Sunland tribune

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Sunland tribune

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Sunland tribune
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Tampa Historical Society
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Tampa, Fla
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English

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History -- Periodicals -- Tampa (Fla.) ( lcsh )
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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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SUNLAND Journal of the Tampa Historical Society Volume XXXIII 2008-2009 'J!uhhshed THE BOOSTER. RECORDANJ> PtiBLISHINO COMPANY" '.AMPA --& FLORIDA

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THE SUNLAND TRIBUNE Journal of the Tampa Historical Society CONTENTS President's Message A Newspaper Columnist Visits Tampa in 1887: Luci e Vannevar's L etters Arsenic in the L a nd of Orange Blossoms: Maxcy v. Mayo and th e Fight to Save Florida's Orange Industry L etters from Nora Messenger Joughin: A Memoir of the Pioneer South and Florida I 've Got the Swanee River Flowing Thru My Veins": Florida Sheet Music in the USF Library 's Collection Fidelia Jane Merrick \Vhitcomb: A Nearl y Forgotten F lorida Medical Pioneer About the Authors Society Snapshots Book Review 2009 Patrons and Members 2009 D.B. McKay Award Past Recipi ents of th e D.B. McKay Award Past Presidents of the Society 33rd Edition Volume XXXIII 2008-9 Maureen J. Patrick Elizabeth Coachman, M.D. (Endnotes b y Paul E. Ca mp) Nova Muhlenberg Bonnett Lula Joug hin Dovi Paul E. Camp Elizabeth Coachman, M.D. Maureen J Patrick 2 5 19 31 35 55 69 71 73 75 78 79 80 Front cover: Tampa Steps Out" (1925) is one of the n H m) festive fervent and funny songs \\"rittcn ahout Florida. Author Paul Camp' s article dcscrihcs the hcst of them in "1\c Cot the Swanee River Flowing Thru My Vein s : Florida Sheet Music in the USF Lihrnr) s Collection. Buck cover: To hoth tourists and residents, Florida s citrus indu stry represented one of the State' s most pl easant -and prof itabl e assets. Earl) rn cnticth century postcards (from the collections of Tampa I listorical Society and Maureen .J. Patri c k) displ : t)cd the Citrus State' s most famous cash crop.

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PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE I n April of this year a marriage -both romantic and practical -took place. The celebrants were Tampa Historical Society and Historic Hyde Park Neighborhood Association (HHPNA.) Fittingly, the ceremony Maureen J. Patrick, Current President took place in a Victorian honeymoon cottage, the Society s headquar ters, the c.1890 Peter 0. Knight House at 245 S. Hyde Park Ave. HHPNA a nd the Society share a miss ion: Hyde Park's past, present, and future. Founded in l 971, Tampa Historical Society is Hillsborough County's oldest history organization. Once an "umbrella" interpreter of Tampa history, it has r efoc us e d its e fforts on the Hyde Park neighborhood and its residents famous and ordinary. Headquartered in the Historic Landma rk Knight House since l 974, the Society now -as always -produces a packed calendar of educational events and publications, le av ing it little "discretionary funding to a pply to its goal of r estoring the Knight House as a n historic house museum, one that would serve Tampa s heritage by displaying the materia l culture and lifestyles of the City's first neighborhood. In April, HHPNA President .Jack Wyatt asked to hold the organization' s monthly Board Meetings at the Knight House. At the very first meeting the overlaps of the Society's and I IHPNA's agendas were obvious. The Society has invited HHPNA to expand its organizational The Sunland Tribune is publi s hed annually b y the nonprofit Tampa Hist orical Society, 245 South ll yde Park Ave-nue Tampa FL 33606, and was printed b y Sir Speedy Printing, 4023 S. Dale Mabry Tampa FL 33611. Copyri ght 2009 Tampa Hist orical Society, Tampa FL. All ri ghts reserved. No part of The Sunland 1hbune m ay b e reproduce d in any form o r b y any e lectronic o r mechanical means, in cluding inform atio n storage a nd retriev a l systems, without prior written permission o f the Tampa Historic a l Society. The edit o r and the Tampa Historical Society welcom e s articles p e rt a inin g to Tampa histori c Hillsborou g h County a nd Florida history for publication in The Sunland Tribune. Please address all correspondence r egarding submission of manuscripts and materials to the Editor, The Sunland Tribune 245 South llyde Park Avenue Tampa FL 33606-2231 www .tampahistoricalsociety .org. Not responsibl e for unsolicited manuscripts, materials, photographs o r artwork. The editor and the Tampa Historical Society accept no responsibility for statements, ideas or options by partnering with the Society in projects and programs, while HHPNA will embrace the Knight House in its mission to restore Hyde Park s historic structures. In this way, working together, the two dynamic local organizations can enhance and secure Hyde Park's unique id entity as Tampa's fir s t n eighborhood. Th e happy couple" have already produce d healthy offspring in the form of visible progress toward total restoration of the Peter 0. Knight Hous e. \ V indows on the south side of the Hous e were seve rel y damage d in the hurricane cycle of 2005. Wood rot and additional rain damage had virtually destroyed the windows and frames, which date to the 1926-7 addition to the original Hous e. As readers of The Sunland will see, the windows have been painstakingly and accurately rebuilt by mast e r woodworker loannis ".Johnny" Davakos At the southeast corner of the House, restoration faced a different challenge. A window there opened into the original bathroom of the House, just off the front bedroom. The bathroom was partitioned in the 1990s to make a closet (for records and artifacts) and create the current, mode rnized bathroom. Since the original window then opened into the closet, it was sealed unde r wallboard (in the closet interior) and a large sheet of plywood (on the exterior.) The adaptation was unsightly and greatly altered the original lin es of the House .Johnn y Davakos wood mastery went to work and the window returne d to its graceful, original form. opinions whether o f fact o r opinion made by contributo rs The Sunland 1hbu.n e is provided free as a b e nefit of membership in the Tampa llisrorical Society. Membership is e ncourage d and welcome. Copi es and certain hack issues are ava ilabl e b y writing to the Tampa llistorical Society. The Tampa llistorical Society has granted the U ni ve rsit y of South Florida Libraries permissi o n t o scan the entire contents of all 30 issu e s o f The Sunland Tribune from 1974 throug h 2006, and to place the digitized, key word searchable versi o ns o n the World Wide Web The electronic vers ions o f The S u n land Tri.bun e are part of "Fl orid i a n a o n the Web ," a non-comme r c i a l educati o n a l project funded b y GTE. This dynamic websit e presents Florida s K-12 students with a wealth of images and text about the state' s history and culture, and is freely available to anyone in the world with access to the World Wide Web. Postage paid a t Tampa, FL by the Tampa Historical So ciety, Tampa FL.

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President's Message co1Him1e d Removing the wallboard in the closet produced a pleasant sur prise! The original window shutters had been placed behind the wallb oard, inside the boarded up window. These happy chapters in the Knight House restoration are on l y the first. Pressure was hin g and paint scrapin g in August led up to a complete exterior painting of the House Scrapings by architect and Society Board Member Dennis .Jones have revealed the original l ayers of paint on the House .Jones' forensic work i s augmented by research in the Nationa l Trust for Historic Preservation archives uncovering typical paint color schemes for late nineteenth century Victorian homes. Paint donations by Tanner Paint and labor from the local Post 4321 h ave, a long w ith a raft of volunteers from the Soci ety, HHPNA, and man y other history-minded folk s accomplished in Fall of 2010 what the Society has dreamed of for so l ong: the repainting of the House in appropriate c.1890 col ors. Additiona l aspects of the Knight House exterior restoration include: rebuilding the ori g in a l Chippendal e porch railing and the porch itself; restoring the delicate gingerbread wood trim on the eaves and gabl es; re-roofing ; restoring the original outhouse (still in place but lacking its fLxtures and needing a new and period correct root) ; repa iring wood /water damage to the original woodwork ; "rodent proofing" the under-house eaves, and attic; and restoring the Garden so that it displays typical Victorian plantings but a l so contains a gazebo for Society and rental events. Beyond the exterior work, the Society's long-range plan includes inte rior restoration (with period correct furnishings and a return to the original floor plan) to create the "Peter 0. Knight Historic House Museum", a "working exhibit" of lifestyles of Tampa 's middle c l ass in its Gaslight Era as exem plified by the Knights and their neighbors in Hyde Park Best regards Maureen .J. Patrick Tampa Historical Society 2009 Board of Directors PRESIDENT Maureen .J. Patrick VICE PRESIDENT Elizabeth Granger SECRETARY Damita Binkley TREASURER .Jeanne Dunbar Keith BOARD MEMBERS David Brown Freel Hearns Dennis .Jones .John R. McEwen Ersu l a Knox Odom Eddie Wall EDITOR The Sunland Tribune Maureen J. Patrick Tampa Historical Society Peter 0. Kni ght House 245 South Hyd e Park Avenue Tampa Florida 33606-2231 www.tampa historicalsociety. o rg Founded in 1971 Th e southeast corner of th e Hous e, showing board e d-up window and detache d shutter. The southeast corner window after reconstruction.

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I 07 Ty l e r Stree t Tampa c ir ca 1 948 Florida's Oldest Family Owned Paint Company For four generations expert advice, quality paints & sundries at great prices. TANNER PAINT A Tampa family business since 1933 4917 N. Armenia Ave. Tampa, FL 33603 813-876-0467 fax 813-875-9317 Mon. Fri. 7:30 5:00 Sat. 7:30 12:00 www.tannerpaint.com tannerpaintco1npany @ gn1ail.co1n Benjamin Moore California Paints -Tanner Paints Specialty Paints Quality Tools & Sundries

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A Newspaper Columnist Visits Tampa in 1887: Lucie Vannevar's Letters Elizabeth Coachman Endnotes by Paul Eugen Camp Author s Preface: In preparation for writing a biography of Dr. Mary Jane Safford I located a series of Tampa newspaper columns written as "letters to the editor" by Lucie Vannevar. Born Lucie Wyman in Amboy Illinoi s in 1855, she was a daughter of an Illin o i s Central Railroad Assistant Superintendent (according to James G. Wil son in Biographical Sketches of Illin ois Officers Engaged in the War Aga inst the Rebellion of 1861. Chicago, IL: James Barnet, 1862; 44-45.) She lived in severa l locales before settling in Tarpon Sprin gs, F lorid a in the mid-to late 1880s. Lucie s letters, published first in the 1886 Tampa Guardian and later on a near-weekly basis in the 1887-1890 Tampa Journal are a treasure trove of first-person observations of early Hillsborough County. The writer' s grand sense of humor, along with her keen eye for detail (and first-rate name-dropping ability), produced highly entertaining newspaper copy. Today the Tampa Journal is ava ilabl e on microfilm in the Florida Newspaper Collection (Un i versity of South Florida Libraries) as well as the Tampa-Hillsborough County Public Libraries Main (.John I \ Germany) Branch. A lthough Vannevar s early columns focused on Tarpon Sprin gs residents' activities, she soon enl arged her interests. Letters about C learwater, Yellow B luff Sutherland and other West Hillsborough communities appeared first under the title, "Our Tarpon Letter" and eventually Lucie Vannevar's Letter. When the Orange Be lt Railroad began regular service (early 1888), she began writing about towns and personalities from Sanford to St. Petersburg. Vannevar s letters ceased without warning after the issue of March 17, 1890. However, in the May 29, 1890 fompa Journal (page unnumbered), "C lear Water notes" states: Mrs. Lucie Vannevar, editor ql Sanford Journal, passed through our viUage en route for Tarpon Springs Friday a m Dr. Mary .Jane Safford whom Vannevar mentions severa l times in the letter following this Preface was a resident of Tarpon Springs and one of the first women homeopathic physicians in West Hillsborough County. Following a trip to Tampa in September of Vannevar wrote the letter beluw to her editor at the Tampa Weekly Journal. The letter appeared on September 15 1887 and is transcribed with its eccentric spellin g and word choices intact. 5

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6 Tampa As Seen by Tarpon Eyes An Interesting Description of Our City b) Lut:ic \la nnt:, ar Editor Tampa .Journal Urged h e r e t o b y a spirit o f e mul a ti o n h o pin g to w in for m yse lf s u c h l a u re l s as has ye edito r of th e T a rp o n I hi e d m e forth upo n m y t rave l s. Kindl y allow m e t o draw a veil upo n th e p arting scenes w h e n hal f frantic with g ri e f I t o r e m yse lf fro m e n c ir c lin g cl aws o f cats and d og. Regard for Mr. Tru a x'sl feelings t empts m e t o writ e that the drive t o Tampa m a d e m e tire d but truth g uid es m y facil e p e n a nd m e m o r y brings t o m e a pi c ture o f a l o n g but pleasant dri ve, a dri ve p as t l ove l y l a k es, throug h stre t c h es o f fair pin e l a nd s w h e r e h a lf hidd e n fro m the ir l ove r s, w h olly hidd e n fro m those indiff e r ent t o thei r c h a rm s, s t arry bl osso m s stud the turf. Whateve r o f l evity m ay h ave c h a ract e r ize d m y c onduct during the earli e r h ours, w as so b e r e d d own a s T ampa cam e in s i ght, for t o reach th e city proper the ferry2 mus t b e c ro sse d a nd c o w a rd tha t I a m tha t f erry h as for m e the combine d h orrors o f a m o u se a nd s p L d e r ; indeed if driv e n t o it I would rathe r fac e the m o use tha n c ross the f erry. But o n the fla t w e went, a nd m y e x cite d im ag in a ti o n s trai ghtway dre w a h o rribl e pi c ture o f m yse lf and trunk, n o t to m entio n m y hus b and and M r L eavell\ b e in g s w ept out t o sea But eve n flats reach the ir destin a ti o n in time, tha t i s o f course, if yo u g i ve the m tim e e n o u g h a nd I w as s o o n a t the Co llin s Hou se whe r e kind Mrs. Nol a n 4 gave u s a w a rm w e lc o m e, s uppl e m ente d b y a di s h o f the m os t d elic i o u s ic e c ream whi c h h a pp y c ombina ti o n m a d e m e put o n m y ve r y r os i es t g l asses a nd see T ampa as s h e really i s. Pard o n m e if f ro m thi s time o n I ra mbl e. R e m embe r I keep n o di a ry; I kn ow n o t whe n I a t e, whethe r I went clow n t ow n b efo r e o r afte r meal s; w h ethe r I r etire d o r s impl y w ent to b e d ; whethe r the p orte r wis h e d t o bl ack m y bo o t s o r n o t ; in s h ort, I kn ow n othing e xc ept tha t for the past f e w da ys I h ave been ve r y happy and tha t Tamp a a nd Traffic crossed th e Hill s borou g h Rive r b y ferry until th e L afayette Street B rid ge ( n ow K enne d y Bouleva rd B rid ge) was completed in 1889. (All im ages illustr a tin g thi s a rti c l e, unl ess oth e rw ise attribute d a r e courtesy o f U ni ve r s it y o f South F l orida Libraries S peci a l Collectio n s.)

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Pla n o f T a mp a in 1 886. 7

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8 The offices of the Tampa Weekly Journal at Franklin and Washington Streets. Tampa's people have contributed much to ward that happiness. The Journal after diplomaticall y sending a committee of inspection (consisting of the devil) to ascertain the probability of from the country" being ind elib l y stamped upon my best gown, greeted me like a very prodigal daughter, my own particular compositor re ceiving m e with a beaming smi l e, under which I am compelled to admit there lurk e d the suspicion of a frowns These little family matters being attended to, we took a carriage and proceeded to see the sights, Mr. Cooper first carefully in-structing the driver to avoid the street car lin e, that the e ngin e might not break on me too suddenly, I being of a n e rvous temperament and unaccustomed to anything faster than the O.B.R.RJ> What did I see on that, and other drives A city, not of palaces, perhaps, but of pretty residences and handsome stores; a city where magnificent brick blocks are rapidly taking the plac e of wooden structures. First as a matte r of course, we drove to Ybor C ity and I could scarcel y be lieve that I was awake for where eighteen months ago, it seemed to me a wilderness there stands today a city in itself; a working "Jennie", the wood burning locomotive that pulled the city's first street railway in 1 886.

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A circa 1885 view of Ybor City. man's city and yet how different from one' s idea of such a city7. I had pictured blocks of cheaply built houses, where, like the tenements of New York, families huddled together, existing because existence is a necessity. I saw pretty homelike cottages, each with its little plat of ground. Instead of haggard, work-worn women and children, old before their time, I saw bright, sparkling pretty faces, and rosy happy little ones. Everything too was so clean. Yards and streets looked as though they might have been newly swept. I had been at Ybor in its early days, when the wooden building now occupied by the Opera houses and stores, was the only factory so was not prepared for the massive brick structure since erected. We were kindly received by Mr. Manrara9 and, although, much to my disappointment, the operatives were not at work I gratified my curiosity by going through the factory, even ascending into the cupola, from which the view is magnificent. Mr. Manrara being busy, or perhaps too humane to witness my sufferings, Mr. FieldlO was detailed on escort duty and under his guidance I took my flight toward the inferno, for truly as we ascended the stairs, the fumes of tobacco rising with us, I could think of nothing else. They choked me, they made me sea sick they did everything unpleasant, but when I reached the top I forgot it all, for spread out at my feet lay a picture lovely as any eye ever rested on. To the westward sky and water The V.M. Ybor cigar factory c.1887. 9

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]() HAVANA NASSAU PORT TAMPA MIAMI KEY WEST The Plant Steamship Lin e's state-of-the-art flagship, SS Mascotte. meet; far out the Mascotte! I l ay an ebon spot upon an azure sea; while the curving shore encircled the sparkling waters, even as an emerald necklace might l ay upon the fair throat of a queen. Following the shore line and the river Tampa l ay drawing ever neare r and more near until it re ached our feet. Even I could disting uish different buildings; could sec the Lykes' block 1 2 ke e ping stern guard over the Bank and the Journal office 1.1. The famo u s Scripture grove was plainly to b e seen, the trees Th e Bank of Tampa (la ter First National Bank) a t Franklin and Washington Stre ets, establis h e d in 1 883.

