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SUNLAND TRIBUNE Journal of the Tampa Historical Society Volume XXXII 2007


THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE Journal of the Tampa Historical Society 32nd Edition Volume XXXII 2007 CONTENTS President's Message John Westcott and the Coming of the Third Seminol e War : A Perspective From Within Fort Brooke in 1846: Excerpts from a So ldi er's Journal Lovely Ladies Sta lwart Gents, and Soaring Eag l es: Art and Iconography in Tampa Cigar Labels Log of the Co nfucius The Sunland Tribune: A Retrospectiv e Society Snapshots About the Authors Book R ev i ews 2007-2008 Tampa Hist o rical Society Patrons and M embers Past Society Presidents D.B. McKa y Awards Past R e cipi ents of th e D B McKay Award Maureen J Patrick Joe Knetsch Ph D Christopher Delano Kimball Maureen J. Patrick C harles Fuss 2 5 17 21 29 35 39 45 47 51 53 54 56 Front cuver. Tocoh agas Fishing" b y Jlermann Trappmann. A n ative Ge rm a n Trappmann and his family came to St Petersburg wh e n th e artist w as a chi ld. As part o f his quest for Ame rican id entity Trappman b ega n ex ploring F l o rid a histo ry and h e rita ge and this led t o a 25-year career as a n interpre tiv e rang e r a t B oy d llill Nature Park. The self-taught artist, wh ose w o rk can b e viewed at, d e pic ts ea rly F l o rid a Native Am e ric a ns and th e landscape flora and fauna that surrounde d them. Back cover. "Summe r Jlay" b y Elizabe th Coachman. Coachma n s tudi e d Art at Moore College of Art in Philadelphia and Rut ge rs U niv e rsity in New Jersey. li e r first ca reer h o w eve r w as in m e dicin e; s h e h olds an MD and w as a pathol ogi s t in F l o rid a for 20 yea rs After retir e m ent, Coachm a n a nd husband Mike mov e d t o a small cattle ranch in Brooksville wh e r e the artist paints Florida l andsca pes and has a printmaking studio. An historic a l reenactor, Coachman writes a b out and interprets Dr M a r y Saff o rd for th e Safford ll o m e Museum in Tarp o n Sprin gs, FL. For m o r e o f Coachma n s w o rk go to www .stmichae l sprintshop o r contact the a rtist a t e lizab ethcoachma n@gmail.c o m


PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE T The past twelve months at the Society have been full of surprises, changes, and progress. Surprises include some valued additions to our Collection. A sizeable number of antique Maureen J. Patrick, Current President and vintage clothing items donated by Jean Miller, now make it pos sible for the Society to display men's and women's attire (infant to adult) from the late 1800s to the 1940s : the period when the Knight House was inhabited as a privat e residence A series of tap e d mem oirs from Katherine Bock Netschert have yielded rich descriptions of Tampa in the e ra from the end of the First World War to and through WWII. Newly acquired early Tampa travel/tourism bro-chures, photographs, postcards, and cigar label s added to the Society's collec tion of "ephemera." Recently published books by Stan Zimmerman, Jo e Knetsch Gregg M. Turner, Joe Ackerman, Jr. and others augment ed the Society's Library. Not all the surprises were inside the Society's headquarters. Yard workers discovered that root beer bushes -descendants of plantings dating at least to the 1920s were thriving in the back yard, along with a very old and huge avocado tree that was thought to be past fruit-bearing age but, this season, produced an excellent yield. Restoration work on the Knight I-louse's back yard "shed" uncovered its true and original purpos e, long overlooked: an The Sunland Tribun e is puhlished hy the n on profit Tamp a Historical Society 245 South llyde Park Avenue, Tampa FL 33606, and was printed by Sir Speedy Printing, 4023 S. Dale Mabry Tampa FL 33611. Copy ri ght 2008 Tampa Histori ca l Soc iety Tampa, FL. All rights reserv e d. No part of The Sunland Tribun e m ay be reproduced in any form or by any e lectronic o r mech a nical m eans, including information storage a nd retri eva l systems, without prior written p e rmission of the Tampa Historical Society. The editor and the Tampa Historical Society welcomes articles pertaining to Tampa, hist oric llillsborou g h County, and Florida history for publication in The Sunland Tribune. Please address all correspondence regardin g submi ss i o n of manuscripts and materials to the Editor, Th e Sunland Tribune 245 South Hyde Park Avenue, Tampa FL 33606-2231, www Not responsihle for unsolicited manuscripts, materia ls photographs or a rtw o rk The editor a nd the Tampa Historical Society accept n o responsibility for statements, ide as or outhouse, complete with Gaslight Era bricks laid over the "po tty ." Examination of the House's underside revealed that most of the original c 1890s iron and l ea d plumbing and gas pipes are intact and in place And finally study of the only surviving photograph of the I-louse's origi nal Chippendale style porch railing produced a sketch which can be used to reconstruct the porch and make it historically accurate. Programming which has increased four hundred percent in the past three yea rs con tinued to expand. A new holiday event, "The Knight House Dresses for the Holidays," e mbell ished the House with period toys, displays of antique clothing, and antique Christmas cards. The holiday party added to the existing schedule of programs : the April Oaklawn Ramble, the July Open House, October's fundraiser Feast of the Dark, the Gothic Graveyard Walk near Halloween, and the Annual Meeting and D.B. McKay Award Dinn er. In a busy and productive year, there was one more happy surprise still. Alerted by Kevin Walker's excellent Tampa Tribune article to the challenges of maintaining/pr ese rving Oaklawn Cemetery (the Society's special focus from its founding to the present day) the Krewe of Spirit of the Cigar C ity moved to partne r with the Society in a long-range plan for the Cemetery's care. This plan will include regular maintenance, restoration, preservation, interpretation historic landmark status, and fund raising. As the Society has changed, so too has the public history landscape in Tampa. The o pinions whether of fact or opinion made by contrihutors. Th e Sunland 7hlmne is provided free as a henefit of memhership in the Tampa Historical Soci e ty. Membership is enco ura ged and welcome Copi es and certain hack issues a r e available h y writing to the Tampa Historical Society. The Tampa Histori ca l Society has granted the U ni versity of South Florida Libraries permission to scan the entire contents of all 30 is s ues of The Sunland Tribune from 1 974 through 2006, and to place the digitized keyword searchabl e v e rsions on the World Wide Web. The electronic version s of The Sunland Tribune a r e part of Floridiana on the Web, a non-commercial educati o n a l project funded hy GTE This dynamic website presents Florida's l<-12 students with a wealth o f images and text a b out the state's history and culture, and is freely availahle to a n yo n e in the world with access to the World Wide Web. Postage paid at Tampa FL by the Tampa Historical So ciety, T ampa, FL.


President's Message c:o11cim1 e d Society s Board of Directors has responded to th ese changes with new and exciting directions for Hillsborough Co unty's oldest history organization. Members should expect a n exciting and inte resting year ahead, with programs and publications that preserv e the excellence of Tampa Historical Society's organizational offerings while keeping pace with its modifi e d mission and direction Best regards, Maureen J Patrick Tampa Historical Society 2008 Board of Directors PRESIDENT Maureen J Patrick VICE PRESIDENT Anthony Arena SECRETARY Gianmarco Salzano TREASURER John R. McEwen BOARD MEMBERS Rose Tambuzzo Barbie Paul Eugen Camp Elizabeth Granger Jeanne Dunbar Keith Gilda Schulmeyer McKinnon Shere Schiller Eddie Wall EDITOR The Sunland Tribune Maureen J Patrick Tampa Hist o rical Society Peter 0. Kn ight Hous e 245 South Hyde Park Avenue Tampa, Florida 33606-2231 wwvv. tam pahi sto ric a l Found e d in 1 971


John Westcott and the Coming of the Third Seminole War: A Perspective From Within Joe Knetsch Ph.D. J ohn Westcott was one of the more in novative men on the Florida frontier. His name is most often associated with the beginnings of the Florida ed ucational system, stemming from his work in the first Legislature As Chairman of the Committee on Schools and Colleges, he pushed for a system of free public educa tion 1 In Madison County history, Westcott is remembered as being one of the founders of the Masonic Lodge, owning one of the first sawmills, and holding the position of Postmaster. Westcott is also remembered there for a public gaffe, when a cannon he was firing (signaling the opening of the 1851 Independence Day celebration) mis fired. Westcott suffered some slight injuries needing medical attention. Luckily, at the time, he was the physician for most of the community.2 Westcott's life was long and productive: he was the oldest member of the Constitutional Convention of 1885 Of all his many public duties and achievements, how e ver, none compares to the ser vice he gave as Surveyor General of Florida from 1853 to 1858. Westcott was born on June 16, 1807 in New Jersey at the family home in Bridge town The New Jersey native was the younger brother to Florida's other first U. S. Senator, James D Westcott Jr. Another brother was associated with the Apalachicola Land Company for many years. Their father, James Diament Westcott, became Secretary of State for New Jersey and was involved in the famed Delaware and Raritan Canal Company. One of his associates in the canal business was Samuel Southard of the Morris Canal and Banking Company; he sponsored young John Westcott's appointment into West Point at just sixteen. West cott's father wrote to Secretary of War John C. Calhoun asking for his son's admittance into the Academy, assuring the schoo l that his son "has acquired a knowledge of the branches of English educa tion usually taught in our village schools."J John's appointment was made by Calhoun and he entered the cadet corps on July 1, 1823 He found the experience trying and resigned his commission on November 15 1823. Military life was not what the immature young man expected.4 Westcott then began a study of medicine proba bly in Philadelphia. Descendants have found a few medical pamphlets in the family holdings and believe they come from John.s Westcott's whereabouts were then unknown for some time, he arrived in Florida around 1838-39 at the height of the Second Seminole War (1835-1842.) There was a desperate need on the peninsular frontier for doctors, no matter how inex perienced, and Westcott soon became involved in the War serving as an Assistant Sur-John Westcott, Surveyor Gen e ral in militar y attire. 5


6 geon for Colonel William Bailey's First Regiment of Florida Mounted Volunteers. His service began on April 20, 1840 and contin ued through most of the remainder of the War ; he stayed with his local unit gathered mostly from Jefferson and Madison Coun ties 6 He was later promoted to the rank of Surgeon, a promotion which, in the volunteer units, took much less time than in the regular Army where good physicians would languish for ten years or longer in the lower rank before being promoted. Among his colleagues-in-arms were Colonel Francis L. Dancy (who would succeed him as Surveyor General in 1858), Elias E. Blackburn, John Osteen and John H. Gee, son of the former Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of Florida, Henry Gee. This service in the War did not hurt Westcott's connections or his reputation. He was thereafter always re ferred to as "Doctor Westcott" by the residents of Madison County. One of Westcott's most important con tacts (and a life-long friend) was Samuel J. Perry, a prominent member of the militia and a leader in Madison society. Perry like many other notables in early Florida, was also a Mason and helped his friend and fra ternal colleague in many ways. Along with other Masons, Westcott helped to found the "St. Johns Seminary of Learning in Madi son, which became known as one of the best educational institutions in antebellum Florida. The local Madison Lodge No. 11 purchased an eight-acre parcel located at the corner of Base and Duval Streets and constructed the school on it. The school offered the equivalent of a high school degree and attracted students from Madison and the surrounding area. 7 The income generated from his profes sion was not enough to satisfy the doctor's ambitions, political and social. By the late 1840s Westcott was anxious for new chal lenges and he turned to Perry for advice. As Perry was already a Deputy U. S., Surveyor of some experience, he probably suggested that Westcott apply for a like position. Here his mathematical abilities would come to the fore and he could make practical applications of his brief military studies Perry wrote a letter of support for Westcott, not ing that he had been an intimate friend for eight years. Surveyor General Robert Butler was impressed with the young man and his credentials (as well as his status as a fellow Mason and military man), and appointed him U S. Deputy Surveyor in mid-184 7 8 Westcott was not the only physician in the service of the General Land Office; one of his colleagues was Dr. Arthur M Ran dolph of Tallahassee, one of Florida's finest surveyors. Dr. Westcott was a meticulous man with excellent work habits, traits that would carry him far in his new job. As a trained physician he was used to paying attention to details and this approach to the job of surveyor paid dividends in the field. His first assignment was in the inhospitable country of Township 23 South, Range 24 East, near the headwaters of the Little Withlacoochee River in what is now designated the Green Swamp The job was heavy going from the first and some of the crew took ill soon after their arrival in the swamps. Westcott wrote: I arrived upon my survey the 26th inst. have been constantly engaged upon the work ever since, except the delay of a few days from sickness of my men, overflowing & bad weather, and that up to the present time have run 79 miles T. 23, R. 23 is mostly swamp, the head of the Little Withlacoochee."9 This amount of mileage run is exceptional given the terrain in which the men operated. In the present day, surveyors have found the marks left by Westcott during that work and have found them to be very accurate given the limitations of time technology and un healthiness of the area. IO The work was long and difficult in the Green Swamp, but gave Westcott some valuable experience in the field where he would later supervise others. His first contract was in wet enough territory, but his second one brought him into the bog lands of Township 4 South, Range 9 East. There he noted to the Surveyor General that the land was "nearly entire swamp and not worth surveying ."11 In many instances, the early Florida surveyors had instructions to survey only lands that could pote ntially be cultivated, and to skip over swampy, unus able, and unvalued t errain. Westcott 's per sistence and detailed work in such regions made subsequent surveying unnecessary. (The land is virtually uninhabited to this day ) Later, other surveyors would be chas tised by the General Land Office if they troubled to survey such lands. Even though ev idently unsuited to set tlement, some of the swamp lands in which Westcott worked had to be surveyed be-


