences are located within walking distance of the station. By S-Night, none of the fliers had been returned. GEOGRAPHICAL BOUNDARIES Geographical boundaries were established according to Address Register Areas (ARA). An ARA is a group of blocks defined by a number of variable boundaries. These boundaries are visible or invisible, i.e. streets, political boundaries, power transmission lines, etc. In other words, they are the smallest convenient area which can be bounded. See Figure 2 SHELTER CONTACT Between January 16, 1990 and January 31, 1990, census staff and the Hillsborough Complete Count Committee identified as many shelters as they could by physically visiting locations. Since Tampa does not have many subsidized units, they specifically concentrated on shelters, looking to identify all the places where people lived in groups, i.e. nursing homes, hospitals, jails, shelters, etc. These were classified as special places. One of the primary concerns during this stage was to maintain the confidentiality of shelters for battered women. For each shelter identified, a Special Place Prelist Record was completed. PHASE I-ENUMERATION OF SHELTERS AND SUBSIDIZED UNITS The objective of shelter enumeration was to count each person in the pre-identified emergency shelters and hotels and motels used to shelter the homeless on the evening of March 20, 1990 between 6 p.m. and midnight. PHASE II-ENUMERATION OF STREET AND COMMERCE PLACES Street emuneration occurred on March 21, 1990 of all visible persons at pre-identified sites from 2 a.m. to 4 a.m. Enumeration of commerce places such as abandoned and boarded-up buildings, etc., occurred from 4 a.m. to 8 a.m. on the same date. The certainty that everyone counted during the street enumeration was actually homeless was one difficulty that census staff was concerned with, but was unable to resolve. For the 1990 Census, everyone on the street at the pre-designated sites were counted, except for persons in uniform, such as police, and others engaged in obvious money-making activities or commerce, other than begging or panhandling. PHASE III-T-NIGHT ENUMERATION Another area identified through the Special Place Group Quarters Address is transient places where some people stay that aren't "home" in the conventional sense: i.e., YMCAs, YWCAs, youth hostels, fairs and carnivals, commercial or public campgrounds and recreational vehicle (RV) parks and campgrounds. Included in this enumeration are migrant workers also. The enumeration took place from April 2-14, 1990. S-NIGHT--A FIELD EXPERIENCE

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The count of homeless persons began in shelters on Wednesday 3/20/90 where the homeless could get a sandwich, a census form, and someone to help them fill it out. Those who didn't want to answer all the questions were simply asked for their age, sex and race -last resort information. The second half of the count, the street survey, took place on Tuesday 3/21/90. The survey began at 2 a.m. and ended at 8 a.m. On Tuesday night temporary census takers set out -in groups, forms in hand, flashlights at the ready -to count everyone in shelters for the homeless, everyone sleeping in parks, living under bridges and in abandoned buildings in the first overnight count of homeless people ever attempted. My own experience as a census taker was a cool one indeed. The temperatures in West Central Florida dipped into the low 40s on Tuesday night, motivating many of the homeless to head for shelters, and driving others into hiding in abandoned buildings where they stayed out of sight uncounted. Generally, 42 degrees isn't cold enough to pack out the shelters, but it was cold enough to clear the streets. Since we were advised not to seek out homeless people, it was obvious we missed a lot of people on S-night because of the cold and because there were not enough census takers to cover all the areas. I was disappointed there was no one on the street during the street survey. The area my partner and I were assigned to canvas is well-known for its homeless population, drug transactions and prostitution. There should have been countless people on the street engaged in all sort of activities on Nebraska Avenue. But all activity was at a standstill on Tuesday morning. The only people visible were census workers and the police. One difficulty my partner and I faced during the street sweep was simply trying to locate the boundaries on the census area map (ARA). This was especially interesting because both of us have lived in the area for a number of years and had never heard the names of some of the streets listed on the map. We found three of the blocks assigned to us were now commercial sites which were not identified as such on the map and, except for one abandoned building that we were sure was occupied because of the shopping carts and other items behind it, there was no place else where a homeless person could stay. One block was a residential area in which lots were so small and close together, there was little room for the houses to fit let alone for a homeless person to hide. See Figure 3. EVEN POLICE DON'T KNOW Another interesting point of note was the fact that the blocks we were assigned to were on the west side of Nebraska Avenue-where as I've noted it's predominately residential and large commercial areas (i.e., Ramada Inn, Floriland Mall, church, etc.)-while the homeless population frequent the east side of the street. This area has many abandoned buildings and low-income motels. This was the area that I expected to find homeless people. For the final phase of the sweep we were assigned to watch a vacant building. The ARA map identified the building as an abandoned Long John Silver Restaurant. The site identified on the area map is now a portion of the parking lot of a shopping plaza. It's comical that another group in my team also searched for the same streets in this area as their southern and eastern boundaries. Since they were not familiar with the area they drove around for a while

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searching for the streets. Even the police were unable to offer assistance because they had never heard of the streets either. At our "vacant building" site there was another building under construction which was partially boarded up, so it was substituted for the Long John Silver Restaurant. We watched the building for the time specified but observed no one leaving the building. We determined that the reason we observed no one exiting the building was there may not have been any homeless persons in the building. The building is too exposed and visible. It is a high traffic area and the presence of homeless persons probably would not be tolerated for any length of time by merchants. The final count for the entire group was eight homeless people. SUMMARY After the 1990 Census is complete, the question remains: How effective was the S-Night count in determining how many homeless people there are and what changes are to be made in the methodology for the count. According to David Totzke of the Tampa District Office (Phone interview 3/27/90) the count went better than anticipated. It was especially significant because, first, it gave legitimate status to this subgroup for the first time. Second, it reinforced the fact that a social problem actually exists and that the homeless are a part of American Society; an important part that needs to be addressed. It is generally agreed by all that many people would be missed; but given the complexity and enormity of the problem, the Census Bureau did a commendable job in trying to find as many people as possible. Since the 1990 Census only measured selected components of the homeless population and not the dynamics of homelessness, the forthcoming results will have to be measured within this context and not be viewed as a final solution to the homeless problem. Hopefully the final figure will not become a political battering ram between the government and homeless advocates and the original purpose of aiding people become lost. After review and revision of the methodology used, the S-Night count of the 1990 Census will prove to be an important step in finally addressing the homeless problem at large. LIST OF REFERENCE Bahr, Howard M., 1989. in Homelessness in the United States Vol I: State Surveys ., Momeni, Jamshid A., ed. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. Housing and Urban Development, U.S. Dept of (HUD). 1984. A Report to the Secretary on the Homeless and Emergency Shelters. Washington, DC: HUD Office of Policy Development and Research. Momeni, Jamshid A., ed. 1989. Homelessness in the United States Vol. I: State Surveys Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. Morgan, Philip. The Census: 200 years and Counting. Tampa Tribune. 19 March 1990. 1 (F). Peroff, Kathleen. 1987. Who are the Homeless and How Many are There in The Homeless in Contemporary Society, Benjamin, Richard D., Roy E. Green and Sammis B. White, eds. Sage: California. Redburn, F. Steven and Terry F. Buss. 1986. Responding to America's Homeless: Public Policy Alternatives Praeger: New York. Rossi, Peter H. 1989. Without Shelter: Homelessness in the 1980s Priority Press: New York.