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Edua rd o M a nrara, F A Sa l o m o nson and V.M. Ybo r bl e ndin g into o n e huge e merald m ass in the mid s t o f w hi c h the l ove l y resid e nce rear e d i ts t essella t e d roo f a nd t owe rin g mina r e tl4. S m alle r but sca rcel y l ess beautiful groves co uld b e seen h e r e and the r e, w hil e o n eve r y s id e save t owa rd the sea the wav in g pin e shut in the c it y lik e a w all. From the fac t o r y we went t o the ice h o use15, wh e r e I quite enthuse d ove r a l ove l y m a rbl e pi pe whic h turne d out n o t t o b e m a rbl e a t all, but ice. H ow b ea utiful it was, tha t hi g hl y p olis h e d glitte rin g m ass fair e r t o h o m es i c k Northe rn eyes tha n gold But eve n thi s was n othing as comp a red t o the tin y s n ow d rift r evea l e d t o m y wo nderin g eyes b y Mr. Skidmo rel( > W i t h ra p t attentio n 1 lis t e n e d t o hi s ex pl a n a ti o n and a m full y p e r s u a d e d tha t I unde r s t and the w h o l e bu s iness, and quite con v inced tha t 1 m ay p rove a d a ngerou s r i va l t o the ice co mp a ni es. W h y I saw it all, saw t h e wa t e r go in g in a n d the g reat so lid b locks of ice co min g o u t but I con s id e r m yse l f rathe r u po n m y h o n o r a nd w ill r evea l n o secret. .Jac k "17 h as so wo rk e d upo n m y fee lin g in rega rd to Nebrask a Avenue tha t I determ in e d t o see t h a t o n e s pot o r p eris h a nd fearful least it s h o uld b e overlook e d I in quire d as each corn e r was turne d : l s thi s Neb ras k a Avenue ?" comme n c in g m y inqui r i es s h o rtl y afte r l eav in g t h e scru b .18 Th e a n swe r w as so invari a bl y "No,'' ( n o t the so ft n o" tha t turneth away wrath, but s h ort a nd cri s p) tha t I becam e quite di sco uraged a nd d es i s t e d jus t a b out the tim e we reache d the Avenue, for w hi c h reason we d rove so m e di s t a nce a l o n g it I r e m a inin g in p e rfect i g n o r a nce t h a t a t last the D e lect a bl e land h a d been reach e d altho u g h I con f e ss to furt i ve admiring g l a nces cast o n e i t h e r s id e Nebras k a Avenue i s beau t iful and mus t as tim e rolls o n g ro w mor e a nd m o r e so. Was it o n thi s street I wond e r tha t I saw those m ag nificent umbrella trees1 9 and the nurse r y o f tin y o nes jus t comin g o n I found i t t o be a n um b r ella t ree nurser y w h e n I h inte d tha t poss ibl y it mi ght b e a swee t potat o p a t c h We p asse d m a n y ve r y bea utiful g r oves the most n o ticeabl e b e in g o f course the Scripture g r ove, w h ic h with its l o n g lin es o f g l ossy d a rk l eave d t rees and c l ea nl y c ultivat e d l a nd i s indeed a n ideal s pot. F a m o u s as Ne brask a A venue i s becomin g it i s b y n o m ea n s the o nl y b ea utiful street in T ampa, but I h ave s u c h a faculty for m a kin g a ver y olla po drid a 2 0 of n a m es, I f ea r t o underta k e to t ell o nes whic h I fan c i e d But they h ave nearly all o n e virtue th e virtue o f bein g b roa d in t h e ir v i ews (whic h i s truly desirabl e in streets as well as peopl e). So m e a r e beau t i f ull y s h a d e d all s h o uld be I w i s h I could t ell you of all t h e pretty h o m es I saw. (I a m n o t writin g for T a mp a peopl e n o w a nd if they f ind thi s ti reso m e they m ay e e n p ass it by, a nd l e t those w h o wis h to read o f T ampa d o so). I a m rathe r g i ven t o admiring diminutive d we llings, so t o t h e a mu se m ent of m y compa ni o n s som e t in y v in e c l a d cottages drew fulso m e p ra i se fro m m e S till I a m not b lind t o the a dvantages of h a nd so m e r es id e nces, a nd I saw so m e ver y h a nd so m e o n es. I p a rti c ul arly n o ticed those o f M r Ybor M r s .Jack so n M rs. F ri e b e l e M r s Otto M r Co n o l ey M r Dor sey 2 1 a nd m a n y m a n y othe r s, tha t I ca nn o t n a m e H ow l ove l y so m e o f the yard s a r e too. O p e n con fess i o n i s said t o be good for the so ul a nd I the r e b y co n fess tha t I n ev e r p ass e i t h e r M r s .Jack so n s o r M r s. F ri e b e l e s w i t h out b e ing p ossesse d w i t h a n in sa n e d es ir e to commi t hig h way robbery. T h e i r beautiful flowe r s a nd l ove l y ros e s tempt m e 11

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12 The Hillsborough County Courthouse in 1886. so I am much impressed with the magnificent palm in Mrs. Friebele s garden. I think I never saw one so elegant. Apropos of yards and impressions, I was never so deeply impressed than I have b een by the Courthouse yard. It is so esthetic, a very diamond in the rough, or, I might say the setting of two diamonds in the rough for I challenge the world to produce two rougher diamonds than the Courthouse and the jail. I am actually ashamed to mention the jail, the days of barbarism having passed for truly none but a barbarian could calmly imprison a fellow creature there. It is horrible as to its exterior. I shudder to think of its interior. The Courthouse22 standing almost beside it is quite as bad; a tumbled down looking building with blinds half off, some wholly so some pathetically leaning against the side of the building. All this grandeur, surrounded by a rickety, old fence, whose missing panels are almost as secure as those still standing. Indeed the Courthouse, jail and square impresses one as one of the "great has beens. This in the midst of a city rapidly coming to the front as one of the leading cities of the South; this, in a county holding out great inducements to immigrants. Why, the very sight of that square is enough to turn thrifty men away. It is a crying shame and disgrace and it concerns us all. But if Tampa blushes for this blot upon the fair escutcheon of Hillsborough county, this blot for which she is not responsible she points with pride to her school house, and well she may, for it is a very handsome building, and one that would do credit to any city of Tampa's size2.l. Indeed, I have seen many not half so fine in larger places I have almost dubbed Tampa the city of churches" we have seen so many in our ramblings. I think the stores are beautiful, some of them. As to windows the South Florida Dry Good Store24 is rather ahead; they are beautifully trimmed, and by the hand of no novice. Friebele's store is very handsome and well stocked.25 I have admired the grocery stores, one in particular reminding me of a Northern store. I noticed it one evening when lit up. And isn't the electric light pretty?26 I am so glad Tampa is to have it. How glorious it will be when from the Reservation27 to Ybor its silvery rays will flash across the night, light ing up the darkest corners. The one already on Franklin Street is so attractive, although at present it is rather rivaled by the danger signal that throws its blood-red rays across the thoroughfare farther down. I went to the Reservation Sunday. All the town was there, I trow to hear our Dr Mary Safford. For once I was oblivious to the charms of women s dresses; for once I failed to notice bonnets; nature was so charming. If the Courthouse square is a blot upon Tampa, the Reservation is beautiful enough to redeem the city. Driving in I thought of beautiful Bonaventure, Savannah' s pride2 8 for never outside of that lovely city of the dead, have I seen such magnificent oaks.

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TAMPA, Fl Ft Brooke Military Reservation often locally called the Reservation ", from a 1906 postcard. (Courtesy of Tampa Historical Society, Inc.) They stand like giant Druids, the mystically lovely floating Southern moss, robing them in weird beauty. Driving along, we caught glimpses of the bay for here it is that land and water wed. Here, too, the mound builders hav e left a monument in the huge mound rising skyward29. Surely the vexed question as to who owns this place should be settled, for Tampa has here a natural park, which is only waiting to be developed to rank among the grandest in the land. I think I am not visionary when I say that in the same length of time, it might prove a dangerous rival to Central Parle It is rolling and, I think, at any rate artificial mounds could be thrown up; artificial lakes are not neces sary, for the rippling water leaves its shore. As for trees there are none more beautiful than those already there, and in that soil and this climate the r e is no tree or shrub that would not grow there. Think of flaming poncianas, of soft crape myrtl e, of bright oleanders, of climbing jasmines, trailing ivies fragrant roses all of these and hundreds more, beneath the spreading branches of the oaks, their gorgeousness softened by the waving Spanish moss. Ah, it would be a paradise, a spot so lovel y that all the world would envy Tampa. Sunday evening we went to the Opera house -10, again to hear Dr. Safford. I was surprised to find so fine a hall and pretty a stage. It is to Gen. Wall31 that I owe the pleasure of a visit to the Leader Club rooms, in the Lykes block They are most luxuriously fitted up with soft velvet carpets, elegant portiers, and the easiest of easy chairs. 'f\vo elegant billiard tables are in the billiard room; the card room has the cutest of toilet contrivances, half revealed half hidd e n by a lovely hand-embroidered screen. A handsome bookcase holds all the leading periodicals and papers of the day, while the long table in the reading room is covered with reading matter. The walls are beautifully papered, and a fine hat-stand with beveled mirror stands near the door. Branch's Opera House 1 3

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1 4 The Palmetto Hote l opened in 1 884 at F l orida Avenue and Poll\ St r eet The ge neral e ffect i s m arve l o u s l y beautiful. Please understand, all ye who think clubs a nd diss ipati o n sy n o n y m o u s terms, the rul es of the L ea der C lub a r e very strict. Wines a nd liqu o r s are not allowed in the rooms It i s s im ply a plac e w h e re th e m e mbers may m ee t a nd enjoy themselves in a rational m a nn er. It see m s strange to see such handsome brick block s; the Lykes whose upper s t o r y i s a d a n ci n g h all, the Wall block Sparkman block an d the bankl2. This l as t buildin g is p a rticul arly attracti ve. Tampa's hotel s have been writte n up too m a n y times for m e to attempt the task, so I will l e t the Palmetto, St. .Ja m es C ity, Plant a nd Orange Grove tell the ir ow n t a l es a nd will onl y say that we a re at the Co llin s and that there w e find the comforts of a homc.1.1_ Ca n it b e that I forget Tampa s papers. No, but modesty prevents m y puffin g the .Journa l too much, and of course I think the .Journa l best of a ll. I called at the Tribune office o n e pleasant afte rn oo n a nd enjoye d it ve r y muc h feelin g h owever, g reat sym path y for Col. Math es, w h o r eally wishes to vot e one way but says h e g r ea tl y fears such domestic pressure will be b ro u ght to bear upon him that h e will go the other, which goes to p rove that he does not kn ow a n y better h ow to use hi s ballot than I would I a l so l oo ked to at the News a nd found Mr .Jack so n bu sily getting out hi s n ewsy Ii ttle s heet.-1.J The City Hote l at 6 07 Ashley St r eet.

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The H.B. Plant Hot el, on the east side of Ashley Street just north of Lafayette ; not to be confused with the later and much grander Tampa Bay Hotel, opened by transportation magnate Henr y B. Plant in 1891. There is so much more I would like to write. I would like to tell of the pleasant people I have met; tell all who have been so kind to me how much I appreciate it, but Mr. Cooper already looks askance at this long letter, and with Allen Quatermain35, I must say, "to be continued in our next. ENDNOTES 1 George TrwLx was editor of the Tarpon Springs weekl y n ewspaper The 7lt17J, .13.) 2. As 1':11npa' s first bridge was not completed until l\ovcmbcr 1888, Lucic Vannc,ar crossed the llillsborough l{ivcr b) the West Tampa Ferry at the foot of .Jackson Street, operated b y .Jesse .I. llaydon. The ferry consisted of a flatboat large enough for a carriage or wagon pulled back and forth across the rhcr b) ropes. (Webb Wanton S. \\lehh s 'fompu Directory. New York: W S. Webb 188<>. p. 5.11. Also: Grismer, K a rl 11. Tampu : ; \ llistory rd' th e City of 'fompa and the 7itmpa Bay NeMion. !St. Pucrsburg, Fla.I: St. Petersburg Print Co., 1')50. p. 187.) .1. "Mr. Lcm cll was E. F. Leavell who operated a "llack and LI. S. Mail Linc (hackney carriage ser vice) between '1';1mpa and Tarpon Springs. (7limpu .!ournul September 22 1887, 4::\ ) .J. The Collins llousc, located at the corner of and i\shlc)", 1n1s a hotel operated b) Dr and Mrs. J Forest l\oland (not "l\olan ". ) (Webb, p. 54(>. Tampa .Journ al, Jamwry 1 1887 1 :2.) 5. The Tampa Weekly J o urnal 1 l enry .J. Cooper, editor and proprietor, was located at the southeast corner of Franklin a nd Washington. (Webb p. 527; Grismer, p. 200; Tampa Journal, May 19, 1887, 1 :1.) The devil is a refere nce to "printer' s devil, an errand boy or apprentice in a printing shop. (,. The Tampa Street Railway, the cit)'s first streetcar line was completed early in April 188(>. It was a narrow gauge street raihrny with loc a lly made p assenger cars pulled by a small wood-burning locomotive named ".Jennie. The line ran from the downtown business district to Ybor City. (C:rismcr, pp. 190-191.) The 0.13.R.R. was the Orange Belt R ailroad, a n a rrow gauge rail line between St. Petersburg and Sanford built in 1887-88 b) Peter A. Dicmcns, founder of St. Petersburg. (C:rismcr p. 203.) 7. Created as a cigar-making factor) town b) manufacturer Vicente Martinez Yhor (1818-18')(>) Ybor City as established in 1885-86 on forty ac res of l a nd located northeast of Tampa and purchased from .John T LcslC) (Grismer, pp. 1 82-18.1.) 8. This is a reference to the so-called "Spanish Opera llousc, the Liceo Cubano. The Ybor & Manrara cigar company built the two-story wooden building in 188(> as a temporary factory. When the company s thrcc-stor)' brick factor) was completed Yhor and Manrarn r e m o deled the older structure as a community center with an opera house on the second floor. (Steffv, .Joan Marie. The Cuhan /mmiMrmHs of Tampa, Florida 1 88(,-1898 Unpublished Master' s thesis, U nil crsity of South 15

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16 Florida l'J74. pp. Hi-17.) 9. Eduardo Manrara (1842-1912), was the partner of \l.M.Yhor in the Yhor & Manrara cigar factory and co-founder of the Yhor C it y Land & Improvement Company. (Grismer, p . 142.) 10. The onl y Field listed in the 1886 or 1893 Tampa city directories or the indexes to the 1 8861887 'fhmpa Journal is .James C Field, Tampa s pioneer commercial photogr a pher. Although Field docs n o t appear to hav e been connected with the Ybor & Manrara cigar factory, in 188 7 he was a m embe r of the Tampa C it y Council and so ma y have h e lped show Luci e Vannevar around town. 11. The SS Mascotte was an 884-t o n iron-hulled steamship launched in 1885 at Phil a d e lphia a nd operated by the Plant Steamship Linc Between l 88(i and 1900 the 195-fo o t ship carried passengers and freight o n a regular schedul e betwe e n Port Tampa Key West and Havana Cuba (Prince, Rich a rd E. The A tlantic Coast Line Hailroad : Steam Locomotives, Ships and I listory. Green River, WY. Richard Prince 1966. pp. 44, 4 7 .) 12. The L y kes B lock was probabl y the block on Franklin Street housing the Almeria ll o t c l a structure built b y Dr. llowcll T. Lykes in 1886 and T ampa's first three-story brick building. (Grismer, pp. 18J-184.) lJ. The Bank would be the First !\ational Bank located at the corner of Franklin and Washington. Established as the Bank of Tamp a in 1 88.1, it became the First Nationa l Bank when it rece ived its natio nal charter in 1886. Th e bank' s two-story bui ld ing constructed in 1885, was the city's fir s t brick structure. (Grismer, pp. 115, 178-179; Webb, p 544. ) 14 The Scripture Grove was an orange g rove owned by growe r .James Scripture. (Webb p. 547.) 15. This would be the Ybor City Ic e Worl)s, located at th'a old "Government Spring" at 1Jt1 Street and 2n Avenue in Yhor C ity (Clarke J. 0. D. The Gweco-the-Gu!f (Tampa) C ity Directory and / /illshoro County Guide. Tampa: Clarke, 1 89.1, p. 185; Grismer, p. 180; Tampa .Journal .June 2J, 1887, 4:.1.) 1 (i. Although "Mr. Skidmore" is obvious l y affiliated with the Ice Works no one b y this surname is listed in either the 1886 (Webb) or 189.1 (Clarke) Tampa city directories, nor does anyone named "Skidmore" appear in the ind exes t o the 1886 or ] 887 Tampa .Journal. 17 .Jack was the pseudony m used by the Tampa Journ a l s correspondent for northern Hillsborough County. (Tampa Journal, February 2, 1887, 2:5.) 1 8. "T he Scrub" was the area between the downtown business district and Yhor C ity p o pulated primarily by African-Americans (
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30. Although this l!ould bl! thl! Opl!ra h o usl!' in Yho r C it)', it is more lilwl) Bra1wh s Opl!ra H o us e (on Franklin Strcl!t 1war Lafa) cttl!), Tampa' s principal cnul! for l!\cnts during the 1880s. Opened by Henry L. Brancl1 on Marcl1 7 1884 the Opl!ra H ouse \HIS a rn o-stor) strul!turc with stores at strl!l!t lc\ c l and a la rgl! hall upstairs. (Webb p. 525; Grismer, pp. 13.1, 1 79.) Al!l!ording to thl! September l 5, 188 7 issul! of 7l:tmpa .Journal Dr. Safford addrcssl!d a ll1mp a tcmpcra1we meeting; onl! or both of till! Safford spccclws proba bly dl!alt \\'ith the prohibition of akoholil! beverages. This would support tlw "Opera house" being Branch' s rather than the Liceo Cnbano sinl!e temperanl!l! was not a popular cause in Yhor City \\'here saloons wl!rc abundant. 31. (ll!neral \\'all was prominl!nt Tampa and state senator .Joseph Baisden Wall (184 7-1912) The Titmpa .Journal refers to Senator .J. B. Wall as (Jenera! Wall" in Jul y 1887 and "Colonel Wall" in September of the same yl!ar ; it appl! ars that the title was honorary rather than denoting al!tua l military rank. ('ll:tmpa .Journal .July 23, 1887, l : l ; September 22 1887, 4: 1. Crismcr, p. 331.) 32. The Lykes Block probably include d the Almeria Hotel as mentioned in note 1 2; the Wall Block was 310-312 Washington. (Clarke; p. 41.) The Sparkman Block was 507-513 Franklin (Clarke p. 4 1.) 33. Opened in 1884, the Palmetto Hotel on the northeast corner of Florida and Polk was a three-story building with a fiYc-story obscrn1tory tower (Grismer, p. l 0.1, 179.) The St. .James located on the northeast corner of Franklin and I larrison " is managed by Thomas White and had a bathroom on C\' Cry noo r (Webb a d\ crtiscmcnt preceding p. 546; Grismer, p. 1 79 ) The C ity 1 lotcl, .I. A Robl!rts proprietor, \\as locate d at 607 Ashley (Clarke, p. 1 85 ) Opened in December, 1884 h) mrncr Jcrr)' T. Anderson, the II. B. Plant Hotel (not to he con fused with Henry B. P lant' s later Tampa Bay Hotel) was a two-story wooden building located on the cast side of Ashley just north of Lafaycttl! (C:rismcr pp. 87, 179. ) The Orange Urovc llotcl as a thrcestory frame structure at 81.1 Madison originally built as the home of pioneer cattleman William B. Hooker. It is famous for poet Sidney Lanier' s in 1876, during which h e wrote Titmpa Robins and ten other poems (Grismer, p. 163 -J(i4; Clarke, p 185 .) 34. The Tampa Tribune was founded in 1876 and ml!rgcd with the Tianpa .Journal in 18')3 to form the 7l:tmpa Times, with I lenry Cooper as general manager. Wallace Fisher Ston1ll founded a new 7hmpa Tribune in 1893 shortly after thl! two older papers had merged. (Grismer, pp. 199-200.) "Colonel Mathes" was George M. Mathes, editor of the Tribune. (Tiunpa .Journal .June 23 1887 5:3.) Mr .Jackson is proba bly G. II. Jackson who was editor of the Bartow l'Y!fonnunt in 1886. (Tampa .Journal August 8 188(>, 3:4 ) 35. Allan Quartcrmain was the hero of British writer 11. Rider I lag ga rd s popular Afriean adventure nmcls f(in,4 Solomon' s Mines (1885) and Allan Quartennain (1887.) Corey's Bakery & Catering "Redefining home-made goodness" Clearwater, FL 33755 (727) 692-9533 17

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Arsenic in the Land of Orange Blossoms: Maxcy v. Mayo and the Fight to Save Florida's Orange Industry Nova M uhl e nberg Bonnett Editor's Note: Ms. Bonnett submitte d this articl e to Th e Sunland Tribune in perfect l ega l publishing form at. The Sunlmul's Edit o r requested, and the author graciousl y made, changes in the formatting to conform with The Sunland' s gu id elines. Tampa Historical Soc i ety, In c. is grateful to Ms. Bonnet for making t h ese a lterati ons. Preface I n 1932, the Florida Supreme Court decided a landmark case brought by a group of F l orida citrus growers. In their complaint, the growers alleged that the State of F lorida had vio lated their substantive due process rights under Artic l e I, Section 9 of t h e F lorid a Constitution.1 That Section reads, No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without clue process of l aw." The case was extraordi narily important not onl y for it s ruling on substantive clue process and the State's police powers but a l so because the lead plaintiff L. Mmwy, In c., a corporate pioneer grower in F lorida's citrus industry, was challengin g two F lorida statutes which made i t a criminal offense to spray arseni c so lutions on "bearing" citrus trees, unless otherwi se authori zed by the federal government or F lorida's Plant Boarcl.2 Lattimer (Latt) Maxcy was the head and heart of L. Maxcy, Inc. and Latt Ma"Xcy's l awsuit was to become the cornerstone of future practices in F lorida's most important industry: the growin g and marketing of citrus fruit. By the mid-l 920s, F lorida's citrus industry was approaching full flower but industry practices were l arge l y unregulated as growers experimented with var ious fertilizers and chemicals which promoted fruit quality and maturation w hil e protecting their groves from invasive pests. Dipping winter temperatures and attendant frost were an ever -present concern but even more threatening a nd noxious were the intermittent infestations of the non-indigenous Med it e rranean fruit fly. Other industry chal lenges included the great distances citrus was shipped to market, overland by rai l road or truck, and the havoc such extended h auls played with fruit maturation a nd At the center of Ma"Xcy v Mayo was the question of the unlawful use of arsenic in sprays applied to fruit-bearing citrus trees, a process that protected the trees from devastating pests but which a lso F lorida citrus grove. (Courtesy of Florida State Photographic Archives.) 19