cause of their being potential refuges and hiding plac es for the hostile Native Americans in the area. These had already forced th e United States Army into the bloodiest and most costly Indian war in American history the Second Seminole War (18351842.) In this role Westcott's military experience was very aptly put to use. Writing to the new Surveyor General, Benjamin Putnam (who had led the ill-fated forces at the Battle of Dunlawton in early 1836) Westcott observed: "Nea rly the whole of the great San Pedro Swamp, a basin forming the headwaters of the Econfina, Spring Warrior and Steinhatchee Rivers lies within the boundaries of my late contract. It was necessary that the Townships I have returned as Surveyed which lie within and on the borders of this Swamp should be surveyed not only on account of the great value of portions of the land embraced in these Townships but also to acquire knowledge of the numerous Is lands Byous [sic], Lagoons and Creeks which are found in this Swamp. From want of this Knowledge this swamp was during the late Seminole War, one vast forest castle ... Had this survey been made before the war, from the knowl edge which would thereby be acquired of the localities of the various Islands Laggoons &c. above mentioned, a vast amount of labor expense & bloodshed would have been saved. In my humble judgment this survey was indispens able if practicable even if no other rea sons for it existed than those already stated. "12 Westcott's observation was correct, and would aid the Army during an impending crisis. While Westcott was in the field, polit ical events were quickly moving toward a fateful moment. In 1849, the Legislature passed a law making it illegal for the Indian Agent to allow the Indians to roam beyond the limits of the reserve set up by th e agreement of 1842.1 3 To sustain the Na tives and aid in their "domestication," cer tain restricted trading establishments were placed near the Seminole lands and were supposed to be closely monitored. One such store was the Kennedy-Darling store at Charlo-Popka-I-Iatchee-Chee (Little Trout Eating Creek), later known as Payne's C reek. In July of 1849, this store was at tacked by a small band of renegade Semi noles. This attack followed an ambush of two men at the Indian River settlement. Billy Bowlegs, Chieftain of the Seminoles during the Third Seminole War (Photograph courtesy of th e State of Florida Photographic Archives.) Killed in the attack on the Kennedy-Darling store were its manager Captain George S. Payne and his friend Dempsey Whidden. Luck was with the store's clerk, William McCulloch, who was wounded but made a miraculous escape with his wife by hiding in the palmetto thickets near the Peace River. Panic at the State level followed the at tack. Most of the lower East Coast of Flori da was depopulated, with only a few strag glers surviving from Merritt Island to Miami. The Manatee River settlements remained intact and immediately asked for additional protection from the Army, as well as trying to recruit a local unit for defense The Army responded as it almost always did on the western frontiers by establishing a line of forts across the state from the Manatee River to Fort Capron near modern day Vero Beach. Forts Hamer Crawford and Myakka were rapidly constructed and occupied to control the outbreak. Many troops were sta tioned along the Manatee in private resi dences, such as the home of Dr. Joseph Braden and on the plantation of Robert Gamble. Some, like the unit under the command of Brevet Major John C. Pember ton, went to other homes less well protect ed. Soon, white flags signifying the wish to parlay were seen near the home of Hamlin 7


8 V. Snell near Sarasota and some near John Addison s place further inland.14 Captain John C Casey and General David Twiggs took the signs as a positive gesture and responded quickly. They were soon making arrangements for the Semi noles to hand over their fugitive hostiles for trial in a Florida court. Neither side in the affair wanted war and only a few really pushed for any such legal action, one of the most prominent being John Darling, owner of the store where the attack took place. Capt. Casey's biggest worry in the delicate negotiations was not with the Seminole and Miccosukee leaders, Billy Bowlegs and Abi aka (aka Sam Jones.) Casey s concern was Gen Twiggs who had a reputation as being a harsh negotiator. The very volatile subject of the Seminol e s' emigration from their homelands was one Casey I \ feared would be put forth by \ the General, and indeed it was Chief Bowlegs looked shocked and dismayed by \ the discussion, and it was soon dropped The matter to hand, howev er, was resolved by surrendering three of the fugitive war riors, along with the hand of a fourth. The fifth member of the insurgent group was promised as soon as he could be brought in and transferred to the authorities. How ever as the fretful Casey, ailing from consumption feared, the untimely broach ing of the emigration topic presaged worse things to come. Brev e t Major Pemberton, ob serving the negoti ation knew the predictable result, a long and weari som e war ."15 L o ng Jack, Billy Bowleg s lieutenant." This drawing and c a ption appe a r e d in Harp e r s Illustrat e d W eekly, June 12 1 8 38. The following year, 1850, saw two incidents which could have led to gen eral war. Quick action and a desire for peace by the Army and the Seminoles di verted out and out conflict. Earl y in the year, two young Indians came to trade on the Manatee River. Their intentions became confused and misunderstood and they ended up being shipped to the West. Many of their people thought they had been kidnapped and forcibly removed. This incident caused Chief Bowlegs to move his camp further inland and away from the whites. The murder of one Daniel Hubbard in Marion County set off another panic, al beit brief. Indian justice was not quick in that incident and the Seminoles had diffi culty finding the guilty parties. After two years of searching the miscreants were dis covered but allegedly committed suicide while awaiting trial. Either of the 1850 incidents could have sparked another general war, but the reticence of both sides to begin another armed conflict spared Florida for another year.16 Some of the settlers on the Florida fron tier did not appreciate the tact, patience, and lack of a unified plan from Washington in resolving the "Indian Problem. Throughout 1850 and 1851 Florida residents tried various means of pressuring the government to remove the Seminoles and their allies from the southern section of the state, a region set aside for them. When the appointment of Luther Blake as Indian Agent was announced, some of the leaders of the settlements were less than pleased. Although Blake had a reputation for efficiency in the removal of Creeks and Cherokees from Georgia his appointment was viewed as little more than a political plum to an administration supporter. Writing to Governor Thomas Brown on July 28 1851, Tampa merchant and agitator for Indian removal, John Darling wrote of his displeasure : I was informed yesterday by what I be lieve to be reliable authority, That Gen eral Blake the present special Indian Agent, is to receive $ 200,000 if he re moves the Indians or $ 10 ,000 in case he fails -what amount of exertion in the cause is required to make a respectable failure is not stated -this is the last edi tion of a most mis e rable policy towards and in order to effect the removal of these Indians. The same amount offer e d directly to the Indians could no doubt


carry the m directly out o f th e country. A t any rate the offe r co uld do no h a rm -but n o, a manly course mi ght rid us of our e n e mies at th e ex p e ns e of Exec u ti ve patro n age, the r efo r e, it is thought m o r e a dvi sable t o r eple n ish th e empty coffers o f a needy and consequently troubl eso m e po litic a l r etaine r o f th e administratio n. If such a contract as I h ave describe d does really ex i s t between Genl. Blake a nd the Gove rn m ent a t Washington it s rottenness cannot b e expla in e d away b y the Administration. 1 7 Darling w as not satisfied with just o n e l ette r to his fri e nd a nd p o litical ally. H e continued in this ve in in a l ette r elat e d November of 1851 stating t o Brown th a t h e was prepared t o d o m o r e th a n just write l etters a nd p e titi o n s, and w as go in g t o hav e th e Legislature m ove a bill during it s next ses s i o n enco ura g in g th e F e deral Government to act o n th e r e m ova l of the Se minol es. To prompt the acti o n Darling calle d a se ri es of l oca l meetin gs t o "ge t th e sense of the pe o ple." These meetin gs, h e reason e d would provid e th e Governor with additional polit ical ammunitio n for backing eve n stronge r proposals. On December 28, he notifie d Brow n th a t : "P ubli c meetin gs hav e been h e ld a t this pl ace, a t O ld Tampa a t Ich e puksasa, a nd o n the Alafia which were unanim o u s for the immed i a t e r e m ova l of the Indi a n s ... I h ave called up o n th e Counties o f ll e rnancl o, Monroe a nd D a d e for expres s i o n s upo n this s ubject, but I am n o t inform e d th a t any actio n h as been t a k e n upo n m y r equest. "lH Although the horne ts nest stirre d by Darlin g h a d no immediate impa c t o n th e L eg i slature, the b o d y did d e bate the p oss ibilit y of som e actio n t owa rd Indi a n r e m oval. (Not until th e 1855 session did th e Legislature p ass a r eso lution for th e imme di a t e r e m ova l of the Se min o l es fr o m the State of Florida. 19) In 1853, President Millard Fillmore promise d action in r e m ov in g th e Seminoles fro m Florida but did n o t follow throug h with any n ew p o lic y r e lated to th e s ubject. The P resid ent did expr ess hi s d es ir e to see the Seminoles removed and n o ted : th e In di a n s w e r e ass i g n e d land s in th e west a nd t h e withholding of a l arge tract o f l a nd from settl e m ent [b y whites] i s a seri o u s injury to F l o rid a."20 In thi s obser vatio n h e was correct as th e lack of immi gratio n t o the State Billy Bowlegs (third fro m l ef t seated) a nd other Se min o l es, photographed in New York in 1852 for Harper's Illustrated W ee kly. (P hotograph courtesy of th e State of Florida Photographic Archives.) was r eflect e d in continued l ow cen s u s recordings for th e Sta t e. The Armed Occu p a ti o n Act had not brought m a n y n ew faces into Florida, and, as well th e l ac k of a n y n o t able infrastructure hinde r e d m ove m ent within the State, r enderin g se ttl e m ent very diffi c ult Money was needed t o promo t e In di a n r e m ova l increase inte rn a l imp rove m ents, and survey Florida l a nd s so as t o put th e m onto th e market for purchase by prospective se ttl e r s a nd in vestors. Policy m a k e r s in Washington a nd e l sew h e r e hit up o n anothe r qui e t strategy t o r e m ove th e Indi a n s fr o m Florida As th e Se min o l es were full y awa r e of th e importance o f th e surveys t o white settlement, they r easo n e d l e t th e surveyors push forward with their work into th e land s b o rd e rin g th ose Indi a n l a nd s desi g n a t e d b y Worth's 1842 ag ree ment. Thus th e Indian s wo uld be m a d e to unde r s t a nd that white settlement was im min e nt. This action, it was believed (naive l y as it soo n becam e apparent), would h as t e n the Seminoles decision t o l eave Florida for lands in th e West. 1853 a lso saw John Westcott r eceive his appointment as Surveyor Ge neral for the S t a t e o f Florida. Westc ott h ad ea rli e r seen the need for s urveyin g Indi a n s l a nd s, u se d as hidin g places by h os til es during vari o u s outbrea k s. Although th e o rd e rin g of such surveys within th e tw entymil e buffer zo n e around Indi a n land s h ad been clone by hi s predecessor, Benjamin Putnam, Westcott ag reed with th e n e w survey initiative. O n 9


10 the 20th of June, 1853, the new Surveyor General wrote to John Wilson, the Commissioner of the General Land Office in Wash ington, stating his views: "I am guided by the general belief that the authorities in Washington have determined that the Seminoles shall be removed according to their treaty stipu lations and the probable Salutary effect it will have on them, independent of the immediate occupancy by a useful popu lation. Many are of the opinion that an immediate survey of the whole Country between the Ta lahchopka Hatchee (or Peace Creek) and the Kissimmee river, as well as that now oc cupied by "Towns" would at Once impel the Indians to comply with their repeated promises. The question at once arises, whether such a course would or not Produce bloodshed. If this course should accomplish nothing more, it would certainly in a short time confine them entirely to that portion of the Peninsula south of the Caloosa Hatchee and now occupied exclusively by them. The principal cause of the disturbances between the inhabitants on the frontier and the Indians being the large stocks of Cattle and Hogs ranging in the forest north of township thirty six on the unsurveyed lands. Subject at all times to pillage, the ownership distinguished only by marks and brands which are made annually about the natural increase after scouts for "hunting and penning." This cause of disturbance would be I think prevented by the Barrier of military forts be tween Lake Okeechobee and Fort Myers on the Caloosa Hatch ee. The country on the northern and eastern coasts of the inland sea would at once be settled by a hardy and industrious As alternative consideration of the subject has led me to the Conclusion, that a gradual and easy approach by surveys and settlements from the Governor Broome population its wa-present surveyed lands on the northern and eastern margins of the reserve would be safer for the inhabitants on the frontier, and sooner accomplish, peace ably and economically the object so much desired, than in any other way. As you will perceive by the Diagram, the townships on the northern and eastern borders of the twenty mile line, were put under contract by my predecessor and four Deputies are now in the field, the townships marked A .B.C.D. and without molestation. The continuance of the surveying, gradually from the north and east (and it would not this year or next in the least interfere with their assigned limits, settlements, or hunting grounds) it seems to me would have the effect to impress them. That the Government was in earnest. That they were daily loosing posses sion. Their "Forest Castles" being examined and understood, Impressions calculated to exited inquietude and under the circumstances, without vi olence, disposing them peaceably to yield to their agreements. ters navigated, ex plorations of its Southern shore and Islands of the Everglades would follow preventing the few remaining Indians (should they commence hostilities at any future date) from seeking hid ing places there as has been the case heretofore ... 2 1 Thus, at the very beginning of his tenure as Surveyor General, John Westcott was convinced that hostilities could be avoided by following the policy laid down by the Federal Government: peaceable pressure rather than the forced removal sought by many on the frontier. It was a policy that he had thought long and hard upon and had quietly practiced as a surveyor in the field even before he had the power to assign du ties to others. It put Westcott squarely at odds with Floridians like John Darling, who advocated forcible and immediate removal of the Indians.22 The government, like Westcott did not want a violent end to the "Indian problem The mission of Blake and others clearly in dicated a preference for a peaceful solution


G'' 1.1..?. c.,..o ""'.s ... ""' ... .. 0 o0 : Blake also brought with him many of the former Seminole leaders from the West to attempt to persuade their brethren to emi grate to the new lands, but this effort pro duced few results In 1852, just prior to Westcott's appointment, Billy Bowlegs and a party of ranking Seminoles had been invit ed to Washington to meet with President Fillmore and have impressed upon them the power of the Nation. They went further, into New York, where they were treated like celebrities, sitting for their portraits which ran in major newspapers. These tactics failed to induce the Seminoles to move to the West. The administration tried to impress Bowlegs and his followers with an ad ditional trip to Washington and New York in 1854, but suffered the same rebuff The Seminoles stood firm: no further voluntary removals. Frustration mounted in Washing ton as politicians responded to pressure from stalled Florida investors and land-hun gry settlers. The government needed to try another tactic .23 During all this, Westcott clung to his idea of peaceful pressure. It was reinforced by the knowledge that the State had passed legislation forbidding further trade with the Indians. The new Governor, James Broome, shared some of Westcott's optimism about 11