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1990 D.B. McKAY AWARD WINNER: TAMPA'S JOAN W. JENNEWEIN By HAMPTON DUNN A dynamite package of energy, imagination, talent and efficiency who toils tirelessly in the field of historical preservation is the 1990 recipient of the D.B. McKay Award of the Tampa Historical Society. She is Mrs. Joan W. Jennewein of Tampa, whose handiwork is deeply felt throughout the city, the state of Florida and the nation itself. Joan, as she is known all over the U.S., becomes the 20th outstanding Floridian to receive this coveted statewide honor. The award is named in recognition of the late D.B. McKay, longtime publisher and editor of The Tampa Daily Times three times distinguished Mayor of Tampa and a revered Florida historian himself. PACKED TROPHY ROOM After receiving the D.B. McKay Award, Joan will have to make room in her already-stuffed trophy case for the new hardware. Some of her top honors include: Cultural Contributor of the Year Award, Greater Tampa Chamber of Commerce, 1985; Award of Merit, Florida Association National Institute of Architects, 1986; Tony Pizzo Award, Ybor City Museum Society, 1986; Paolo P. Longo Award, L'Unione Italiana, 1987, and the Award of Merit, Florida Association National Institute of Architects, 1987. Her achievements in the historical field are legion. As president of the Ybor City Museum Society, 1983-84 and 1989-90, Joan was instrumental in establishing the Museum Society as a citizen support group for the Ybor City State Museum, and JOAN W. JENNEWEIN Congratulations, Joan!

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established the museum headquarters at the cigarmaker's cottage. Serving as director of the Ybor City Centennial Celebration for the Museum Society, she implemented all Centennial activities, and also initiated the Ybor City Folk Festival. FOR TROLLEY SYSTEM As president of the Ybor City Trolley Society, she has been instrumental in the planning of a trolley system connecting downtown Tampa and Ybor City. Joan has long been a Trustee of the Historic Tampa/Hillsborough County Preservation Board and currently is chairing a committee to implement funding for the renovation of the Centro Espanol de Tampa. She also helped to get the structure declared a National Historic Landmark and to get the State of Florida to purchase it. Joan presently is pushing efforts to have Ybor City declared a National Historic Landmark District. The Tampa activist has been chairman of the National Trust for Historic Preservation and was the founding president of the FloridaTrust and chairs the board of the Bonnet House in Fort Lauderdale. IN HER SPARE TIME On the local level, Joan is kept busy in other community affairs including the Tampa/Hillsborough Convention and Visitors Association, the Barrio Latino Commission, the Tampa Preservation, Inc. of which she is past president; member of the Mayor's Ybor City Redevelopment Council, and president of the Playmakers Theatre in Residence in Ybor City. Besides all this, Joan is the wife of prominent architect James J. Jennewein and the mother of four children. She holds a Bachelor of Science Degree from Syracuse University. PROFILE Joan W. Jennewein Reprinted from THE TAMPA TRIBUNE August 1990 AGE: Not available TITLE: Promotional organizer for Historic Ybor Marketing; now coordinating Jan. 25 super celebration: "Carnivale de Ybor" GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT: "Having been a driving force in the development of the historic preservation movement in Tampa and throughout the state. GOAL: "(Id) like to see Ybor City recognized as the rich, historic resource that it is and the tremendous cultural attraction that it can be. QUOTE: "I am the eternal optimist."

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D.B. McKay Award Recipients 1972 Frank Laumer 1973 State Senator David McClain 1974 Circuit Judge James R. Knott 1975 Gloria Jahoda 1976 Harris H. Mullen 1977 Dr. James W. Covington 1978 Hampton Dunn 1979 William M. Goza 1980 Tony Pizzo 1981 Allen and Joan Morris 1982 Mel Fisher 1983 Marjory Stoneman Douglas 1984 Frank Garcia 1985 Former Gov. Leroy Collins 1986 Dr. Samuel Proctor 1987 Doyle E. Carlton, Jr. 1988 Leland M. Hawes, Jr. 1989 U.S. Rep Charles E. Bennett 1990 Joan W. Jennewein

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CONGRESSMAN CHARLES BENNETT ACCEPTS THS's D.B. McKAY AWARD The 1989 recipient of Tampa Historical Society's coveted D.B. McKay Award -Florida Congressman Charles E. Bennett, Democrat of Jacksonville -was unable to be present in person for the presentation at the annual meeting dinner on Nov. 16. He was busy in Washington protecting his perfect record of voting and was given the statewide high honor in absentia. Outgoing President Terry L. Greenhalgh set up a conference telephone call which was amplified to the audience at the Palma Ceia Country Club. Hampton Dunn was master of ceremonies for the event. Following is the text of Congressman Bennett's formal acceptance speech: "I am deeply honored to be the recipient of the D.B. McKay Award for my efforts in the field of Florida history. The loves of my life include God, my wife and family, my job, and history. Being a Congressman for the past 40 years has not allowed me as much time to work in the history field as I would like, but I have tried to make a contribution. "This is a great honor and your award is particularly heartwarming in that it shows that someone noticed and approved. We all have egos that need stroking, and I gratefully thank you for stroking mine tonight. "Incidentally, I knew D.B. McKay in my Tampa years, as he was a treasured friend of my Mom and Dad and all the Bennett family. He was a great person in every respect and this honor to me in his name is particularly appreciated because of this. GREW UP IN TAMPA "I am, of course, very unhappy that I can't be present in person tonight to accept this award and take part in your banquet. Some of you in the audience may be mature enough to remember me from my time in Tampa. I now represent Jacksonville in the Congress, but from 1913 until 1930 I grew up and attended school in Tampa and later the University of Florida. Unfortunately, I don't now get the chance to come to Tampa very often. I know a lot has changed, but a BENNETT'S NEW BOOK