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Crating and carting Florida citrus. (Courtesy of Florida State Photographic Archives.) 20 altered the fruit's outward appearance. In the case of oranges, the spraying prematurely triggered the bright orange outer color while leaving the edible portion of the fruit substantially inferior in texture and taste.4 The questionable practice gave rise to statutes designed to protect the public while acknowledging the growers efforts to fend off the Mediterranean fruit fly. Florida's Citrus Industry Florida's citrus industry had its beginnings on Merritt Island, just off the east coast, in 1830, when Captain D. D. Dummitt planted the state's first known orange grove.5 A non native specie, Florida oranges have been traced to varieties originating in Seville Spain, a byproduct of the Spanish explo ration.< By 1895, production of oranges in Florida had reached an astounding five mil lion boxes per year, but the number of varieties being grown were considered too vast to be efficient.7 Not unlike the oil producers of Western Pennsylvania, whose overproduction threatened the entire indus try, Florida orange growers quickly realized the benefits of a common strategy that would benefit them all. Arguably a trust, but nonetheless effective Florida orange growers joined together in 1909 to form the Florida Citrus Exchange, an association with the purpose of controlling production and self-regulating the market.8 One of the original members of the Florida Citrus Exchange was .James Gregg Maxcy, a former cotton farmer from Columbia, South Carolina,') who brought his family to south central Florida in 1895, hoping for an alter native to South Carolina's failing cotton industry.10 Latt Maxcy and His Town .James Gregg Maxcy settled his family in Mulberry, Florida, just south of Lakeland in Polk County, the central part of the state.11 Mulberry was and still is famous for its phosphate mines. One of .James' children, Lattimer, went to work as a water boy in the min es. Adventurous and industrious, young Latt, as he was called, spent his free time exploring the undeveloped Florida mid lands. In 1904 on a canoe trip, Latt was reputedly surprised to note that citrus growing in the area of Lake Reedy had not perished in recent freezes, and soon con vinced his father to buy land in the area, then called Lakemont, but later renamed "Frostproof." 1 2 Downtown Frostproof, Florida c 1917. (Court esy of Florida Stat e Photographic Archiv e s.) The senior M
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Latt Maxcy. (Courtesy of Florida Citrus Hall of Fame.) daughter.15 The Vr ies also owned and operated the town s general store. Three years earlier and just down the road Ruth's sister, Julia Maxcy Pond and her husband Junior, built a hilltop home overlooking Lake Reedy.1 6 By the e arly 1990s, the home had passed through the ownership of various members of the family to become the property of the Ponds granddaughter, Mrs. Rog e r McDow ell. 17 C l early, by the early 1930s, the Maxcy family had mad e Frostproof its permanent home and was established as its preeminent family. Latt Maxcy 's sister, Sarah Guignard Maxcy, married a young m a n name d Hunters with Seminole guide, Maxcy r anch at Frostproof (n.d.) (Courtesy qf Florida State Photographic Archives.) Ben Hill Griffin, another transplant to Frostproof who arrived in 1906.1 8 Sarah and Ben's son, Ben Hill Griffin, Jr., would late r become not only one of Florida 's citrus kings but also one of Florida's most important power broke rs A former director of both Winn-Dixie and the University of Florida Foundation, Griffin Jr. was also chairman of the board of Alico, Inc .1 9 He entered politics in 1956 and served alternately in Florida's House and Senate until 1968. Griffin, Jr.'s granddaughter is former Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris who notoriously intervened in the landmark e lection case, Bush v Gore .20 Both Ben Hill Griffin Jr. and Latt Maxcy were named posthumously as part of the state's Great Floridians 2000 Program which recognizes outstanding Floridians who h ave made last in g contributions to the State.21 Unsurprisingly, perhaps, those nominations were made by then-Secretary of State Katherine Harris. Supported and encouraged by a large and loc a l family, by l 931, Lattimer Maxcy was not on l y the owner of e xtensive orange R.F.URIE tlCALlll Ben Hill Griffin and Florida Governor Rubin Askew, 1971. (Courtesy of F lorida State Photographic Archives.) GENERAL MERCHANDISE. Ruth Maxcy U rie (Courtesy of Historical Frostproof Homes 16 Polk County Historical Quarterly 4 ; March 1990.) 2 1

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22 Product label, Gregg Maxcy. (Courtesy of Florida State Photographic Archives.) Maxcy cattle brands. (Courtesy of Florida State Photographic Archives.) Cattle pens on Maxcy ranch. groves, he was also the operator of a massive canning facility noteworthy for inno vations and two major Florida juice labels Silver Nip and Golden Nip.22 Latt worked on sprays and fertilizers for his groves in the company of Major Edward Thomas Keenan 2 a locally renowned soil scientist who, with Maxcy's help, established the Keenan Soil Laboratory in Frostproof in 1928.24 Those cit rus sprays and others like them, however were soon to come under close scrutiny by the State of Florida. Frostproof, Florida Frostproof is a dot on Florida's map, a very small town with a stable population of approximately 3000, a number that has changed littl e in the past five decades. During Frostproof's early citrus business, grove owners and other men working in the endeavor would meet at the end of the work day sitting on benches outside one of the town's two pharmacies (which remained open until 9:00 at night.) According to Mrs. Patricia Wilson, Latt Maxcy's daughter, the growers conducted more citrus business on those benches than they did in offices or boardrooms. 25 Located near the geographic center of the Florida peninsula, Frostproof began in auspiciously enough but today serves as the nexus of some of Florida's most influential businesses and power brokers. The Maxcy Corporation, headquartered at 33 East Wall Street in Frostproof, reports on its corporate website that the organization built by Lattimer Maxcy is now worth "several hundred million dollars. "26 The company is significantly involved in ranching, citrus groves and Florida real estate develop ment.27 In 2008, the Maxcy Corporation sold a massive land holding, representing the second biggest land transaction in Florida's history (superseded only by the original land purchased by Disney World) .28 Maxcy v. Mayo By the mid-1920s, Florida citrus growers were regularly using pesticide sprays containing arsenic, both as a weapon to guard against invading insects but also as an unnatural accelerant in the fruit's maturation process which affected the fruit 's taste 2') and quality. The use of such sprays came under attack by the Florida legislature, con-Members of the Florida Legislature, 1939 Session.

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ce rn e d that Florida 's m os t important indu stry was d eve l o pin g a r eputatio n for fra udul ent practices:10 The context for these alleged fra udul ent practices i s h o w eve r important to unde r stand. Jn 1 9 0 6, the sa m e year that Be n Hill G riffin Sr. a rriv e d in Frostproof, the f e deral government p asse d the Pur e Food a nd Dru g Act a n ove r arching attempt t o so m e h ow contro l the largel y unregul a t e d industries producing the nati o n 's food s uppl y and crea tin g a see min g l y une ndin g a r ray of privat e l y produce d m e di c ines."1 The Act was to be adminis t e r e d b y the Department o f Agriculture s fle d g lin g Div ision of C h emistry.-'2 Acco rdin g to Unite d S t a t es Food and Drug Administratio n (F DA) His t orian, Wallace F. .Ja nssen by the turn of the century the unmonito r e d use o f che mic a ls a nd a rtificial colors in U.S. foo d produ c ti o n was w idespread and g r ow in g.3-' D epartment in s pector s we r e diligent, but littl e jurisprud e nc e e xist e d for d e t ermining exac tl y h o w to interpre t the 1906 Act with resp ect t o s pecific substances.'14 As t o agricultural pesticid es, the f e d e ral government was a w a r e o f the controversy b o ilin g up around a r se ni ca l s prayin g o f fruit but it s efforts to regulate such use was "concili atory," a t best: attempts were m a d e to e du ca t e far m e r s regardin g the probl e m s associate d with arsenic while at the same time keepin g federal concerns fro m the public :15 Co n s id e rin g the l o n g his t o r y of a r se nic u se in A m erican agriculture and the government' s concerns ari s in g from that u se, fed e r a l control o f arsenical s prayin g ca m e l a t e in the gam e as p art of n ew le g i s l a ti o n in 1938, s i x yea r s af t e r the fina l d ec i s i o n in v. Mayo.'1(' During the late 1920s, while the f e deral government strugg led with the regul a ti o n o f c h e mical s b e in g added t o the n a ti o n s foo d supply the State o f F lorid a fac e d a grow in g pra c tice within the industry which m a d e it p oss ibl e for grower s t o pa ss statutor y citrus fruit maturati o n test s, by th e unpi c k e d fruit with a r se nic a l sprays.' 7 The a pplicati o n o f a rseni c n ega tively affect e d the s weetness and citric acid of th e fruit its e lf while acceleratin g a nd in tensifying the orange col o r of the fruit s s kin m a kin g its appearance appealin g but mis l ea din g with re ga rd to inn e r qua lit y:18 Ins pector s a nd c u s t o m e r s were at that The Fl o rid a Supre m e Co urt. (Ph oto courtesy of th e F lorida Supreme Court websit e : www.floridasupremecourt.or g) time, lookin g o nly to the color of the fruit as a m aturation ind ex, making it po ss ibl e for those growe r s e mpl oy in g the a rsenic a l process t o eva d e d e tecti o n of imm ature fruit in the ir shipments. Th e econ o mic im p etus for the sprayi n g practice was the early seaso n citrus marke t which generated hig h e r prices for crops tha n the mid-to-late seaso n mark e t.39 Th e Supreme Court of Florida h a d fir s t addresse d the citrus maturatio n pro bl e m as early as 1913, in deciding the case of Sligh v. Kirkw oo d .40 Sli g h wa s a citrus growe r c h a rged with v iol a ti o n s o f a l 91 ] Florida s t atute tha t m a d e it a criminal act to "sell, offe r for sa l e, s hip or d eliver for shipment a n y citrus fruits which a r e immature or o therwise unfit for Slig h c h alle nged the statute as a conflict with the Comme rce C l a use found in Article 1 Secti o n 8 o f the Unite d States Co n stitution,42 but the Court eventually h e ld tha t the state s t atute in questi o n was neith e r in conflict with the Comme rc e C l a u se n o r in conflict with the 1906 Pure Food a nd Dru g Th e Court furth e r found tha t the s t atute did in c id entally af fect I inte r s t a t e ] comme rc e but because the affect was o nl y incid enta l a nd because th e s t atute f ell within the s t a te's p o lic e p owe r s to protect the publi c h ea lth the s t atute was valid as written and Mr. Slig h h a d been properly charged.44 Th e l a w was thus settl e d th a t growe r s would face criminal c h a rges if they attempted to evade the m atura ti o n l aws. This was a r e l a ti ve l y easy l aw t o e nforce becau se up to that p oint, immature fruit was obvio u s to the n a k e d eye: the probl e m h a d com e from growe r s mi sbranding a nd misrepre senting the n ature o f the fruit in the ir 2J

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24 shipments. However, once it became clear to growers that the use of arsenical sprays could radically change the outward appearance of the fruit, those growers who used such sprays were able to eva de the "naked eye" maturation tests and the shipping of substandard fruit resumed. The Florida legislature attempted to thwart the practice head-on. In 1927, the legislature resolved the economic conflict created by the arsenical spraying practice by passing legislation which prohibited the us e of arsenical sprays and fertilizers.45 The concurrent problem encountered by the Legislature however, was the latest in a series of invasions by one of the citrus growers' most d evastating foes: the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly). When this p es t invaded central Florida orange groves in the mid-l 920s, arsenical sprays w e re found to be singularly effective in stemming the infestation. With this in mind, the Legislature created exemptions to the 1927 criminal statutes prohibiting arsenical spraying: by designating quarantined areas over much of the state, which p ermitte d those growers within the quarantined areas to continue the us e of the sprays for an additiona l year after the liftin g of the quarantine.4(' The dichotomy was obvious: while fighting the Medfly infestation with arsenical sprays, citrus growers in the quarantined areas were able to speed up the exterior maturation of oranges which were then inherently inf e rior in quality but would pass the maturation tests; and the exemptions to the arsenical spraying statutes mad e it all possible Arsenical spraying had created a prob l e m for Florida's citrus industry that h a d worldwide repercussions: an international p erception existed that all citrus growers in the state were engaging in unethical, perhaps eve n fraudulent, practices which r esulte d in unfair competition with growers in other states (particularly Texas) and for-. 0 II .J7 e 1 g n 6rowcrs as we Florida Commissioner of Agriculture, Norman Mayo, alleged in a brief in a similar case against Florida grapefruit growers that "the earl y season flood of inferior arsenated fruit is a m enace to the reputation a nd val ue of Florida fruit of both early and l a t e season variety. "48 Further, although Commissioner Mayo was genuinely concerned about fraud on the consumer, there was in actuality a much broader, serious Norman Mayo Florida Commiss i o n e r of Agriculture 1941. (Court esy of Florida Citrus Hall of Fame.) economic debate growing out of the prac tice, in which three different camps within the United States citrus market had staked out diff e r ent and contentious positions: the minority of the domestic market who were engaging in the process, the majority of the domestic market who were not, and foreign competition, whose financial interes ts were riding at least in part on the outcome of the domestic debate.49 In response to this growing concern, the Florida legislature passed two statutes designed to prohibit the use of arsenic pesticides while reserving a one-year postquarantine exemption for those orchards located in areas of quarantine: tha t is areas acknowledged as then-current battlegrounds in Florida's ongoing war \ Vith the Medfly.50 This statutory provision permitted the gathering and marketing of quarantined fruit which had been subjected to a rsenical spraying, for one year following the liftin g of the quarantine, an event e ffective o n December 6, 1930.51 Th e Florida legislature' s continued, permitted use of a rs e nical spraying generated animosity within the citrus indu stry where the d ebate over the use o f arsenical continued to rage.52 Latt M
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coated crops, naming Commissioner of Agriculture Norman Mayo and other state officials as defendants, and alleging viola tions of substantive due process under the theory that the State was taking his proper ty which was statutorily exempted, without just compensation. 54 Maxcy further alleged that because ar senic is a naturally-occurring substance in citrus fruit inspections t esting for arsenic would necessarily implicate a grower's vio lation of the Acts, even if no arsenic had been sprayed.55 This patent unfairness, Maxcy alleged, was yet another example of due process violation. The Circuit Court viewed it differently, however and denied Maxcy's prayer for an injunction, dismissing the case. Maxcy appealed: to the Florida Supreme Court. The Florida Supreme Court carefully examined the statutes at issue and specifically cited the exemption for quarantined groves, acknowledging that the statute's language regarding fruit in the quarantined areas was ambiguously worded as to whether the exemption applied only to fruit "in esse" at the time of enactment or whether the exemption applied to any fruit grown during the one-year post-quarantine exemption.56 Noting that ambiguously worded statutes dealing with the "seizure and destruction of property" should be strictly construed in favor of property owners, the Court held that Maxcy's fruit was not subject to seizure. The Supreme Court reversed the circuit court's decision and remanded the case with instructions that the Circuit Court grant the motion for an injunction, which was to re main in effect until the statutory exemption period expired on December 6, 1931.57 This might have been the end of the case h a d there not been a constitutional ques tion which the Court found no need to address in its first hearing. Th e Attorney General of Florida, concerned that the constitutional question of substantive due process would find its way into other similar lawsuits, petitioned for a rehearing, noting that the spraying statutes raised questions of "great public importance to the state's "8 The Florida Supreme Court granted the petition for rehearing, and ruled on the constitutional question on January 6, 1932, one month after Latt "9 Maxcy's statutory exemption expired.:i Part of the Attorney General' s dilemma concerned Norman Mayo, the Commissioner of Agriculture. How was the Commissioner to know whether to pursue enforcement of the spraying statute while its constitutionality remained in question? As a general rule Florida appellate courts (and indeed, most appellate courts) will only address "difficult constitutional questions of grave importance" where the issues in a particular case cannot be decided on other grounds.60 In the first hearing, the Florida Supreme Court was able to resolve Maxcy's claims by recognizing the post-quarantine prov1s10n and then applying the Philadelphia v. Stimson rule in granting an injunction in Ma,xcy's favor.6 1 Further, in Maxcy, at the time of the Florida Supreme Court's first hearing, the quarantine provi sions of the spraying statutes had not yet expired, raising a question of whether or not the issue of arsenical spraying was com pletely ripe for judicial review .62 Upon rehearing, the Court addressed the constitutional dilemma in systematic fashion. First, the Court determined that the statute only addressed arsenical compounds applied "on the trees" themselves and so eliminated any question of ground fertilizers from the analysis.6.1 The Court next addressed the question of whether or not enforcement under criminal statutes like those in question, could be enjoined by the Court, as injunctions are equitable, not legal remedies, and courts cannot ordinarily issue an injunction to stay criminal proceedings.64 The question was one of first impression in Florida and the Supreme Court looked beyond Florida for an answer. Citing the United States Supreme Court case of Philadelphia Co. v. Stimson, the Court relied upon the exception to the injunction rule.65 The United States Supreme Court had held in Stimson, that where property rights guaranteed under the Constitution, rights lik e Latt Ma,xcy's in his orange groves were the subject of the crim inal statute, and where "the danger of irremediable loss is apparently great and immediate," as it was in Mmwy's case, an injunction is the proper r e m edy, d espite the criminal nature of the statute itself.66 Having dispatched the questions of arsenic in ground fertilizers and injunctions in such cases, the Court then proceeded to address the question of the constitutionality of the arsenical spraying statutes themselves. Noting the fundamental importance of protecting private property, and praising 25

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26 the rugged individuality required by those resisting perceived unconstitutional oppres sion by the political majority the Court nonetheless held that the statutes in ques tion were constitutional.6 7 Relying on the well-established broad scope of a state's po lice powers to regulate and enforce, the Court said: When put to the choice by the practical necessities of the case, the Legislature may exercise its power to suppress an evil by prohibiting entirely a stated practice out of which that evil largely grows even though by so doing, innocent acts may be forbidden and long-established customs of the people thenceforth made unlawful. "68 And with that decision arsenical spray ing of citrus groves in Florida became an unquestionably criminal practice. But it wasn t over yet. Because the Court had expressly avoided addressing the use of arsenic in ground fertilizers, that practice lawfully continued. Latt Ma'
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environmental bases. Current c h alle nges in clude a citrus infecti o n c alle d "citrus g r ee nin g whi c h i s treat e d with a fun g icid e c alle d "Brava d o n o w b e in g con s id e r e d as a 81 l etha l threat t o the h o n ey bee p o pul a ti o n L att Ma.,i,::cy was unquesti o n a bl y a v i s i ona r y wh o sa w the coming d e mi se o f arse nical s p rayi n g and m ay h ave been a t least m o ti vat e d in p art b y thi s r e c og niti o n whe n h e began hi s associ a ti o n with Maj o r Keen a n It i s m o r e lik e l y tha n n o t tha t w h e n Keen a n es t a bli s h e d hi s soil l a borat o r y in Frostproo f in 1928, a prima r y purpose was t o ass i s t Ma.,i,::cy in findin g suita bl e and effe ctiv e r e pl a cem ents for a rseni c pesticid es. Conclusion M ax c y v Mayo i s n o t m e r e l y a c ase o f fir s t impress i o n it i s a l so a s n a p s h o t o f Flo rid a s d eve l o pin g hi s t o r y a nd culture Thi s wind o w into the F l o rid a o f the 1 920s puts the s p ot-T h e Presid ent of M i nute M a id and the F l o rid a Se n a t e Committee, 1963 (Courtesy o f F l orida Citrus Commissi o n .) light o n a lin c hpin o f th e S t a t e s wea lth th e F l o rid a citrus indu stry. But the s t o r y does n t e nd t h e r e Th e c ase a l so hints a t the d eve l o pin g grasp o f the S t a te's comme r c i a l a nd p o liti ca l p owe r broke r s, so m e o f who m w e r e fabul o u s charac t e r s o f legenda r y p ro p o rti o n s a nd ingenuity but who w e r e a l so, so m etimes, e ngaged in questi o n a bl e p ractic es. A s legal history, the case goes t o the heart o f the constitutio n a l t e n s i o n b e t wee n privat e rights a nd governmenta l protectio n s. Altho u g h so m e A m e ric a n s m ay v i ew the l aw and its judicia l d e ci s i o n s as occ as i o n ally arbitrary a nd c o n s i s t ently dry a nd form alis tic cases lik e Ma.,i,::cy v Mayo d e m o n stra t e tha t lurkin g jus t b e hind the L a tin phrases and o ft e n e ndless legal r e a so nin g lie the fasc in a tin g hi s t ories o f peopl e and pl a c es. Not withs t a ndin g th e e legance o f a fair and jus t legal r esult, the r e i s n othing quite lik e a really good s t o ry. L a tim e r Maxcy 27