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Indian relocation. In his speech to the Gen eral Assembly on November 24 1854, the Governor stated: "I am advised by Capt. Casey, the agent of the Government, that the Indians are peaceably disposed and he expresses the opinion that a rigid enforcement of the State law prohibiting all persons from trading with them, or in any manner furnishing them supplies, will lead at no distant day to their peaceable emigration."24 Broome was equally happy to report that the duty of removing the Indians from Flori da had been transferred from the Department of the Interior to the War Department, then headed by Jefferson Davis a man, said Broome, who, as a statesman and a soldier, has always been equal to his duty." Governor Broome had every confidence that his friend Davis would use every peaceable means available but if they failed he would not hesitate, however risky the venture, to use coercive measures.25 Using his deputy surveyors as a peace able means of removal was also an accept able risk for Surveyor General Westcott. Every surveyor who worked anywhere on America s frontiers was in danger from the Natives of the region. Westcott, sure of the Federal and State authorities' determination to remove the Seminoles, was con vinced that the Indians would be forced out by the end of 1853 or early 1854. If not, then the surveyors could be sent in and covered by armed guards, and this would demonstrate the futility of resisting prog ress Writing to Deputy Lewis Lanier at Fort Meade, the Surveyor General opined : "When I left Washington the President and Secretary of War had not determined the course to take with the Indi ans. Yet it was understood that they would have to go this winter. Therefore a great deal will depend in relation to sur veying how the Indians act. Many are in favor of surveying them out but to do so would require an armed force to protect the Surveyors and if we are to have an armed force, why not send them in at once as soon as the weather gets cool enough. If the General Government do not act in the matter (as I certainly be lieve they will, and intend to) I have not the least doubt but the Governor will order the force of General Johnson [proba bly Allen G.] into the nation after the 1st November."26 Westcott s prediction of a Fall/Winter Indian withdrawal proved to be incorrect. However he soon had worse problems to worry about when, on March 23, 1854, the Secretary of War ordered that the organized reconnaissance of the Everglades should commence. With the failure of the Western Seminoles to persuade their kinfolk to move, the time seemed to be right to apply the peaceable pressure approach. In making his recommendation, Secretary of War Davis cited the 1842 agreement arranged by General William Jenkins Worth and the 1849 incidents as reasons for the new moves. On April 10, 1854, the Surveyor General received the official notification that, "the lines of the public surveys may now be extended to the Indian line designated in the letter of the Secretary of War, and the township surveys completed up to said limits." Westcott was specifically instructed to "make arrangements for com pleting the surveys of such townships with in the limits referred to as may be likely first to command the attention of settlers and purchasers, either for agricultural purposes or on account of their timber. "27 The peace able pressure of surveys and settlement was about to be launched in the most trying of circumstances. With the marching orders in the Com missioner of the General Land Office, John Wilson wrote to Westcott asking which lands he would recommend to survey first in what had until then been known as the "neutral ground."28 Westcott responded on April 27th: "The lands on Okeechobee, Kissimmee river and Peas Creek would command the immediate attention of settlers & larger purchasers, when all fears are quieted of molestation by the Indians."29 These lands, although formerly a buffer zone be tween whites and Indians, were some of the most favored hunting grounds of the Semi noles. The surveying of these lands by the government surveyors could easily provoke an incident that would lead to a renewed war The surveyors would be in harm's way with little armament to protect themselves and no sure promise of military support. Deputy Surveyors at this time usually only carried one or two weapons to be used for hunting food and killing snakes. As to per sonnel, they hired a "camp man" to cook, clean the game, and watch after the equipment. An axe man or two plus someone to chain the lines along with the Deputy usual ly made up the entire crew. Six to eight men 13


14 with few weapons would be easy targets for an aggressive and canny enemy, one who knew the terrain far better than the survey ors did. In very isolated areas like the Kissimmee River valley or the Lake Okee chobee region the exposure to an attack was extreme. Surveyors involved with this dangerous task knew well the potential for trouble. Hillsborough pioneer and U. S. Deputy Sur veyor John Jackson wrote to Westcott on July 1, 1854, after receiving his own con tract: "Unless the Indians get my scalp (which is the opinion of many in this part) you shall hear from me occasionally. You may rely on it that I shall carry out your instructions to the best of my ability. I am determined that no care on my part shall be wanting in the execution of my contract as I feel the weight and consequences of the position you have assigned me ."Jo Jackson left immediately for the Peace River country and suffered one of the most difficult peri ods in his long and illustrious surveying ca reer. He was plagued with high water levels the illness of most of his crew, an incompetent chainman, and various supply prob lems After a long lapse he renewed his correspondence with the Surveyor General, writing on January 12 1855: "I presume on account of my long silence that you begin to think by this time (with others of our neigh bours) that King Billy has got hold of us but such is not the case as you will presently see on my reporting progress."Jl Jackson admitted that he was not alone on the prairie: "The Indians were watching our move ments, ever after our crossing Charlipopka Creek and perticularly [sic] about the Big Prairie and thence to Istockpoga Lake they set the woods on fire about us frequently; I presume they thought to frighten us from going further on their Boundaries ... in the end I caught one of them reconnoitering our camp ... They have been complaining to Capt. Casey that we frequently crossed their lines. "J2 Captain John Casey's diaries do not re flect frequent contact with the Seminoles during this period but he was well informed about the conditions on the frontier from the surveyors. He noted on February 4 1855 that Surveyor William G. Moseley had arrived in town and was camping with the garrison of Fort Brooke. The next day Mose ley visited Casey and asked about the possi bility of an Indian outbreak. Casey noted that the Deputy was not afraid of going into the field but was "afraid of appearing afraid."JJ Deputy George Bunker also contacted Casey in early March but did not mention a report given by "Parker & Hollingsworth" of the killing of at least five steers near Horse Creek, within Bunker's contracted survey.J4 Casey, restricted by his worsening consumption, needed such contacts to keep him informed of happenings on the frontier, and the surveyors were usually very obliging in this regard. These visits and letters helped to keep the reports of Seminole attacks, thefts and other such incendiary news current. The U.S. Deputy Surveyors were not the only "surveyors" tracking the wilderness of southern Florida. The United States Army was also involved with mapping the territo ry that might soon become their next bat tlefield: a lesson learned from the Second Seminole War when unfamiliarity with the terrain gave the Indians a decided advan tage. Casey, a responsible military officer, wrote to Westcott asking the Surveyor Gen eral to provide copies of the most recent surveys in the area. These survey plats were then provided to Colonel John Munro, then commanding the troops in Florida from Tampa It was Casey who informed Westcott of the understandable difficulties John Jackson was experiencing in recruiting a survey party as : "Many seem a little apprehensive of danger and all required more than the usual wages."JS Within a year's time Casey again requested copies of the latest surveys "for the use of the Army in So. Fla." The Captain explained: "Our troops have now been some time cutting roads &c into the Big Cypress, and a party has gone to the S. side of that region by water via Cape Romano The Indians remain quiet care fully avoiding any offense, and seem deter mined not to begin hostilities. Meanwhile their haunts & hiding places are being ex posed. "J6 While Casey and Westcott were exchanging information, Second Lieutenant Henry Benson was making his exploration of the area from Fisheating Creek and up the Kissimmee River to near Lake To hopakeliga and First Lieutenant George I-Iartsuff was mapping the region between the Caloosahatchee and Fisheating Creek.J7 While the surveyors hoped for the best, the Army was preparing for the worst Westcott received information from the field that gave him a clear understanding of


the frontier conditions taxing his deputies. During 1855, while making a field inspec tion of the surveys (as required by a new rule instituted by the General Land Office), he found the following letter from Deputy Surveyor W. S. Harris: "I began on the 28th ult. & have worked five full days only, the balance of the time has been consumed in Horse hunting. The Indians stole my Horses the 3rd day after my arrival here, & they were four days gone, when We found them they were in a Hammock on the Kissimmee Prairie closely Hobbled & much abused. I say the Indians stole them because it is evident someone done it, and there are no one else here to do it. "38 Such incidents as this presaged a new outbreak of hostilities. On December 20, 1855, Lieutenant George Hartsuffs command was attacked by the Seminoles under Billy Bowlegs in the famed "Banana Patch" incident. (Reportedly, the raid was initiated by whites' destruc tion of a banana grove belonging to the Chief.) At the time, Surveyor General Westcott had four deputies in the field and he had not heard from two of them for some time. One was his old friend Sam Perry. Writing to Colonel Munro, Westcott thanked that officer for sending diagrams of the area where the deputies were working and noted the approximate location of their last communications. Westcott also noted that Deputy Harris had not yet been notified of the outbreak of hostilities.39 The Surveyor General had cause to worry as Harris was under constant watch and had received at least three visits from Seminole warriors after the known start of hostilities. On one occasion, the Indians even enjoyed a friend ly meal with his camp man. Despite the dra ma of the moment, no harm came to Harris or any member of his party or that of any other surveying party.40 It is evident that for whatever reasons the Seminoles did not consider these men a threat. From within the Federal bureaucracy, John Westcott was in a key position to see the development of a policy regarding the removal of the Seminoles from Florida, and to witness national Indian policy evolving. His constant interaction with the Army, sur veyors, and other governmental officials al lowed him to have a unique perspective on events. His personal belief in peaceable pressure was formulated in part because he was in the position to undertake it. A thor oughgoing patriot, his support of Federal policy is evident in all of his letters even though it often varied from his preferred path. Yet, frustration and intolerance were also part of this correspondence. In writing to Hiram Warner on February 1, 1856 Westcott stated: "All surveys are at present suspended on account of Indian hostilities, the Surveyors who were in the field, at the time of the recent outbreak, deeming it not safe or prudent to remain on the frontier unprotected until the Indians were removed or 'exterminated.' We hope however, now to soon be rid of this pest to our State."41 In vituperating, Westcott was simply reflecting what the majority of white Florida was then feeling. Despite his unique position and in fluence, John Westcott could not remove himself from the tensions and attitudes of the era, an era in which Westcott and Flori da were both witnesses to sometimes grand, sometimes inglorious, social changes. ENDNOTES 1. Nita K Pyburn. "John Westcott's Pla n for Public Educatio n in Florida 1844." Florida Quar terly 27 (January 1949). 300-307. Also see the Journal of the Proceedings of the Second General Assembly of the State of Florida. Tallahassee: "Southern Journal Office ," 1846. 62-64 2. Elizabeth II. Sims. A History ql Madison County. Madison Florida: Madison County Hist o rical Society, 1986. Pp.37 ,50, 57 and 209. 3. Ronald E. Shaw. Canals for a Nation : The Canal Era in th e United States, 1790-1860. Lexington: U niversity Press of Kentucky 1990. Pp 89-94. Also see Letters Received by the Secretary of War R eg ist e red Series, 1801-1860. Copies of letters of Southard and Westcott Dated Dec ember 22 1822 and December 16 1822 provided by Mr. William G. Cra wford o f Fort Lauderdale, Florida whos e book on th e Florida East Coast Canal and Transportation Company/lntercoastal Ca nal is du e out later this year. The author would lik e to exp ress his appreciation to his long-time friend and colleague for his assistance in obtaining this information. For a dditional information concerning the Westcott family, see Juneanne Wescoat Glick. J a mes Dia m ent Westcott 1775-1841: Born to Serve ." Atlantic County Historical Society Yearbook with Histori cal and Genealogical Journal. Atlantic County llistorical Society Somers Point, New Jersey, October 1994. Not paginate d. 4. Letter of March 1 1950: R. S. Nourse Adjutant Ge neral, to Alfr e d J. H anna Gilbert Youngberg Papers, Box 4. Winter Park, FL: Rollins College Archives and Special Collections 5. Youngberg Papers. Box 4. Letter of November 4 1949. M a rgar e t Borland to A. J. llanna. 6. "F lorida Militia Muster Rolls: Seminole Indian Wars (Volume l)." Special Archives Publication Number 67. Florida Department of Military Affairs, State Arsenal St. Francis Barracks, St. Augustine Flori da Pp.6 773. (Edited by Robert llawk: no date of publication.) 15


7 S im s, 38-39. 8. "A pplication s for Employment, Volum e 2 : 1 8 4556. Th e three vo lumes making up this series o f l ette rs t o th e Surveyors Ge n e ral o f F lorid a a r e n ow in the State Archives o f Florida, Divisi o n o f Archives and Records Man age m ent, Florida Dep artment o f State, Tallahassee, F l o rida. Perry s l ette r is found o n p age 57 and date d September 10, 1847 9. Lett e rs and Reports t o Surveyor Ge neral Vol. 1. 18251 8 47." Titl e and L and Records Section, Division of State Land s, Florid a Department of En vironmenta l Protection Tallahassee, F l orida p 8 75 H e reaft e r L ette rs and Rep o rts 10. Te l e ph o n e co nv e rsati o n with L o r e n Mercer PLS F ebruary 1 994. M e rc e r is th e form e r head o f the F l orida Surveying and Map ping Society a nd e ncountered Westcott's work whil e running the eve n tu a l route for Interstate 4 11. L ette rs and Reports ," Vol. 2. 184 8 -5 6, p .283. 1 2. Ibid p 291. 13. Acts and R eso luti ons o f the Fourt h Ge neral Assembl y of th e State o f Florid a" (18 49.) T alla h assee: Office o f th e Floridian and Democrat p 71. A l so see J a mes W Cov in gto n T h e Billy Bow l egs W ar: 1 8551 8 58. Th e Fin a l Stand of th e S eminoles Against th e Whit es. Chuluo t a F l orida: M i ckle r House Publications, 1982, p 9. 14 Joe Kne ts c h "The Arm y vs th e Indians vs. the Se ttle rs : The South F l o rid a Frontier Between the Seminole W a r s." Th e Sunland Tribun e T ampa, FL: Tampa Historical Society; Volum e XXVI, 2000, pp .. ... ,., ...... If'" ,.,. s: .. ....... ... .... .... Hyde Park Architects Charles F C Jordan PRINCIPAL 1509 WEST SWANN AVENUE SUITE 270 TAMPA FLORIDA 33606-2557 813. 251 6909 FAX 813 250 1668 HPACHAS@AOLCOM LIC NO AA F000096 8 187. A l so see the "Pemberton Family Papers," L ette rs o f October 26th and Nov ember ] 1th 1849. Phi l ac.le lphi a PA: T h e llistorica l Society of Pennsylva ni a . Letters o f October 26th anc.I Novembe r 11th 1849 The author would lik e t o thank Dr. Ca n ter Brown for providin g copies o f th i s correspon d e nce for use in this arti cle. 15 "Pemberton F a mil y P a p e rs," Letter o f Oct o b e r 26, 1 849. (John C. P emberton t o Mrs R. C. P emberto n ) 1 6 Cov in gton. Billy Bowle!J,s War pp. 15-17. 17 The l ette r i s found in file box la be l ee.I "Swamp L a nd s ... W. II. G leason Selecti o n s. Talla hassee, FL: T itl e anc.I Land Records Section, D i vision o f S tate L ands, Florida Department o f E nvi ronme n ta l Protection. 18. Ibid The l ette r s a r e n o t in a n y p a rticul a r o rd e r and th e Novembe r l etter lack s a specific d a t e. ] 9 "Ac t s anc.I Resoluti ons of the Gen e ral Assemb l y of the State o f F l o rid a Passed a t a n Adjourned Ses sion 1 8 55. Talla hassee, FL: Office of the Floridi an and J ourna l, 1855 p 60. 20. Q u o t ec.I in Cov in gto n 25. 21. L ette rs of Surveyo r General Volume 9 1853-6 0." P p ] 7-18 T alla hassee, F L : Title and L and Records Section, Division o f Sta t e Lands F l o rid a Depart m ent o f Environmenta l Protection. H e r eafte r L et t e rs o f Surve yor General." 22 .Joe Kne tsch J ohn D a rlin g Indian Trade, lnc.lia n Remova l and the Drainage o f the Eve r g l ac.les." Tampa Bay History. Summer/Fall 1995 Tampa FL: U niv e r s it y o f South F l o rid a. In this issue the autho r discusses in detail the lif e o f John D a rlin g a nd hi s m o tiv es in each of the areas indi catec.I in t h e titl e 23. .John a nd Mar y Lou Miss al!. The Seminole Wars: A meric a's Longest Indian C011flict. Ga in esville: U ni ve rsit y Pr ess of F lorida, 2004. Pp.212-213. 24. Journa l of Proceedin/J,s of th e House 'lf R epresen t a tives of the Genera l Assembly qf th e Seate