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lot has remained the same, such as the commitment of the Tampa Historical Society to keep alive the very rich history of Tampa and of Florida in general. "The reason I can't be here tonight is because the House remains in session and is passing legislation at this very moment. We're trying to get out by Thanksgiving, but it is still an uphill battle. History tells us that in off-year elections we'll be in session until Christmas. But Congress is trying to 'buck history.' Fortunately for us, there are historical societies such as this one that don't allow us to really buck or overlook history. "Your wonderful Hamp Dunn is a lifelong friend of mine, .and of my family, and I treasure his friendship very, very much. It adds to the significance of this award that he had a vital part to play in it. He has asked me to say something about Florida history and I will. FORT CAROLINE AUTHOR "We can start off with the fact that Florida, through St. Augustine, has the oldest city in the United States to be proud of, a beautiful city indeed. We in Jacksonville treasure the fact that the first movement to what is now the United States, for religious freedom, FORT CAROLINE NATIONAL MEMORIAL Created by Congressman Bennett -Photo from the HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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occurred a year or more before the founding of St. Augustine. This was when the French established Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville. Jacksonville in fact is the only city in the United States to come out of both the Reformation and the Renaissance. "When I moved to Jacksonville in the early 1930s, I thought it would enrich my life to study the history of the area and surely it did. This ultimately gave rise to several books: Laudonniere and Fort Caroline, Settlement of Florida, Three Voyages, Southernmost Battlefields of the Revolution, Florida's French Revolution and just this year Twelve on the River St. Johns The book I enjoyed writing most is the one this year Twelve on the River St. Johns. Like all who have their books edited, and all should, there are differences that have to be ironed out. This best is expressed by what I wrote in the preface when I said that 'I believe each story speaks of both the individual's spiritual life and the blossoming of American idealism.' I still was not satisfied with that statement so I added in an afterword the following: 'To record history properly, it must be done objectively. Yet a strong reason for this book was the inspirational qualities of the lives of the people discussed. And telling of inspiration objectively is like describing good food without smelling or tasting it. So the publisher was prevailed upon to allow the author the following subjective comments. It is hoped that the life stories, which are told with historical accuracy in this book, may by example be helpful to the reader. Certainly each of these lives has important and spiritlifting values. Sharing these values was the purpose of this work.' CREATED NATIONAL MEMORIAL "My interest in history has had other productive aspects besides writing. As a new Congressman in 1950, 1 created the Fort Caroline National Memorial as part of the National Park Service, recognizing the landing of the French Huguenots. At the time there were no other Europeans living in what is now the United States. In 1988, Congress passed another piece of my legislation which created the Timucuan National Preserve encompassing some 35,000 acres of important wetlands, and 10 or more historic sites, including two 16th Century Spanish mission sites and other historic sites and buildings running down to the year 1900. "The year before that (1987), 1 was able to pass the legislation which required archeological preservation in the salvaging of significant historic ships in all American waters. And some years before that, I authored the legislation which preserves historic materials by archeological protection where any federal funds are involved, such as in the building of highways. This year I have introduced legislation to protect Indian burial sites and artifacts against vandalism. Also with Senator Wyche Fowler of Georgia, I last week co-introduced a bill to make a comprehensive rewrite of our nation's historic preservation laws. This legislation will clarify our national policy goals, particularly for federal lands and for lands that may be developed with federal assistance, and also provides practical assistance to private developers to spur them to make preservation-oriented decisions when developing property. SUPPORT FROM GIBBONS "In all of these historic efforts I have made, I have had the wholehearted cooperation of

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your fine Congressman, Sam Gibbons and the two Florida Senators and I am deeply grateful for that. 'The great Winston Churchill once said: 'The longer you can look back, the farther you can look ahead.' Those words are as true today as when he first said them in 1944. The Tampa Historical Society and other similar societies throughout the country help us all to remember how true those words are. "Again, thank you very, very much for the prestigious award -I humbly accept with joy and gratitude."

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MAN ON OUR COVER: AL LOPEZ, HONORARY ALL-STAR TEAM CAPTAIN By HAMPTON DUNN Al Lopez doesn't get old; he gets better. A better hero, a better citizen, a better legend, a better representative of Ybor City and Tampa. He's excelled in all the above for years, but he gets better as time goes by. A product of sandlot baseball from the city's Latin Quarter, Al turned 82 years old in 1990. And, as The Tampa Tribune's erudite sports editor Tom McEwen reported: He was "erect of stance and stronger than anyone that age could expect to be. He is in good health, still of good humor, still humble, still of the wonderful charm and patience and smile and courtesy that won for him in the world of big-league baseball the title of Seor Al Lopez of Ybor City, won for him here the role of Tampa's Ambassador to the Big Leagues..." He's quite content to rest quietly in his mansion overlooking Tampa Bay, and playing golf at Palma Ceia, and visiting with his pals at Centro Asturiano. But the folks all over America who worship him as a hero year after year continue to heap more honors and recognition on him. This year, the Tampan basked in the glory on the field again when he served as Honorary Captain of the American League's All-Star Team. It was a case of deja vu for Al he played in two All-Star games, and was the manager in five others. The Hall of Famer picked up another high honor in the past year, this one in the lofty world of academe. The University of South Florida conferred on Lopez the honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters. The Doctor in his active career was much more at home on the diamond than he was in the classroom. He only made it through elementary school in Ybor City and George Washington Junior High School and started one year at Sacred Heart in downtown Tampa. Salud Al! Congratulations, Doctor Lopez!

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A HEART AT HALLOWEEN By HAMPTON DUNN Did you ever look for a street in Tampa named "Yetive"? Good thing you didn't-because there never was such an address. But the mapmaker who produced City maps in the 1930s and those who followed after him for many years insisted there was, indeed, a Yetive Street. And they pointed out on the maps that Yetive was in West Tampa right there between Myrtle and Esther Streets, and just off Columbus Drive-and not far from Gladys, Emily, Francis, Aileen, Kathleen, Janette, Hilda, and a host of other girls' names. Therein lies a mystery and a love story: Once upon a time there lived in Tampa a popular young belle whose first name was Yetive. And there were many swains seeking the favor of this lady. This was back in the mid-1930s when young people celebrated Halloween by playing pranks on their friends and neighbors. One WEST TAMPA'S "YETIVE" STREET ... What's In A Name? -AAA Map From HAMPTON DUNN COLLECTION

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such All Hallow Even several of Yetive's boyfriends were out playing tricks. Even in those days, boys would be boys. They selected an obscure, short street named Munro for their fun. The guys simply repainted (very professionally, mind you) the name of that street to "Yetive Street." A few days later, the City public works people came through remapping the area. And so for that year and for the period on into the 1960s, the Tampa City Map clearly portrayed Yetive Street, and showed no Munro Street! Of course, the Polk's Tampa City Directory picked up on the mistake. The 1951 edition, for instance, listed in the section of streets and addresses: "YETIVE-From W. Euclid av north to Warren av, 2 west of N Boulevard." It was in bold, black type, too! Decades later, like in 1990, Yetive had grown up, married, had children and grandchildren-and a husband with a long memory. He's a fun-loving fellow, too. His name is Lester Olsen, a Tampa businessman. On his wife's birthday this year, Les wanted to surprise Yetive. He called on the AAA Motor Club for a map of Tampa around the 1940s or 50s. The Club obliged, and Olsen blew up the section of a 1958 map which was still carrying "Yetive Street," and presented it to the belle whose name it bore. Strangely, after all these years, Mr. Olsen doesn't seem to know which boys were involved in that Halloween prank!