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28 ENDNOTES 1. See L. Inc Mayo 1.19 So. 121(Fla.19.11). 2. Acts of 1927 Chapter 11844, !\ 1 amended as the Acts of 1929, Chapter 144 85. 1 Alaxcy, 139 So at 1 .10. 4. Id 5 A lis sa I lamilton, Slfuee!::ecl: What fou Don t /(n.ow 1 \liont Orc1114e .Jui ce, 5 (2009). 6 hi. 7 hi. a t 1 2. 8 Id at 13 9. Late Maxcy Corporation, Aluxcy Development Group, aniilahlc at http: //l.q_m.-w.maxcyde v elop m e 11.com /overview/ alfiliat e s .html (last Yisitcd March 20, 2010) (hereinafter cited as MDG) 10. Florid a Citrus llall of Fame Llltime r "Latt" Ala.xcy (1HH7-1971) -Inducted 1971 m iil a hlc at h c tp: I /.(Lori dacic r 11 sha/.loj/a me. com / in. ducrees/ 19 62-1969 (last visited March 2 0 2010) (hereinafter referred to as F C I IF). 11. Crcatcr Mulhcrry Chamber of Commerce availahlc at hccp://www. m11lberrycham/Jer.or_4 /m11llierrylr!fi>. ht m ( last visited March 2 0 2010). 1 2. FCI II\ supra. 13 llistorical Frvstproq( llomes, 16 Polk County llist. Q 4 (Mar. l ') 90). 1 4 Id. 15 Id l(i. hi. 17 Id. 1 8 Id 19 M) florida.com Th e Great Floridians 2000 l 'ro_4rnm, arnilahlc at http://'ll.--u,-wjlh eriW.4e.co m / s e r v ices / sites / fl01idians / ?section =f (last v i si tcd April 6 2010) (hereinafter cited as TGF) Alico Inc is one of Flo rida 's largest land management and agrihusincsscs. Sec hccp://W'll.-'W.llficoinc.com / 20. Bus h v Gore, 5 .11 U.S 98 (2000). 2 1. supra. 22. supra. 23. Telephone Inte rview with Mrs. Patricia Wilson (Feb. 22 2010). 24. nhcrsity of Florida Library ArchiYcs arnilahlc at http: / /we/J.11jlib.11fl. ed11/spec/pkyo11_4e/ ke enan.htm ( last i sitcd March 1 4, 2010). 25. Wilson intcrdcw, supra, note 2.1 2(>. Sec MDG, supra. 2 7 hi. 28. Kris llundlcy Ycch aw's Destiny Awaits, St. Petersburg Times, .Jun e 4, 2006, ava ilahlc a t http://www.sptimes.com/2006/06/0-J/Business / Y ee /ww_s_D estiny_m.e:ai.shcml ( la st isitcd March 2 1 2010). 2'). Alaxcy 1.19 So at 1.10. 10. Id. at 129. 11. 59th Cong .. Scss. I Ch 3915, p 768-772; 14 U.S .C. l \ 7(,8 . 1 2. \\'all ace .Janssen "The Story of the La\\ s Behind the Labels ", U .S Food and Drug Administration .June 1')81, arnilahlc at http://-wwwjlla .4ov / J\/J1 mt FDJ\/ \ Vlwt I \leJJo/ I listory/Ove rviews/11c:mOS 60-J-J.htm (last isitcd March 2 1 2010) (hereinaft e r ci t e d as .Janssen) . 1 1 Id . 1 4. Id .15 .. lames I l arvc) '\hung Food and Drug l{cgulation under the USDA, 1 ')061940, 64 Agricultural llistory 2 The United States Department of Agr i culture: in I listori cal Pcr s pccth c 1 4 1 (Sprin g 1990). .l(i. Id 37. "State Protection of the Reputation of Its Products" 4.1 The Y:dc Law .Journal 8 1 275 (.Jun. 1934) (hereinafter cited as State: Protcc:ti o n) The Flo rida maturation test statute in question had been enacted by the Florida legislature in 1925 .18. Maxcy, 13 9 So at 127. 39. Sec State Protcc:tion supra note 37 at 1276. 40. Slig h v. Kirkwood (,] So. 185 (1913). 4 1 Id at 186 (c itin g Florida Statute C hapter 1). 42. Id at 187. 4.1. Id at 188. 44 hi. 45. Sec State l'rutcction, s1tpra note 37, at 1 2 7 4. It should he noted, hcm c cr, that the Alaxcy court determined in its opinion that the question of .4mund fert ilizers containing arsenic had hccn left open. 4(>. J\la.v:cy, 1 .19 So. at 1 25. 47. Sec State l'rotc:c:tion s11prn note: 37, at 127(>. 48. Sec State Protc<:tion supra note 3 7 n .11. Sec Brief for the Commissioner of Agric:ulturc in Alavo v Florida Orapefr11it J\sso<:iation. 49. hi. a t 1 276. 50. Section l Chapter 11844, Acts of 1927 as amended h y Chapter 14485, Aets of 1929. 51. Alaxcy, 139 So. at 125. The quarantine was lifted on December 6 1 930, hut the growers in prc, ious l y quarantined a rea s were exempt from sei zure of their fruit based on arscnical for an additional year. The statutory expiration of that "grace" period fell on Dccc:mhcr 6 1931. 5 2. Sec Sta t e Protection, supra note .17, n 1(>. 5.1. Maxcy, 1.19 So. at 1 25 54. Id. at 129. Also sec Black s Law Dictionary: the doctrine of suhstantivc due process requires that unde r the 5th and 1 4th amc:nd mcnts of the Constitution, legi s lation must he fair and r easonable in content and must further a legitimate govc:rnmcnt purpose. 55. Id. at 1 28. 5(>. Id. at 1.19 So. a t 1 25. "In cssc" refers to somethin g whi ch was in ac:tua l c:xistcncc at the: time. Sec 13lack s Law Dic:tion:ir)'. 57. Id. at 12(i. 58. Id at 126. 59. Bot h the first and rehearing decisions were presented "pe1 curium," that is an appellate: court decision in w hich the author of the opinion is not identified. Additionall)", both decisio ns were ren dered "e n /Jane," hich m eans hy a full panel (at that time: s ix) of the court' s justices. The first decision ( rendered N m cmhcr 1 4 1 9.11) was a per cwiam en bane opinion joined in by fh c justiec:s (Brown Buford D : wis and Whitfield) hut in which .Justice Tc:rrcll neither joined nor disscntc:d Rath e r .Justice Terrell wrot e scparatelv to say he: hclic,cd the Court s h o uld have: decide d the rc: maining issues instead of sending thc:m hack to the trial judge. It mis at that point that the: Attorney C:cncral mmcd for rehearing because: Commissioner Ma) o did not want to pursue the case further if the: Court would c \ cntuall) rule against him. The petition for rchc:aring was grante d and a second opinion was issued on .Januar) (>, 1932. That opinion was a lso e n /Jane and per c11ri.am, though .lustic:c Tc:rrcll had h) then joined the majority and lustic:c Dm is wrote a dissc:nt. Not all cases at the Florida Supreme Court went to a dh i s ion (that i s three justic:es on the panel): some, like this one:, ere heard e11 /Jane from the hc:ginning. The determination about hcthcr to initially

PAGE 30

hear a case in dh ision or en lmnc came do\\ n to the no\'clty or importance the court attached to the case. For a further discussion, sec Walter W Manley II & Cmltcr Brown .Ir., The Supreme Court of Florida 1917-1972 (200(i). (iO. Muxc.\' 1 .19 So. at 126. 61. Philadelphia Co. Stimson, 22.1 U.S. (i05 (1912). 62. J\luxcy, 1.19 So. at 126. 6.1. Id at 127 M. Id. 65. Stimson, 22.1 U.S. a t (i21. Mi. M (1954). In llm1te1 ; the Whitakers successfull y defended a Florida State Attorney, .Jesse W llunter, against charges of prisoner civil rights violations. 7.1. Hobert P Ingalls ," The Tampa Flogging Case Urban Vigilantism" 56 The Florida Historical Quarterly. 1 18 (.Jul. 1977). According to Ingalls Whitaker was Tampa Mayor Chancey's brothcr-in law and the Tampa politica l machine controlled police. See also Kyle Van Landingham, In Pursuit ql .Justi ce : Lau uml Lawyers in I lillsborough County, I H-16-1996 4 7 I I illsborough County Bar Association (1996). Van L andingham, citing the 1l.1mpa Florida Peninsulw ; April 27, 1867, writes that Whitaker actually "took on the Klan ," condemning them as marauders." 7 4. hi. 75. E-mail from Maureen .J. Patrick President. Tampa llistorical Society, Inc. to the author (Mar. 1 I 2010) Copy on file with the author. 76. Kyle Van Landingham, In Pursuit qf .Justice: La w and Lawyers in llillsborough County, 1 H-16-1996 at 4 7 (199(i). Van Landingham quotes Pat Whitaker as saying that mullet arc bottom grazers and have gizzards to help filter the sand from their system \Vhitakcr's argument was that although whales and bc:l\crs a lso live in the wi.tter they are not fish so why not the mullce 77. hi. 78. hi. 79. Use of pesticides has a long and "ell-documented history. The ancient Sumerians were the first recorded users of insecticides, sulfur compounds to solve the problem. By the 1 9 .10s ho\\cvcr new application technology and compounds ushered in the modern era of pest con trol. See A Short History of Pest Management", Penn State University The Pennsylvania Integrated Pest Management Program, avail able at http://paipm.cas.psu.edu/ 9H-1.htm As Frederick M. Fishel an associate professor at the U niversity of Florida points out, "Ea rly plant-derived insecticides included hellebore to control body lice nicotine to control aphids, and p yrethrins to con trol a wide \'aricty of insects. Lead arsenate was first used in 1892 as an orchard spray. See Frederick M. Fishel Pest J\Janagement aml Pesticides a Historical l'erspect ive, the Electronic Data Information Source of UF/IFAS Extension, available at http://e dis.jfus.tlfl .edu/ pi279. In 19.19 the United States issued the first patent for DDT hut its use was well known for at least sev enty-five prev ious to that. See M. C. Van Horn "New Pesticides: Cautions and Information", The Florida Entomologist, Vol. .1.1, No. 2 56 (.June 1950) Use of DDT was banned by the Environmental Protection Agency in 197.1. See "The Ris e and Fall of DDT Changing Perceptions About Pesticides", Virginia Tech Virginia Cooperative Extension, available at http://www.vaipm. org / historical_JJersp.php (sites last visited March 20, 2010). 80. The F'ood Quality Protection Act Back ground, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency available at http://www.epa. gov/oppUOOO I / regulating / la w s / f qpa/ backgrnd.htm (last visited March 20, 2010). 81. Kim Flottum, "Evidence that Pesticides are Seriously Messing Up Our Honey Bees ", The Dail y Green, August 1 2008, available at http: I /www.thedailygreen.com/ environmentalnews/ blogs / bees /honey-bee-pesticides-SS OHO I 0 7 (last vistcd March 20, 2010). The Pesticide Action Network of North America (PANJ\'A) has re, iewed the components of Bravado which is registere d with the as "Echo lite chlorothalonil fungi cide. PAJ\'NA notes that the active ingredient in Bravado is acutely toxic and is also a carcinogen Sec http://www.pesticidei11ji1.org / Detail _Prollitet EG _NI? =06006.JUOOO'J&DIST _Nl? =OS-1705 29

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Letters from Norma Messenger Joughin: A Memoir of the Pioneer South and Florida Lula Joughin Dovi Portrait photograph of Nora Mesenger Joughin. (Courtesy of the author. ) twas a great surprise to learn recently through a cousin doing family research that the family name of Messenger was not (as we had thought) the real name of our great grandfather. He was Ludwig Schlesinger who emigrated from Sweden to the United States around 1850 with his brother John. After arrival here Ludwig changed his name to Louis Messenger. Preserved letters that crossed the Atlantic Ocean described many difficul ties that beset the men. Their troubles began when their father Aron (Avraham Meir ben Yehudah) Schlesinger of Goteborgs, Sweden, allegedly a successful silk merchant, went into bankruptcy in 1831 and had to spend three years as a debtor in prison. Aron's wife died in 1834, and the siblings Ludwig / Louis and John had a struggle. Aron died in 1866. Louis wrote a number of times to his nephew Robert, who had difficulty finding a career in both Sweden and this country. Letters a l so passed between Robert and his cousins. Louis married Mary Jane McCabe McCauley a nineteen year-old widow from Mt. Airy, North Carolina, at Petersburg Virginia in 1853. Among the nine chi ldren they had was my grandmother Leonore, called Nora by her family She was born in 1855. During the Civil War the family lost their home in Petersburg due to the fiery ravages 31

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32 of battle. After that they moved to Memphis and later to Rome, Georgia. Family history says that Mary Jane and her mother, Mary Jane McCauley began a young ladies' seminary there. Before the family left their home they were said to have been visited by Union soldiers demanding all their food Nora's grandmother said she planned to have a good meal prepared for them and feed the entire company. She did so and at that time the men did not burn down the house nor take their silverware. Next time the soldiers visited was the disaster. For a while the fam ily lived in the slave quarters. According to Nora, there was a hazardous trip across Northern lines to deliver quinine and other medicines, all of which could be wrapped in paper. Nora pretended to be ill as a wagon transported her lying on a mattress filled with the medicines. On the way however, soldiers stopped them. They lifted her out of the wagon while men ran their bayonets through the mattress. The rigors of wartime loss, devastation, and rampant yellow fever took a terrible toll on Mary Jane McCauley Messenger. She had lost a father, mother, brother and others. In 1882, at the age of 48, she died. An obituary published in The Sunny South by her son-in-law, Thomas E. Hanbury, an owner and editor of the paper in Dalton GA, describes the loss felt for her: It is not amiss here to state that although poor in this world's goods at the time of her death, yet she had seen better, happier and brighter days. She was an offspring of a wealthy and noble Virginia family whose house was ever open and whose hospitality warmed and re freshed the guests and the stranger within their gates, until their all was swept away by war s desolation. Many old Virginians who sojourned in Petersburg before the war will remember the famous ... heights famil iarly called 'Mount Airy ... In Mem phis she went through three serious epidemics nursing the sick and car ing for the dead ... until worn away with fatigue and after she had nursed and buried her father moth er, brother and many others... For her family she was an untiring worker and for them she labored and hoped... For many years in her younger days she followed literary pursuits, and her articles adorned the pages of the best literary papers in the country ... In 1875 one of Mary .Jane s poems, Lines to Leonore E. J-N !Nora], Terrell Texas ," appeared in The Sunny South and expresses her love and longing for her daughter who by then was married. The last stan za of three reads: When Evening dons her fleecy veil And clasps her starry zone, I 'll smile on thee in moonbeams pale And sing in Zephyr s tone; Across the waste of years my love Turns to thee evermore, As to the ark the faithful dove My loveliest Leonore. Nora seemed to have escaped the yellow fever epidemic of 1878, probably because she left to be married in 187 4 to Robert J. Joughin, a building contractor from the Isle of Man. Her father Louis wrote to the Swedish family that it was difficult to leave Memphis because of quarantines and armed guards preventing people from boarding trains. However a married daughter, Rosa Hanbury, wife of Thomas E., provided an escape to a house in Dalton, Georgia, where her father and some of the family remained outside the town under quarantine. Louis described the terror in Memphis where "people were dropping dead in the streets, the deaths I ran] ... up to 120 per day out of only one quarter of the population of about 7000 &" Almost ten years later, from 1887 to 1888, Tampa also suffered a similarly devastating yellow fever epidemic. Some families left and camped outside the town. Robert Joughin' s contracting work took Nora to Terrell, Texas where my father, Robert T. Joughin, was born. T\vo other sons were born before him. In her correspondence with cousin Robert, Nora recounted many details of her life and tried to induce him to join her husband in his work. By 1884 Nora and her husband, "Mr. J as she called him, were in Sanford, FL, where he was building houses and acquiring a citrus grove. She described one of his projects as a house costing $900 to build with the expectation that it would be rented for $15 a month. Houses were in demand, she said. At that time part of the economic im portance of Sanford was due to the boat traffic on the St. Johns River.

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On the personal side Nora wrote that she had been very ill and that "my Doctor was afraid I would have nervous fever -but I suppose I took it just in time. I am not feeling real well. I suffer so much with ner vous headaches -and there seems no help for it. But if I can only keep up so I can attend to my home duties I will be so thank ful." She complained that weak spells once in a while made her feel very bad and discouraged at the time and that they did "irritate Mr. J so." Nora wrote again from Sanford in 1885 to describe what must have been a minor building boom. There were many Swedish people there. Evidently her husband was building one house at a time and selling it. A letter to her cousin in 1888 told of the unexpected death of her father. She also mentioned, "Yes we are in 'the land of flowers,' it is truly a lovely Country, but as Sanford is quite a new little town, we miss a great many conveniences that we have in a larger or older city but everyone thinks that San ford will in a short while be a large place. Her husband did well there for a while but later had reverses due to a freeze. Still in Sanford in 1890, Nora wrote a letter of condolence to her cousin Robert after hearing about the deaths of his mother and father. She said her lack of letter-writing was because her health had not been good and that my baby and four other children make it quite busy for me." She was only thirty-five by then. She also complained that the servants were not helpful. Ultimately the family included sLx sons and two daughters. Later the family moved to Tampa. Robert Jones Joughin continued to have building success in the area until his unexpected death at the age of fifty. He w a s involved in the construction of the still-standing wood Belleair Hotel, near the beach in Belleair (Clearwater) across Tampa Bay. Also. he is said to have built the deep-water docks for the Port of Tampa. Family portrait photograph showing Nora Messenger Joughin with husband Robert Jones Joughin and the youngest four of their eight children: Leslie, Roy, Evelyn (all seate d) and Alice Maude (standing.) Older children not included in the photograph were Louis, Wallace Cleve and Robert T. (Cour tesy of the author.) 33

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34 Nora's love for her husband shines bright l y and sad ly, in two poems she wrote. In an ex c erpt from the first, "Which One" she asks: One of us, dear -But one Will sit by a bed with a nameless fear And clasp a hand Growing cold as it feels for the spirit land Darling which one? In answer to her own qu es tion she later wrote the poem "God Thought It Best": One of us dear, had first to go, Yet many happy years, Which it would be we did not know God willed it so. Darling, I am the one left God thought it best. Before Nora died in 1920, at the age of sixty-five, s h e had seen two of her sons achieve prominence. Bert \Vas a captain in the Spanish-American War and his name is on a monument to the War in P lant Park at University of Tampa. H e founded Joughin Plumbing Compa n y later. My father Robert T., or Bob as most people called him, was a major on the governor's staff in World War I and founded his own plumbing company b e fore Bert died of appendicitis in the 1930's. In 1929 m y father was appointed Sheriff of Hillsborou g h County by Governor Doyle Carlton to finish the t erm ending in 1932. That period in Tampa turned out to be a notorious and gun-slinging time between gangsters and officia l s. The author's father R.T. Joughin (son of Nora Messenger and Robert Joughin) attends to car matters while his wife Lul a (the author' s mother) sits in th e back seat. Date unknow n. (Courtesy of the author.)