Fort Brooke in 1846: Excerpts from a Soldier's Journal Christopher Delano Kimhall Author's Note: While researching the Semi nole Wars in the Orange County Library, I came across this interesting source: Autobiography of an English Soldier in the Unit ed States Army Comprising Observations and Adventures in the States and Mexico, by George Ballentine, printed in New York by Stringer and Townsend, 1853 Ballentine was a soldier in the War in Mexico in the 1840's. In the summer of 1846, h e spent severa l months at Fort Brooke Tampa His observations on the Seminol es are particu l arly interesting, as is his description of life in the Fort during a peaceful lull in the Seminol e Wars After describing the l ocal Seminol es, the author goes on to tell about the rich country that makes up F lorid a and remarks, "Still, as l ong as the Indians remain in its borders, its resources will never have a fair chance of development, as the distant settlers can have no security for life or property while they are in the vicinity." The comment retlects the widespread belief -a pillar of Manifest Destiny -that white settlers and Indians cou ld not peaceably coexist in the same country. It 0 n arriving at Tampa '9 Bay we found another company of our regiment stationed there, two companies being considered requisite for the protection of the inhabitants agains t any sudden outbreak of the In dians These, to the amount of severa l hundred warriors beside squaws and children still occupy a large tract of F l orida called the Everglades; where they live in the same state of rude sav age life to whic h they were accustomed ere the first of the pa l e faces l eft a footprint on their sandy shores ... They have game in abundance, herds of deer roam through the plains and g l ades, and crop their luxuriant her bage; numerous tlocks of wild turkeys roost in the hammocks at night, and feed in the openings and pine barrens by day; and in the creeks and bays of the sea coast, or in the l arge fresh water l akes of the interior, incredible quanti ties of delicious fish are easily caught ... Round their villages, in the selection of a site for wh ich they display excellent taste and judgment, they u sually culti vate a small portion of the soil in raising maize, or edible roots; and the little labour which this requires is performed by the women and children. In this deli cious climate, where there is perpetual verdure, and where the ex istence of cold or winter is scarce l y known or felt, the mode of living of these savages seems not so very disagreeable, and with their ideas of comfort they must find Florida a complete Indian paradise ... It is not much to be wondered at, therefore, to find them so reluctant to leave for a new home among the tribes of the Indian Territory Sooner than submit to this, about fifteen years ago [in 1835] they waged an unequal war with the United States; which lasted severa l years, and cost America nearly as much, it is said, as the late war in 17


0 .,, ("'\ 0 ... 0 b SEMINOLE INDIAN RESERVATION IN CENTRAL FLORIDA 0 10 20 30 40 "?. -0:-.T'-- G t. Seminole lands define d in the 1823 Moultrie Creek Conference Inducements and threats were used to discourage the Seminoles from ranging freely throughout Florida and to remain within the reservation. In all, the Seminoles surrendered 28,253,820 acres of land in return for a plot of just over 4000 acres in Central Florida Not surprisingly, many Seminole chiefs refus e d to sign the treaty. Thirty-two did and Governor DuVal and U.S. President Ca lh oun were content with the treaty. The subsequent widespread refusal of Indians to retreat into the reservation resulted, in 1824, in the founding of a U.S. Army post -Fort Brooke -on Tam pa Bay at the mouth of the Hillsoborough River (Map reprinted from Seminoles: Days of Long Ago, by K enneth W Mulde r Tam pa: Mulder Enterprises, 1 993. )


Map of Ft. Br oo ke. This map was published for the first time in the 1988 Sunland Tribune It dis pla ys the Fort, a pre-C ontact Timucua n Indi a n m ound, the Hillsborough River and two springs (far right) id e ntifi e d by Co l onel George Mercer Brooke (in present-day Ybor City.) E levation sketches at the top of the map show the Indian mound (right, with a gumbo limbo tree presumed to have been us e d in astronomical calculations by the Timucua ns) and (le ft) the Officers' and So ldiers' Quarte r s. (Na tional Arch i ves W as hington D.C ) Mexico. At the present time there are not in Florida more than a fourth, it is supposed, of the number who were there at commencement of the war ; as a great many of them at various times accepted the terms offered by the govern ment of the United States, and were transported to a tract of land called the Indian Territory, lying between Arkansas and the Rock y Mountains Those who refused to l eave, and who were finally permitted to remain in a portion of F lorida defined by certain boundaries, have been variously esti mated at from three to five hundred warriors. But as they have almost no intercourse with the inhabitants, white men not being suffered to approach their villages, it is very difficult to form anything lik e a correct estimate of their numbers. The government agent, sta tion e d at Fort Charlotte, a small settl ement near their boundary line for the purpose of trading with them, and who has been desire d by the government to endeavor without exciting their suspi cions to ascertain their numbers, reek-ons the m at five hundred, exclusive of women and children ... "T hose who remain are part of the tribe or nation of Semino l es; they were as tall on an average as the men of our regiment, and though not near so athlet ic or muscular, generally more gracefu l in personal appearance. They have more yellow than copper in their com plexion, and have the high prominent cheekbones, and that quick furtive, and suspicious g lance of the Indi a n race, which seems watching every moment to make a sudden spring in th e event of any appearance of treachery. Some of their young squaws have a very pleasing expression of countenance, and I h ave seen one or two of these who I believe would be pronounced beautiful ... They wear moccasins made of deer skin, and of their own manufacture; and go bare-l egge d in a short s l eeved sort of tunic, confined at the waist and falling down nearly to the knees in the manner of a Highlander 's kilt to whose ancient costume that of the Florida Indi a n s of the present da y bears a considerable re-1 9


20 semblance, especially when seen at a short distance. Some of them ornament their dress with beads and shells, which they sometimes wear in their hair also and both men and women are fond of wearing large silver rings in their ears and through their nostrils ... Parties of twenty or thirty of these strange-looking visitors frequently came into the village of Tampa Bay while we lay there. They were always accompa nied by a sub-chief, a sort of lieutenant, who had charge of the party, and their object was to exchange deerskins for powder and other necessary articles. They frequently brought a few turkeys or a few pieces of venison part of the game they had shot as they came along; these they sold cheap enough, a turkey fetching a quarter, and a piece of veni son of fifteen or twenty pounds weight, half a dollar ... They always visited the barracks when they came to the village, walking through the rooms and shaking hands with the soldiers in a perfectly friendly manner. None of them, however, under stood English, and we were all equally ignorant of the Seminole, so that our discourse was necessarily limited to the language of pantomime, at which they seemed a vast deal more apt than our men. They showed us marks of gunshot wounds they had received in the Florida war on various parts of their bodies, pointing to our muskets at the same time and shaking their heads; and they seemed highly delighted when one or two of our soldiers, who had been in the Florida war, showed them similar marks, making signs that they had re ceived them from the Indians They laughed and talked to one another with great animation and glee at this circumstance. But the great attraction for them was two six-pounder pieces, which stood in front of the quarters; they al ways approached these with looks of the greatest curiosity, and apparent awe, cautiously patting them as if to propiti ate them. They have the most exaggerated ideas of the destructive effects of artillery of which they stand in horrible dread; and some of our men who were in the Florida war asserted that a chief cause of so many Indians having surrendered towards the close of the war was owing to the Americans having procured two or three light field-pieces, though owing to the swamp y nature of the country, they could not have used them. As they always behaved quietly in the garrison, they were never hindered from strolling round any part of it, strict or ders being given to the soldiers not to molest them. They used no more ceremony with the officers than with the men, frequently walking up to them on the parade, or into their quarters, and offering to shake hands with them with the most perfect nonchalance ... On paying one of these visits to the village it was customary for them to have a bout of drinking and dancing; a sort of Indian ball which they held in a yard behind a house in the village ap propriated exclusively to their use The entertainments of the evening on these occasions, usually consisted in smoking and drinking whiskey until pretty late a few of them dancing at intervals in the most ungraceful and even ludicrous at titudes imaginable They wound up the evening generally with a war dance, in which all who were not too drunk joined. This dance commences slow at first to a low monotonous chant, and in creases in rapidity of time and movement until, like the witches dance in Tam o' Shanter, "the mirth and fun grow fast and furious," and they yell and whoop like a set of demons or incarnate fiends On these occasions, they some times quarreled among themselves and ended the night with a general squabble ; yet as care was always taken, on their ar rival to have their arms taken from them and locked up, until they were ready to return home, there was no danger or any serious accident occurring ...


Lovely Ladies, Stalwart Gents, and Soaring Eagles: Art and Iconography in Tampa Cigar Labels Maureen .J. Patrick I n what might be termed the first flush of America's infatuation with the cig ar, around the mid-1800s, smokes were purchased in bundles of 50 or 100. Quality was uncertain, and no attempt was made to group cigars by a particular maker or brand. Following the Civil War, cigars were more usually boxed than bun dled, and it became common to display the boxes with their lids up. This enabled producers to group and label cigars in a fashion that displayed their uniformity, promoted their distinctive qualities, and marketed particular makers, sizes, and brands. As the cigar trade was changing, print making technology was a l so evo l ving, and soon cigars and prints would be paired in one of the most successful marketing partnerships in Western history. Stone lithography -the making of prints from stone plates, yielding sharper and more consistent prints -had been invented in the eighteenth century, but its uses were limited primarily to book illustrations and other "literary" products. Co lored "art prints" could be produced using lithography, but had to be hand-tinted: an expensive and time-consuming process. In America, the works of printmakers like Currier & Ives reached a broad market, but the absence of color limited the appeal and market uses of the prints. Around 1840, a new print process revolutionized the world of image-making Chromolithography, a technique of produc ing vivid and multiple colors from multiple stone plates, was popularized in America by Louis Prang, a German print-maker whose artistry could generate as many as twenty five colors in a single print. Prang's company was established in Boston around 1860, and made vast changes in art and advertis ing with its command of the new technology. The rich visual impact of multi-colored prints was often augmented with embossing and gilding, which created raised gold coins, jewels, flags, and graphics. Chromolithography was more than "a better mousetrap." It produced changes in material culture as detailed and rich im agery could be incorporated into otherwise ordinary things. In the process items that had only fleeting and superficial social importance gained prestige, while the social behaviors around them expanded to accommodate (or because of) the enhanced visual importance those items took on through the print technology that surrounded them. Take the Victorian valentine, for exam ple. Prior to the widespread employment of chromolithography, valentines had been home-made affa ir s. Often comic and some times containing mocking verses they had a brief lifespan and were considered to be marginally tasteful playthings for carefree young adults. Chromolithography, however, produced the "scrap," a beautifully printed and embossed, often gold-stamped, image, which could be as small as an inch-high cu pid or as large as a five by seven inch portrait bust of a woman. In Germany these were favored by bakers, who embedded them in cakes and cookies. In the U S scraps were so coveted that many people would simply paste them in albums ( scrap-21


22 books"), where they were kept for occa sional viewing and admiration. More enter prising were those who began to use them in valentines These became elaborate pas tiches of scraps, ribbon, buttons, dried flowers, and paste jewels. Since they like their predecessors were hand assembled, they usually left a space for a message, which the sender wrote in before he/she hand delivered the greeting. When chro moli thography became more common, factory production took over from home crafting. Lace papers (papers perforated in complex designs, like doilies) combined with scraps, three-dimensional construc tion (so that cards could open on hidden images, fan out, or stand upright), and pre printed verses to produce the ornate paper confection now thought of as the "classic Victorian valentine." At the same time (the last two decades of the nineteenth century) that chromolith ography was turning the casual February greeting card into a lasting and elaborate memento of affection, it was transforming the cigar label from a lowly product identi fier to a mini-gallery of image-laden art. The art incorporated popular tastes, attitudes, and symbols. These were clear and obvious to nineteenth and early twentieth century cigar customers but today are subtle and es oteric. By examining examples of cigar label art from Tampa, the nation's "Cigar City" in the era, both the obvious and obscure iconography of the product can be displayed. Illustrations Lovely Ladies Women, collectively, were the most popular theme for cigar label art from Tampa facto ries and elsewhere The cigar label women fell into three categories: topical, classical, and imaginary. Topical women included women of the stage, like Julia Marlowe, Min nie Maddern Fiske, and Sarah Bernhardt. Just as their modern-day peers garner me dia attention and epitomize cultural glam our, these Gaslight Era ladies of the theater lent their celebrity to a product and prac tice that could hardly be further from their real-life identities (though it is true that Bernhardt was a cigar devotee.) Classical women represented a distant ideal, as well as an entirely fabricated con nection with the Golden Age of Western Culture. Ladies in graceful chitons, some times holding lutes and posed against Greek columns, were a recurring feature of cigar gar lids. Occasionally the Teutonic history of the West received a nod from its distaff representatives, and valkyries rode out of cigar boxes or dis played Nordic beau ty beneath horned helmets. Imaginary women ran the gamut from smiling village maidens to diaphanously clad houris. Predominant in this category -not sur prisingly were women of apparent Span ish descent. The ethnography of the cigar trade denoted Spain as its birthplace, and right down to the operational structure of the nineteenth century cigar trade Spain and Spanish people held positions of enor mous prestige. (Until American investors achieved a notable market share of the manufacture of cigars, factory ownership was nearly all in Spanish hands, along with the white collar, salaried professions associ ated with the trade.) The Spanish women of the cigar box were all of a type. Beautiful, youthful, richly adorned, and sweetly smil ing, they were not so much a genotype as a cultural type: the coquettish but re spectable bellezas of the Spanish upper class.