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Keep Those Cards and Letters Coming 'AN INSPIRATION' TO JACKSONVILLE JACKSONVILLE Thank you for The Sunland Tribunes We have put them in our Collection, so they are accessible to the community. Your Historical Society can take great pride in publishing such a worthwhile Journal. You are an inspiration to us, and an example of what can be done by an active group. Our Society is becoming more involved, and we hope to publish papers on a more regular basis than we have in the past. Looking forward to meeting you. SARAH VAN CLEVE President Jacksonville Historical Society Keep Our Heritage And History Going' TAMPA-Thank you so very much for publishing the story of my grandfather, Robert Mugge, in the November 1989 edition of The Sunland Tribune You did a wonderful job and my family and I were all delighted. Robert Mugge was a great man and in his own strange, quiet way accomplished much in the early days of Tampa. He was also a good man and certainly raised a good family. He had no desire for recognition but I am grateful for your recognition of his values. We are all very proud of him. I pray many blessings for you and your family in the years ahead. Keep up the good work and keep our heritage and history going. We appreciate your efforts. MARGARET R. HURNER Florida Quarterly Lists Our Articles GAINESVILLE I would appreciate it very much if you would send us a copy of your most recent The Sunland Tribune We need to list the Florida history articles in it for the section "Florida History in Other Periodicals." DR. SAMUEL PROCTOR EDITOR FLORIDA HISTORICAL QUARTERLY Florida Historical Society 'Absolutely Wonderful' FORT MYERSI am writing to thank you for sending us the literature. It was absolutely wonderful and we are now using it in our library. We sincerely appreciate your thinking about us. MS. PATTI BARTLETT Director Fort Myers Historical Museum Journal 'Popular' GAINESVILLE -We recently noticed that our holdings of The Sunland Tribune lacks the following issues: Volume 2, Volume 3

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and Volume 5. Could you supply these missing issues for us so that our holdings may be completed? This title is a popular item with our patrons and we would like to complete our holdings if possible. We certainly appreciate your attention to this matter and hope you can help us. ELIZABETH ALEXANDER, Librarian P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History University of Florida Bessie Enjoys' Sunland Tribune TAMPA-I am enclosing my check for $25.00 in support of The Sunland Tribune I enjoy this magazine so much, and am looking forward to the next edition. I don't see how Hampton Dunn can do all he does. Everyone I know loves his books, magazines, TV appearances, etc. Hampton and Charlotte are dear, fine people. -BESSIE MARTIN Packwood Article TAMPA-We certainly appreciate your acceptance and publication of the article on my husband's grandfather, George Horatio Packwood ("George Horatio Packwood, Sr.-Tampa's Forgotten Pioneer," The Sunland Tribune Vol. XIV, November 1988). We received many favorable comments on it. JANIE MacBRYDE

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1990 SUNLAND TRIBUNE PATRONS Tampa Historical Society wishes to express its sincere thanks to the following individuals and organizations who have generously contributed for the publication costs of this issue of the Sunland Tribune Ralph Beaver Mr. and Mrs. Buddy Blain Dr. and Mrs. David Cavanagh Dr. and Mrs. Dexter Clayton, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. James Clendinen Mr. and Mrs. Jack Cloen Jean Ann Cone Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Council, Sr. Patricia C. Davies Winifred G. Davis Mr. and Mrs. Louis A. De La Parte Mr. and Mrs. Eugene B. Dodson Mrs. Lula J. Dovi Dennis J. Doyel Mr. and Mrs. Hampton Dunn Mr. and Mrs. J. Rex Farrior, Sr. Mrs. Cody Fowler Manuel M. Garcia Mrs. Donn Gregory Grace G. Guinta Virginia I. Hall Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Hamilton Leland M. Hawes, Jr. Mrs. L. M. Hawes Mrs. Willard T. Hicks W. Grant Horsey Mr. and Mrs. Frederick J. Howard Mr. and Mrs. George Howell Margaret 0. Hurner George N. Johnson Mr. and Mrs. James S. Judy Anne W. King Mrs. Lawson P. Kiser Mr. and Mrs. Julian B. Lane Mrs. Sam Latimer Idalyne G. Lawhon Mr. and Mrs. G. Sydney Lenfestey Mr. and Mrs. Claude D. Logan, Sr. Miss Bessie Martin Marguerite Marunda Mr. and Mrs. Howell A. McKay Judge and Mrs. Neil C. McMullen Mr. and Mrs. Sam Militello Ruth B. Mulholland Harris H. Mullen Mr. and Mrs. David R. Murphey, III Pat and Florence Murphy Mr. and Mrs. Lester K. Olson Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Pizzo Mr. and Mrs. Carlis Poppell Q105 WRBQ Radio Gladys R. Randell Barbara Reeves Fred and Marion Rodgers Gloria C. Runton Arsenio Sanchez Dr. and Mrs. Paul J. Schmidt Mr. and Mrs. William H. Shannon Kime Lea Slatton Mr. and Mrs. Armin H. Smith, Jr. A. Frank Smith Mr. and Mrs. E. Lamar Sparkman Dick and Raymetta Stowers Mrs. James M. Stuart Charlotte Anne Thompson Lt. Col. Edith M. Toffaletti Mr. and Mrs. J. Thomas Touchton Kyle Van Landingham Martha C. Ward Harry B. White Mrs. Victor B. Yeats

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TAMPA CHARTERED FIRST BL00D BANK By DR. PAUL J. SCHMIDT Early in 1941, the Medical Division of the Office of Civilian Defense in Washington asked that communities all over the country set up regional blood and plasma banks in anticipation of World War II. To that time, most organized blood donor activities had centered around the needs of specific patients or at specific hospitals. America was getting ready for unifying many activities in World War II. Blood was only one of them. There were only five Congressional Districts in Florida in 1941 and citizens' groups in FIRST DONOR TO SOUTHWEST FLORIDA BLOOD BANK Dr. David R. Murphey, Jr., takes blood from popular Tampa Tribune reporter Bill Abbott, the first donor for the Southwest Florida Blood Bank. -Photo courtesy Southwest Florida Blood Bank