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I've Got the Swanee River Flowing Thru My Veins: Florida Sheet Music in the USF Library's Collection Paul Eugen Camp roviding a musical portrait of the Sunshine State from the 1850s to the 1980s, the University of South Florida Library's Florida Sheet Music Collection i s one of the most col orful e lements in the library's "Floridiana" holdings. Most of the songs in the collection were written with a promotional aim in mind: to entice tourists, investors and potential residents with images of sunshine, orange blossoms, palm trees, and ba lmy breezes Some emphasize the exotic and semitropical aspects of the state, creatin g vis ions of an enchanted land of Seminol es, a lligators, and Spanish senoritas where winter never comes. Others evoke the aur a of Southern belles and plantations, or spin enticing fantasies of romance under a si l very F lorida moon. Still others portray Flor id a as a land of opportunity, wher e fortunes in real estate and business are waiting for enterprising newcomers. The collection includes musical tributes to the virtues of F lorida towns and cities from the Panhandle to Biscayne Bay. Pensacola provides the theme for tunes lik e On Pensacola Bay (1920) and My Dusky O l a from Pensacola (1903). Florida's capital city inspired Tallahassee, featured in the 194 7 Paramount movie Variety Girl and My Talahassee /sic/ Lassie (1902), which was-" Dedicated to the Southern Belle." On the East Coast, there are songs about Florida 's o ld es t city like In the Mission of St Augustine (1953), songs praising sun and sand In Daytona (1924), and songs like Meet Me at West Palm Beach (1923) touting the delights of Palm Beach's grand hotels, where winter visitors danced The Palm Beach 7ango (1914). Of course, there is a wealth of music about Miami, from multiple editions of the 1935 hit Moon Over M i ami to the Latin beat of Miami Beach Rumba (1946). In Miami You 35

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36 Owe a L ot to Me ( 1 92 5 ) the punni n g l yr ics tell the sa d ta l e o f a littl e c h a p just lik e a yap w h o b o u ght so m e F l o rid a l a nd s i ght un see n only t o find out th e lot h e h a d purc h ase d was und e r w a t er. I-le l a m ents I b o u ght it b y th e foo t but I 'll sell it by the gallo n M i a mi you o w e a l o t t o m e." Anoth e r tun e fro m M i a mi 's p as t The Miam i Storm, comme morat es the g reat hurri ca n e t h a t d evas t a t e d the c i ty in 1 926. Fro m m o r e r ecent t i m es, t h e r e i s Miam i D o l p h i n s No. 1 ( 1 9 73), Miami Vice: The m e.from the Universal Tel e-vision Series a nd the 4 8-page M i .ami Vice: Piano \loc al G uitar, a c ollecti o n o f mu s i c fro m tha t se ri es (b oth publi s h e d in 1985). F l o rid a s Wes t Coast i s a lso well r epresente d in the USF collecti o n My F l orida H o m e ( 1891) s in gs th e p ra i ses o f a h o m e on t h e A nclote Rive r "Neath the s h a d e of t h e oran ge, the p a lm oak a n d l e m o n within sound of the sea and in s i ght o f its foa m ." A n othe r prime locati o n for h o m e seek e r s o n F l o rid a s Wes t Coast i s I n th e Land o f I-lo mosassa ( 1925) the p e rfect pl a c e for those w h o think Of n orthe rn c limes I 've h a d m y fill" and dream o f livin g in "J-lo m osassa I-lo m osassa, b y t h e C r ysta l rive r s h o r e." T hat sa m e yea r the C learwat e r C h ambe r o f Comme rce publi s h e d O n Old C learwater Bay t o entice v i sito r s to "C lear wa t e r t h e springtime city o n the bay." F ro m near by C lear wa t e r Beac h cam e O n th e Gulj; O n th e Bay, On t he Road to Manda lay ( 1926), p ra i s in g the c h arms o f a n ew s ubdi v i s i o n a d ve rtised as "Manda lay, the is l e o f a tho u sand p a lms:" Th e r e s a n othe r Manda l ay W h e r e the flyin g f i s hes play, W h e r e th e d ays and ni ghts a r e June, W h e r e the birdi es s in g thi s tune; It s the q u aintes t place I kn ow, Sure l y you would lik e t o go; Orie ntal I s l e, Go ld e n treasure I s l e Mand a l ay so fair Mand a l ay i s o n the b ay Mand a l ay i s a l ways gay. T h e r e the gentle breezes bl ow, There t h e m ag i c l a ntern s g l ow; R osy c heek s a nd sunny eyes, In t hi s so u t h e rn Paradi se; If you r e l oo kin g 'round, W ant t o settle d ow n Mand a l ay's the t ow n

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Earlier in the 1920s, the Sarasota area was acclaimed as a paradise for beachgoers in Crescent Beach (1921): "Yes, that is the place we all like to go, the place we so long to reach; where we romp and we play in the glittering spray at beautiful Crescent Beach The collection holds many songs lauding the beauties of Tampa Bay and its surrounding communities, pieces like Way ; PUBLIJ'HEO BY FLORA-OWILSON I ST. PETERSBURG, FLA. Down on Sunny Tampa Bay (1911), On the Shores of Tampa Bay (1934) and I Don t Want to Fly (Away from Tampa Bay) (1928). After spending a day frolicking in the Bay revelers with energy still left could dance to the Tampa Bay Tango (1914) The 1924 ditty Gandy Bridge, "dedicated to the twin cities, Saint Petersburgh [sic) and Tampa," commemorates the opening of the first bridge across the bay: t : All illustrations accompanying this article courtesy of University of South Florida Special Collections Floridiana Collection 37

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38 The greatest thing in the grand old south ls our new Gandy Bridge It spans the waters of Tampa Bay We drive from ridge to ridge Birds golden throats more gaily sing, Stars brighter shine in glorious spring The waves salute you when you bring, You re [sic I sweetheart to Gandy Bridge. Oh Gandy Bridge we are all for you We love you more and more, We praise you as we drive along And speed from shore to shore With sky so light the world smiles bright, The balmy breeze a lovely night Attunes the world with one accord, We shout welcome all aboard. Listen the mocking birds are singing Gandy Bridge, Waves softly whisper Gandy Bridge Stars are beaming Gandy Bridge The sil'vry moon is shining winds are sighing Gandy Bridge Wild flowers sweetly perfume Gandy Bridge Builder George Sheppard Gandy (1851-1946) formally dedicated the bridge on November 20, 1924. It was the engineering marvel of Tampa Bay at the time, cutting the travel distance between Tampa and St. Petersburg from 43 to 19 miles. The original bridge was demolished in 1975 when a replacement span was completed. Commuters who remember the old Gandy Bridge may find it hard to believe that it was ever "sweetly perfumed" by anything but internal combustion engines and perhaps the occasional dead fish.

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a COBB MILLEf\ tiq B HOLLEY The City of St. Petersburg inspired songs like Sunshine City (1922), On Tampa Bay (1925), and Sunshine City in the Rain (1926). For the aviation-minded there was Over the Sunshine City (1930), which commemorated the christening of the Goodyear blimp Vigilant of St. Petersburg in the city on December 11, 1929. A particularly fervent tribute to St. Petersburg is Sunshine City, Forever for Me (1923) : 39

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Dedicated to the City of St. Petersburg, Florida 3 Sunshine City Forever For Me There's a There's a Though I I:'\ I:'\ -cit y they say, cit y to day, wan der a -far, GERTRUDE COBB MILLER & ERNEST B. HOLLEY on old Tam-pa Bay, Nest-ling on old Tam -pa Bay, Where the And no pleas-ures I bar, A s '...:.I -I -------... ,, -,, -. ---v ,, ---------v I I I r r there 'neath south -ern skies _ Where they work and they play and they'r e son g -birds sing in the trees _ And the trees seem to say as they o 'er this wide world I may roam __ I would still l ong t o be in that '1 I I I -: .. --v -----------t) I -41 I q-r 41 I I l -I "'I .. --. --r -v r, --r I I .. ,,.-I -spring time nev -er by a gen -tle Take me me it is home sweet Copyright MCMXXIII by GertruJe Cobb Miller & Ernest B .Holley, St. Petersburg, Fl&. Printed in U.S. A.

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There's a city they say, On old Tampa Bay, Nestling there 'neath southern skies; Where they work and they play And they're happy all day. Whe re the springtime never dies. There' s a city today, On old Tampa Bay, Where the song birds sing in the trees And the trees seem to say As they rock and they sway, Fanned by a gentle breeze. Though I travel afar, And no pleasure I bar, As o'er this wide world I may roam; I would still long to be In that land by the sea For to me it is home sweet home. Take me back to that beautiful city, To that wonderful city so bright, Where all is so pleasant and cheery Till our souls are fille d with delight; Though I travel this great wide world over, And its wonders and glories I see, I 'll still long for that bright golden city Sunshine city, forever, for me. Compositions about Tampa, St. Petersburg's neighbor across the bay, tend to emphasize the city's prosperity and business opportunity in songs like Tampa Steps Out (1925): Folks you've heard just lots 'bout Dixie We know you think she' s grand -but Flo-ri-da is Dixie s Sunny land Honey land Sunny land Th ere' s a city they call Tampa mid tropic sp lendors rare with industry A port to sea No other can compare Where ? Down in Tampa folks will greet you with a smile Where opportunity is friendly as can be Down in Tampa you will learn to step with glee She's got a r e p she's full of pep Folks down in Tampa got to step Down in Tampa you must lamp her from the bay Her Boulevard so gay with bright lights all the way. A buzzin lik e a busy bee are Tampa s wheels of industry. Steppin out there's no doubt about Tampa Visitors to Fair Tampa could promenade to the tune of the Tampa March, both tunes composed in 1922 by Nella Wells Durand. Moonlight on the Hillsborough (1924) provides a romantic view of the river that flows through the city, while tunes like Fiesta Time in Tam,pa (1950) and Ybor ttiiy (1959), a parody of Rudyard Kipling's poem "Ma ndalay ," pay tribute to Tampa 's Latin heritage: "Come you back to Ybor Way, where the senoritas play, there they serve those good garbanzos, Cuban coffee every day. 41

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42 Most of the music in the USF features lyrics about Florida or have Florida-related titles. However the library also collects songs and instrumental pieces written by Tampa composers or published in Tampa even though they are about non-Florida topics. For instance, USF has a copy of Tampan Granville B. Evans's 1924 love song When the Roses Bloom in Dixie (I'll Come Back to You) which doesn't mention Florida at all. Evans's song has two qualifications for inclusion in USF's collection; it was written by a Tampa resident and also published in the "Cigar City." The 1932 election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the U.S. presidency inspired Tampa Italian immigrants Luigi Casaburi and Giovanni Mazzarelli to write The Bells Ringing in Glory: Homage to the American People: Bells ringing in glory from the summit of the capitol at Last the ruling people has [sic) achieved a complete victory America's dearest son has been chosen to the throne Din ... Don Din ... Don It seems a dream that he is gone It seems a dream that he is gone, Hoover was a messenger of lies Should be Roosevelt of the land sunrise The song s cover is replete with patriotic illustrations, including a drawing of Roosevelt in front of the Capitol dome tipping his hat to a crowd waving U.S. and Italian flags and one of Uncle Sam holding a newborn infant. The USF copy of this very rare piece of Americana is signed by Casaburi, who also added a note written in Italian. HOMAGE TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE '

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The USF collection includes songs relating to several of Florida's institutions of higher learning. Th ere is of course a copy of composer R Wayne Hugoboom's University of South Florida Alma Mater, winner of the November 29 1961 competition to choose a theme song for the new state university: Hail to thee, our Alma Mater, may thy name be told Where above thy gleaming splendor waves the Green and Gold Thou our guide in quest for knowledge where all men are free U-ni-ver-si-ty of South Florida, Alma Mater hail to thee! Be our guide to truth and wisdom, as we onward go May thy glory fame and honor never cease to grow. May our thoughts and prayers be with the through eternity, U-ni-ver-si-ty of South Florida Alma Mater hail to thee! The collection has no copy of Florida State University's alma mater, but it does have We'll Sing Her Praises, the anthem of Florida State College for Women FSU s immediate predecessor: We'll sing her praises to the nations free we'll sing her praises to the sky We'll tell the whole world that she s one grand school, We'll raise her glowing colors high, Her ideals her ev ry standard true, We will uphold for all to see We'll spread her fame bring honor to her name, be proud of F.S.C. Established as Florida Female College in 1905 and renamed Florida State College for Women in 1909, FSCW (lovingly referred to as "Flastacowo") became a co-educational university in 194 7 with its name changed to Florida State University The Universit y of Florida is represented in the collection by an eleven-page booklet of U niversity of Florida Songs published around 1940. Included are classics like Cheer for Florida, We are the Boys from Old Florida, and The Gator Song: For the 'Gators of Florida We'll sing a song of praise today Noble brave and true; No finer man hood ever grew ; For the 'Gators of Florida May victories come to stay; Always so brave and true, the boys of the Orange and Blue. Annie W (Mrs Forrest M.) Kelley wrote the original words and music for The 'Gator Song in 1932, subsequently transferring her publication rights to the University of Florida. 43

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44 During both World War I and World War 11, Florida' s climate and the ready availability of land for military camps made it the "training ground of th e n a tion ", where America s young m e n prepare d for battle. In 1918, Irving Berlin's rousing hit song Over There about American soldiers fighting the Germans in France inspired Tam pans Rogelio Rigau and Jack A. Gunn to write Over Here the brightly colored cover of which featured a soldier shaking hands with a civilian holding a liberty bond: "Ove r h ere, Over here, We are pra ising yes our heroes over the re. A Soklier Boy s Song to His Florida Girl, probably a l so written in 1918, looks toward a bright future When the Kaiser 's gone from power and the soldier returns to his sweetheart "Mid the blooms of great old Flor'da." Florida s 124th Infantry Regiment was mustere d into Federal service as p art of the 31st Dixie" Division. A soldier in the 1241h Floridian Alexander Beach Pooley had no doubt which U. S. Army unit would reach the German capital first when h e wrote The 1241/i Infantr y Florida (Dixie Division): First to Berlin (19 1 8). Though in general songs with military themes were considerably l ess numerou s during the Second World War than they had been in the earlier conflict, World War II inspir e d several Floridi a ns t o express their patriotism in song. Army Air Corps training activity in Florida put hundreds of pl a nes in the air on training flights and prompted Vero Be ach resid ent Burma Reed Knight to write U. S Bombers (1944): Hear our Bombers how they Hum Th ey' re in the air, Here they come. The y swiftly go on their way For to r eturn, Anoth'r day. We've pleasant scenes To recall, Our big Bombers, Beat the m all. Hear the m hum hum -hum hum hum, hum, hum, Hear the m hum, hum, -Hear them hum, hum hum hum, hum hum, H ea r them hum, hum, hum, Hum, Hum With all that humming going on overhead, particularly around bombe r training bases lik e Tampa 's MacDill and Dr ew Fields, Floridians must h ave been very glad indeed to see the end of the war in 1945.

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Florida's Seminole Indians have inspired many songs, but judging from the results few of the lyricists or cover illustrators involved knew anything about the Sunshine State's Native people. This lack of knowledge seems have to stopped few songwriters; the facile tunesmiths simply dressed their Seminoles up in Sioux war bonnets and installed them in teepees Seminole (1904) has an Indian maiden and chief on the front cover arrayed in stereotypical Plains Indian regalia, with a hide teepee in the background for good measure. Seminola (1925) also shows its title character, who lived in a little teepee that stands in the shades of the great everglades", clothed in Plains Indian buckskins complete with an eagle feather in her hair. The colorful cover illustration of the 1914 song Kissamee (punning on the name of Florida's Kissimmee River) shows its heroine paddling a northern birch bark canoe instead of the cypress dugout one might expect. Eugene Francis Mikell, creator of the 1912 opus Lackawanna: Indian Love Song, wins the prize for packing the most ethnological faux pas into one song. On the song's cover, his Seminole maiden is dressed like a Cheyenne princess is named for a valley in Pennsylvania and reigns as "the pride of the big teepee," all against a background of Florida palmettos: Down where all the orange trees a blooming, Florida's praises sing, Where flowers the sunny land perfuming And songs from nature ring. An Indian Maiden fair to behold Drinks from a Spring both Sparkling and cold Water so pure water so sweet While this name she'd often repeat. Lackawanna, Lackawanna Lackawanna dear. My Lackawanna I love you so -You are the pride of the big teepee I'll make Heap much Love to thee And when I wander down by the Spring For your Big Chief you must sing My Lackawanna. However, the most bizarre specimen in the collection featuring Florida's Native people is the 1920 song Seminole Sun Dance. Inspired by the elaborate Palm Beach Seminole Sun Dance pageants staged from 1916 into the 1920s, it has Seminole warriors warbling to potential white home seekers, "We sing you a welcome, the peace pipe we pass; come here and increase like the blades of the grass." Needless to say, George Graham Currie, the author of this fulsome invitation for white settlers to occupy the Seminoles' Florida homeland was not a Seminole. 45

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46 The Suwannee River usually spelled "Swanee,'' was the hands-down favorite theme for songwriters composin g music about the Sunshin e State. Perhaps no other American ri ver save the Mississippi has been so fertile and enduring an in sp irati on to the nation's composers of popular music. Consequently, the USF collection has more songs about the Suwannee than about any other feature in the state. There are multiple editions of Stephen Collins Foster's Old Folks at Home (better known as Way Down Upon the Swanee River) adopted as Florida s officia l state song in 1935 (but fallin g into controversy in recent years.) The Suwannee songs range from the 1851 first edition to a 1945 boogie-woogie arrangement by Robert \Vhitford and a 1960 piece for the accordion, Accordionizin' on the Swanee, "a modern paraphrase based on Stephen Co llin s Foster's famous 'Swanee River."' There are a l so many versions of George Gershwin s 1919 hit Swanee, theme song of popular singer A l .Jolson (1886-1950): Swanee, How I l ove you, how I love you, My dear o ld Swanee I'd give the world to be Among the folks in D-I-X-1-E ven know my Mammy 's waiting for me, praying for me Down by the Swanee -The folks up north will see me no more When I go to the Swanee shore. .Jolson, who obvious l y knew a good thing what he heard it, celebrated Florida's euphonious river in severa l other songs, including Down \Vhere the Swanee River Flows (1916), Don t Cr31, Swanee (l 923), and Swanee River Trail (1927). Another popular singer who was a fan of the Swanee was "01 Banjo Eyes" Eddie Cantor (1892-1964), with Silver Swanee (1922) and There s a Bend at the End of the Swanee (1923). The river or at least its name, inspired scores of songs like Goodbye Old Swanee River (1878), Take Me Back to That Shack on the Swanee (1923), and the memorable ditty I 've Got the Swanee River Flowing Thru My Veins (1919): I 've got the Swanee River flowing thru my veins, That's why I l ove those good old fashioned Dixie strains, And ev'ry twig and tree along its shore Brings back to me once more, Songs my Mammy sang to me, oh melody I can hear the banjos playing night and day And each refrain is in my brain to stay, Altho I left my heart with someone down in Dixie I 've got the Swanee River flowing through my veins.

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4S Lively imaginative cover art adds graphic interest to most pieces of Florida sheet music. While the co\'crs of some Florida songs haYc illu strations by nationally known sheet music cover artists like Albert W Barbcllc (1887-1957), many pieces feature the work of local Florida illustrators. Some hav e a rtwork created by the composer personally. The illustrations range from slickly professional to d ow nri ght crude, but arc almost always visually interesting. There arc beach scenes with bathing beauties from the Roaring l\venties, Yicws of id y llic riYcr s shadowed by Spanish moss, and images of scfiorita s dancing with handsome caballeros. Some covers show bustling urban landscapes r adiating econ omic opportunity, while others enshrine neat littl e homes ne s tlin g beneath the orange blossoms. In \"iv id colors undimmed by time, these pictures o f fun sun, and enterprise provide d elightful amplification to the tuneful word-pictures created b y Florida s composers and l y ricists Many sheet mus ic covers also feature inset photographs of the n ow largel y forgotten bands a nd singers who once scn:nadcd audiences with live l y renditions of songs like J n Sunniland With You (1925). For instance, a picture of the Danks Rudisill (Rudy Rudisill and Thomas Danks) Coliseum Orchestra, once the toast of Fort Myers graces the cover of City of Palms, a 1926 musical tribute to "queen city of southwest Florida. 01' Brother C h a rlie (Charles Irwin Arnett) and Daisy Mac (Ethel Ir ene Redd y) of Tampa' s WDAE R adio appear o n the 1949 song Orange Blossom Trail, while the lpana Troubadors dresse d in fancy Spanish bullfi ghter outfits lh cn up the cover o f Tamimni Trail (1926). Fiesta Time in Tampa (1950) has a romantic portrait of Columbia Restaurant \'io linist (a nd owner) Cesar Gonzmart (1920-1992) o n its cover. Other songs feature portraits o f the Melnottc l\vins (l 912), the Six O Rcillys (1927), Fred D amon' s Greenwich Villagers (1925), and Frank Grasso' s popular Tampa band Don Francisco s Orchestra (1925). Although USF's Florida sheet music collection has a considerable number of early pieces like Th e Fl01ida Quich S t ep (1851), the Florida Pnlha Redowa (1854), and the Fl01ida G lid e Walt.:."":es (1886), the 1920s were the golden age of Florida sheet music. Durin g the wild and wondrous frenzy of the great Florida land boom, from roughly 1920 to its sudden collapse in 1925-26, there were probably more songs written about Florida than in all the years before and since. As real estate sales reached unprecedented heights, the state's boosters saw catchy toe-tapping songs as a n cffccti\"c way to reach prospcctiYc in\"cstor s and home seekers. Some songs promoted a single development like Bel-Mar in FL-A (1925), billed as "Tampa's most desirable subdivision :" Bel-Mar is a suburb and it isn't very far A Little walk a littl e jaunt from Tampa in your car S h o uld yo u meet a dainty mi ss just bring her right along -and Whisper in h e r pretty car the chorus to this song.