Lovely Ladies, continued s 24


Stalwart Gents Expansionist national agendas in the nineteenth century glorified men of action These included political figures, explorers and adventurers, and financiers A link was forged through material culture to figures of legend and history, so that Western civili zation seemed to be one long parade of achievement and glory. The cigar box label was a prominent operator in forging this link, since cigars were widely smoked mostly by men -and the label was an ide al tool to "market" the American sense of participation in history's cavalcade of great ness. Literary figures were especially popu lar, and included Miguel de Cervantes, Vic tor Hugo, Lord Byron, and Shakespeare At times their creative products (like Don Quixote or Romeo and Juliet) could be used as stand-ins for their creators, connecting the American present with the European past Explorers especially those like Chris topher Columbus who opened the New World appeared in heroic poses gazing into imaginary landscapes, while miniature images of their trail-blazing exploits and encounters (sailing ships icebergs Native Americans) figured in the background. Adventurers might include those on the small as well as the large stage of endeavor. Prize fighters (like John L. Sullivan), big game hunters, and baseball greats all stepped up iconographically speaking to sell stogies Men of politics and finance were consid ered modern-day peers of the great explor ers of the Renaissance but also carried the bourgeois appeal of adventurers and sports personalities. Financiers (whom the less enchanted called "robber barons") were, like the mapmakers and conquistadors, often depicted in heroic modes gazing, presum ably, into vast unmapped continents of wealth, ideals, and progress The ordinary fellow smoking a 10-cent cigar named Rockefeller felt himself to be in exalted company 25


Stalwart Gents, continue d 26


Soaring Eagles The iconography of national pride provided a mple material for cigar label artists. Pre dictably the eagle was the most common "wo rd" in the language of patriotism, freedom, and American history as it spoke from cigar labels Other nationalist icons appear, however with regularity : coins or cornu copeia (symbolizing American plenty and wealth), wreaths (the laurels of achievement), the U.S. shield (suggesting military might) the U.S. flag various national figures (Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, etc.), Lady Liberty, the White House, even vistas of prairie (the American "f ields of grain".) These and other images worked to affiliate cigars with national pride. When Thomas Riley Marshall (U.S. Vice-President from 1913 to 1921) opined: "What this country needs is a really good five cent cigar,'' he wasn't joking. The practice and products of the tobacco trade had become embedded in the American way of life and the very idea of Americanism. It is no accident that chromolithography and the cigar faded at about the same time : the early 1920s. Prohibition closed the beer gardens and saloons where cigar sales (and use) had long thrived. Cigarettes cheap, addictive, and mass-produced replaced the leisurely tradition of the hand-rolled cigar. Chromolithography encountered its own hard times. Bavarian stone for plates was becoming scarce and was too expensive to cut and ship to America. The process it self was too labor-intensive to survive, uti lizing as many as ten or a dozen artisans to get from stone plate to printed product. With the Great Depression looming, smokers identified the hand-rolled Havana panatela grande with wealth and privilege while the lowly cigarette became the badge of the working man. Cheap metal plates and photomechanical printing replaced the ponderous stones and slow artistry of chro molithography. Radio made the jingle and the slogan more powerful marketing tools than the attractive but mute label. The cigar box, with its elegant art and savory contents, slipped away for decades until modern connoisseurs rediscovered Lovely Ladies, Stalwart Gents, and Soaring Eagles. 27


S o a rin g Eag l es, continu e d ENDNOTES Some materi a l for this articl e came from t h e following sources: Th e Art of the C igar : Bands and Box L a b e ls b y Arm a nd E isen ( Kansas C ity, M O: U ni ve r sa l Pr ess Sy n dicat e, 1997.) Ciga r Box Lab e ls : Portraits of L ife Mirrors of H istory b y J e rry Pe t ro n e (Sc hiff e r Publi s hin g 1 998.) Th e Democr a ti c Art: Pictures for a Ni n e t een th Century A m erica: C h ro m o lith ograp h y 1 8 40-1 900 b y P e t e r C. M a r z i o (Am o n Cart e r Museum o f W es t e rn A rt 1 9 7 9 ) Th e author a lso acknowl e d ges th e valuable assis ta n ce of Mike Turbevill e ( in preparing this a rti cle A ll th e l abels p i ctured a r e fro m th e Collec tion of T ampa Hist ori cal Socie ty, In c So uth Florida s P i oneer Paper House" PAPER, PAPER BAGS AND TWINE, WOODENWARE GALVANIZED WARE AND PAPER SPECIALTIES Founded 1911 Four generation s of family owner s hip three presently active 5101 East Hanna, Tampa (813) 621-3091 FAX (813) 623-1380


Log of the Confucius Charles Fuss Editor's Note: C harlie Fuss made his d ebut as a contributor to Th e Sunland Tribune in l ast year's issue. His memoir "Sea Scout, POW was w a rmly received by readers both nautical and landlubbing. Sailor s jargon as ide Fuss' writing r e calls the pl aces, peopl e, a nd atmosphere of Tampa more than a h alf century go n e, so we are delighted to bring thos e memories to light again in this articl e. All illustrations are courtesy of the auth or. H ome Front, 1943 The U Boats had r e tre a t e d from the Gulf of M e xico. I saw her, a nd I l oved her. The boat cost $65 ( "as i s.") Sea trials in Lightne r s Ca nal. It s hollow spruce mast sto l e my heart. I cou ld picture it carrying her Marconi rig a l oft. She had a lot of sheer, good honest lin es, and l ooked a littl e lik e a dory Her 14foot pine frame was covered with marine plywood Th e canvas deck was a m ess and her sails were in awf ul condition but I was determined to make this littl e boat a part of my life The O ld Man wasn t hard to con vince.He was empl oyed now and was r e coverin g from the loss of his contracting busi n ess during the Great Depr ess ion. The boat was in the back yard of a home in South Tampa. W e clos e d the de a l with th e l ady of the house and she loaned us a battered o ld trailer to tote m y prize to Lightner's fish camp on a canal that emptied into Old Tampa Bay. 29


J O Billy P hilli ps C h a rli e Fu ss and Capta in Jack I w as thirtee n ye ars o ld a nd h a d been afloa t o n th e u s uall y d eserte d a nd n e arl y pri s tin e B ay as much a s schoo l Sc o uts a nd M o m w o uld all o w M y fir s t b oa t d efie d n a utica l d es cripti o n I built it in 1 9 41 fro m c h e ap w oo d construction l a th s a nd c ove r e d it with s u ga r sacks d o n a t e d b y th e l oca l b a k e r y Th e b oa t w as fairl y wate rti ght th a nk s t o nume rou s c oa t s o f h o u se p a int. My c o ncern e d p a r e nts limit e d m y early d eploy m ents t o ve r y n ear-s h o r e w a t e r s I s w o r e I d wear m y y ello w Mae W es t lif e j acket. Co n s t ant g roundings o n m a n y oys t e r bar s t oo k a t oll o n th e fragile b otto m o f m y s ugar sack craft so P o p a g r ee d t o r epla c e it with m y se c o nd craft a 10 -foo t c ypress s kiff I e quipp e d thi s b oa t with a jury -ri gge d sail se wn b y m y m othe r b e t wee n praye r s for m y brothe r wh o was fly in g ammo t o the M a rin es fig htin g o n G uadalc a n al. Th e s kiff w ent fairl y w ell d o wnwind but b eca u se s h e h a d n o keel o r cente rb o ard s h e w as a row b oa t t o windw a rd I l ea rn e d a b out tid es in th e s kiff wh e n I w as trapp e d aga in s t a brid ge in a strong e bb Thi s n e w b oa t promi se d m o r e a dv ance d and e x c itin g sa il in g a d ventures Y a rd w o rk s t arte d imm ediate l y M y exp erie n ce was limit e d t o s u ga r sac k con s tru ctio n but I go t t echnica l ad v ice fro m M r Lightne r a n ex 2 nd cl ass Navy machini s t m a t e I s tripp e d th e o ld ca n vas fro m th e d eck and r e m ove d th e h a lf-round ru b rails fro m th e s id es. I bo u ght a goo d piece o f ca n vas t o cove r th e deck Th e tri c k w as t o cut out th e o p e nin g for th e cockpit so th a t a s in g l e piece fit snug l y around the combin g with e n o u g h m a t eria l t o drape ove r th e s id es a nd r each th e b o w a nd s t e rn. Th e ca n v as w as h eld in place with t acks Th e deck w as s prinkl e d lib e rall y with w a t e r a nd th e h o t s un s h ra nk th e ca n vas a nd stre t c h e d it ti ght. Aft e r r efas t e nin g th e rub rails a nd th e c ockpit quarter-ro und s th e e xc ess m a t eria l w as trimm e d A light coa t o f p aint fini s h e d th e j o b -but n o t t oo muc h o r th e ca n vas w o uld l ose it s n o ns kid t exture Th e b otto m w as c ove r e d with e xp e n s i ve a nti-foulin g bottom p aint t o try t o w a rd off th e drea d e d torp e d o w o rm s so co mm o n in southe rn w a t e rs I mad e a d ea l with an a wnin g s h o p for a se t of unbleach e d sa ils for a b out $3 0 Th e s h o p o wn e r u se d th e old se t as a p atte rn B y fall, w e w e r e r ea d y for sea -tri a l s My s t ea dfa s t frie nd Billy Phillip s se r ve d as c r e w Billy a nd I purc h ase d yachting ca p s a t a l oca l m a rin e s uppl y s t o r e t o c e l e b ra t e th e occas i o n W e had a fin e tim e, e v e n th o u g h our v oyage w as n t v e r y l o ng. W e tack e d back and forth in Lightne r's C an al. The littl e b oa t p e rform e d w ell con s id e rin g m y limit e d s kill. It w as tim e t o n a m e th e b oat. I h a d a fix a ti o n o n th e C hin a coas t b e c a u se o f t a l es m y U ncl e J o hn t o ld m e a b out th e Y a n g t ze p a trol n o t t o m e nti o n Mr. Lightne r s s t ories a b out S h a n g hai a nd m y favo rit e comi c s trip : T e rry and the Pir a t es 1 h a d r ea d a n a rticl e a b out a s mall s l oo p name d Co rifu-Fu ss h o ldin g Pa l t h e ray p ointer.


The remains of the "Caribbean Village" on Rocky Point built for the film Hell Harbor. cius designed by a young couple who sailed it from California to Hawaii, arriving, unfor tunately, in time for the Pearl Harbor raid. I wanted a Chinese name and the ancient philosopher's sounded right. My fourteen foot sloop became Confucius and Old Tam pa Bay was my South China Sea. I made a log from a small blue notebook and my mother sewed a b lu e house flag with a yel low Chinese looking "C. In the spring of 1944, my brother Jack came home on leave from the South Pacif ic. Recently, I had almost drowned his wife, who had gone sailing with me. The incident occurred when I made the mistake of tying down the main sheet. A sudden strong gust of wind knocked the boat down Peggy was trapped under the port shrouds and drank a lot of Bay water. My self -respect suffered but I learned a valuable lesson. Fortunate ly we were over a sandbar and were able to right the boat, retrieve the floating equipment, take the sails down and bail her out. Peggy lost interest in sailing. As the summer progressed, I ventured further past the old decaying dredge by the mouth of Lightner's Canal. I kept a sharp eye peeled for the ten foot hammerhead shark we had named "Hitler." He some times cruised that part of the Bay My dog Pal had been with me since I was three years old and was enlisted as my new sail ing partner. He was an old yellow mixed breed, not very handsome but fiercely loy al. He would do anything for me Old Tam pa Bay was fringed with mangroves in those days and the water was usually crystal clear. Great spotted eagle rays (we called them leopard rays) came into the bay dur ing the summer and sometimes we d see them on the sandy bottom. Pal developed an eye for the big bottom feeders. He barked whenever he saw one from his lookout position on the bow He pointed rays like a bird dog I had enjoyed Moby Dick so I mentally substituted the great rays for the great whale I talked the Old Man into mak ing an iron "harpoon" in the shop at Drew Field where he was the new superintendent of post engineers. Pal pointed a lot of rays and I hurled that harpoon until my arm ached. One fateful day we drifted nearly becalmed in about six feet of moonshine clear water. My old yel low dog set to sounding off, waking me from a heat-induced stupor. There on the bottom was a leopard ray at least six feet across We'd never seen one in water this shallow I took my time with the harpoon, holding the forestay with my left hand and making sure I had a good position on the foredeck. I let go with a mighty heave backed by my 115-pound body There was a great flurry of water. I had struck the beast! We went for a short but memorable "Nantucket sleigh ride before the puny tip of the harpoon pulled out. I was more confident in my ability to handle Confucius in tight circumstances after surviving a few line squalls by getting the canvas down expeditiously and the hook out with plenty of scope. It was miser able being soaked by rain though, so I built a plywood shelter to fit over the forward half of the cockpit. This would also house my Boy Scout sterno stove in a small sand box Mr. Lightner said the old sailors called it a "caboose." I got a decent camber in the roof and cut two nearly perfect round port holes Confucius was ready for cruising! It would be a bit tight in the cockpit but my skinny frame didn't need much room. Pal was satisfied He would perch on top of the caboose when we ran down wind I was Log book and flag of Confucius 3 1