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each one talked about organizing community, not-for-profit blood banks. It took Pearl Harbor to convince everyone of the need. The first blood bank chartered in Florida, and one of the first in the country was the Southwest Florida Blood Bank in Tampa on March 10, 1942. The driving force for all of that was Mrs. Frank D. Jackson. Grace as she is remembered by her contemporaries, was a person for getting things done. She asked people for money and she went door-to-door asking for blood donations. In so many ways, Grace Jackson typified American women during World War II. There is an image of "Rosie the Riveter" but the ability to organize was the strong point of many American women. TYPICAL AMERICAN WOMAN IN WWII Mrs. Grace Jackson

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It was most appropriate then that Grace Jackson was featured in the radio series narrated by Esther Simon Brown for the Tampa Electric Company called "Women at War." The following is script number 16 in Series 4, dated Thurday, November 12, 1942. It is presented only as edited by a military censor who marked statements like "The several air fields, our great ship building area make of Tampa a military objective" as "Not Approved, CEB, Navy." "Sabotage in our great war industries here" was changed to "Accidents in our great war efforts here" and an injured sailor who "speaks only Russian" became a seaman, a poor blue-eyed boy who "does not speak English." WOMEN AT WAR! THEME: Establish ... fade. ANNOUNCER: THE TAMPA ELECTRIC COMPANY presents ... WOMEN AT WAR! THEME: up full ... fade ... hold under. ANNOUNCER: In recognition of the vital and patriotic role that you, as an American Homemaker, are taking in our nation's war effort ... the TAMPA ELECTRIC COMPANY brings you ... WOMEN AT WAR! THEME: up and down. ANNOUNCER: Women are at war! ... Women everywhere are taking part in those activities so necessary to VICTORY! ... With husbands and sons on the fighting front, they concentrate every effort to strengthen the home front .... not only to maintain the health and morale of their own homes,...but to contribute to those war duties, without which there can be no VICTORY ... It is to these women ... to all women at war ... we dedicate this program. MUSIC: Establish ... hold under NARRATOR: America is at war a war with fiendish dictators, who stop at no cruelty to deprive all others of the right to live! The colossal waste of human life, brought about by man's inhumanity to man, has greatly increased the necessity of having available supplies of human blood plasma and serum, so that we can live! ANNOUNCER: Women at war stand by, willing to share their life-blood to save the lives of those who are losing it in battle. Women know that war of today brings death and devostation not only to our fighting men, but it attacks the cradle in the home as well. NARRATOR: Women at war know that the health and well-being of Homefolk is a powerful weapon with which we can defeat our enemies; that war against suffering and disease is tremendously important. It is everybody's business and it calls for all-out offensive action. What can we do about it? Listen! Here is one thing you can do about it ... something that WOMEN AT WAR are already doing ... Here is the story of the Southwest Florida Blood Bank, and we are proud to present its chairman, Mrs. Frank Jackson. Jackson: Much has been done since April 19th of this year, when our Blood Bank in Tampa received its first patriotic pint of blood. It is our aim to render full service to every call in our community as a Civilian Defense Activity, and at this time, we are extending the service to the entire First Congressional District. Civilians must be informed on points such as these:

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1st voice: A blood bank is a place where human blood either whole or in the form of plasma is stored ready for instant use. 2nd voice: Plasma is that portion of human blood which remains after the red and white corpuscles have been removed and after processing, no typing or cross matching is necessary. JACKSON: With modern equipment, the care and safe storage of prepared blood, make arm-to-arm transfusions unnecessary. MUSIC BREAK ANNOUNCER: After the Pearl Harbor Attack, three our of every four of the victims required transfusions. Without blood-plasma a large number of these unfortunate people would have died, but of those who reached Tripler General Hospital in Honolulu, 96 out of every hundred were saved. Listen to this: MUSIC: up and down ... hold under. NARRATOR: Within an hour of the first Japanese attack, a young pilot was carried into the Army hospital. With his doctor and nurse we enter the emergency room... 1st voice: (nurse) The chart shows, inside of right hand and forearm badly lacerated and torn by bomb fragments ANNOUNCER: (doctor) He's suffering from traumatic shock. 1st voice: (nurse) Looks like almost a death coma, doesn't it? What are your orders? ANNOUNCER: (doctor) Give him a prompt transfusion of plasma, then follow it with a whole blood transfusion. MUSIC: up full ... down ... hold under. NARRATOR: Immediately after the transfusions were given, this wounded American pilot began to look like a living person instead of a corpse. In hardly more than ten minutes, he opened his eyes. ANNOUNCER: (in character) Where am I? 1st voice: (nurse) You're in the hospital, and you're doing fine. ANNOUNCER: (in character) Have I had a transfusion? 1st voice: (nurse) You've had two of them. ANNOUNCER: (in character) Gee, that's funny, nurse. I've given blood to the Blood Bank twice. I didn't dream that they were gonna have to give it back to me, at least not this soon. MUSIC: Up fulldown. NARRATOR: Plasma for peacetime needs of industrial Tampa has never been adequate and war has greatly increased the need. JACKSON: Accidents in our great war efforts here, could too easily bring injury and shock in such numbers that blood transfusions calling for typing the blood would prove an impossible task. Plasma in the hands of medical men, aside from war disaster, means life more abundant for any community. MUSIC: Up full ... down ... hold under entire scene. NARRATOR: From the date of the formal opening of the Tampa Blood Bank to the beginning of the active operation of the Southwest Florida Blood Bank, no day has gone by that has not provided its high point of interest. -Listen:

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MUSIC 2nd voice: One day a call came for plasma. Eight wounded seamen had been brought in from a torpedoed ship. JACKSON: I was in the hospital at the time. I accompanied the surgeon in visiting these wounded men. Doctor, what's wrong with this boy? ANNOUNCER: (as doctor) His neck is broken. JACKSON: Can he live? ANNOUNCER: (as doctor) Chances are good for him. As soon as he gets this plasma transfusion to overcome the shock, we'll go right to work on him. JACKSON: This poor blue-eyed boy, doctor! His legs look like the binding on my bible. ANNOUNCER : (as doctor) Yes, that same bible, that says: "love thy neighbor as thyself." -Someone certainly didn't love this poor little foreign lad. 2nd voice: (as nurse) Mrs. Jackson, the boy does not speak English and he is terrified. I believe he thinks that both of his legs have to be amputated. JACKSON: What do you think, doctor? ANNOUNCER: (as doctor) I can't tell until after another plasma transfusion. It will take time, but I believe we can save his legs. MUSIC: Up and down,hold under... NARRATOR: A hurried call was made to MacDill Field for someone who could speak with the young sailor, someone who could console him in his misery, in his own language. Within thirty minutes three boys came to the hospital to relieve the anxiety of this bewildered and suffering victim. JACKSON: After four months of expert attention, and skin grafting in our Tampa Municipal Hospital, the lad is back on his ship to Alaska. MUSIC: up and down. ANNOUNCER: The Southwest Florida Blood Bank is operated for two reasons: 1st voice: To provide and store plasma for civilian or other emergency use. 2nd voice: To war against suffering and disease in home territory. JACKSON: Both of these aims are tremendously important with the realization that countless hundreds of lives have and will be saved by blood transfusions. ANNOUNCER: In seven months time our Southwest Florida Blood Bank is set up complete, with equipment second to none. 1st voice: This was possible by securing a priority rating through our ship building company, placing our Blood Bank next to the Army and Navy in securing necessary equipment. NARRATOR: The Blood Bank is located at Municipal Hospital in the west wing of the ground-floor. Mrs. J. Brown Farrior is the receptionist. JACKSON: Our staff of highly trained technicians include Mrs. Howard McQueen, Miss Elinor Stryker and Mrs. Norma Paclaz, sterilization expert. Important to the safe and

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efficient operation of the Blood Bank is our Medical Committee, appointed and approved by ... the Medical Head of the Defense Council, Dr. John Boling. Dr. Herbert Mills, nationally recognized Pathologist, supervises Laboratory. Dr. Norvell Dean renders invaluable service through our outlying Donor Centers. NARRATOR: Dr. Dean with Mrs. Jackson and the two technicians visit each of the Donor Centers in the Southwest district every two to four weeks, Donor Centers at: 1st voice: Bartow, Lakeland, Clearwater, Tarpon Springs, St. Petersburg, Sebring, Lake Wales and Sarasota just started. 2nd voice: Donor Centers at St. Petersburg, Lake Wales, Sebring, Bradenton and New Port Richey. NARRATOR: Two-thirds of the Blood Donors in one district as well as over the entire United States, are women! MUSIC BREAK ANNOUNCER: WOMEN AT WAR! NARRATOR: In these uncertain times, it is the patriotic privilege and duty of all health adults to become donors. -One morning at the Blood Bank Center a woman came to offer her blood. MUSIC: Establish and hold under. 1st voice: (as woman) My husband was at Corregidor he is listed as missing soon after General Wainwright took command. This is my daughterNARRATOR: How do you do? 1st voice: Today is my husband's birthday, and both my daughter and I feel, that giving our blood for suffering humanity is the nicest gift we could offer to his memory. MUSIC: up full ... down ... under. NARRATOR: Three seamen, rescued as the only survivors from a burning vessel, were in Tampa, enroute to a destination unknown. They came to the Blood Bank Center. As one sailor approached the receptionist, he said: ANNOUNCER: (in character) (laughingly). Some months ago, I read my name among the missing in Shanghai, -but here I am. Before I leave Tampa, I'd like to give some blood to the Blood Bank. You see, I wouldn't be here, if it was not for a transfusion of that plasma stuff when I needed it. -I'm well, and itching to get back to take another crack at those Japs. MUSIC: up full ... down and under. NARRATOR: A world war veteran offers his blood to the Blood Bank. ANNOUNCER: (in character) It was the Argonne Forest. I was just ahead of my group, when suddenly: SOUND: Shells bursting,... reduce slowly .... Music up. ANNOUNCER: (continues) It blew me about twenty feet. I crawled back into the enormous hole it had torn in the ground. -I was crouching there when... SOUND: Shells bursting,... fade out,... Music up. ANNOUNCER: (continues) I was blinded, but for a moment my vision cleared, -then all was black again. I saw the whole devasting scene from that one moment of

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vision. -From then on all was total darkness. -I can't do much now, but I can give my blood, and if the doctor says its okay, you can expect me every two months. I'll be here to try to save some poor devil from the suffering I experienced. MUSIC: Up full and down. NARRATOR: Each day more and more women are answering the call of the Blood Bank. Calls like these: MUSIC 1st voice: The feeble cry of a newborn baby who must have your whole blood. 2nd voice: The accident victim in essential war work must have plasma without delay. JACKSON: From off torpedoed ships, the wounded except for plasma may not survive the shock. NARRATOR: Your blood as a gift, is unlike money, unlike time or work, -it is a gift most literally from your heart, straight to the heart of another, -to an American soldier or sailor, who may live to help save all you count precious in this world, because you took one simple, generous step to help save him. It is also a gift to your neighbor, should he in time of disaster be less fortunate than you. 1st voice: The process of giving blood is painless and brief. In 15 minutes the procedure is completed, -the donor rests a short time, -is given a refreshment and then goes on about his or her normal business. 2nd voice: Red Cross shows a record of the first 10,000 donors. In no instance has harm come to a single donor. JACKSON: Words of praise and commendation for the donor, who gives his or her blood are but feeble, ineffectual expressions of gratitude as compared to the actual life giving power of that gift to suffering humans, -Women at War, -the Blood Bank, located at Municipal Hospital, needs your contribution now! Call them by phone for an appointment. MUSIC ANNOUNCER: WOMEN AT WAR! NARRATOR: Blood Donors, like all Americans today, Florida's earliest inhabitants lived and some of the artifacts must be healthy, -and health demands food, -the right food, -selected according to nutritional standards and prepared in such way, as to preserve life-giving minerals and vitamins. ANNOUNCER: Leisure House at TAMPA ELECTRIC is your Nutrition Headquarters. Its staff of trained home economists are ready to help you with your family feeding and nutrition problems, -ready to show you how to convert your peace-time leisure to war-time duty. NARRATOR: With Women at War Leisure goes to work for Victory! MUSIC BREAK: 669B. NARRATOR: We are happy to have had as our guests this morning Mrs. Frank Jackson, President of the Southwest Florida Blood Bank, Mrs._______, Mrs.________ and Sgt___________. ANNOUNCER: You are cordially invited to use the facilities of Leisure House. It is your Nutrition Head quarters, Enroll for the Nutrition Classes, which are held each Wednesday afternoon from 2 until 4, and each Friday morning from 10 to 12. Call

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Leisure House by phone at any time for help on any homemaking questions. NARRATOR: This is Esther Simon Brown for The Tampa Electric Company, reminding you to include War Savings Stamps on your weekly shopping list. It's a sure way to be thrifty. The script featured Mrs. Frank Jackson, but Grace featured the Southwest Florida Blood Bank and its blood donors. That organization is still operating under the same name today. The wisdom of the founders called for an activity that was to serve not only the war effort but also the future needs of these communities on the West Coast of Florida. The satellites that Grace Jackson described as set up from Sebring to Sarasota to Tarpon Springs are now independent. The spirit of the "Women at War" lives in the same slogan used today by the Southwest Florida Blood Bank more than a million blood donations later: Give the Gift of Life.