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TAMPA'S MOST DESIRABLE SUBDIVISON is a s ub -urb and it i s n t v e r -y far_ A lit -tle walk a lit -tle jaunt. from Tam-pa 10 your car __
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so Other songs urged people to come to particular towns or cities like Arcadia, Miami or C oral Gables while many simpl y aimed at luring prospects to the state as a whole like "Happy Jack I-Ianes s 1927 ditty Florida s the Place for Me : You may talk about the East, You may talk about the West You may talk about good old Broadway You may talk about your pretty countries But Florida s the place for me. Florida's the place for me, It s the Land of Prosperity Where the oranges are sweet and the Breezes are a treat, so here' s where you ought to be, When you 're feeling awfully Blue I will tell you what to do You may be so far away but Here s what I say that Florida s the place for me. After the catastrophic crash of the land market in the winter of 1925-1926 brought hard times to Florida upbeat, hopeful songs like "Happy" Jack' s composition tried to spark renewed interest and bring back prosperity. The number of new Florida songs slowly ebbed as it became apparent that it would take more than snappy tunes to revive the Sunshine State's fortunes. By the time prosperity did return, after long years of economic depression and a world war sheet music was no longer quite the popular medium it had once been. Americans increasingly looked to radios jukeboxes, record players, and tape decks rather than making their own music at home on a ukulele guitar, or parlor piano, so the amount of Florida sheet music produced in the post-World War II era never approached the flood tide of the 1920s. This brief survey includes only a limited selection from the hundreds of Florida-related songs comprising U SF s Florida Sheet Music Collection. The majority have been archived and appear in the USF Library s online catalogue at http://www. lib usf edu / While seldom outstanding as musical compositions, and with lyrics that tend to be brazenly promotional or unintentionally humorous, these forgotten songs provide illuminating views of the Sunshine State not necessarily as it was but as generations of promoters, developers, and romancers wanted people to see it. So hit The Orange Blossom Trail (1949) and head for Florida Among the Palms (1925), Down \Vhere the Swanee River Flows (1916). When Florida Calls to You (1936), and you get Sand in four Shoes (1947), you 'll say Florida's the Place/or Me (1927).

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Bibliography of songs mentioned in this article: '/11c /Jells I. 5 p C rescent /Jeach : S11rasow Sarasota County, Florida Music by C. Franklin lk:n-cs ; wrods lsicl by I \ T. Maxw e ll. Bradcntown, Fla.: Maxwell & lkmcs, 1921 .. 1 p /Jon t Cry Swllnee. By Al .Jolson B n. De Sylrn and Con Conrad. i\cw Y or Novelty One-step. B)' .I. S. Zamccnik. ( :lcvcland Oh.: Sam Fox 1'Jl4. 5 p L < 1d1mx:w111a: Indian Love Son,4. Words h) E C. Deas ; music h) Eugcnc Frands Mikell. t\cw York : Lacka\\ anna Music Puhl. Co. 191 2. 5 p. Aleet Ale w \Vest /'11/rn /Je11ch. \Yords lw Clara (;riffith Cazzam; mus ic by Orcstc Vessella. Atlantic C ity i\ .I .: Orcstc Vcssclla, 1 'J2.1. 5 p. Ati11111i /Jeach U/111m.lm L)Tic b) Albert (;amse; Spanis h l)Tic b) .Johnnie Camacho; music b) Irving Ficlds. i\cw )'. 5 p. Aliami /Jo/phins No. I Words and music b) Lcc Ofman; arranged b y Don Theriot. Houma, La. : Black (;old Entcrpriscs; Miami : Scrccn Ccms-Columbia, 1 'J7:l J\liwni Swrm: \Vctlc::: So11,4. Word s and music by Carson .I. Robinson. i\cw York: Trianglc /vlusi c Puhl. l'J26. 5 p A/i11111i \!i.ce: l'iwio, l'ushy Ola (From l'ens<1col). Word s by Morris S. Sih-cr : music b) Paul 11. Bush. Chicago, Ill. : Hearst' s Chicago i\mcrican, 1 'J0.1 .. 1 p Old Ni/ks at llome. Melmly as Srm,4 C/uisty' s Minstrels. \\'rittcn and composed b) E. I' Christ) lactuall) by Stcphcn Collins Fostcrl. Ne\\ Y. 5 p 011 / 'e11su.cu/11 Huy Words and music b) Con Connrd and .I. l{usscll Robinson. i\cw fork: Waterson, Bcrlin & Sn) dcr, I 'J20. 5 p 011 th e Shores
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52 l'ulm IJeuch 7lmgo B) Chas. ]{oat. Battle Creek, Mich.: Chas. E. ]{oat Music Co., l'Jl-t. 5 p. Surnl in Hmr Shoes: The Song r!f Florida. Words and music by .lames 11. Stedman. Sarasota, Florida: Stedman llousc, 194 7 .. l p. Seminola: i\n Indian / ,ove Song. By l{obcrt King and llarry Warren. !\cw York: Skidmore Music Co., 1925. 5 p. Seminole. Words b) llarry 11. Wilson ; music by Egbert Van Alst)TIC. !\cw York : Shapiro, Hcmid1 and Co., 1904. 5 p. Seminole Sun /J11nce. \\'ords b) ( icorg<.! uhli<.!ations 1 ')45. 2 p. S wanee Hiver Trail. By Al Jolson and ln'ing Caesar. New York: ln ing Berlin, 1 'J27. 5 p 7ldie J\le Hack to Thltt Shuck by the S wanee. Words and music b) Cal Ile Voll. Chicago, Ill.: McKinlc) Music Co., 192.l. 5 p. '/lillahassee: ils fi'ealllred in the l'arwno1tnt l'icture "\!wiety Oirl. By Frank Locsscr; piano arrangement by .I err) Phillips. !\cw York: Famous Music Co., 194 7. 7 p. 'fomiwni Trail: (7lim-i-ltmi) By Cliff Friend and .Jos II. Santly. Ne w 't'. 5 p. 'fompa IJay '/lmgo. Words by Walter CaYcnaugh ; music b) Uco. A. Smith. l\'c\\ 'thrk: M \Vitmark & Sons, 1'Jl 4. 4 p. Tampa Mltrch. By l'>/clla Wells Durand; arrang<.!d h) M. L Lake ITt1111pa':': s.n. I, 1 'J22. 25 hand parts. 7l.1mpa Steps 0111. \\'ords and music by Frank W Salle)'. Tampa. Florida: Booster ){ccord and Publishing Co. 1 'J25. 6 p. There s a Hem/ ur the End rd th e Swanee. By Louis Breu and Charles Tobias. 'Featured \\ 'ith tremendous success by Eddie Cantor." !\cw 'thrlc Bee Tee Publishing Co., 192.l. 5 p. U. S. JJom/Jers Words and music b) Burma l{ccd Knight. Vero Beach: Burma l{ccd Knight, I ')44 . l p. Uni v ersity r!l Florida Songs. !\cw York: T. W Allen I circa 19401. 11 p. I The Orange ltnd Hlue. Music by Thornton \\'. Allen; words by Thornton \\'. Allen and rk: Shapiro. 1 911. 5 p We'll Sing lier /'mises: Florida Swee Col/egejiJr \ViJmen. Words h) Sara Krcntzman; music by Isabelle Sands. When the Hloom in /Jixie (I'll Come IJac/1 to Yim). Words and music 11\'
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OUR STORY Sir Speedy franchises are all individually owned & operated -they are located all over the world. The Keith family opened its first Sir Speedy in 1979 in Spring Hill Florida. A second store soon followed. The South Tampa location opened in 1990 and has been serving South Tampa, Hyde Park, Downtown, and Palma Ceia for 20 years. We are a family-owned business and take great pride in our work. 'Ve attribute our longevity to providing great customer service, quality work and competitive prices. 53

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SouthTampaToday.com 54

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Fidelia Jane Merrick Whitcomb: A Nearly Forgotten Florida Medical Pioneer By Elizabeth Coachman, MD :upon Springs, F lorid a was once part of Hillsborough County. The town was home to A.PK. Safford and his sister Dr. Mary .Jane Safford who is sa id to be the first female physician on F lorida' s West Coast.1 1 l owevcr, while researching Dr. Safford, the author found a second female physician ac tively practicing medicine in Tarpon Springs. In the town's Cycad i a Cemetery, Or. Fidelia .Jane Merrick Whitcomb is buried in an unmarked grave not far from her friend and colleague Safford. Although there is a bayou, a boulevard, and a housing dc\'clopmcnt named Whitcomb in the town most wou ld think that these were named in honor of Fidelia s son Silas Merrick Whitcomb the 28-year-o ld llarvard C l ass of 1880 graduatc2 who became Tarpon Springs' first Town Clerk at its 1887 incorporation. Perhaps they were named for him since his career \\'as illustrious as an acade mic and author. I l owcvcr when o ne stops to \\'Ondcr how such a youthfu l fellow from \\'CStern New 'tork just happened to be in Tarpon Springs and h a\'c connections to at tain a politically appointed office, one need onl y look to Merrick s mother and her friendship with Dr Safford f<'idelia .Jane Merrick was born .July 9 18.1.1, in Nunda Livingston County, New fork, and was the daughter of Hiram and Dr. Fidelia .Jane 11krriek Whitcomb (From Cent ennial History of th e 1bwn qf Nunda, by Hemy Wells Hanel.) Esther Richardson Merrick.3 There is little known of her chi ldh ood beyond the fact that she attended the coeducational Nunda Literary Institute for at least three and that her family was a bit unconvention a l in their practicing the Uni\'ersalist faith. In his Centennial Il istory of the Tow n of Nunda, I-1.

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Wells I land describes the family situation: This family unlike their relatives of the Richardson and \\'ilcox families was lsicl Unhcrsalists. It required some courage and strength of \\ill to espouse a cause, which like early Christianity was spoken a gainst. It must have been in the Merrick makeup of blood, brawn and brain, to be bra, c strong and self reliant, to be thcmsch'cs, instead of being pocket editions of pedagogues and parsons, who w e re supposed by most people in those days as the possessors of unlimited knowledge and truth. A charge of heresy and the fate of ostracism, awaited those who dared to reason for themselves in those da y s when Puritan C alvinism dominated in church circles. Even Methodism was tabooed and U niversal Love was less acceptable than C\'en unhcrsal malignity. The children of Hiram B Merrick were mostly girls with masculine minds, and possessors of the Merrick makeup, supplemented by the dc\'out spirit of the Richardsons. Their intell ectuality, their freedom from fette r s their zeal for progress, progrcssi\' e piety and patriotism, made them poor conscrvati\'CS poor imitators, but natural leaders among their own sex. Conspicuously so was Pidelia .I. Merrick Whitcomb, a true logician a subtle a born the ologian a social le a der. Despite their formidable descriptions the Merrick girls found husbands. Pidclia married Walter Bruce Whitcomb in Nm cmbcr 1 8 51.r' lie came to Nunda in 1848 as a clcrki for his uncle \\'alter Whitcomb described as the leading merchant of the town s After marrying Fidelia \\'alter B. clerked for her uncle .Jcrmiah (sic) Richardson and C\'cntually became a merchant as well as an associ ate \\ ith the ') ;--;:unda Bank for nearly torty years. Fidelia was known as a logician and it \\as logical in the nineteenth century for a oman to enter the realm of motherhood. She did so on August 17 185 2, with the birth of her daughter C lara Em. 10 Silas i'dcrrick \\ 11itcomb followed on .January 10, 1859.11 \\' e knm\ little about their childhood other than both \\ere graduates of I jJ Nunda Acat cmy. While her children were young the Chil War raged, and Fidelia \\as credited with leadership that led to the, "doing of great things for the soldiers." Biographer I land continues, "Since the united efforts of the patriotic women of Nunda, led by their strongest church leaders, Mrs \\11itcomb Britton, Mrs King and Mrs. llcrrick, working together in perfect harmony, there has been more of the spirit of the Master in the churches and less of that bigotry, too I t "1.1 common m t i1s comm um y. Clara Eva Whitcomb attended the School of Elocution in Boston and became a teacher of elocution. Silas Merrick who later went bv onh" Merrick ," attended Chelsea J.j. High School in Chelsea, Massachusetts, m preparation for Harvard. While Fidelia lh cd in Mass achusetts during her children' s school vears her husband stayed with the familv business in Nunda, New York Olwi<;usly the \\11itcombs bclic,cd in educating both sexes -under parental supervision. As the wife of a successful businessman, Fidelia could hm e had a quiet life hilc li\'ing in Massachusetts and minding her children but chose activity in the growing woman' s rights mmcmcnt. A group of unaf filiated U nivcrsalist women unknown to each other and from multiple states met in Buffalo Ne\\ fork, in September Their main goal was that of so many re ligious organizations: to find a way to raise money to support church acthitics. Until that time there was no national organization of Unhcrsalist Church women. Caroline A. Soule was President of this new organization and Fidelia Whitcomb the first Corresponding Sccrctary.1r' Both \\omen \\ ere among the original incorporators of what became known in I 87J through Act of Congress as The \\'oma n s Ccn tcnary Association of the l 'nhcrsalist Church.17 Fidelia remained national Corresponding Secretary for sc\ cral years llm\ docs Fidelia \\'hitcomh fit into Florida s let alone I I illsborough The route to her Florida acti\'itics may ha\'c started at the Cnion League in New fork City in October of 187.1. At that time Fidelia attended the First \\'oman' s Congress that established the Association for the Ath'anccmcnt of \\'oman (AA\\') She

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Dr. Mary .Jane Safford-Blake circa 1880 (With permission of the Boston Alumni r..kdical Library Archives ) and Dr. Mary .J. Safford had been among those influential U.S women calling for the first Congress of Women on September 1, 1873.18 Fidelia's associate from the Woman s Centenary Association Caroline A. Soule, opened the proceedings. Among the Executive Committee Members from Massachusetts were "F .I. M 'vVhitcombc (sic)" and Dr Mary Safford.1'J, 20 This organization was one of several in the mid-to late 1800s promoting woman s rights, e ducation and general improvement in social station. Even if Fidelia and Mary Safford had not met prior to this event they most cer tainly would have known each other after it. In the spring of 1 8 73 the homeopathic physicians of Massachusetts met to estab lish "The 1 lomoeopathic Association of Boston U niv e rsity '', to aid in the founding of a coeducational homoeopathic medical school at Boston U ni versity (BUSM.)21 Among those original physicians was Dr. Mar y .J Safford-Blake ("Blake was added after Safford's 1872 marriage and deleted following her 1879 divor ce), who was one of the first female faculty members of Boston U niversit y School of Medicinc.22 I lomoeopathy differed from traditional allopathic medicine in that the former used minute doses of substances known t o cause specific symptoms in an effort to alleviate the cry same symptoms in the patient. This "hair of the dog that bit you ," typ e of cure may haYe had some success in part because it \\'as less harmful than some of the tradi tional medical treatments of the day. (For fc, cr, for example, a homeopathic dose o f aconite (Monk s hood) m>uld do far less damage than a n allopathic dose of calomel (mcrcurous chloride.) Many homeopathic medical schools including BUSM differed from allopathic ones b y accepting female students. BUSM' s preliminary announcement of July 1873 stated: "Students of both sexes will be admitted to the school of med icine on uniform terms and conditions. The regular course of in struction will be of the most thorough and comprehensive charac ter, covering three full years of study. "2.1 Actual classes at BUSM began Nov ember 5 1 8 73 and Fidelia must hav e been among those first matriculating s ince s h e gradu ated in 1 876 at the age of 42 just as h e r son was finishing his first yea r of Dr Safford-Blake was professor of diseases of women25 and Fidelia s preceptor for the la s t two years of h e r program at BUSM. lier the sis was Women in the Medical Profession. "26 Unfortuna t ely, there arc no known copies. By 1 8 76 Fidelia's children n o l o nger neede d her presence in Massachusetts. Merrick began studies with H a rvard s class r of 1879 but was not graduated until 1880.-' Fidelia returned to Nunda New ) b rk to become the town s first female physician as announced in the November 1 876 New England Med ical Ga::;ette. 28 She had an ex tensive practice with a larg e office a t h e r home on Massachusetts Street2 ) and was elected to the American 1 nsti tu te of llomeopathy at Lake Geo rge N Y in 1 8 79.Jo Nunda s weekl y newspaper contained an ongoing announcement of her dail y availability for consultation 10 to 12:00 a.m. and 2 to 5:00 pm:11 She was treasurer of h e r County llomcopathic Medical Socicty ;12 and there is a short notice o f her hosting (at her home) th e .Jul y 1883 se miannual meeting. Dinner followed a presentation on "Dysentery" (on what was otherwise described as an unusually pleas ant day.)'1.1 Fidelia al so sened as Nunda' s medical She not only practiced but also taught medi c ine and is credited with teaching one Th o mas Hammond who completed his medical studies elsewhere Although s he m ay hm c been an excellent teacher h e r student met a sorry end: .. had h e been born poor instead of rich he would have be e n successful. llis love of luxuries and excessive hospitality led him into extravagance, and the loss of his property I lis death quickly follo\\'cd ; he died in N unda at the age o f forty. ,,.is 57

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58 Octa ii of 1884 map of Tarpon Springs showing location of Fidelia and son l\lcrrick Whitcomb' s property in relation to body of water known today as Whitcomb Bayou The small area indicating water just to the left of "Merrick" is Hidden Lake. Note the location of S affo rd s property just north of Spring Bayou and of the Tarpon Springs Hotel at the north end of Citron Street, the current l'incll as Avenue or Alternate U.S 19. No legend for scale available. (By permission of th e Tarpon Springs Area Ilistorical Socie ty Tarpon Springs, Fl.,.) Copy of map of Tarpon Springs filed 1 (,, 1884 as certified W. Culbreath. Clerk of the ( :ircuit ( :ourt of 11 illshorough County on 14th, 191 7 ( B.\1 permission qf th e Tarpon Springs Area H istorica l Society, Tarpon Springs FL.)