32 Confucius with caboose ready for longer stays on the water. The first hurdle was to convince my mom that Pal and a good anchor were all I needed for safety on an overnight cruise. Mom had a basic fear of salt water, and kept harping about a fourteen year old in a boat at night with no means of communicating. Pop was neutral. I wore Mom down with arguments that the whole world was dan gerous now and that I was not likely to encounter any U-boats in Tampa Bay. She finally gave in after assurances from Mr. Lightner that I was a competent mariner. Pal and I got underway on a sweltering Florida summer day. Thankfully there was a moderate westerly breeze. Off we went on a port tack, the sails drawing fair My overnight port-of-call was Hell Harbor, the crumbling remains of a 1930 set for a pirate movie of the same name, starring Lupe Valez. Hell Harbor was on Rocky Point about three and a half nautical mile s from Lightner's Canal. The distance sounds triv ial today but it was a challenge to us. Back then there were no bridges spanning tha t part of the Bay The only hazards to naviga tion on my track were oyster bars and some rotted old pilings off the Point. The Bay seemed unbelievably wide. We brought the harpoon along for de fense against any "cutthroats" who might be lurking about in Hell Harbor There was little boat traffic ; I could sail all day and not see a soul. We mad e our landfall in about two hours, having deviated offshore a bit to catch the wind abaft the beam. Hell Harbor was deserted. The old tower had crumbled and the wood and plaster build ings were falling apart. Most of the palmetto roofs in the "Ca ribbean village" had blown away. Pal and I patrolled the rundown village armed with a scout knife and the h arpoon. It was s pooky but at least it was daylight. There were no cutthroats. We had planned to b e anchored offshore b y nightfall Swatting more than a few mosquitoes we managed to eat our sandwiches on the beach Pal pe e d on everything in sight. By sunset, we were safely anchored about fifty yards off the point and clear of most of the swarming pests Dinner for all hands was canned stew. After pacing from bow to stern and over the top of the ca boose, P a l finally settled down. The stars were a spectacle of diamonds. There were no shore lights Now and again a single car crossed a causeway in the distance. Fatigue took over and I lay in my narrow berth, lis tening to the gentle brush of the wavelets against the bottom. SMACK! My slumber w as shattered by what h a d to be a truck landing in the water. Pal came unhinge d and barked frantically I sat bolt upright cracking my skull against the low cabin overhead. I was scared stiff I checked around and made sure the boat was okay My flashlight cast a weak beam over the water. There was a large swirl about ten yards away. What had fallen from the sky? If it w as a n airplane, it must be a noisel ess glider because I hadn' t heard engine sounds. A few minutes later, as I looked toward the lighter horizon of the open bay, I saw a blurred shape explode from the water. It hung suspended in the air, and then crashed to the surface with the same loud smack. The g r ea t spotted rays had taken their r eve ng e on the har pooners of the sloop Confucius. I got more involved in Sea Scouting in 1944 with the added attractions of a Navy type uniform and h arbor p a trols with the


Coast Guard Reserve (Temporary ) These endeavors required my presence in and around the Port of Tampa and on Hillsbor ough Bay. Training was included on the Chesapeake Bay bugeye Blue Dawn and lifeboats from the merchantman Exeter that had been sunk by a U -b oat. In 1945, I moved Corrfucius to the Tampa Yacht Club next to the Sea Scout base at Ballast Point. Corifucius was back where I had found her. She went mostly unused because of other priorities and my focused effort to complete the requirements for Quartermaster Sea Scout. I took the little s lo op out for the last time in 1946 and made a run in front of one of the typical line squalls that came roaring out of the Southeast late on summer after noons. I was coming home wing and wing at a record rate of speed Suddenly my beauti ful hollow mast carried away at the spreader. My friend was hurt. A Sea Scout motor launch towed me in. I later sold the boat "as is The Corifucius was a critical moment in my passage to adulthood. I learned l essons aboard her that helped me survive years at sea in the Merchant Service, the Navy and deployments aboard Government research vessels and US Coast Guard cutters. (Reprinted with permission from Soundings Publica tions LLC) SERVING SOUTH TAMPA FOR OVER 18 YEARS Email your file to: srspeedy@tam pabay. rr. com A FULL SERVICE PRINTING COMPANY PROVIDING: Graphic Design Multi-Co/or Printing Letterhead & Envelopes Business Cards Brochures Digital Color Copies Digital B lack & White Copies Flyers Newsletters Manual & Reports Invitations Labels Rubber Stamps Complete Bindery Presentation Folders 83 "1 -4797 -.


The Sunland Tribune: A Retrospective Maureen J. Patrick T he Beatles song runs: "It was thir ty years ago today." The Sunland Tribune's publication history has the lyric beat by four years. The first issue of the Society's annual journal of local history debuted in July 1974, and sold for $3.00 a copy. (Then, as now, the journal was free to Members.) Tampa the Society, and the Sunland have all changed radically since that first issue Some things, amazingly, have stayed the same. While the cost of publishing and mailing the journal have skyrocketed to nearly $18 per copy, the Sunland is still provided free to Society Members as a ben efit of membership in Hillsborough Coun ty's oldest history organization. The Sunland has presented the Society with other challenges besides cost. Never a paid position, the Editorship of the journal has always been a formidable job, one that demands both scholarship and the desire to give hugely to public history without compensation other than the satisfaction of serving the Society and Tampa's heritage Leland M. Hawes, Jr., Anthony Pizzo, James Covington, Hampton Dunn Frank North, Lois Lattimer, and others served long and tirelessly in the Editor's chair. Authors ap pearing in the journal include the best and most dedicated of researchers in the field of local history. They include not only all the Sunland's editors but scholar/writers such as Paul Camp, Jr., Frank Laumer, Spessard Stone, Harrison Covington, Rowena Brady, Joe Knetsch, Arsenio Sanchez, Gary Mor mino, James W Covington, Richard Clarke, Charles Arnade, Susan Carter, Rodney Kite Powell, Yael Greenberg-Pritzker, Pamela Gibson, Charles A. Brown, Kyle VanLand ingham, Glenn Westfall, Lois Latimer, Canter Brown, Jr., and others too numerous to mention. Topics explored between the Sunland's covers include every aspect of local history, heritage, genealogy, and material culture. Readers have relived the conflict and tragedy of the Seminole Wars, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, and World Wars I and II. They have seen early and intimate Tampa life through the memoirs of its founding families. They have walked the sandy streets of the town before it had a bridge across the Hillsborough River, when Ft. Brooke was still a garrisoned Army post. They have watched D.P. Davis dredging bot tom sand from Tampa Bay to create a fabu lous Mediterranean island development, and have seen Tampa International Airport rise from palmetto scrub. They have waded through Spanishtown Creek, built the Tam pa Bay Hotel, held the line with striking cigar workers, and buried their beloved dead at Oaklawn Cemetery. Personalities 35


36 and landmarks have come and gone and people born in the year The Sunland Tribune first came out can hardly recognize their childhood home But through all those changes, and through a succession of loving hands, the journal has survived Producing the The Sunland Tribune is not the only task Tampa Historical Society has had -and continues to have in hand. Its yearly agenda, while always crowded, has expanded and diversified to include everything from two annual events at Oaklawn Cemetery to a Victorian Christ mas event at the Knight House to documentary films on Tampa history to an annual Halloween fundraiser in Ybor City. Through it all, however, The Sunland Tribune has remained Task One, the largest single ex pense in the Society's budget and the undis puted jewel in its crown of achievements. It has been my very great pleasure to be Editor of The Sunland Tribune for the past three years. A contributing author for some years prior, I had no idea just what the job of editing the Sunland entailed when I took it on -and that's a good thing When one reads the masthead of nearly every compa rable publication, one sees a healthy list of participants in the publication process: assistant editors, copy editors, layout staff, graphics designers, art designers, advertis ing managers. For good or ill, The Sunland Tribune is a one-man (or woman) show. If members of the limited publication team (writers, a printer, a graphic designer) have problems, resolution rests with the Editor. If the Society's Board have input on the for mat, costs, or deadlines, it is directed at the Editor If readers have issues with the look, content, or arrival date of the journal, the buck stops with the Editor. Far from turning me away from the Sunland, the multiple challenges and the degree of investment that so many in (and out of) the Society have in its publication have been "the ever fixed mark" that has enabled me to stay at the helm for three of the most demanding -and rewarding years of my life. Tampa's history landscape is hugely altered from the days when Tony Pizzo and a handful of other interested and self-de scribed "history buffs" founded Tampa His torical Society. Thanks to the longevity and growth of the Ybor City Museum Society and the Henry B. Plant Museum, as well as the huge developments surrounding the Tampa Bay History Center, it is no longer necessary or advisable for Tampa Historical Society to be an "umbrella organization" of local history. The Society is therefore re defining itself just as The Sunland Tribune has re-defined itself repeatedly -during its long and illustrious history. Whatever the future holds for Hillsborough County's oldest history organization, readers and Members should know that deep love and commitment to memory and heritage will guide its decisions and direct the form the Society and the Sunland take in the future. And now some excerpts from the past three-plus decades of The Sunland Tribune. "Early Days at Fort Brooke," by Col. George Mercer Brooke, Jr., The Sunland Tribune, 1974 Editor's Note: For a number of early is sues one article constituted the history content of The Sunland Tribune. Augmented by Society news and a few ads, the thin journal was still eagerly awaited by Mem bers, as nothing of its caliber had hitherto fed the hunger of Tampans for well-researched reading material on local history and heritage. The single offering of the 1974 issue Volume 1, Number 1 was written by a lineal descendant of the Army commander whose 1824 posting Fort Brooke brought Tampa to life. Life on a frontier post was marked by danger, monotony, and hard work As the posts were building usually to meet a particular frontier situation, they were frequently abandoned as the tide of settlement passed on, only to be re activated if conditions changed once more. To add to the confusion, the same name was sometimes given to posts at different locations, built at dif ferent times In those days there was little to attract recruits for the work was hard, the discipline was strict, and the pay was only $5.00 a month. A civilian could purchase eighty acres of land for $100 or earn a dollar a day as a laborer. The cantonments were especially vul nerable to epidemics and there was a constant dread in Southern posts of yellow fever, typhoid, dysentery, and sometimes smallpox. It was a day when reliance was placed on the militia and there was little appreciation of the Regular Army . Desertion was another problem. The return for December


1824 showed that during the preceding three months fourteen men had been sentenced to hard labor by General Court Martial for desertion. One man had eluded capture for one year, ten months, and twenty-two days, and another for eight months, thirteen days. One restless soul was a three time deserter. In the remarks column [if the post's monthly report] four were characterized as worthless. "Hell Harbor's 55th Anniversary," by L. Glenn Westfall, The Sunland Tribune, 1984 Editor's Note: Hell Harbor, a pirate/Caribbean potboiler, was the first "talkie" made in Florida. It was shot on Rocky Point in 1929. The film had its local premiere to a capacity crowd at The Victory Theater on Franklin Street. "After the set was completed and the extras hired, it took three months to film Hell Harbor. Fortunately, Mother Nature cooperated with warm and sun nyweather, and the lack of rain allowed producers to follow a routine schedule. The most serious threat to production came from a rooster whose continuing crowing interrupted a scene supposedly shot far out in the ocean. The film crew had to re-shoot this scene several times before the rooster was finally quieted. Other than this amusing incident, the production when extremely well. In an age in which stars were treated like Gods and Goddesses, Tampans were awed with the presence of Holly wood notables in their own back yard This adulation was clearly evident when the female star of the film the Latin bombshell Lupe Velez, arrived to Tampa by train. When she stepped off the train car, Florida Governor Carlton greeted her. According to Lupe, this was the first time a Governor had honored her. Speaking with a distinctive Spanish dialect, she said, 'am ver' please to m eet you, S enor Governor. But why dees beeg crowd?'" "My National Troubles: The Civil War papers of William McCullogh," by Kyle S. VanLandingham, The Sunland Tribune, 1994 Editor's Note: William McCullogh enlist-ed in the U.S. Army in 1839; his company arrived at Tampa Bay in 1840. In the un easy interval between the Second and Third Seminole Wars, McCullogh served at various posts, served in scouting expeditions to track the movements of renegade Seminole bands, and participated in the back and forth hostilities between the Army and Indians that eventually resulted in all-out war. After his military service,McCullogh and his wife went to Paynes Creek, where McCul logh worked for the Kennedy and Darling trading post. Their daughter Ida McCullogh Walker left an account, transcribed in Van Landingham's article of the attack and destruction of the post by Seminoles in 1849, and the McCulloghs' harrowing flight to safety "My Father fought his way out with my mother and baby. They were badly wounded There was a creek with a log to cross on so Father took the baby and made my mother get down and crall [sic] across the log. They were lost in the woods and it rained on them. My Father tore bark down from pine logs and made a shelter for mother and the Baby Mother tore up her skirt and bound up their wounds. The next morning they found their way out of the timber by go ing out the way mother had dreamed. They found everything as she had dreamed. Grandfathers house [was] burned down and his cattle drove off. They headed for the fort. Editor's Note: The rigors of pioneer life at a trading post at the outbreak of the Third Seminole War paled by comparison to McCullough s stint in the Union Army dur ing the Civil War. Blockades fever deser tions starvation and enemy attack made for unrelenting agony among McCullough s comrades, as these reports from his posting near Cedar Key attest. "August 26, 1864. Major Weeks left for the steamer which we left lying at the mouth of the Suwanee river ashore. The sickness still prevails at this post to a great extent. From 4 to 6 die per day the diseases are typhoid diarrhea, and fever with putrid sore mouth. The sick rooms have a very bad smell and are sickening on entering them, so much so that I have had to leave immediately, or 37


38 throw up myself from the bad effects they had on me ... Sept. 3, 1864. No news today, and no rations yet, three days without bread The troops are trying to eat some rotten flour the last sent from Key West some 200 barrels; this flour has been set out doors on account of the worms and wee vils in it. Is this kind of diet that sickens and kills the people so fast. This flour is as bitter as gall. Six of my men are taken sick today from the effects of this bad flour, have high fevers and vomit ing. I think this flour should be thrown into the river but no one can do it without an order of the commander of the post, or the doctor." *Editor's Note: The "rotten flour from Key West was undoubtedly coontie flour. The production of flour from Zamia inte grifolia was a major Key industry in the midto late 1800s. The flour required careful processing, as the root itself is poi sonous. Improper processing, as well as spoilage during the long transport from Key West, may have caused the problems McCullough reported. A Union soldier cut off at the War's end in a bitterly anti-Union region, McCullough did not soon see a resolution of what he called his "national troubles." Unable de spite repeated attempts to collect his Army back pay and pension because of charges of supply theft, McCullough always main tained that dishonest officers had framed enlisted men for their own crimes. (McCul lough's dishonorable discharge was later repealed.) Deeply embittered, McCullough wrote in 1866: "For this I was hunted like a wild beast of the woods, and driven from my home and all I possessed in the world, but my beloved family." Editor's Note: In the chaos of Reconstruction, McCullough and his family, increasingly destitute, drifted from place to place in the South, finally settling in Missouri. "No Favors for these 'Fine Little Ladies': Employment Discrimination against Tampa's Women Workers at the End of World War II" by Rebekeh Heppner. The Sunland Tribune, 2004-05 (Thirtieth An-niversary Double Edition.) Editor's Note: 1-Ieppner 's deeply researched article brought to light hitherto overlooked local press coverage of the "Rosie the Riveter" phenomenon in Tampa's workplaces. While the entry of hundreds of local women into what had been largely male professions made a temporary stir, postwar conditions eliminated the progress that many of them made during the war years toward professional equity. "Upon opening their daily newspapers the morning of July 28, 1942 Tampa residents were introduced to the their first woman welder, Mrs. Alma Brown of Tampa Shipbuilding Company. Here is how the paper chose to 's pin' the story: 'Mrs. Brown is 35, weighs 135 pounds, is five feet six, and the mother of two youngsters, a daughter 3-112 years old and another younger ... and let it be said right here for the boys from the bigshots to the fellow at her elbow, they were gentlemen, trying to ease a rough road for a fine little lady . making 89 cents an hour as a welder learner,' and no favors .. .' When the war ended, no favors' for the women workers in Tampa were to be found. Despite the fact that the press continually reported they had been doing unusually well ,' taking on jobs that required unusual physical strength for women ,' and were 'as efficient and effective as employees who enlisted or were called in the draft ,' they were the first to be let go at the War's con clusion ... A conference in Tampa in February 1945 was to be 'between women leaders and industrial executives on postwar problems .' The actual speakers and top ics, however, had very little to do with women Only one woman addressed the conference, and she was the only speaker to discuss women's postwar adjustment: 'Clearly, in the minds of those who held the local economic power victo ry meant that it was time for women to leave the shipyards and return to the kitchens.'