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KEN MULDER DIGS BAY HISTORY Ken Mulder, a former president of the Tampa Historical Society, has written and published a new booklet relating to the areas past this one titled Tampa Bay Days of Long Ago . Ken has included a pull-out application to enhance Historical Society membership around Tampa Bay. Underwritten by 11 sponsors, the booklet primarily explores the archaeological and anthropological beginnings of the area. Its and attractive, well-illustrated look at the way Floridas earliest inhabitants lived and some of the artifacts they left. The sponsors will be passing out copies to clients and friends. Eleven thousand have already been distributed. Response has been so overwhelming that a reprint is scheduled by the end of the year. Copies will be on sale at the Henry B. Plant Museum at the University of Tampa, at Valencia Gardens Restaurant, the Zack Street Newsstand, the Lowry Park Zoo Gift Shop, the Brunchery, and at the DeSoto National Memorial in Bradenton for $2 a copy. -The Tampa Tribune T h e T a m p a

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DUNN COLLABORATES ON NEW HISTORY Tampa's Hampton Dunn has collaborated with Dr. Edward F. Keuchel, professor of history at Florida State University, in publishing Florida: Enterprise Under the Sun an illustrated history of the state's business, industry and commerce. The book was produced with cooperation of the Florida Chamber of Commerce and is available in bookstores statewide, through the Chamber, or directly from Hampton Dunn, 10610 Carrollwood Drive, Tampa, FL 33618. Dr. Keuchel wrote the narrative. It features more than 200 back-and-white and color photographs and illustrations provided by Tampa author Dunn, pictorial researcher on the project. The 9"-by-12", 192-page, hardcover volume retails for $32.95. Gary Cliett, president of the Florida Chamber of Commerce, said "This book will become a standard reference guide for students, history buffs, and everyone interested in the ways in which the development of Florida's economy influenced the growth and development of the state." Florida: Enterprise Under the Sun is published by Windsor Publications, of Chatsworth, CA, North America's leading publisher of hardcover regional history and contemporary books.

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Meet The Authors FRANK ALDUINO was born in West Babylon, NY, and received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. from Florida State University. His doctoral dissertation "The 'Noble Experiment' in Tampa: A Study of Prohibition in Urban America" explored the social, political and economic ramifications of the Eighteenth Amendment in the Treasure City. Dr. Alduino is an assistant professor of history at Anne Arundel Community College, Arnold, MD. He is currently working with the Center for the Study of Local Issues, a division of the College's Social Sciences, to establish an oral history center. Dr. Alduino is also assisting in the production of a documentary entitled "Shady Side: A Chesapeake Community." CATHERINE DIXON received her B.A. in Geography from the University of South Florida in 1988. Presently she is completing graduate studies in Geography at USF, and is a planning intern with the City of Crystal River. Catherine Dixon was awarded the Dorothy A. Auzenne Fellowship, 1988-89. She is a member of the Association of American Geographers. Her research interest is urban social geography, particularly in housing allocation. More recently she has broadened her interest to historical geography. Presently she is researching history of black settlers in Citrus County. HAMPTON DUNN for 55 years has been prominent in the communications fields of journalism, radio and television broadcasting and public relations in Florida. For years he was managing editor of The Tampa Daily Times, has been a commentator for WCKT-TV (now WSVN-TV) in Miami, was for nearly three decades an executive of the Peninsula Motor Club (AAA) (now AAA Auto Club South) and continues as a AAA consultant. ALDUINO DIXON DUNN

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Currently, he also is a prize-winning regular Florida historical reporter on WTVT-TV, Channel 13, Tampa. He is author of 16 books on Florida history. Active in many historical and preservation groups, Dunn is President of the Florida Historical Society. He also serves as editor of The Sunland Tribune Tampa College conferred on Dunn an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters when he was commencement speaker in 1987, and gave him its Distinguished Service Award when he was speaker at the College's centennial celebration in 1990. His alma mater, the University of Tampa, conferred on him an honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters in 1989, and gave him its Distinguished Public Service Award when he was commencement speaker in 1975. He was a Major in the Air Force in the Mediterranean Theater during World War II. NORMA GOOLSBY FRAZIER is a native Floridian, great-great granddaughter of James Hendrix, who together with his grown sons and daughters settled Bloomingdale in 1872. She was born in 1936 at home in Peru, Florida (now known as Riverview) and makes her home on the pioneer Goolsby family property purchased shortly after the turn of the century. Norma retired from the Hillsborough County School Board in 1989 serving for the past 111/2 years as Executive Secretary to the Director of Administration of Hillsborough County Schools. Prior to that time she was associated with Brandon State Bank as Executive Secretary to Charles Westfall who recently retired as bank president. While at Brandon State Bank, she served as correspondent for the Brandon News for 12 years, with her writings including articles of historical interest regarding early Riverview churches, people, places and events. LELAND HAWES, JR. is a native Tampan who grew up in Thonotosassa, where he published a weekly newspaper at age 11. A graduate of the University of Florida in 1950, he worked as a reporter for The Tampa Daily Times for two years, then for The Tampa Tribune in various capacities since then. For the last several years he has been writing a history/nostalgia page. FRAZIER HAWES MOORE

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JACK B. MOORE was born in 1933 in Newark, NJ. He received his B.A. from Drew University in 1955, his M.A. from Columbia University in 1956, and his Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina in 1963. He came to the University of South Florida in 1962, and is currently Chairperson of the American Studies Department. An author of numerous books and articles on aspects of American society, he first became acquainted with the Tampa Public Library's collection of Burgert Brothers photographs when a graduate student told him about the wonderful photographs way downtown. DR. PAUL J. SCHMIDT has been President of the Southwest Florida Blood Bank since 1975. He is also Professor of Pathology at the University of South Florida. Dr. Schmidt is the author of more than 160 scientific articles and several on the history of bloodletting and of blood transfusion as it has been practiced in America since 1795. He is the official Historican of the national American Association of Blood Banks. He became a blood donor for the first time to celebrate the day he was sworn into the World War II Army in 1943. He is gathering data for the 50th Anniversary celebration in 1992 of Tampa's pioneer blood bank. DR. ROBERT E. SNYDER received his Ph.D. in American Studies from Syracuse University in 1980. The author of many articles on the American South in various professional journals, Professor Snyder published Cotton Crisis with the University of North Carolina Press in 1984. Dr. Snyder teaches courses on Popular Culture, Photography, and Film in the Department of American Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa. He has been the Director of Graduate Program in American Studies since 1983. CAMILLE C. SYMONS, since her preschool days in the early 1950s, has lived in or near south Tampa (formerly Rattlesnake), except some years spent in Gainesville at the University of Florida, where she earned an M.A. in Creative Writing under the direction of poet John Frederick Nims. A former college English SYMONS SCHMIDT SNYDER