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TAlll'OM Av&Mutt, LOOKING WcaT. Downtown Tarpon Springs in mid-1880s looking west on Tarpon Avenue. Large building to the left is the Tropical I Iotd and was built prior to the Tarpon Springs l lotcl. Next to the Tropical arc retail stores and the post office (By per mission of the Tarpon Springs Area Historical Society Tarpon Springs FL.) Like many homeopathic physicians of her day Dr. Whitcomb participated in med ical research. Since homeopathic therapy involved treating specific symptoms with dilutions of substances known to cause the same symptoms, research involved the investigators' taking specified dilutions of study substances followed by observation of symptoms experienced within a specific time frame. If a substance produced a headache, then the same substance in greatly diluted form might be useful for treating headaches. Fidelia was researcher number 15 of 24 in one trial. Following her ingestion of carbo vegetabilis (powdered charcoal) she reported having pain in the region of the spleen followed by a dull heavy ache. She was lucky since others involved in the same study described symptoms ranging from terrible headaches to, "vio lent itching of the scalp for many days. 16 Despite her busy medical practice Fidelia found time to continue her woman s rights work "Mrs. F. J. 1-1. (sic) Whitcomb, MD, Nunda, is listed in the 1876-1877 membership roster of the Assoc iati on for the Advancement of Woman.17 Unlike her friend and mentor Dr. Safford-Blake Fidelia s name does not appear in the MW programs as a committee member or as a lecturer. However, she was busy on the po litical front. lland describes her, "in politics a Republican, she could make votes if she could not vote. '1 8 February 12 1880, the governor of New York State signed a bill into law allowing women to serve as schoo l officers and to vote in any school meeting. 19 On October 12, 1880, eleven thousand districts of New York State held school elec tions. Just as Mary Safford-Blake did in Boston in 1875,4 Fidelia ran for and was elected to her local school committee. Stanton goes on to say: A woman in Nunda writes: On l y six women attended the school meeting in the first district on the 12th, but over forty went to the polls on the 13th. Two women were on one of the tickets; the opposition ticket was made up entirely of males We were supported by the best men in the village. The ticket bearing the names of Mrs. Fidelia J. M. Whitcomb, M. D., and Mrs. S. Augusta Herrick, was e lected. "41 Fidelia's Nunda School Board tenure continued into 1883, with favorable reports. 4 2 The temperance movement provided another path to the woman's rights Fidelia sought On her death the Nunda Council #183 of the Royal Templars of Temperance passed several resolutions in memory of their "sister F. J. M. Whitcomb ", described as a true and faithful member of our coun cil, and an earnest worker for the cause of temperance. "43 The group resolved to drape the council charter and asked the membership to wear a badge of mourning for thirty days in her honor. 59

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60 Tarpon Springs I lotcl under construction, eirca 1884. Margarita Safford the
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rarely contracted on this west coast. I don' t see how g raveyard s are e\er started here, especiall y in localities where doctors are unknown.-11 Dr Safford's brother A .P.K. Safford was well known as the third Territorial Governor of Arizona and as land agent for the Lake Butler Villa Corporation involved in land sales in Hill sboroug h Co unty. This land was part of the controvcrsial, "' Disston Purchas e in which Pennsylvanian Hamilton Disston and an international i11\"cstment syndicate bought four million acres of Florida land for one million dollars. Tarpon Springs was a prime area and was touted as a magnet for health seekers.47 Safford and Dr. Mary Safford lived there for at least parts of each vcar from 1882 until their deaths a week : 1part in Decemberl 891 _.is. -!'J Obviously Fidelia enjoyed her Florida visit since she returned the following autumn after giving her patients relativel y scant warning in the local paper: I shall leave my office the last of Nov., for Florida to be absent four months. Dr. P.M.Ostrander a Physician and Surgeon, every way worthy of confidence and patronage, will take my place during absence. I desire to have all standing accounts settled before I leave ,,so Her mode of traYel to Florida is not documented, but Fidelia s son-in-law J<::. C. Olney, Esq. traveled to Tarpon Springs in March 1884 While on that trip, probably to accompany his mother-in-law back to Nunda, Olney wrote a letter to The Nunda News. Among other topics he describes tak ing a steamship to Savannah followed by a train to Callahan, FL. On his arrival at 10:00 p m he rented a sleeping berth on the train that came to Cedar Key at 7:00 a.m. From there he took a schooner to Tarpon Springs. 51 It wasn't until later that year that the 1:12 foot, thirty thousand dollar steamer, "The Governor Safford" was built by Pusey and .Jones Company in Wilmington, Delaware and placed in ser vice between Cedar Keys and Tampa.5 2 Fidelia was an c\ cn more prolific letter writer than her son-in-law and penned several long letters to The Nunda News during her 1884 \\"intcr s stay in Florida. From her .Januar y 1 18 84, letter comes the follm\"ing: And we are in the bright land of the Sunny South; in the "N ew Paradise : called Tarpan (sic) Springs. .. There arc mineral springs bubbling up throug h the salt water of this ba yo u which are valued highl y for their medic inal properties ... Th e ba yo u i s a clear beautiful sheet of water, with a g reat variety of salt water fish, little and big also a variety of water fowls. Wild duck are especially abundant this time of the year. Our excellent marksman, Mr. Thornton, whom many of the Nunda people know just came in after a "little shoot," with fifteen fine duck and other water game. A mile and half cast is a lovely sheet of fresh water. Lake Butler is six and half miles long and over a mile wide This is filled with different kinds of fresh water fish and a few 'gators. In every direction arc beau tiful fresh water lakes One corner of our land is watered by Hidd e n L a k e, from which our table ma y b e supplied with de licious fish and green turtle soup.5.1 An important reference in the letter is : "our land is watered by Hidden Lake." llidden Lake still bears that name in Tarpon Springs and is just southwest of the body of wate r now known as Whitcomb Bayou. Fidelia was one of the earliest customers of the Lake Butler Villa Corporation headed b y A.P.K. Safford. By May of 18 84 she owned a portion of land shown on the map (Illustrations 3-4.) It is interesting that Fidelia did not choose land in th e area -favored by many of the northern visitors -immediately adjacent to Spring Bayou (Illustration 5.) Continuing with a description of the local wildlife she asks: "What about those horrid r eptiles and insects? I hav e walked and ridd e n about th e country a good deal and have not seen a live snake, but I haYe seen one dead one; that was a large rattlesnake ... Regarding the insects she continues: "Of insects, we hm e the common fly, about the same as in summer at the north; a few mosquitoes, they are not numerous. I have not seen a spider in or on a house since I came here, no matter how old the building. The sand flies arc only troublesome about sunset to those \\"alking in sand. There are some fleas but not many here, and no chintz bugs. It would be difficult to find a warm climate with so few reptiles and insects to annoy as here." She sums up the place as follows: It is a healthy place, I answer emphatically, un-(ii

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doubtedly the natural sanitarium of the Gulf Coast. The climate is as near perfect as one can imagine ... I can think of nothing better for weak lungs or nervous weakness or any debilitating diseases. "54 1V.10 days later Fidelia wrote another letter to the editor of the Nunda paper, providing a comprehensive list of Tarpon Springs' flora Fruits included the usual cit rus but also alligator pear, pomegranate, olive fig, p ersimmon, bananas, pineapples, three varieties of plums, honey peach, four or five kinds of mulberries, and strawberries among others. Apparently the only things she could not find were raspberries. She said that she knew of no vegetable that could not be grown in Tarpon Springs and even enjoyed local, good Irish potatoes grown here as at the north." She d escribed seeing on January 2 1884 a ten-pound cabbage and large turnips. 5 5 In February of 1884 she continued her correspondence to the editor of the Nunda paper and waxed eloquent about the glories of a summer evening.5r, Like Mary Safford's of the prior year, Fidelia s letters read like promotional literature for Tarpon Springs' nascent real estate projects. With time to devote to cataloging Florida s flora and fau na it does not appear that Fidelia practiced medicine in Tarpon Springs in the winter of 1884. However, the following November she entered a local partnership with Dr. Ostrander who had covered her practice in Nunda previously: "Dr Whitcomb expects to leave for Florida about 23rd. Dr. Ostrander who has entered into partnership with Dr. Whitcomb will occupy the same office He will be found in his office from 8AM until lOPM and from IOPM until 8AM at his boarding place in Mrs. Lovell's house. "57 After November 8 1884, the weekly newspaper advertisement of Dr. F J M Whitcomb's consultation hours read: E .J.M. Whitcomb, MD P M Ostrander, MD Homeopathic Physicians Dr. Whitcomb' s Office Tarpon Springs, Hillsboro Co, Florida Dr Ostrander's Office at W. B. Whitcomb' s Massachusetts St., Nunda NY, Office Hours 2-5 PM" A note in the May 10, 1883, edition of Frances Willard s Women s Christian Temp erance Union's widely circulated house organ, The Union Signal gives an idea of a potential Tarpon Springs enterprise: Dr Mary Safford, sister of ex-Gov. Safford of Arizona has taken 200 acres of land near Tarpew (sic), Florida, where she intends to plant a colony. She has an idea of establishing a sanitarium in that colony to which invalids will likely be attracted, from all parts of the States. Dr. Safford is an energetic, shrewd and brilliant woman highly cultured, and exceedingly able in her profession. 5 8 Although her grove of invalid cottages never came to fruition Dr Safford with the assistance of Dr. \Vhitcomb did manage another health-oriented business. In 1883 construction of the Tarpon Springs Hotel commenced. The Lake Butler Villa Corporation headed by Mary Safford's brother built the three-story elegant hotel of lumber from Disston s sawmill in Atlantic City NJ.59 (Illustrations 6-7). Although the hotel reputedly opened in 1884, an advertisement in the Florida Medical and Surgical Journal November 1885, names Dr. Mary .J. Safford of Boston and Dr. .J. Whitcomb of Aurora (sic) N Y., as man agers. The advertisement reads: The Tarpon Springs Hotel has been constructed upon the best sanitary principles. It is under the management of Dr. Mary .J. Safford of Boston and Dr. F .J. Whitcomb of Aurora, N Y., both physicians of ex tensive experience The appointments are all directed to the attainment of the maximum comfort of invalids. The rates are nominal and within the range of all health seekers. Every facility for outdoor pleasure is provided Sailing rowing and fish ing offer their attractions. Many patients wintering h ere in the past two years attest the marvelous ben efit that may be derived from this pure air, equable temperature and salubrious climate. Full information may be obtained by addressing Dr J S t 'f' cl 'I' S o ,,r,o 1 v1. a or arpon pnn5s. (I 11 ustra ti on 8)

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Tarpon Springs l lotel, front and side view, circa 1885. Newly planted citrus trees allowed guests to pick fresh fruit. (By permission of the Tarpon Springs Are a Historical Society Tarpon Springs, FL.) Various authors considered the building "a large first-class hotel"(,! and "a handsome building and in every way most comfortably appointed. In the evening walk ing on the broad piazzas which surround the hotel, and looking out upon the twinkling lights of the town the outlines of the houses in lamp-and starlight, it is like a dream to reflect that all this has risen where there was but untrodden wilderness three short years back."('2 Wanton Webb's 1885 description of Tarpon Springs includes this enticement: These springs arc noted for their great medicinal virtue and attract crowds of invalids from all parts of the country ... There arc t\YO excellent hotels, the Tarpon and the Tropical the former opened for the first time this season, ... The gener al aspect of the place is that of a thriving and progressive town and during the winter months the large influx of tourists, invalids etc., adds materially to the permanent population which comes principally from Pennsylvania and New York. ,,( ,.1 Both physician /managers came from sophisticated backgrounds and understood the desires and needs of their predominant-ly northern guests/patients. The Florida State Gazetteer and Business Directory of 1886 lists both doctors as homoeopaths and as proprietors of the Tarpon Springs The Gazetteer lists no other physicians in Tarpon Springs and onl y one other homeopath for the entire state. As this list ing may have been on a paid basis, at least it can be said that the ladies knew how and where to advertise. Fidelia's interest in promoting Tarpon Springs' health benefits also may have related to her son's presence there; by promoting Tarpon Springs she was helping her family business. On February 10, 1885, Merrick wrote the following to his alma mater, under the heading: SILAS MERRICK WllITCOMB Is at Tarpon Springs llillsborough County, Florida as Agent for the Sale and Improvement of lands and Orange-Grower. Writes-" (February 10) 'I returned from Europe in the summer of 1883 and finding myself still disinclined to settle down into a humdrum sort of existence, and become a doctor, lawyer or wha tcvcr the buttons might indicate, I yielded to the prospcctiYC charms of a Florida Orange Grove and came to this ex-6J

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64 THE TARPON SPRINGS HOTEL 1110; bt>e11 cunMructe
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but a fc"' m onths l a t e r h e r hus b a nd and childre n gath e red in T a rp o n S prin gs just t e n clays pri o r t o h e r death o n A p ril 1 1888. 1 l c r l e n gthy obitua r y in Th e Nund a News read in part: S ome s i x o r e i ght yea r s a go s he became interest e d in F l o rid a a nd m a d e purc h ases in T a rp o n S prings ... It was a l a nd o f s un s hin e a nd flo w e r s t o whi c h s h e was muc h at tach e d a nd at h e r ow n r equest, m a d e so m e tim e ago that if s h e s h o uld di e in F l o rid a s h e wante d t o b e buri e d t h e r e Jus t fiv e yea r s e a rli e r D r Saffo rd ques ti o n e d the need for g ra veya rd s in T a rp o n Springs. Dr. F ideli a .Ja n e Merri c k Whitco mb 's r e m a in s we r e placed in w h a t i s n ow a n unma rk e d grave in Plo t 5 0 Secti o n J o f the t ow n s C ycaclia Ce m e t e ry. A .P.K. and Dr. Mar y Saffo rd s r e m a in s m a rk e d with huge granite block s a f t e r the ir death s in 1891 we r e buri e d in pl o t 3 7 Secti o n J In his Centennial History of th e Town o f Nunda, !l and r e m a rk e d a t the encl of F id e lia's biograph y : "I-la d s h e been buri e d h e re the wr eath a nd flag w e best o w in gratitude t o th ose w h o l ove d a nd se rved the ir country in the h o u r of h e r p e ril would n o t b e out of place o n t h e g rave of thi s a rd ent patrio t. "70 S u c h m e m oria l s as H anel d e scribes a r c o u t o f s t e p with curre n t practices. It i s n c Y erthc l css a fittin g tribute t o recall th a t D r F id elia Whitcomb b e r e m embere d a s not only o n e o f the fir s t r e sid ents and p ro m o t e r s o f T a rp o n S prings but a l so a s o n e of the fir s t fem a l e physi c ian s o f llill s b o rou g h County F l o rida Addendum Read e r s o f t hi s a r ti cle w ill sec so m e connecti o n s b e t wee n it a nd t h e Tampa Guardian a nd Tampa Journal L etters t o t h e Edito r b y Luc i e Vann cva r excerpts fro m whi c h I edite d a nd whic h a r c inclucl ccl in thi s i ss u e o f Th e Sunland Tribune. The in c lu s i o n i s n o accid e n t. Luc i e Vann eva r 's c h atty L ette r s m e n t i o n e d b oth Dr. Whitcomb a nd colleagu e Mary Saffo rd nu merou s t im es. Vann evar describ e d the t\\"O Tar p o n S prings m e dical pi o neers with h e r u s u a l w it : "Both are thorou ghly e ducat e d i n the p rofess i o n a nd n o d o u b t would enjoy a lucrative p rofess i o n were i t n o t so distr ess in g l y health y in T a rp o n ." Vanne v a r gav e p erio di c atte nti o n t o th e acti v itie s m e di ca l soc i a l and p e r so n a l o f F id elia Whitco mb As F id elia s h ea l t h began to declin e, Vanneva r n o t e d : "Dr. \ Vhitcomb, w h o you will r e m e mb e r went n orth so m e m onths s ince, i s n ow a t Healin g Springs, Va. Dr. Whitcom b i s at prese n t in ve r y poor health but as i t g r ows coo l e r w e h o p e s h e will regain h e r wonte d str e ngth and return pre p a r e d t o t a k e h e r pla c e a m o n g u s S h e h as a wond e r ful fac ult y for s moothing out t a n g l e d s k e in s in soc i e t y a nd eve n the littl e so ci e t y o f Tarp o n so m e times becomes t a n g l e d U nfortuna t e ly, n o r e m e d y for F id elia's health p ro bl e m s was found in V ir g ini a o r e l sew h e r e. W hil e the p e r t in ent i ss u es o f Tampa Journal a r e mi ss in g, Luc i e Vanncva r's T a mpa Jounwl entry of June 29, 1888 r e m a rk e d : D eath h as bee n with u s aga in P ro f esso r J a m es .Jo h o nn o t di e d l as t week a ft e r a lingerin g illn ess I l e was l a id t o rest n o t far fr o m hi s o ld fri end Dr. W hitcomb.

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66 Endnotes Stoughton. . 5 lland, 1 2-t. (, \\11itcomb 529. 7 lland. 258. 8 lland, 292. ') lland, 258. 10 Whitcomb, 5 29. 11 \\11itcomb 529. 12 Nunda Notables. llistoric N11ndu 2.1, \\'inter 2009; 2. l 1.1 llanll. 1 25. 14 llan:anl C oll ege Class IHH9 Fortieth J\nniversury U e port 1\o IX. 19 2 0 printed for the C l ass: 2 0 2. 15 Thomas, Loui se. Cemenary \lbices: Or a Pim t!f th e \\!brk qf the Women ; 1. 16 Thomas, x x h'. I 7 Thomas, xxix. 18 l'upers U eml at the Congress rk : Mrs. Wm Ballard Book and lob Printer, 187 4: 4. 2 1 King William 1 I fistory E mily L. B eattie Archh ist at Boston personal communication of 2 Feb 2008. 2 7 Ueport . .18 II and, 1 24. .l'J Stanton, Cady, Susan Hrmvncll and Matilda .Josh-n Cage. l Jistory \Vomw1 S1i{fruge: IH76-1H8S, Ill. Rochester, l\Y: Susan B Anthony, 1887: 424. 40 Kaufman Polly \\'cits. /ios1<111 \V, 8 Scpt.188:\. 4.1 Notice. Th e N w11/a Ne-w s XXIX. I S. 14 Apr. 1888. 44 I land, 124. 45 Notice. The N11111/a News XXI V I(>. 1-t Apr. 188.l .. 1 Co l 2. 4(> Personal and Nc\\'s Items. The New Eng/wul Ale1lic1tl Ca"ette X\1111.4, Apr. 1 88.1: 128. 4 7 ( :harles E Sajous, E d Annual of the I '11i'i:e rs1tl M eclical Sciences. Philad e lphia : F A. Dm is 18')0 : n

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-18 "Obituary of Elizabeth Ingalls Sage." 'Htrpon Springs Lemler 28 Feb. 1922. 4') Stoughton, 1 4. 50 l\oticc. Th e Nunda Ne-ws XXl \I 48. 1 Dec 188,1 5 1 E.C. "/\Trip to F lorid a by \\later -Letter from E C. Olney, The N11ndC1 News XX\/. 12, 29 Mar. 1884. 52 Barbour, Clcorgc M Floridll j(rr 7hwisrs, lm:ulids wul Serr lers, l{c, iscd Edition, New York: D i\pplcton & Co, 1884; .107-308. 53 F. .I. M \V., Our Florida Letter (Special Correspondence of the Nc\\ s). The N undll News X.'\V. 2. 1 2 .Jan 1884 54 F .J. M \V., "Our Florida Letter (Special Correspondence of the News)." The Nunda Ne-ws ;\,'(\/. 2. 1 2 Ian 1884. 55 F.J. /II. \V From the Land of F lowers: The Soil and Climate of Florida -The Flower s of that Clime -The Rich Golden Frui t -Vegetables -Cabbages "ripe" Peas in Blossom -Oh' for the South (Special Correspondence of the N ews). 7/ie Nunda Ne-ws XX\/. 3. 19 .Jan. 1884. 5(, F:.J. M \V.. "Our Florida Letter (Special Correspondence of the Ne ws) 7/1e Nunda News X.'\\I. 7. H> Feb. 1 884. 5 7 Notice. T h e Nunda News X,'\'.\I. 44. 1 Nm .1884. 58 Signal Notes. Th e /Inion Si;;iml 10 May 1 88.1. 9. 5') llartzcll, Scott Remembering St. l'et e rslntrJ.: Florida: Sunshine Cit_v Stones Charleston, SC: The I Press 200(> ; 2(>. 60 Ebcrson, Frederick. Earl y Medical Iii story r!f' Pin e llas l'enins11lC1: A Q1wdricencennial Epoch. St. Petersburg, FL: Press 1978 :45. (, 1 Oli\ cr Man in. Flmida Facrs Hoth 13righr and /3l11e. !\'cw York: self-published, 1887; 115. (,2 I l za Duffus. and J\lligarors. London: Ward and Dmrncy, 1887; 190. (,3 \\/ebb Wanton S. \lle/J/J' s llistorica l /11d11soia/ and Biographical Florida Part I New Yt>rk: \VS. Webb and Co. 1885; 59. 64 "Tarpon Springs, llillsborough C ounty. Florida litare Gm,etteer and B11siness Directory !\'cw Yt>rk: South Publishing Co. 1886; 434 and 6,11. 65 llarrnrd C las s of 1879 Secretary s R epon N o. Ill Commencement, JHHS. Privately printed for the C la ss: 1885; 91. 66 Hugg Rev. II. W Ed. The U niversalisr Regisr e 1 ; No. Lil. Boston: Univcrsalist Publishing llousc, 1887; 14 6 7 Thomas, xix. (>8 Business Th e Nunda News XXVlll.15. 2 /\pr. 1887. l col l. 69 The Nunda News X.'\'.IX. 16. 7 Apr. 1888. 3 Col 2. 70 lland, 1 25. 67

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68 Treating People Like People. For Over 100 Years. ferman.com Acura BMW Buell Buick C hevrolet Chrys ler Dodge GMC Harley-Davidson Jeep Mazda MINI Nissan Pontiac Volvo Tampa Palm Harbor Tarpon Springs New Port Riche y Lutz Brandon Plant C it y