Soeiety Snapshot:; from 2007 -2008 Society President M aureen Patrick in 1890s attire, introduces the event and its theme to vis it ors. Bonnie Smith, as Abija Turman, recounts the tumultuous times of Civil War era Tampa and the efforts of Simon Turman, Jr., owner/publisher of The P eninsular, to make the village of Tampa into a c i ty. Oaklawn Ramble, April 2007 The 2007 Oaklawn Ramble had as its theme 'XXX Newspapermen buried at Oak.l awn Tampa's early pub lishers, pressmen, and journalists are well represented at the City's oldest public burying ground Living hi sto ry performers delighted a large audience with their incharacter 'visits' to the 'under ground press .' In April, 2007 -just in time for the Oakl awn Ramble Devin Marks of the F l orida Heritage Ce lebration and the Downtown Tampa Rotary C lub rolled up their s l eeves to clean the Cemetery. In this photo, Devin stands triumphant over sixteen bags of dead leaves raked from th e site! Actor Billy Martinez reads from the memoirs of Roland Manteiga publisher of the tri-lingual newspaper La Gaceta. 39


40 Oaldawn Ramble continued Jimi L y n c h p o rtrays H enry, a p r ess m a n o n W allace Stovall's T a mpa Mon 1i n g ?Tibune A New Holiday Event In Decemb e r 2007 th e Soc i e t y h os t e d a h o lid ay O p e n H o u se at th e Knight I-lo u se. Th e th e m e w as Th e Knight H o u se Dr esse s for th e H olidays." E ach ro o m w as d eco r a t e d in V ict oria n h o lid ay s t y l e, a nd m a nn e quin s di splay in g th e Soc i e t y's antique c l o thin g collecti o n p ortraye d f estive dress as P e t e r a nd Lilli e Knight mi ght h ave kn o wn it. A h oliday wrea th o n t h e doo r of 245 S Hyde Par k Ave n u e w e lcom e d v i s itors t o th e Society s H oliday O p e n House. Mike Nort o n as D.B. McK ay r e minisces a b out Tampa s past and the c reati o n o f hi s l o ng-running hi s t o r y f e a tu re in th e T a m pa Trib un e, Pion ee r F l orida.


A New Holiday Event continued In the Parlor, a Christmas tree was decorated with holiday postcards from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The original master bedroom (now the Office) of the House displayed boudoir furnishings including a double bed with crocheted spread. This 1930s cocktail suit, along with other vintage attire, was ready to be donned. The Library and Cigar Room was lush with table top displays of holiday greenery, gold ribbons, and vintage cigar boxes while a velvet theater dress stood in a corner. Beside it, a circa1910 leather traveling case is partially packed, hinting at plans for a trip out of town. 41


42 A New Holiday Event continued ----....... -........ --G u es t D e vin Mark s ( in a vintage go l f in g e nsembl e) and Boa rd Membe r Jeanne Dunba r K e ith e nj oye d h o liday spirit in the S un R oo m wh e r e the W atro u s Doll !l o use p ro vid e d the the me: Childre n 's Toys and Ga m es. GreenFest 2008 This Orie n ta l s ilk c. 1 9 0 0 s m oking jack e t s tood in the Libra r y a n d C i ga r Room in the Vic tori a n Age 1\vo yea r s ago, T ampa His t orical Soc i e ty, In c. was ask e d t o p a rti c ip a t e in th e annua l G reen Fes t in Plant Parle T hi s event, w hi c h d ra w s th o u sa nd s t o th e P a rk i s a di splay o f ga rd e nin g a t it s F l o rid a bes t. O r ga ni ze r s h o p e d th a t th e So ci e t y w o uld p rov id e a t ouch o f h e rit age a nd hi s t o r y t o th e three-d ay ga l a, a nd th e Soc i e t y o bli ge d b y s t a ffin g a Soc i e t y informa ti o n t a bl e with Membe r s in p e ri o d dress. T h e V i c t oria n age was fam o u s for it s ga rd e n s a nd ga rd e n e r s, as h o m e h orticulture beca m e a n atio n a l p as tim e. A v iew of P lant Park tra n sfo rmed by scor es of ex h ib i to r s int o a ga rden e r s paradi se.


GreenFest 2008 continued Society Member Cat Camp, in antebellum garden party attire. Society Boa rd Member Paul Camp displays the attire of a "ge ntleman farmer" in the Victorian Age. 43


About the Authors Charles Fuss, a Tampa native, achieved Quartermaster, the Sea Scouts' highest rank. He went to sea in the Merchant Marine at an early age, served in the U.S. Navy during the Korean War, and later earned a Master of Science degree from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. After thirtyone years in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Fuss retired. He has authored Sea of Grass (published b y the Naval Institute Press) and over fifty magazine and journal articles. Fuss and his wife Carol live in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. Christopher D. Kimball currently works as the Park Services Specialist at Collier-Semi nole State Park in Naples, Florida He holds a B.A. in Public Administration from the University of Central Florida. A researcher in Florida history and Seminole culture for over 25 years, he also participates in living history programs throughout Florida and in several other states. Kimball has written and published many articles on Florida and Seminole history, and has been active in the Florida Anthropological Society and the National Association of Interpreters. Joe Knetsch has authored over 170 articles on Florida history and surveying. His d e grees include a B.S. from Western Michigan University, an M.A. from Florida Atlantic University, and a Ph.D. from Florida State U niversity. Dr. Knetsch's published works include Floridas Seminole Wars: 1817-1858 and Faces on the Frontier: Surveyors and Developers in 19th Century Florida. His current lit erary project is Florida, Cuba, and the Spanish-American War, to be pub lish e d by the Florida Historical Press later this year. The author of a regular history column in Professional Surveyor Magazine, Dr. Knetsch also serves as the histori a n for the Division of State Lands, Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Maureen J. Patrick is a native Tampan. She holds an M.A. in Humanities from the Uni versity of South Florida. Her research inter ests embrace various aspects of American and European nineteenth century cultural history. Ms. Patrick is a frequent contributor to academic journals and symposiums, and has done singular research on nineteenth century Florida rural cemeteries. The former Curator/Education Curator at the Ybor City Museum, Ms. Patrick has worked with the Henry B. Plant Museum as a living history/museum theater specialist for 18 years. Ms. Patrick is the current President of the Tampa Historical Society. William A. Knight Attorney at Law Board Certified Criminal Trial Lawyer 633 North Franklin Street Suite 725 Tampa, Florida 33602 Telephone (813) 221-6663 Fax (813) 221-6494


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Book Reviews War Dance at Fort Marion: Plains Indian War Prisoners by Brad D. Lookingbill (Norman, OK: Un iversity of Oklahoma Press, 2006.) 304 pp. Review by Joe Knetsch, Ph.D. B rad Lookingbill's book presents a unique view of the cultural clash seen so often in the American frontier As the nomadic, buffalohunting Native American tribes on the Great Plains attempted to resist a flood of settlers and the U.S. Army, the match was unequal and the outcome predictable. Numbers of Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanch e were killed or forced into reservations. Their warriors and l eaders were sequestered, often far from their peo ple and given the choice to acculturate or remain incarcerated. Efforts to "civilize" the captured Indians were presided over by Richard Henry Pratt, the military figure who sought to transform his captives into pseudo-Whites complete with mainstream language skills and trades. A n essenti a l part of this transformation was iso l ating the Indians from their geographica l and cultural contexts. For a significant number, that meant transportation to and incarceration in Fort Marion: the o ld Spanish Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine, Florida. Whatever the goa l s for Pratt's program were, the results for his Indi an captives were l arge l y disastrous. C limate and the un h ealt h y conditions in the aged fort produced one of the worst results : widespread tuberculosis Many who survived the actual imprisonment and were returned to their homeland s died later of the disease. Anot her facet of the program that failed was l an guage re-education, though this was later remedied to some degree thanks to the interventi on of l oca l volunteers. These St. Augustine residents many of them female, interceded for the captives in many re spects, and many remained lif elong friends and confidants The freedom to mingle with locals not on l y eased the prisoners' confinement but may have been a wise precau tion aga inst escape. On l y once was there an escape attempt, which Pratt' s forces quick l y put down Pratt r eflected the prevailing attitude of the era when it came to the re-education" 47


of America's Native peoples: that it should to whatever degree possible, be financed by the Natives themselves Accordingly Pratt encouraged s h ows and displays of Native music, dance, and crafts while proceeds from these and the sa l e of souvenirs helped finance the prisoners' education and al lowed for some funds to be sent home to families. Other contemporary attitudes insured that the prisoners' education was strongl y s lanted toward Christian beliefs and the acquisiti on of usable trade skills. Lookingbill's narrative of the Fort Marion episode is both schol arly and compassionate. The book produces a sense of intimacy with Roman Nose, Lone Wolf Buffalo Calf (a woman), Boy Hunting and Mak in g Medicine as they pass through the book and sometimes out of lif e Lookingbill also presents a balanced picture of Pratt's efforts that in the spirit of the times was seen as both a moral and practical obligation to a conquered people, an effort to insure their ultimate survival in what, for them, was a fundamentally changed world. The fact that so many of the prisoners voluntarily took advantage of a chance for continued education speaks well not only of them but of their St. Augustine mentors and Pratt himself Unfortunately, the promising start that many of the Native captives made at Fort Marion came to a bad end when they returned to the reservations where their peo ple were interned. Many were not accepted in those environs; their captivity and re-education had distanced them irrevocably from those left behind in the West. As well, conditions on the reservations had not profited from the acculturative agendas of programs like Pratt's. Prisoners who had ac quired trades found no place to practice them, or came up against severe prejudices from Natives and Whites alike. Few were abl e to hold to the Christian precepts and practices they learned at Fort Marion, and reverted to th e peyote cult or to an Jndian ized form of Christianity. A handful (like Milking Medicine/David Pendleton), clung to their Christian practices until the churches themselves rejected them at the turn of the nineteenth century. There are very few shining successes from the post-Indian Wars programs that attempted to re-acculturate the American In dian. The methods of reformers like Pratt seem clumsy and patronizing today, but at the time -after decades of the most bitter and damaging warfare were viewed as progressive and helpful, part of a general ized national agenda of social and economic progress. Native Americans like former slaves, immigrants, and other marginal persons" were thought to require and merit cultural enfranchisement through education and the adoption of mainstream skills. In the encl, however, and as Looking bill observes, the goal seemed not to embrace mainstream culture but to survive it.,, Editor:'> Note: One of the Kiowas held at Ft. Marion, Etahclleuh Doanmoe, produced a sketchbook of his experience. The sketches were recently the focal point of a symposium at The Trout Gallery (Dickinson Col l ege, Carlis l e, PA) and were incorporated into a volume entitled A Kiowa's Odyssey: A Sketchbook from Fort Marion The papers presented at the symposium are scheduled for publication by the University of Washington Press in Winter 2008-09. Response to the symposium and publica tion of the Doanmoe sketchbook has been strong and widespread, so much so that A Kiowa's Odyssey went on tour, and was presented at The Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens in Jacksonville, F l orida and the Panhandle-Plains Ilistorical Museum, Canyon, Texas. As well, a ceremony of blessing and reconciliation was held at Ft. Marion, where the U.S. National Parks Service brought together descendants of the 72 Indian prisoners, their teachers, and Richard Henry Pratt. A website has been created by The Trout Gallery to provide access to the Kiowa sketchbook and learn about its history:


A History of Smuggling in Florida: Rumrunners and Cocaine Cowboys by Stan Zimmerman (Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2006.) 128 pp. Review by Maureen J. Patrick T his is a page-turning true life yarn that can, and probably should, be absorbed in one very entertaining read. Author Stan Zimmerman tackles the subject that gives Florida a tar nished glamour: contraband. What it is who wanted it how it got here, who handled it; these are the interesting, convo luted and often amusing facets of Florida s past (and, Zimmerman argues, present) as a smuggler s paradise A History of Smuggling in Florida be gins with the 1500s, Florida's Spanish Peri od. No sooner had a colonial government been (tenuously) established than smug glers found ways to circumvent its in evitable trade restrictions and taxes. As well the New World offered limitless op tions for the ugliest contraband of all : slaves. These included Africans sent to work Spain s Caribbean colonies and Indians from the colonies themselves. In no time at all, pirates, smugglers and shady go-betweens were doing a lucrative busi ness in the capture, transport, and sale of human cargo. The Spanish were of course, not the only Europeans engaging in unsanctioned slave-barter. The Dutch French, and Eng lish were in on the trade, which throve well into the e arly nineteenth century. Zimmerman notes THS' founder Tony Pizzo s study of Odet Phillippe the emigre entrepreneur, supposed French count, and self-proclaimed grand-nephew of Louis XIV, who arrived in Tampa in 1823 There, Phillippe invested the considerable fortune he had made -and continued to make by smuggling black and Indian slaves from Cu ba to plantations in Georgia, thus flouting the U .S. embargo on the slave trade Not all contraband was -and is quite as odious as the human variety, however Guns, rum, beef cigars artifacts exotic birds, plants and animals: a brisk traffic in these outlawed items generated millions for buyers, sellers, and the all-important (and memorable) "agents of transport" who have made and continue to make Florida a smug gling hot spot. Som e tim e s the only differ ence, Zimmerman points out, between a smuggler and a hero is the context in which he plies his dark trade For every slave trader there was someone who smuggled slaves to freedom; for every bean-counting tax official there was a generous soul who sup plied tax-free rum to parched Christmas ta bles In times of war smugglers are called blockade runners," earning medals and monetary awards for getting documents, supplies, munitions, and even combatants through the enemy lines. Even Al Capone who used Florida as a base for a large-scale booze smuggling operation during Prohibi tion, described the shifting perspective with precision. "When I sell liquor, it's bootleg ging When my patrons serve it on silver trays, on Lakeshore Drive, it's hospitality." One thing that unites all the smugglers in Zimmerman's book is their colorful per sonalities It takes daring bravery and as Zimmerman would suggest -a streak of insanity to be a successful smuggler. From Napoleon Bonaparte Broward (who smug gled material support to revolutionaries in the Cuban War of Independence) to Junior Guthrie (who "imported 246 000 pounds of marijuana from South America to Cortez Florida in the 1970s) to Richard Connors (a Chicago lawyer who got 37 months for smuggling Cuban cigars in the 1990s), smugglers in Florida scandalize all of us -but we love to read about them. 4 9


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The Sunland Tribune 2007 and 2008 Patrons Tampa Historical Society acknowl edges with gratitude the generous support of the following individuals and organizations. Their contributions have greatl y assisted the Society in the publication of this edition of the journal Patrick and Cynthi a Cimino Ferman Motor Car Company Mr. and Mrs. James L Ferman, Jr. Ms. Martha Ferman Otto Henderson Lowry Murphey Foundation, Inc 1-1. T. Lykes, II Sandy and Didi Rief Peninsular Paper Co. 2007 and 2008 Tampa Historical Society Membership '''LIFETIME MEMBERS 1st US Volunteer Calvary Regiment Rough Rid e rs Inc. Mr. M ichael Add ison Ms. Patricia Alchediak Mr. Girard Anderson David Anton and Becky Ferrell-Anton Mr. Anthony Arena Mr R. K ent Bai ley Ms. Ros e Barbie Will iam and Lela Barlow C lark and Glenda Barlow Mr. M ichael Barranco Ms. Mary Bearss '"Mr. Ralph N. Beaver Mr Gregory Bell Andrew and Shelb y Bender Mrs. Marie Bentschner Mr. John Bierley Roland and Judy B lanco George and Nancy B lanford Ms. Carol yn Benjamin Blethen Mr. Daniel Boone, Jr. Cathy and John Bosek "Mr. Charles A. Brown Ms. Kimberly Swann Brown David and Ellen Brown Ms. Anna Ruth Burnside Mr. Jason Busto, Busto Plumbing Mr. Pau l Eugen Camp Mr. and Mrs Pau l Camp, Sr. Cigar City Magazine "Mr. and Mrs. Richard Clarke Ms. Fran Costantino Ms. Molly Corum "Dr. James W. Cov ington Mr. H .L. "Punky" Crowder Ms. Sue Ann Curd Mr. George Curtis, Jr. Mr. Joseph Gardner Dato Ms. Lula J. Dovi Mr. Dennis Doyel Ms. Sandra Duenas "'Mr. Hampton Dunn Ms. Kathleen Durdin Ms. Veronica Everett So l and Sandra F leischman Ms. Dulce Garcia Ms. Francesca "Frankie" Gardner Howard and Marie Garrett Ms. Joan Garrison and Mr Owen T. Brewer, Jr. Ms. Helen Gonzalez Mr. and Mrs. John S Goodson, Jr. Elizabeth Granger Robert and Marion Gray Sl


52 Ms. Helen Graziano and Mr. Tom Geraghty '''Greater Tampa Chamber of Commerce '''The Honorable Dick Greco '''Mr Terry Greenhalgh Nelson and Heidi Guerra Mr. J Guyton, Jr. David and Judy Hall Dr. John and Mrs. Jeannie Hampton Lon and Lou P. Hatton James B. and Rosa N Hayward Mr. Fred Hearns Ms. Nancy Henderson Mr. Edward Henley, Jr. Ms. Nonita Cuesta Henson Gale and Linelle Hibbard Mrs. Willard Hicks Fraser and Maria Himes Ms. Terry Butchko I-loft Ms. Virginia Holland '''George B Howell, III Thomas and Christine Hyde The It alian C lub of Tampa Ms. Elaine Johnson Mr. E. Ca lvin Johnson Sally and John Arthur Jones Dr and Mrs. Ga len Jones Mr. John Jones ''Mr. Charles C. Jordan Mr. and Mrs. James S. Judy '''Mr. James Judy Lonni Kehoe and Family Dr. Robert Kerstein Dr. Joe Knetsch Jim and Malanie Knight Mrs Ann Scott Anderson Knight Joe and Harriet Knight ' 'Mr. W illiam A Knight Mr Joseph Kovalick Jr. J A and Irene Lamb Mr. Frank Lastra The Lavandera Family Mr Ralph Lazzara, III Mr and Mrs J Leonard Levy Mrs. Charlotte Logan Mr. and Mrs. E. Macbryde Charles and Linda Martin Rafael and Cecilia Martinez-Ybor SOM and Mrs. Bruce Matthews, Ret. '''Mrs Leslie McClain Mr. Patricia McClure Mr. Brian McEwen Mr John McEwen Mr. and Mrs Howell McKay Ms. Gilda Schulmeyer McKinnon Mr. and Mrs. William McLean, Jr. Mr John McQuigg John and Camille McWhirter, Jr. '''Mrs Sandra Mulder Ms. Ruth Mulholland Mr. David R. Murphey, Ill ''Mrs Bettie Nelson Mr. Daniel Nemeth M Paul and Mabelle Nestor Ms. Elaine Newman Eric and Lyris Newman ''Mr. Frank R. North, Sr. Mr. and Mrs Michae l Norton NSCDA of Florida -Tampa Town Committee Ms. Candy O lson Mr. and Mrs Solon O Neal Jr. Ms. Barbara Parker Ms. Maria Pasetti Dr. Jean Patrick Ms. Maureen J. Patrick Vernon E. Peeples J. Wayne and Bridget Phi llip s Paul and Sharon Pizzo Mrs Josephine Pizzo Paul and Stacey Bock Pizzo Jr. Mr. Anthony Pizzo, M D '''Mr Paul R. Pizzo Jan and Bill Platt ''Mrs Barbara G Reeves Mr. and Mrs Richard W Reeves Mrs. W.H. (Frances) Reynolds Mr. and Mrs Steve Reynolds Mr Devin Ridley-Marks Ms. Barbara Jackson Rossman Ms. G loria Runton A.J. Russo, Alisa Griffin and Lane Griffin Honorable E.J. and Mrs E l sa Sa lcin es Ms. Jeanne C. Sanders Catherine and Gray Sanders Dr and Mrs. Enslie Schib, Jr. The Schiller Family -Gaspar's Grotto Rebekah Scott and Meredith Scott Fie ld N Russell and Mary Jo Shenk ''Nancy N. Skemp Mr. A. Frank Smith Don and Cheryl Smith ''State Library of Florida 'Mr. and Mrs Randolph Stevens ''Dick and Raymetta Stowers Barbara Reeves and F letcher Stuart Mr. and Mrs J Tanner '''Tampa Hillsborough County Public Libraries ''Tampa Preservation, Inc. Dr G Phill ip s Thomas Wayne and Patricia Thomas


J e ffrey and Mary Tim o ni e r Ms. Pamela Tomplans Mr. and Mrs J Thomas Touchton U niv e r s it y of South Florida Libraries '''Mr K y l e S. VanLandingham Mrs. Mattie Vega C h a rles and June Wad e Mr. J. Edgar Wall III Mr. K e n Walters Mrs 11. J Watrous '''Dr. G l enn Westfall Ms. Mary Virginia Wilson Richard I -I. Wilson Mr. Lan ge Winckler Willi a m and Nancy Wofford Mrs Mary Shacklefo rd W o lf e Mrs Dorothy B. Wombl e '''Mr Nick Wynn Joe and V ilm a Zalupski Past Presidents of the Tampa Historical Society Anthony T o n y" Pizzo 1 971 T erry L G reenhalgh Nonita Ile nson 1 9 7 2 James Judy H ampto n Dunn 1973 1974 George B. How ell III Dr. James W. Coving t o n 1975 Charles C Jordan Mrs. Be tti e Ne lson 1976 1 977 Mrs. Barbara G. Reeves Dr. L. Glenn Westfall 1 9 7 8 Charles A. Brown Mrs Leslie McClain 1979 K y l e S VanLandingham K enneth W. Mulder 1980 1981 R alph N Beaver R. R andolph Stevens 1982, 1983 Frank R. North, Sr. Richard S C larke 1984 1 98 5 P a ul R Pizzo Nancy N Skemp 1986, 1 98 7 William A Knight Samuel L Latime r 1988 Maureen J Patrick 1989 1 990 1 99 1 1 992 1993 1993 1 994, 1 995 1996, 1997 1997 1998 1999,2000 2001,2002 2003,2004,2005 2006,200 7 2008 5 3


54 Annual Meeting and D.B. McKay Award Dinner Society President Patrick with D.B. McKay Award Recipient Fernando R. Mesa. T ampa Historical Society held its Annual Meeting and Gala Dinner on Thursday, November 29, 2007 at the Tampa Yacht and Country C lub As a l ways, the Society took this opportunity to present its prestigious D.B. McKay Award. The Award goes annually to an individual who has made notable contributions to l oca l history. The D.B. McKay Award Recipient for 2007 was Fernando Rodriquez Mesa. Mesa, born in 1913 in Tampa Heights, is a founding member of Tampa Historical Society A resident of the City for all his 93 years, Mesa spent much of his life in his family's c.1903 home on Ross Street. He has had a lifelong interest in the history and cultural heritage of the area. Mesa's donations of artifacts and material support to Ybor City ethnic clubs, Tampa Historical Society the Ybor City Museum Society, the Tampa Bay History Center, and the University of South F l orida have added immeasurably to exhibits, collections, and the body of information about Tampa, its early years and people. Artifacts donated by Mesa are as diverse as a wig belong ing to Rudolf Valentino and furnishings from the home of Vicente Martinez Ybor. These and many more valuable items have found permanent homes in l oca l public history institutions, where they will "teach Tampa" for many years to come.


2008 D.B. McKay Award T a m p a Historical Soc i e t y's 2008 Annua l Mee tin g a nd D .B. McK ay Award Din n e r was h e ld o n J anua r y 28 2009, a t Lat a m a t th e Ce n tro R estaurant in Ybor C it y T hi s was th e fir s t tim e t h e Soc i e t y h as awa rd e d its pres ti g i o u s m e d a l p osthumo u s ly. Th e a w a rd desi g n a t e i s Rol and Mante i ga forme r and l o n g tim e E di to r o f L a Gace t a N ewspaper. R o l a nd Mante i ga s life was o n e o f inte n se a n d v i s i b l e in vo l ve m e n t in p o liti cs current affa ir s a nd l oca l histor y As part o f th e Ci t y of Tampa s Ce n te nni a l Celebrati o n Mante i ga b e ga n runni n g hi s t o r ic ph o t os o n La Gac e t a's cove r T h e im ages a nd capti o n s recalle d the pas t for m a n y early T ampa n s a nd introduced t h e city's histor y t o n e w co m e r s Man y l oca l hi s t o ri a n s -pro f ess i o n a l a nd a m a t eur wro t e hi s t o r y -r e l a t e d a rti cles for L a Gace t a during Mante i ga's e di to r s hip T hese in c lud e d m a n y w h o we r e a l so in vo l ve d in Tamp a His t orica l Soc i e t y its p rog r a m s a nd pu b lica ti o ns. Autho r s lik e A r senio San c h ez, Ton y Pizzo, Fra nk L as t ra, Fe rdi e Pac h eco, E.J Salci n es a nd m a n y othe r s contribute d t o th e hi s t o r y -pri vileg in g content o f th e ne w s p ape r A n a rd ent prese r va ti o ni s t Man te iga l obb i e d T ampa n s t o r e t a in Ybo r C it y s uni q u e a r c hit ecture spea rh ea din g a $ 7 0,000 d r i ve t o save th e C u ba n C lub fro m forecl os u re. L a Gace t a Newspape r i s still be in g p u b lis h e d as it h as been s in ce 1922 in Ybo r City Patri c k Mante iga, gra nd son o f th e pa p e r s founde r V i c t oria n o Mante i ga a nd Rol a nd's so n accepte d th e D .B. McKay Award o n be h alf o f hi s fath er. 5 5


1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 56 Past Recipients of the D.B. McKay Award Frank Laumer 1990 Joan W. Jennewein State Senator David McCl ain 1991 Dr. Gary R. Mormino Circuit Court Judge Lames R. Knott 1992 Julius J Gordon Gloria Jahoda 1993 Jack Moore and Robert Sn yder Harris H M u llen 1994 Dr. Ferd i e Pacheco Dr. James Covington 1995 Stephanie E. Ferrell Hampton Dunn 1996 Michael Gannon William M Goza 1997 Rowena Fer r ell Brady Anthony 'Tony' Pizzo 1998 Dr Canter Brow n Jr. Allen and Joan Morris 1999 J Thomas Touchton Mel Fisher 2000 Dr. Larry Eugene Rivers Marjory Stoneman Douglas 2001 Arsenio M Sanchez Frank Garcia 2002 Honorab l e Dick Greco Former Governor Leroy Collins 2003 Frank R. North, Sr. Dr. Samuel Proctor 2005 Doris Weatherford Doy l e E. Carlton, Jr. 2006 Tom McEwen Le land M. Hawes, Jr. 2007 Fernando R. Mesa U .S. Rep. Charles E Bennett 2008 Roland Manteiga (posthumous)