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teacher, artist-in-the-schools, and copywriter she is now employed as Marketing Services Coordinator at Modern Talking Picture Service near Seminole. A USF dance alumna, she also teaches ballet part-time at Brucie Klay's Dance Center Camille is presently completing Undine Splash a collection of Florida poems, and Face In Noon Bees In the Sun a novel. DR. LEWIS N. (NICK) WYNNE Is Executive Director of the Florida Historical Society with headquarters at the University of South Florida. His B.S., M.A. and Ph.D. all were earned at the University of Georgia. He is currently a Degree Candidate for Master of Public Administration at USE Dr. Wynne also is an adjunct professor, American Studies Department, USF, and an adjunct professor at St. Leo College. In 1987 he was one of only 10 chosen for the Outstanding Professor of the Year Honor Guard at USF. His other honors are endless. WYNNE

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TAMPA PASTIMES THE DAY PRESIDENT KENNEDY VISITED TAMPA One of Tampa's most memorable days was Nov. 18, 1963, when President John F. Kennedy came to town for a round of appearances. He waves to the crowds along the parade route as he heads for another appointment. In the car with him is Gov. Farris Bryant, Greater Tampa Chamber o f Commerce President James H. Couey, Jr., and Congressman Sam M. Gibbons. Secret Service agents are stationed strategically on the car. This was Kennedy's last public appearance before he went to Dallas, where he was assassinated. A short time after his death, Tampa changed the name of three streets to form John F. Kennedy Boulevard-Lafayette Street, Grand Central Avenue and Memorial Highway. -Photo courtesy of Sarah Worth Rutherford

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TAMPA PASTIMES OUTFITTING A WAR LADY Noted Tampa artist Kent Hagerman sketches wartime scenes in Tampa, such as the USS Piedmont built in a local shipyard. See story, Still They Sail On: Shipbuilding in Tampa During World War II, by Dr. Lewis N. Wynne, Page 35. SketchfromHAMPTONDUNNCOLLECTION

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PIONEER COMMERCIAL PHOTOGRAPHER: JEAN BURGERT Photo of Jean Burgert seated behind early twentieth century view camera, taken by Milton Plumb, Tampa Tribune July 17, 1964. (See story, The Burgert Brothers of Tampa, Florida, by Dr. Jack Moore and Dr. Robert E. Snyder, Page 19). -Photo courtesy, The Tampa Tribune

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BAR ASSOCIATION GIVES TONY PIZZO LIBERTY BELL AWARD Reprinted From ST. PETERSBURG TIMES Local historian Anthony P. Pizzo, whose 40 years of research, writing and education have focused on Tampa's Latin roots, won the Liberty Bell Award at the annual Law Day luncheon on May 1. "This is one of the most prestigious awards a Tampan can have," Pizzo said. "I never dreamed I'd have it, and I'm so proud." The award is presented by the Hillsborough County Bar Association to recognize a non-lawyer's community service in fostering understanding for the law. J. Rex Farrior Jr., who presented the award, said Pizzo's work has been "pro bono publico," the term used to refer to lawyers who handle public-interest cases for free. Pizzo is the author of several books on Tampa's history and is responsible for dozens of historical markers in the city. Farrior said Pizzo's research was not done for financial gain and that, to this day, Pizzo will not accept anything for his research or speaking engagements. "At this stage in my life, this is like icing on the cake," Pizzo told the luncheon audience gathered at Curtis Hixon Hall. "I'm greatly honored. I'm overwhelmed by this."

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1990s FOR TAMPA Reprinted from ARTS NEWS Arts Council of Hillsborough County TONY PIZZO Tampa's historical raconteur : I'd like to see the city get behind redeveloping Ybor City in a big way. It could be a fantastic tourist attraction, like Laramie Squar e in DenverAlso Tampa is lacking a historical museum. We've got a performing arts hall and an art museum, so now is the time to remedy this omission ... I'm on a committee that is very seriously studying how to do this. The museum would cover Tampa from the time of the discovery to present, and I'd like to see it located near downtown, so that everyone using our new convention center would have easy access to it.

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TV COMMENTATOR WINS 'ANGEL AWARD' FOR HISTORY SERIES Florida historian Hampton Dunn, who is completing four years as historical commentator on WTVT-TV, Channel 13, Tampa-St. Petersburg, picked up three more broadcasting awards in 1990. His segment, "Hampton Dunn's Yesterdays," is a regularly scheduled feature of the station's Eyewitness News. Topping season's honors for Dunn was the winning of an International Angel Award in the contest sponsored annually by Excellence in Media of Los Angeles. The Tampan's prize-winning entry was his story on "The Beginnings of Billy Graham," famed televangelist who launched his worldwide crusade here while a student at Florida Bible Institute in Temple Terrace in the 1930s. The Bible college now is called Trinity College and is located in Pasco County. Dunn also won two statewide awards this year. For a second year, he received The Newsmaker Award of the Florida Teaching Profession-National Education Association (FTPNEA) at the group's annual convention in Orlando. He also earned a Golden Quill Award in the electronic media contest sponsored by the Florida Historical Society. Another Tampan, Leland Hawes, historical editor for The Tampa Tribune won an award in the print media division of the FHS contest.

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TAMPA COLLEGE 100 YEARS OLD Florida's oldest business college and Tampa's oldest institution of higher learning --Tampa College -celebrated its 100th birthday anniversary on Aug. 11, 1990. Florida Congressman Sam Gibbons and Florida historian Hampton Dunn shared the spotlight at the event. Both were principal speakers and each received the school's Distinguished Service Award. In 1987, Dunn was commencement speaker for the venerable institution and was conferred the honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree. Two years later, his own alma mater, the University of Tampa, also gave him an honorary DHL. In 1975, Dunn gave the commencement address for Tampa U. and at the time received its Distinguished Public Service Award. Tampa College, formerly Tampa Business College, has master's programs in business administration and in international business. It was founded in 1890.


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