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About the Authors Nova D. Muhlenberg Bonnett is a Juris Doctor from Nova Southeastern University, Shepard Broad Law Center, Ft. LauderdaleDavie, Florida. She receive d h e r Bachelor of Arts with high honors in Ilistory from New Mexico State University in 2006. Ms. Muhlenberg Bonnett also holds a paralegal certificate and spent many years working as a staff member in law firms in Jacksonville, Florida, Washington, D.C and Las Cruces, New Mexico. lier legal focus is social justice law as applied and in historical context. Paul Eugen Camp is a Librarian Emeritus at the University of South Florida. From 1972 until his retirement in 2008 he was a librarian in Special Collections at the University's Tampa Campus Library working principally with the department's extensive collection of Floridiana He served as a member of Tampa llistorical Society's Boa rd of Di rectors from 1993 to 1999, and again from 2007 to 2009. Camp also served as Executive Secretary of the Florida 11 istorical Society from 1979 to 2009, and as General Secretary of the Florida Historical Confederation for the same period. I le is the author of Collectin,g Florida: The Hampton Dunn collection and Other Floridiana (Tampa: USF Libraries, 2006) and o f numerous other publications relating to Florida history, American history, and historical Ame rican children's literature. Elizabeth Gnmge Okulski Coaclumm, M.D. studied Art at Moore College of Art in Philadelphia and at Rutg e rs University. Iler first career, howev e r was Medicine; she holds an M.D. and was a pathologist in Florida for 20 years. She lives in Brooksville, Florida, with her husband Mike Coachman, member of a Pinellas County pioneer fami l y In Brooksville and in her Newfoundland studio, she produces landscape art a nd copper intaglios (One of Elizabeth's Central Florida landscapes was the back cover of the 2007 Sunland Tribune.) Around 2002 a repr ese ntative of the Safford I-louse Museum (Tarpon Springs, FL) asked Elizabeth to present, as living history, Dr. Mary Safford, one of the first female physicians in western Florida. In researching the role Coachman discovered the remarkable world of nineteenth century wom e n physicians and their struggle for recognition, as well as their plac e within the larger women's movement. A sidebar to her research was the discovery of the Lucie Vannevar Tampa Journal columns, one of which is displayed in Th e Sunland Tribune for the first time since its initial publication in 1887. Elizabeth is currently authoring a book on Dr. Safford; publication is expected in 2011. Lula Joughin Dovi is a fourth-generation Tampan. She received an A.B. degre e from Florida State University and an M.A. d eg ree from University of South Florida. Ms. Dovi spent 37 years in the Hillsborough County Public Schools as a teacher and curriculum coordinator. A longtime member of Tampa llistorical Society, Inc. Ms. Dovi served several terms as a Board Member. lier family connections to Tampa history go back to her greatgrandfather John Jackson, the government surveyor who laid out the streets of downtown Tampa, surveyed extensively in llillsborough County during th e Seminole Wars and whose work extended to large areas of the Southeastern United States. Ms. Dovi's grandfather Thomas E. Jackson was Mayor of Tampa for several terms. Iler great-aunt Kate V. Jackson (for whom Kate Jackson Recreation Center is named) was a pionee r of Catholic education l ocally and founder of the Academy of I-Joly Names, and is credited with creating a recreational parks system for Tampa's children. Ms. Dovi's father, R.T. Joughin was appointed sheriff of llillshorough County, 1929-32. In r ece nt yea rs, Ms. Dovi has had articles published in local newspapers. She a lso writes and reads her poetry for two local groups, including Tampa Writers Alliance. 69

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On Sunday, October 25 2009 th e Society presented its annual Gothic Graveyard Walk at Oak.lawn Cemetery. A crowd of over 100 people gathered at Tampa's first public burying g round ( c.1850) as living historians in p e riod dress introduced some of Oak l awn's r es id e nts and th e stories of fronti e r Florida that reveal their liv es and d ea ths Oakl awn Cemete r y a t M o rgan and Harrison Streets, i s serene a nd shady before the opening o f th e Gothic Graveyard W a lle The crowd, dressed for comfort in th e unseasonabl y l a t e heat ga th e rs Sexton a nd gravedi gge r "Ezekiel Aik le" (Paul Camp) ha s many tales to t ell of the o ld cem e t ery. Living his t oria n s Micha e l Norton ("Fa ther Micha e l O'I-Ie rlih y") a nd Maureen Patrick ("M i ss Prudence Fipwhistle ) a r e "g h os t guides for th e eve nt. 7 1

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72 "Fr. M i c hael discourses o n th e life a nd times o f Indi a n trade r and pi o neer Tampan Tho m as Pugh K ennedy, at the family plot. Ezekie l 's s h ove l i s a lw ays ready to accommodate new interments. Soci e ty Boa rd Member Fred Hearn s asks th e public's support for preserv a tion and educatio n initi a ti ves a t Oa klawn Board Members Damita Bink l ey ( l e ft) and Elizabeth Gra n ge r (right) are tir e l ess supporters o f th e Soc i e t y's mis s i o n at th e Ce m e t e ry. Miss Prudence F ipwhistle" examines h e r n e w grave m a rk er. "Miss Fipw histle" introduces th e public to th e family plot of Dr. John P. Wall

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Book Reviews A persistently popular topic for readers and scholars alike (perhaps because the issues leading up to, surrounding, and following it remain unresolved on many levels), the Civil War has produced still another this time l ocally focused book. Daniel L. Shafer' s Thunder on the River has severa l attributes that will insure its popularity with those who study the conflict and never tire reading about it For one thing, the book is clearly and cogentl y written. Shafer's style combines a scholar's insight with a prose writer' s d eft phrasing, and while not exactly a page-turner Thunder on the River is smoothl y readable. It is the sort of book one can take on a long plan e flight and feel in the reading of it not only in formed but entertained. Shafer's command of detail is formida ble, as he gathers rich primary source ma terial into his narrative and uses it to bring the reader to the same fields rivers, swamps, and savannahs where the War Thunder on the River: The Civil War in Northeast Florida by Daniel L. Shafer. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2010.) Review by Maureen J. Patrick, M A ranged across North Florida. Often over l ooked in mainstream C ivil War studies, the F lorida engagements were decisive in some regards for both U ni on and Confederate forces Shafer does a fine job depicting the military strategists, their personalities, virtues, vices, and quandaries, and convey ing the impression (rightly) that wars are fought not by logistics and armaments but by men, brains, and guts. Through diaries, letters, and journal entries, Shafer fleshes out a theater of combat that is often painted in the bold and bloody colors of warfare when the daily life of a soldier was more usually a grinding defense against boredom, bad food, and petty discomfort. Confederate Cavalry officer Winston Stephens, chaf ing against inaction at Camp Finegan (near Jacksonville) wrote to his wife about the town and its pretty g irl s reassuring her that "at thirty three I am too old for such things. Stephens related that he and his men were ge nerally well but on short al lowance [for wages] which makes soldiers

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in bad humor, but I am in good humor as I have just had dinner -baked beef, potatoes. . and ric e with a littl e sugar for sweet." Detail from primary sources like Stephens' letters makes Thunder on the River a particularly fine book for those who want to encounter the Civi l War not as a dry hi storical tract but rather a living memory of the people who experienced it. The work is not lacking in logistical and technical in formation, however. Of particular interest to r eaders w h ose interests lie in the technolog y of mid-nineteenth century warfare is Shafer's chapter on "Torpedo Warfare and th e Struggle For Control of Northeast F l ori da. In that chapter Shafer presents the rarely expl ained underwater mine ('torpe do") technology that was so devastating to th e Union plan for control of North Florida's waterways. If Thunder on the River has a flaw it lies in S h afer's decision to conflate his excellent and detailed analysis rich in first-person detail of th e War in Northeast F l orida with broade r issues of race. The r e is n o doubt that Shafer could -and probably should hav e -written a book on that topic a lone, since there is alwa y s room in the market (both schol arly and general ) for learne d perspectives on th e compl ex racial issues l ea ding up to and following th e C ivil War. But diverting the otherwise excellent and focused narrative into b y ways of racial incident, opinion, a nd reaction somewhat dif fus es Shafer's focus and prevents th e book from h aving a sing l e forceful th es is. In essence, Shafer has, in Thunde r on the Riv e r written two books: one on the economics attitudes, and consequences of both s l avery and abo litionism, and another on the l ogistics technology incidents, and personaliti es of combat during the War in Northeast Florida. Either book would g iven Shafer's solid scholarship and adept writing styl e, have been a success.

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The Sunland Tribune 2008 and 2009 Patrons Tampa Historical Society aclmowl edges w ith gratitude t h e ge n ero u s support of t h e.followin g i ndiv idu a ls and o rganizations. T h e i r contributions have greatl y assisted the Soci e t y i n t h e publication of this edition f!/ th e j o urnal Pa tri c k and Cynthia C imin o Ferma n Moto r Ca r Compa n y M r and M rs. J a mes L. Ferma n Jr. M s Martha Fe rm a n Otto H ende r so n L owry Murphey Founda ti o n In c II. T L y k es, II Sandy and Didi Rie f P eninsular P a p e r Co 2008 and 2009 Tampa Historical Society Membership '''LIFE TIME M EMBE R S 1 s t US Volunteer Ca l va r y Regim ent R o u g h Rid e r s In c. M r M i c hael Addiso n Ms. Pa tri c i a A l c h e di a k M r Gira rd Anderson Dav id Anto n and Beck y F erre ll-Ant o n Mr Antho n y Ar e n a Mr R. Kent Bailey Ms. Rose Barbi e Willi a m and L e l a Barl o w C l a rk and Glenda Barlow M r l'vlichae l Barra nco Ms. Mar y Bears s '''Mr. R a lph N. Beave r Mr. G r ego r y B ell Andre w and She lb y Bende r M rs Marie B entschne r Mr J ohn B i e rley R o l and and Judy 131a nco Geor ge and Nancy Bla nford Ms. Carol y n Benj amin 131ethen Mr. D a ni e l Boo n e Jr. Cathy and J ohn Bose k '''Mr C h a rl e s A. Bro wn Ms. K imbe rl y S w ann Brow n D av id and Elle n Bro wn Ms. Anna Ruth Burn s id e M r Jason B u s t o, B u s t o Plumb in g M r Pa ul E u ge n Camp M r and M r s P a ul Camp, S r C i ga r C it y Magaz in e '''Mr. and M r s Ric h a rd C l arke Ms. Fran Cost antino M s. M olly Corum '''Dr. James W Cov in g t o n M r 11.L. "Punky" Crowd e r Ms. S u e Ann Curd M r Geor ge Curtis, Jr. M r Joseph Gardne r Dat o !'vi s. Lul a J D ov i M r Dennis Doyel Ms. Sandra Du e nas '''Mr llampto n Dunn M s. K athleen Durdin M s Veronica Eve r ett So l and Sandra Fle ischma n Ms. Dulce Gar c i a Ms. Fra ncesca "Fra nki e Gardne r ll oward and Mari e Garre tt i [ s. Joan Ga rrison and M r O w e n T. B r e w e r Jr. Ms. lle l e n Go n za lez M r and M r s. J ohn S. Goo dson Jr. Elizabeth Grange r R o b ert and Mari o n Gray 7S

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Ms. Hel e n G razi a n o and Mr. Tom Geraghty '''Greater Tampa Chambe r of Commerce '''The llonorable Dick Greco '''Mr. T erry Greenhalgh Nelson and lleicli Guerra Mr. J. Guyton, Jr. David and Judy llall Dr John and Mrs. Jeannie Ilampton Lon and Lou P. llatton James B and R osa N. Haywa rd Mr. Freel H earns Ms. Nancy 1 I enderson Mr. Edward Il e nley, Jr. '''Ms. Nonita C uesta llenson Gale and Lin elle llibbard Mrs. Willard I-licks Fraser and Maria Ilimes Ms. T erry Butchko lloft Ms. Virginia lloll a nd '''Geo rge B. llowell, Ill Thomas and C hri s tin e Hyde The Italian C lub of Tampa Ms. Elaine Johnson Mr. E. Calvin Johnso n Sally and John Arthur Jones Dr. and Mrs. Galen Jones Mr. John Jones '''Mr. Charles C. J ordan Mr. and Mrs. James S. Judy "Mr. James Judy Lonni Keho e and Family Dr. Rob ert K erste in Dr Joe Knetsch Jim and Malanie Knight Mrs Ann Scott Anderson Knight Joe and Harri e t Knight '''Mr. Willi a m A. Knight Mr. Joseph Kovalick Jr. J.A. and Ir e n e Lamb Mr. Frank Lastra The Lavandera Family Mr. Ralph Lazzara Ill Mr. and Mrs. J. Leonard Levy Mrs. C harl otte L oga n Mr. and Mrs. E. Macbryde Charles and Linda Martin Rafael and Cecilia Martinez-Ybor SOM and Mrs. Bruce Matthews, Ret. '''Mrs. Leslie McClain Mr. Patricia McClure Mr. Brian McEwen Mr. John McEwen Mr. and Mrs. ll owell McKay Ms. Gilda Schulmeyer McKinnon Mr. and Mrs William McLean, Jr. Mr. John McQuigg John and Ca mill e McWhirter, Jr. ''Mr s Sandra Mulder Ms. Ruth Mulholland Mr. David R Murphey, III '''Mrs Bettie Nelson Mr. Daniel Nemeth M. Paul and Mabelle Nestor Ms. Elaine Newman Eric and Lyris Newman '''Mr. Frank R. North, Sr. Mr. and Mrs. Michael Norton NSCDA of Florida -Tampa Town Committee Ms. Candy Olson Mr. and Mrs. Solon O'Nea l Jr. Ms. Barbara Parke r Ms. Maria Pas e tti Dr. Jean Patrick Ms. Maureen J Patrick Vernon E. Peeples J. Wayne and Bridget Phillips Paul and Sharon Pizzo Mrs. Josephine Pizzo Paul and Stacey Bock Pizzo, Jr. Mr Anthony Pizzo, M.D. '''Mr. Paul R Pizz o Jan and Bill Platt '''Mrs. Barbara G. Reeves Mr. and Mrs. Richard W. Reeves Mrs. W.I-1. (Frances) Reyn o lds Mr. and Mrs. Steve Reynolds Mr. Devin Ridl ey-Mar ks Ms. Barbara Jackso n Rossman Ms. Gloria Runto n A.J. Russo Alisa Griffin and Lan e Griffin Honorable E.J. and Mrs. Elsa Salcines Ms. Jeanne C. Sanders Catherine and Gray Sanders Dr. and Mrs. Enslie Schib, Jr. The Schiller Family -Gaspar's Grotto Rebekah Scott a nd Meredith Scott Field N. Russ ell and Mary Jo Shenk '''Nancy N. Skemp Mr. A. Frank Smith Don and C h e r y l Smith '''State Library of Florida '''Mr and Mrs. Randolph Stevens '''Dick and Raymetta Stowers Barbara Reeves and Fletcher Stuart Mr. a nd Mrs. J Tanner '''Tampa llillsborou g h County Public Libraries '''Tampa Preservation, Inc Dr. G. Phillips Thomas Wayne and Patricia Thomas

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Jeffrey and Mary Timonier Ms. Pamela Tomplans Mr. and Mrs. J. Thomas Touchton University of South Florida Libraries '''Mr. K y le S. VanLandingham Mrs. Mattie Vega Charles and June Wade Mr. J. Edgar Wall, III Mr. Ken Walters Mrs. H .J. Watrous '''Dr. Glenn Westfall Ms. Mary Virginia Wilson Richard H Wilson Mr. Lange Winckler William and Nancy Wofford Mrs Mary Shackleford Wolfe Mrs. Dorothy B. Womble '''Mr. Nick Wynn Joe and Vilma Zalupski 77

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7H 2009 D.B. McKay Award 0 On Thursday, December 10, 2009, Tampa Historical Society presented its annual D.B. McKay Award The Award acknowledges notable contributions to local history and has been a Society tradition since 1972. 2009 marked the first year that the Award ceremony has taken place at the Peter 0. Knight llouse during its lloliday Open I louse, where guests enjoyed Victorian Christmas decor, food and spirits, and the company of Society Members and friends. The 2009 Award recipient was Martha S. Ferman. Martha Sales Ferman was born in Shellman, Georgia to parents Florence Elizabeth Coxwell Sale and Owen Cornelius Sale Valedictorian of her Shellman High School graduating class Martha took an Honors degree in Music (majoring in Piano) from Andrew College in Cuthbert, Georgia. In 1937, Martha Sale married James Laurens Ferman. A pioneer in the automobile sales business locally Ferman's soaring vision and business acumen insured that by the 1950s, the name "Ferman" was nearly synonymous with "motorcar" in the area, and by the 1970s several generations of Tampans had bought their autos from the Ferman enterprise, and enterprise that thrives today. Martha Ferman has always been highly visi ble in community and civic affairs Boards and committees that have gratefully noted her sup-port include: Hyde Park Methodist Church, the Tampa Bay Performing Arts Center, The Tampa Theater, the White llouse Conference on Children and Youth, the llillsborough County Children's Commission (Past Chair), Delta Kappa Gamma, Delta Delta Delta (President, Alumnae Association), the Colonial Dames of America (Chair, Tampa Town Committee), the Tampa Garden Center (Chair of Building Plans Committee; President of Rose Garden Circle), the Tampa Museum of Art (Chair of Guilders now FOTA -and Pavilion Committee member), Tampa Symphony (now the Florida Orchestra; President of Symphony Guild) the Easter Seal Guild (President), the Junior League of Tampa (numerous offices and committees), the Friday Morning Musicale Chiselers, Inc. (Founder and Past President), the United Way, the Tampa General llospital Foundation, the YWCA, the American Red Cross, McDonald Training Center, the PTAs of Gorrie Elementary and Wilson Junior lligh School (President of both) and more. Involved with Tampa llistorical Society, Inc from its outset, and a former member of the Society's Board of Directors Martha S Ferman has always contributed generously and believed steadfastly in the necessity of preserving present ing and privileging local history With d eep grati tude and respect, the Society honors Mrs Ferman for her many years of b e lief in its mission.

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1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Past Recipients of the D.B. McKay Award Frank Laumer 1990 Joan W. Jennewe in State Senator David McClain 1991 Dr Gary R. Mormino Circuit Court Judge Lam es R. Knott 1992 Julius J. Gordon Gloria J a hoda 1993 Jack Moore and Robert Snyder Harris 1 -1. Mullen 1994 Dr. Ferdie Pacheco Dr James Cov ington 1995 Stephanie E Ferrell Hampton Dunn 1996 Michae l Gannon William M. Goza 1997 Rowena Ferrell Brady Anthony Tony' Pizzo 1998 Dr. Canter Brown Jr. Allen and Joan Morris 1999 J. Thomas Touchton Mel Fisher 2000 Dr Larry Eugene Rivers Marjory Stoneman Doug las 2001 Arsenio M Sanchez Frank Garcia 2002 Honorable Dick Greco Former Governor Leroy Collins 2003 Frank R. North, Sr. Dr. Samuel Proctor 2005 Dor i s Weatherford Doy l e E. Carl ton Jr. 2006 Tom McEwen Le land M. Hawes, Jr. 2007 Fernando R. Mesa U.S. Rep Charles E. Bennett 2008 Roland Manteiga (posthumous) 79

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80 Ant hony "Tony" Pizzo Nonita Henson Hampton Dunn Past Presidents of the Tampa Historical Society 1971 Terry L. Greenhal gh 1972 James Judy 1973, 1974 George B. Howell III Dr James W Covingto n 1975 Charles C. Jordan Mrs Bettie Nel son 1976, 1977 Mrs Barbara G. Reeves Dr L. Glenn Westfall 1978 C h arles A. Brown Mrs Lesli e McCl ain 1979 Kyle S. VanLandingham Kenneth W Mulder 1980, 1981 Ralph N. Beaver R. Randolph Stevens 1982, 1983 Frank R. North Sr. Richard S. C larke 1984, 1985 Paul R. Pizzo Nancy N. Skemp 1986, 1987 William A. Knight Samuel L Latimer 1988 Maureen J Patrick 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1993 1994, 1995 1996, 1997 1997 1998, 1999,2000 2001,2002 2003, 2004,2005 2006-present

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THE CITRUS IJ'HILE YOU THROW SNOWBAUS FOR ME J.ILS scecen () 11 n vinfagce JIJ> o s t c a r J s


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